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DETERMINATION OF LIQUID VISCOSITY

LOUEL ROY M. UBOD


Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering and Architecture,
Cebu Institute of Technology-University, N.Bacalso Ave., Cebu City 6000 Philippines

The purpose of the experiment is to determine the viscosity of liquids using the Ostwald
viscometer. The viscosity of a liquid is defined as the liquids resistance to flow. In the
experiment, the time of efflux of the liquid was determined at standard temperature of 25C.
The time of efflux that was acquired was then used to calculate the viscosity of the liquid.The
results of the experiment show that an increase in the concentration of the sugar increases the
viscosity of the liquid as well as the time of efflux.

1. Introduction
The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or
tensile stress. This resistance to flow can either be caused by temperature or concentration or
by intermolecular forces. An increase in concentration increases the viscosity of the liquid
while an increase in temperature decreases the viscosity of the liquid. The purpose of the
experiment is to determine the viscosity of liquids using an apparatus known as the Ostwald
Viscometer. To aid the acquisition of the viscosities of the solutions, the time of efflux was
acquired
2. Materials and Methods

2.1 Materials
1 L Distilled Water
250g of refined sacharose
500g of crushed ice
2.2 Apparatus
Ostwald Viscometer
4 Liter Beaker
Rubber Suctions
Stopwatch/Timer
4 x 250 ml Beaker
Digital Balance
5 x 100 ml graduated cylinder
Laboratory water bath
2.3 Methods

2.3.1 Preparation Of Sucrose


4 sucrose solutions were prepared by dissolving 25g, 50g, 75g, and
100g in distilled water in a beaker with a volume of 200ml respectively. A
beaker containing 200ml of distilled water was prepared separately. The
solutions were immersed in a water bath with crushed ice in order to lower and
stabilize their temperatures at 25C.
2.3.2 Determination of Time of Efflux
A volume of distilled water was pipetted into the viscometer through
the tube of the Ostwald Viscometer. The liquid was forced above the reservoir
using a rubber suction attached to the tube of the reservoir. A stopwatch was
used to determine the time required for the liquid to pass from mark A to mark
B on the etched lines of the viscometer. The procedure was repeated several
times with the same liquid. The viscometer was emptied, rinsed with one of
the prepared solutions, and allowed to drain. A selected volume of the first
solution was poured into the viscometer. The procedure was repeated with the
other prepared solutions. The density of each solution was determined using a
pycnometer.
3. Results
Liquid

Concentratio

Time

(sec)

(g/l)
Water
-------Solution1 125
Solution 2 250
Solution 3 375
Solution 4 500

75.435
102.577
153.95
259.403
460.26

Temperature Density
(C)
25
25
25
25
25

(g/ml)
0.997
1.046
1.095
1.140
1.191

Mole

Viscosity

Fraction

(millipoise)

-------0.00709
0.01533
0.02515
0.03669

8.95
12.768
20.061
35.191
65.233

70
65.23

60
50
40
Viscosity

35.19

30
20
10

20.06
12.77

0
0.01

0.01

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.03

0.04

0.04

Mole Fraction

Figure 1. Viscosity as a function of Mole Fraction

4. Discussion of Results
The experiment was done in order to determine the viscosity of the liquids. Based from the
results of the experiment, an increase in viscosity was observed when the concentration of
the sugar was increased. As more solute particles are added, the space for the molecules to
move about lessens as they are tightly packed up. This leads to an increase in the viscosity
of the liquid as well as the increase in the time of efflux. The time of efflux also increases
with an increasing viscosity, and decreases with a decreasing viscosity.The temperature
was also kept stable at 25C since an increase in temperature can affect the viscosity of the
liquid. As temperature is increased, so is the molecules kinetic energy making the
molecules move faster which decreases the viscosity of the liquid.

5. Conclusion
Based on the results from the experiment,the temperature as well as the concentration of
the sucrose solutions affects viscosity. An increase in temperature is a decrease in viscosity
and a decrease in temperature is an increase in viscosity. An increase in the concentration
is an increase in viscosity and a decrease in concentration is a decrease in viscosity. Other
properties can also affect the viscosity. One of these is density. Density is directly
proportional to the viscosity of the liquid. Mole fraction is also directly proportional to the
viscosity of the liquids.
Appendix
Formula:
Eq 1.
1 1t 1
=
2 2t 2
Where:
= viscosity

= density

t = time
References:
[1]http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Physical_Chemistry/Physical_Properties_of_Matter/Bulk_Pr
operties/Viscosity(accessed August 31, 2015)
[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viscosity(accessed August 31,2015)