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: | A. SPIVAKOVSKY and V. DYACHKOV ~ CONVEYORS and RELATED EQUIPMENT Translated from the Russian by DON. DANEMANIS PEACE PUBLISHERS « MOSCOW TO THE READER Peaco Publishers would be glad to have your 7 opinion regarding, this. book, its translation, ‘design - _ Bed pntng, a rege ahy suggestions fisn you Please “write to 2, Pervy Rizhsky. Perewlok, Moscow, US.S.R. : Printed in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics | CONTENTS Chapter I. Introduction... 0. ee ee ee ee ee AIRS A. Types ‘of. Industrial Transport . . . RE Eee eae gy i B. Classification and Characteristics of Materials |v... 0... ve C. Classification of Conveying Machines esse eee ee WY D. Selection of Conveying Equipment... 00-0 ee eee be BOE Chapter Il. General. Theory of, Conveying Machines. 6. 6 6 0 ee OE ‘A. Capacity ‘of Continuous Conveying Machines. 0.4 4 ee Dh. B. Resistance to Motion Factor ss v0 00 crete oT C. Resistance and Power in Conveying Machines ‘with a Flexible Pull- ing Member... . + as ee p80 1, Resistance on Separate Sections. . eet ea 2, Determination of the Effective Pull-and “Motor Power FRCL tactt 33. D. Dynamic Phenomena in Chain Conveyors... 2. +. - 1, Speed and Acceleration of the Chain 2 Dynamic Loads on the Chain ss 0s + +s 7 3, Equalizing. Drives . 0. 6. Chapter Ill. Component Parts of Conveying Machines ‘A. Enumeration of the Component Parts tae B. Pulling Member». +. + ee Gee eee eee eee te 1 Pulling Chains... ee dee erie tet te 2 Steet Wire Ropes ss eevee ree eee -C. Intermediate Supports EEE EEE D. Tensioning Devices or Take-ps . .. 2 2+ ee + E. Drive Units sec. eee be ee tee Chapter IV, Belt Conveyors... 66+ 6 eee ee are A. General Description and Purpose... 5. + SERS eee tao a 64 B. Conveyors with Textile Belt © 2. 6 ee eee ee ee ee 66 1, Geometry of Belt Conveyors 2. 6 pe ee ee es BEE Hts 2. Parts of Belt Conveyors . - 0 er eee he 68 8. Gaiculation of Bell Conveyors © see reer eee ee es «100 "Contents G. Conveyors with Metal Belts. .06. 00. 0... D. Chain-driven «and Rope-driven Belt Conveyors... , , E, Submerged Belt Conveyors... . . beret Put tieet He fee eee “Chapter V. Apron Conveyors . ‘A: General Description and Purpose , Ac B. General Purpose Conveyors... .... 050. ; 1. Parts of Apron Conveyors... ., 0.0... , 2. Calculation of Apron Conveyors... .. . ee C. Special Purpose Conveyors (Casting Machines, Escalators) D. Contour Apron Conveyors... ... 0.004, SHEE Chapter VI. Flight Conveyors... . A. General Description and Purpose B. General-Purpose Conveyors 1. Parts of Flight Conyeyors, .. >. , 2. Calculation of Flight Conveyors | C. Continuous-flow Flight Conveyors, >. | D. Tubular: Continuoys-llow Flight Conveyors Chapter VIL: V-bucket, Pivoted-bucket and Swing-tray Conveyors A, V-bucket Conveyors 2... feet B. Pivoled-bucket’ Conveyors: ; ; .”; ©, Swing-tray Conveyors», 0. Chapter VIII. Overhead Conveyors’. , . A.-General Description arid Purpose aE al Ge et ee B, Parts of Overhead Coiivéyors 2.) pe eiee eee eah © C, Caléulation of Overhead’ Conveyors coe D.'Selective Twin Rail Overhead Conveyors... 2) | Chapter IX. Load-propelling Conveyors... 25... . . , A. General.Description and Purpose... ne B. Conveyors with a, Flexible Pulling Member. 1. Parts of Load-propelling Conveyors 2 Calculation of Load-propelling Conveyors |). | ~C. Load-propelling Rod Conveyors ........ 0.” Chapter. X.: Car cr Platform Conveyors A.Main Types and Purpose... 0... B.-Vertical Runarounds .. . 1. |, 1, General Description Tee eerie Pee cee rece HE 2. Parts of Vertical Runarounds 2... ot 3: Calculation. of Vertical Runarounds ~,. 5"; | | ‘Contents C..Horizontal’ Runarounds? 3.0. wee 1. General Description, ve 0.4 se ay 2 Parts of Horizontal Runarounds: ..)% 6.6 6 . 3. Calculation of Horizontal Runarounds . voy 6p nee Chapter XI. Bucket-, Arm- and Swing-trdy. Elevators...) 02. 9.6) 212% A, Bucket Elevators... ec ee Prete eee 1, General Description and Purpose... 0 ee ees D2 2. Charge and Dischaige of the Buckels... . ed 245 3. Paris of Bucket Elevators 4, Calculation of Bucket Elevators B. Arm Elevators... 02 ee eee C. Swing-tray Elevators Chapter: XIl. Screw Conveyors ..... A. General Description and Purpose B. General Purpose Conveyors. |. 1. Parts of Screw Conveyors 2, Calculation of Screw Conveyors. C. Vertical Screw Conveyors ys ce dni eee Chapter. Xill, Roller Conveyors... . A, Main Types... ee ee ee B, Unpowered Roller Conveyors vy pee ee eee 1, foe 2T9. 1, General Description and Purpose’... se ee MDG 2, Parts of Unpowered Roller Conveyors... 6. ee ne 281 3, Calculation of Unpowered Roller Conveyors .. 2... 5 285 : Fowennd Roller Conveyors etae | General Description and’ Purpose 2 Parts, of Poweréd Roller Conveyors 3, Calculation of Powered Roller Conveyors Chapter XIV. Ostillating and Vibrating Conveyors . “A. General Descriptionand Purpose. . 0... : B. Conveyors with a Constant Load Pressure on the Trough C. Conveyors with a Changing Load Pressure on the Trough. 1. Shaking Conveyors... ve ee ee tet cee a ee 2. Vibrating Conveyors... 0. : 303 Chapter XV. Pneumatle Conveyors... 0.0 et ee ee 812 A. Main Types and Purposes... oe pe ee te eee 1312 B. Bulk-handling Pneumatic Conveyors... 0. 0s eee eet ald 1. General Description. 0. ce ee ee SM 2. Parts of Pneumatic Conveyors Sear 2 BIT 3. Calculation of Pneymatic Conveyors 6... 6 ee ee ee ORB Contents ES G. Installations for the Conveyance of Aerated Bulk Materials (Airslides) 333 I Hose D. Pneumatic Tube Conveyors for Piece:goods .-... ..., oe : ae ( Chapter XVI, Hydrauitc Conveyors 397, i A. Main Types ‘and Piurpose er ESP, spe B. Feeders for Hydraulic Conveyo: pee cere ee eee » . 840 Hes ©. Caleulation of Hydraulic Conveyors“) + 840 re Chapter XVIL Industrlat Trucks 7...) » 846 Boge A. Main Types and Purpose. 2. 346 | B. Hand Trucks 2... Hee erate reer eee aay fees C. Tractors and Trailers... . 1) SHEE ert ep Hod : D. Self-propelled Trucks erent Pree ted et tt og! bee ~ Ey Calculation of Railless Transport... . eee acetate .. 357 Chapter XVII. Loads 2... ee, 880 A.Main Types and. Purpose » 360 B. Continuous Loaders 361 1, Mobile and Portable Conveyors | 361 2. Conveyor Loaders ,°, 369 | C. Interinittent Loaders See Here reeeee eee 379 | 1. Power Shovels Pe ee ee es BD i 2. Unpowered Lift Trucks. 3... 11] : 380 | 3, Powered Lift Trucks.” 1)! » 386 Chapter XIX. Auxiliary Equipment... , , , soe ee, 390 Z A. Hoppers and Their Mechanical Equipment . |. | |. , EEE eet ag [es 1, Hoppers Re eee eae Wee be ee ee 6 80 i : 2. Hopper Gales»... . | 396 SE cedar Ee eee eet aie Hee Heres et cere eee 399 B.Chutes .e... ee ee Be ee ee 408 1. Feed Chutes and Pipes... , Pe S408 2. Ladders and Spiral Chutes eed ee. 409 3. Transfer Slides. 1.) | | Fe ee ee AIB + A15, Chapter XX. Uses of Conveying Machines eh LE OES “A. Mechanized Materials Handling in a Foundry... oe 42d B. Mechanized Boiler Stoking in Power Stations and Industrial Plants 435 Chapter XXI. Trends in Design . 2... 440 A. Conveying Machines and Industry 440 B. Trends s,.. . 144d t CHAPTERT INTRODUCTION A. TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL TRANSPORT Materials handling: plays:an important part in industrial econ: omy. No modern industrial plant, be it a coal mine, power. plant, metallurgical works, machine building: works. or textile. factory’: would be conceivable without efficiently. organized transport.-Tak- ing the concrete example of a. machine building works, it is easily realized that it could: not ‘function’ without regularly receiving. large quantities of metals and semi-finished products, fuel, aux- iliary materials and finished articles; distributing them within’ the works; disposing of production waste, and conveying finished products to loading areas for despatch to consumers. All these needs are-catered for by industrial transport, Industrial transport may be classified as external and internal. 7 External transport serves to convey raw materials, semi-finished © products, fuel, main and auxiliary materials to the. production site and to despatch finished products and production waste from the site. : External transport includes conveyance by rail, ship, truck and lane. 7 2 Piinternal (interplant and interfactory) transport serves to distrjb- ute the loads received.among thesvarious shops and departments © of the works, to take care of in-process movements and to con- vey finished products and prodiiction waste to loading areas: for despatch from the production site. Local railways (wide and‘nar-- row gauge), motor trucks, hoisting and conveying imachines (cranes, conveyors, etc.), various hand trucks, tractors and other ground-level transport facilities are used for the conveyance of loads within the plant. ‘ ~ Depending on where it is utilized, internal. transport is divided. into inter- and intrashop transport, i Chel. Introduction in Plant sorting : J yard ‘Building repairs Hi shop store Bi i Goal storage Metal ie for titer room | | sforage tor elgtels ee - eS |S/8] [ok ‘Building Fe Boller: room| Bille? Lal slSlsis|. [88] Gzpngoren] | repairs 7 Storage. ig seis! [83] - Shop 7 i g SEP) S38! caren Ke (Ash Om) - & ar Fos he [Power 8 s te plant. § & Pat Tern Bo Pe = store SS = s a Tapa = founcry shop ss | Shops s & | : [aurat sand bia i Too! room’ ln-process Torg| | [Tn-process bas i ‘ngs siorage ings storage \ noe wvaring and { machining Shap ft Store Machining shop Chips store | - | Mew store Interim Tnished " parts store Fisted ' : . a lprowucts. siore | Comyist bres Assembly department Testing } store f i Intershop ‘transport serves to transfer loads from shop to shop (in the case of a machine buildin g works from the preforming to the forming shop),.shop to store, shop to dump, receiving to tf Boxmarin Pa eninaking | rate Sawn timber store Sidings tor sorting empties Fig, ts Flowsheet of intershop transport facilities ina mechanical engineering . plant loading area, eté.. An example of an internal transport flow dia- gram ofa machine building works is depicted in Fig, 1. i Intrashop. transport serves to transfer loads between departs ments within shops, stores, process. points and working places. It also Serves to carry work in process from one operation to another. ‘A -number ‘of operations (dressing, painting, assembly, etc.) is often carried out en route) erials See, B. Classification, and Chatacteristics of Mat “Ll Intrashop:transport-is one of the most important factors in line production, Conveying machines set the pace in the separate: de- partments and coordinate. it with. that of other departments. and the works in general, thus ensuring a predetermined steady flow. of production. 4 A study of the principal and most extensively applied inter- , -and intrashop conveying machines forms the subject of this book. B, CLASSIFICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS ‘OF MATERIALS eg The type of load handled and its physical and mechanical prop: erties are the main factors which determine the type and design \- features of a conveying: machine and its component parts. : Loads, handled by interplant transport are divided into unit loads and bulk loads. 7 : Unit loads include piece-goods usually counted by the number, of pieces (for example, machine-parts and assemblies, moulding boxes; etc.) and tared goods (boxes, bags, barrels, packaged items, coritainers, etc,), and also other, goods handled en masse compris- ing more or less large-sized items of a definite shape (for in stance, ingots, pigs, building blocks, rolled beams, logs, etc.). 8 Unil loads are characterized by their overall dimensions, shape,” ° piece-weight, convenience of stacking or suspension and by spe- 5 cifle properties, if any. The latter include temperature (for hot moulding boxes or. castings), explosiveness, ‘inflammability, fra- gility, ete , Bulk loads (materials) include various heap-loaded, granular and powderedsmaterials (ore, coal, peat, moulding sand, sawdust, cement, etc.) °° & : Bulk-loads are characterized by ‘their physical and mechanica ‘properties such.as lump-size (distribution of its separate particles according to size), bulk (heaped). and specific weight, moisture: content, mobility of its particles, angle of repose, abrasivity. and specific properties. Let -us consider each one of these properties separately. fs Lump-size. The quantitative distribution of the particles. ofa: bulk load, according to their sizes, is known as the granulometric composition or ‘lump-size of the load. The size of the particles is determined linearly in millimetres. The largest linear dimension, its diagonal a (Fig. 2)' characterizes the-particle and determines a number of parameters of conveyors and auxiliary equipment. To determine the lump-size of materials containing particles larger than 0.1 mm, they are consecutively screened through’ a- number of screens of different mesh size. The granulometric com- sek Bose : Ch 1 Introduction position. of bulk materials with particles sinaller than 0.1 mmi is determined by a special method based on the difference in the speed with which particles of different size will settle in water or air. According to the uniformity of the lumps in its composition, a bulk material is classed as sized or unsized. . A material in which the ratio of the size of the largest charac- teristic particle dmax to thal of the smallest characteristic parti- ; cle Gmin is below 2.5 is considered as unsized, a Fig. 2. Dimensions of a bulk load particle In “sized materials, ie, more or less homogeneous ones Gmas? Amin <2.5, Sized; materials are characterized by their average lump-size, ie. a Minax + Gmina, ar a) unsized materials are characterized by the size of their largest characteristic lump a’. If the weight of a group of lumps sized from-0.8 dmas tO Qmax exceeds 10 per cent of the total weight of the sample, the lump’ sized Gay is considered as the largest char- acteristic one, ic., a’ =amex. But if the weight -of this group is less than 10° per cent of the sample, the lump sized 0:8 @max is _ considered as the largest characteristic one, Le, @’=0.8 amay. Table t Distribution of Bulk Loads According to Their Particle Size : ana Lond group | Hof legge! sharactrin aH Large-lumped over 160 Medium-umiped| 60 to 160 Small-tumped 10 to 60 Granular 0.5 to 10 Powdered below 0.5 - ing frame 3 secured on rod 2. The ‘into the container through the frame See, B, Classification’ and Characteristics of Maierials 18 According -to the size of their particles, bulk materials: are classed as large-, medium- and small-sized lump, granular. of» powdered (Table i). The lump-size of bulk materials must be taken into considera- tion when the dimensions of the load-carrying members. of con-.” veying machines and sizes of. the outlets of bins, hoppers and chutes are determined. Bulk weight and specific weight..The bulk or heaped weight y is the weight of the material per unit of volume in’ bulk. It is usually measured in tons .per cubic Ao metre (or kg per litre), sometimes 3 in kg per cubic metre, The bulk weight of granular and, powdered materials is usually determined with a special device (Fig. 3) consisting of container J ofa definite given vol- ume (usually 1 to 3 litres); rod 2 attached to the container and revolv- 2 larger the lump-size of the material, the larger should be the volume of the container. To determine the bulk weight of a material, it is poured until the container is full, A tarn of the frame removes excess mate- rial and leaves the. container ‘full to the. rim. The container is now weighed. The bulk weight. is determined as Ce the- net weight of the material in the container:relative to the volume — Fig. 3, Container serving : to it occupies. A distinction is .made determine the bulk weight of between. the bulk weight-of..a.ma-- .... @ free-flowing. material. . terial under aerated y and under 5 packed, conditions: Ypackea. A bulk load will pack when subjected to uniform static or dynamic. compression or shaking: The: ratio: of the weight of a material packed to its weight before packing is known as the packing coefficient whose value varies for differ= ent bulk loads from 1.05 to 1.52, A gradation of bulk materials according to their bulk weights isgiven in Table 2. The bulk weights of the most extensively handled materials. are contained in Table 3, The bulk weight of a material is an important param-.” eter when the capacity of a conveying machine and the pressure on the walls and outlets of hoppers is calculated. Ta, ne Ch. I! Introduction 2 Table 2 Distribution of Bulk Loads According to Their Bulk Weight Bulk weight », Weight group tone pet ee Matertal H Light up to 06 Sawdust, peat, coke Medium from 0.6 to 1.1. | Wheat, -rye, coal, slag Heavy from 11 to 20 | Sand, gravel, ore Very heavy over 2.0 Iron ore, cobble stones The specific weight of a material is the weight.of its particles dried at a temperature of 100 to 105°C to constant weight rela. -tive to the volume of water displaced by them, The Specific weight “of materials must-be taken: into account when pneumatic and hydraulic materials handling equipment: is calculated, “Fig. 4. Natural” slope ‘assumed Fig. 5. Determination of the bya free-flowing material angle of repose with a ‘hollow spilled. on a.horizontal surface cylinder Mobility of the particles and angle of repose: When’ a loose ; material (bulk load) unobstructedly spills on a horizontal ‘plane, “-itvassumes a slope, the angle. of which with -the horizontal. is ‘ts angle of repose @ (Fig. 4). The magnitude of angle @ depends onthe mutual mobility of the particles: the larger. their mobility, the smaller is angle g, The angle of repose of bulk materials may be static @ or dy- namic ayn. Payn is approximately 0.7 9. The static angle of repose can be determined with various sim- ple devices, a hollow cylinder, for example (Fig. 5). The material is. filled into the hollow cylinder and when the latter is carefully. raised, the material pours out. and forms a cone on the horizontal. See. B. Classification’ and Characteristics of Materials supporting surface. The angle of the. generatrix of the cone is the angle of static repose. The angle of repose’is measured .with angle gauges of different type. The dynamic angle. of repose ayn is obtained when the horizontal supporting surface vibrates ver+ tically. The coefficient of friction of a bulk material on steel, wood, concrete, rubberized fabric, ele., must be taken into account when conveying machines and auxiliary equipment are designed, The friction factor determines the angle of inclination of the walls and ribs ‘of hoppers, funnels and transfer chutes and also the. Table 3 Bulk Weight, Angles of Repose, and Friction Factors of Bulk Materials (approximate values) Angle of repose, |. static trtetton fattor 7, Bulk weight y, ine ea i fee {fons per en mm dynamic | static ” ayn | on steel fon wood fon rubber Anthracite, fine, dry *]0.8'to 0.95) 27 45 084 | 0.84 | -— Gypsum, smalf-lumped| 1.2 to 1.4 = 40 0.78 — |} 082 Clay, dry, small » lumped 1.0 to 15 40 50 0.75 on = Qravel 15 to 1.9 30 |. 45 10 a = Ground, dry 12 30 45 1.0 7 = Foundry. sand, shake- out 1,25 to 1.30] 30 45. O71 - 0.61 Ash, dry 0.4 to 0.6 40 50 084 | 1.0 = Limestone, small- lumped L12:to 1.8 30 =~ 0.56 | 07 = Coke 0.36 to 0.53] 35 50 10 1.0 = Wheat flour 0.45. to 0.66} 49 55 0.65 — | 0.85.5 Oat 0.40 to 0.50} 28 35: 0.58 | 0.78 | 0.50 Sawdust 0.16 to 0.32) — 39 08 = 0.65. Sand, dry 140 to 1.65] 30 45 0.80 — | 056 Wheat 0.65 to 0.83) 25 35 0.58 0.58 | 0.50 Iron ore [2.10 to 240} 30 50 12 - = Peat, dry, lumped [0.33 10 O41] 40 45 0.75 | 0.80. | .— Coal, run-of-mine 0.65 to 0.78} 35 50 10°} Lo | 07 Cement, dry 1.0 to 1.30] 35 50 0.65 — | 06 Slag, anthracite 0.60 to 0.90} 35 45 10 — |..0.66 Crushed stone, dry 18 m2) 45 0.63 — | 06 i le re HBL OSE On Satebauclion maximum inclination of certain conveyors. The friction factor is related to the friction angle of bulk material, ie., fo= tan po; (2) f=tanp, (3) Where fo and f = friction factors of the material at-rest and in motion; e, and p =angles of friction at rest and in motion, The angles of repose and friction factors for the most. exten- sively handled bulk materials are given in Table 3, * ~ Abrasivity. The property. of particles of bulk materials to wear away the surface they are in contact with when in motion. is called the abrasivity of a material, The surface of chutes, troughs, . belts, chain joints are subjected to abtadive action by. the. mate-. rial conyeyed. The extent of abrasion depends on the hardness, » surface condition’. ‘shape and. size of the articles composing the matérial: Some bulk materials such as. ashes, bauxite, aluminium: oxide, cement, crushed ore, sand, ‘pumice. and ¢oke are highly abradive. > Specific properties. These include: moisture content, ability to pack, stickiness, fragility, hygroscopy, toxicity, corrosiveness and i explosiveness, etc. All’ these properties should be taken into vaccount when conveying machines and auxiliary equipment are designed and effective measures taken to neutralize their harmful influence on the equipment and ambient medium. C. CLASSIFICATION OF CONVEYING MACHINES Owing to great variety of conveying machines available, differ- ing as regards principle of operation, design features, means and direction of conveyance, a general classification of materials: handling equipment is well-nigh impossible, To break a large study down’ into several more simple components, conveying ma- chines. have’ been’ classified according to their major distinctive ‘machines of intermittent and continuous action. Machines 0} features (Fig. 6). According to their principle of operation we discern conveying in- termittent action include a great variety of ground-level and over- head rail and railless transport machines, manoeuvring and “The values given in the table are not hard and fast but can be used for weugh guidance when concrete data for the given material are not avoitable It should be remembered that the bulk weights, angles of repose and friction _ factors of one and the same material often deviate considerably from average values, ‘SaniAap Bimgojag puo)_ Suayanto aypouropny| Ch Fig. 6. 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Bs SS] Hosa ‘Svohaniroa fayong. st 8] Hz tu] __ssofeavos sayang-pun-pying ge =| Hoth suahanuoa shontiquoa SS =| Hoc tul Suofantron jubihy BE H22 Bi S10 7010085 we eB Teo by ‘Siohaaton uoudy SEE8 Loe ty To stofteauaa Hag ines: veying machi i | Pig Se Oke 1, Introduction hauling eqitipment with cars and trucks, overhead rail and ca- bleways, tractors, scrapers and some types of transfer equipment. Machines of continuous action include various types of conveyors, pneumatic and hydraulic transport installations and some types. of transfer equipment. A. special group is formed by auxiliary equipment which is not an independent means of conveyance but designed for operation in conjunction with conveying machines. Auxiliary equipment comprises chutes, troughs, hoppers, gates, feeders, Scales, etc. Cyclic operation is characteristic for intermittent action ma- chines: they deliver loads in lots corresponding ‘to the load-lifting capacity (or volume) of the load-carrying members, Generally these machines operate on an alternately reciprocal principle, i.e., they run loaded in one direction and idle it the other. Sometimes heir: path.of motion forms:a closed circuit, one part of which is »-used for delivery of the'load, the other for the return of empties to “the loading. area...The load-carrying. mémber of intermittent con- ~ Neying machines‘ is generally loaded and unloaded during stop- Pages, in exceptional cases discharge is effected while the machine: ‘is -running.-The path of motion of the load-carrying member’ is -sometimes provided with a number of branches (switches, inter- sections and crossings). : The: feature specific to continuous action machines is that their ~load-carrying member conveys the load in a practically uninter- _Tupted stream or in successive but relatively small portions: (in buckets, boxes, etc.): along. a. precisely determined path. Unit loads are also conveyed in a continuous preset consecution. The load-carrying members of these machines are loaded and unloaded while in motion. 7 According to the. type of material handled, the machines are divided into conveying machines for bulk loads, unit loads or both bulk and unit loads, ! Continuous machines may be classified: (a) according to the means by which motive power is transmit- ted to the load. as: (1) mechanical handling equipment; (2) gravity equipment; (3). pneumatic handling equipment; (4) hydraulic handling equipment in which the carrying me+ dium is a jet of water; (b) according to their purpose and principle of action as: (1) stationary conveyors; (2) transfer equipment; (3) pneumatic handling equipment; (4) hydraulic handling equipment. See. €. Classification of Conveying Machines 1 Stationary conveyors are classified according to their design. as machines: (1) with. a flexiblé pulling member, and (2): without a pulling member. ; : : Belt, apron, flight, bucket, flight-and-bucket, tray, car, “load- propelling, overhead conveyors; bucket, platform, tray.and-cage - | elevators and also escalators are machines with a flexible pulling ee: member. i A feature all.machines with a flexible pulling member have in +> common is that the load moves along the carrying run together with the pulling member. Thé flexible pulling member transmits. motion to the mobile load-carrying members (belt, apron, buckets, © carriers, cars, etc.) and to the load carried by them. In certain designs the load glides (rolls) along stationary guideways (for instance, a trough). The load-carrying members move along hori- zontal or inclined ‘sections and are supported by travelling: or. stationary rollers or stationary guideways. Screw, oscillating and roller conveyors and also rotary trans: port tubes are conveyors without.a pulling’ member. In all conveyors. without a pulling. member. the. load moves separately fromthe rotating or- reciprocating: load-carrying mem- bers. x Continuous equipment differs widely as regards. the direction _ of conveyance. Certain types of conveying machines ‘serve to move the load in a given rectilinear direction. (for instance, horizontally or slightly inclined,. vertically or at a slight-angle to the. vertical).: Other, types haye a path of motion which can be almost’ any irregular combination-ol ups.and downs, inclines, bends and -curves. Thus, for instance, roller, car (the path of motion of. which is’ a closed circuit) and.some other conveyor types are always ar- ranged horizontally (or at-a’ slight incline to the horizontal), the load is moved ina single direction or alotig a closed circuit :in' the horizontal plane (Fig. 7a). In the case’ of bucket elevators, the direction. of travel is vertical or at a slight angle to the vertical’ (Fig. 76). ~ hg The path of motion of-belt, apron and flight conveyors is hori: zontal or slightly inclined. The angle of inclination is.limitéd by. the tendency of the material to roll or slide spontaneously down the longitudinal axis of the conveyor. These conveyors’ can have a rectilinear configuration or bends in the vertical and hori- zontal planes (Fig. 7c). A complex path which takes the load successively oyer hori- zontal and vertical or horizontal and inclined section (Fig. 7d) is typical for bucket, flight-and-bucket-and tray conveyors as well as for most conveyors.with submerged flights. : : gt 20 : ‘Ch: I. Introduction Jaz “or slightly inclined conveyance may be modified to lift loads ver-; “along a:strictly predetermined path, that they perform stereotyped _ suitable for: automatic operation and: also for the automation of «the loading and. unloading: processes. : “A path with bends both in the \vertical: and horizontal planes is followed by overhead conveyors-and special types of bucket, - tray,.car and some other conveyors (Fig. 7e). An irregular con- tour path can also be followed by pneumatic conveyors. Some conveyors with a direction of travel typical for their type are. modified to allow movement also in’ other directions, Thus, for instance, screw conveyors ordinarily designed for horizontal aso || eee Oe ce) or both planes, others will operate only. on a straight run in one direction, some are adopted to convey loads for a considerable distance; others must be limited as regards their length. ‘ An important requirement. every machine or sét of machines should satisfy is-that the load should be handled with a-minimum of intermediate transfers, as they complicate the system in gener- al, decrease its reliability and ill affect the quality of. certain materials. 4, Storage of the material at the head and tail ends, The meth- od of loading and unloading of the material also has an impor- tant bearing upon the choice of a conveying machine. Some of them are seli-loaders, others require special additional loading devices or are loaded by. hand. Thus, loose materials can be stored in heaps from which they are loaded onto the conveying machine Sec, D, Selection df Conveying’ Equipment i oe » technological conveyors in’ machine, paint and other shops ‘may be ‘cited as example. : enterprise, -its proposed.-period of operation (short or lone term), “expenses in connection. with ‘its’ delivery and erection and also capital outlay is compared, the cost of buildings and constructions 22 Ch. I. Introduction z ‘with buckets, scrapers, special feeders or by any other means, or stored in a bin, from which the load is discharged onto the con- veying. machine by gravity. A self-loading machine taking the material directly from the heap also does not require «auxiliary feeders. Unit loads are stacked on the floor indoors or on the ground in the open or ‘placed on stands, shelves, stillages, etc. They can be loaded on the conveying machine by many different methods and removed at the unloading points by various means, The loading and’ unloading: should; wherever possible, exclude addi- tional labour and auxiliary equipment, 5. Processing steps and the movenient of toads. When: mecha- nizing handling in workshops, the technological flow is an’ impor. tant factor bearing onthe choice of the conveying machine. 2 In ‘most cases "conveying machines are connected with’ the over- all manufacturing ‘cycle, depend on it and serve. to carry.a load processed en route.Assembly line and foundry conveyors as also ‘6. Specific local. conditions, These include the area and shape of the site at disposal, its topography, type and design of the building, mutual layout of handling machines and processing equipment, humidity: and “dustiness ofthe premises, availability | of steam or gas, ambient-temperature, etc. It is also important ‘to, know whether the'conveying machine ‘will be installed in prem- ises_ (heated or unheated): or out-of-doors. In’ the latter event cli. matic conditions must be taken into account. when planning’ the servicing and lubrication of the machine, forestalling freezing’ of machine ‘parts'and of the loadsin’stacks, bunkers; ete; -” The choice of the’conveying machine will also be greally influ- enced by. the unification’ and standardization’ ‘of the ‘equipment “of the enterprise, by the planned development and expansion. of the the type of power available; hygienic considerations, safety ‘regu- lations, convenience of- operation, ete, TMaving on the basis ‘of technical factors chosen the machines that. will best serve the purpose at hand,'a thorough comparison of their:respective’merits is made from a technical and économie standpoint. ‘The economic appraisal of the respective merits of the various types is made by estimating initial investments and running costs. Capital ‘investments include the initial cost of. the equipment, construction work relating to its installation and operation. When See. D, Selection of Conveying Equipment «793, for the different variants should-be taken into account. Running costs include the remuneration of .the servicing personnel, the.” cost of power, materials (lubricating, cleaning, rigging, etc.), and also the cost of medium and current repairs. General expenses connected with the maintenance of conveying machines include annual deductions -on depreciation which form >the fund for the renovation of the initial expénse for the mechan- ical equipment and constructions and: funds for their capital repair. Optimal are the types of conveying. machines that meet all proc- essing requirements, ensure a high degree of mechanization and the most favourable working conditions. Such equipment will in the long run ensure minimum handling cost per unit and will*re- coup the initial outlay in the shortest possible time. CHAPTER II GENERAL THEORY OF CONVEYING MACHINES A. CAPACITY OF CONTINUOUS CONVEYING. ~ MACHINES H The. handiing capacity of continuous conveying machines de- “pends upon the weight ‘of the load per metre of machine length (q:kg/m) and on the rate of conveyance (v m/sec), . If the ‘conveyor capacity is qo kg/sec, then the hourly capacity will be 3600 =Too7 77 = 3.690 tons per hour. (4) If the load has a bulk weight of y tons per cu m and is con- veyed in a continuous stream having a cross-sectional area of F sqm, then : 97 =1000Fy kg/m. (5) When the material is conveyed in a trough or tube having a cross-sectional area of Fy sqm, a loading efficiency of p andi - |“ | F=Fgp, then a q = 1000Fyyp kg/m. (6) When the material is moved in separate containers each havirig : a volume of io litres, filled to a capacity of / litres (where i= qth) and the-containers are spaced a metres apart, then q=ty= ty kg/m. (7) If unit loads having a weight of G kg each are conveyed in lots of 2 pieces and the spacing between the units or lots is @ metres, @ I= kg/m, Sec. A. Capacity of Continuous Conveying Machines or, correspondingly, Gz q=—> kg/m. Substituting the value g in. equation (4) .we for the conveyance of materials in a continuous stream Q = 3600F vy = 3600Fyvyp tons per hour; (10). for the conveyance of materials in separate containers Q=3.6 4 oy = 3.6 © oyp tons per hour; (ites for the conveyance of unit loads Q=3.6 Zo tons per hour, (12) or Q=3.6 Sy tons per hour. >. (18) If the time interval between separate loads or lots is t sec, then the capacity per hour is i Q=5G xPaseg tons per hour, (14) or a Q= 7 x 3M = 3.6 SF tons per hour. (5) The-capacity of continuous conveying machines handling bulk loads can be expressed ‘not only in units of weight (Q tons ‘per hour) but also in units of volume (Vm/hir). Since Q= Vy tons per -hour, (16) hence LE ‘ V = 3600F'u = 3600F yup mtr, an: or V=3.6 £0=3.60pmYnr. (18) The capacity of continuous conveying machines. is sometimes; expressed by the number of pieces conveyed per hour. The time interval between units (or lots) is A= sec, (19) hence the hourly capacity is = AO nas BEY pieces per hour, (20) Zz Ch General Theory of ‘Conveying “Machines “ory when ‘lots of:z pieces are conveyed, Zz 360020. a If G-is ‘the weight of a separate load. in kg, the capacity. ex: : Pressed in units of weight is Q= 78% tons per hour. (22) The preceding equations show that the capacity of machines conveying loads in a continuous stream grows with an increase in the cross-section of the trough or tube, increment of the: loading efficiency and increase in. the rate of conveyance. When the load is conveyed in containers, the capacity rises with’ an increase in the volume of the containers, their loading efficiency cand the rate of conveyance, as well as with the decrease in the spacing of the containers, mon For-unit loads the weight capacity rises. with an increase’ of “the weight per unit, rate of conveyance and the decrease of the spacing betwecn the separate load units (or lots) Having determined the rate of conveyance for the machine of a ‘given type according to service requirements, the above _equa- ions permit to find the main characteristics relevant to the capacity of the machine: equation (10)—trough section Fy; equa- tion -(11)—ratio 2 (this ratio allows to determine the: value of io when a.is given ‘or that of a when i is given); equation (12) or: (13)—the spacing between the load -units or lots a. : - In the case of bulk loads the values of Fy and ig thus obtained must be checked for their consistence with the lump-size of the . material to be conveyed; for unit. loads -dimension a should con- form with the overall dimensions ‘of the load. In a similar manner, the dimensions of the load-carrying member of the machine should . conform with the overall dimensions of the load conveyed, for in-." stance, the length and width of the platform ina car conveyor, the width of the .belt and runway in belt and apron conveyors, . the width, length and height of the carrier in overhead conveyors, retes’ 7 The capacity of continuous conveying machines Q tons per hour taken for calculations, according to the equations given above, is called the calculated or design capacity. It is usually equal to or higher than the actual average capacity Quy. Taking into ac- count the allowance for irregularity of feed K’ (K’ > 1), we have Q=QaK’ tons per hour. (23) pieces per hour, ; (21) ons Sec. B. Resistance to Motion. Factor B. RESISTANCE TO MOTION FACTOR “When. a ¢onveying machine (a ‘bucket .or tray elevator, for example) serves to lift Q tons per hour toa height of H. metres, the effective power spent on lifting the load will be = lo00QH OH Nan= 3600575 = Bio HP» » QA) or A . _ 1000QH OH . : Na ="ag093c107 a7 KW: (25) iIf thé efficiency of-the: coriveying machine.is, y, the required, mo-." tor power is QH : Nasi = Soy be = gore KW 8) Conveying devices often serve to move loads: horizontally. Ii that case H=0 and’Neg and N algebraically become zero, as there * is no “useful” work expended-dn load-lifting. It follows that the above equations.cannot be used to’ determine ‘the required motor’ ‘power of horizontal conveying machines. _ _ . : If the load is moved over-vertical sections (H#0) andthe value’ of H is negligible as compared with: the total length of travel L, the power consumed on overcoming frictional resistance may con- siderably exceed the work: on -overcoriing the gradient and the figure expressing the efficiency of the conveying machine Will become negligible and fail to characterize thé actual] mechanical properties of the machine, Generally, therefore, the required engine power should be determined not by the efficiency according to equation. (25), but by calculating separately ‘the work .required to overcome the gradient and that required to overcome the fric- tional resistance of the load to motion. . The frictional (harmful) resistance to motion of °a load ‘is expressed: by the resistance to. motion factor. The ratio.of the \. forces. limiting the motion ofthe load to its weight is called’ the‘. resistance factor. : : If the weight of the load’is kg per metre of the conveying machine, the path L metres and the friction factor w, the weight of the load conveyed will be gL and the frictional resistance willbe We qLw kg. (27) The power required to overcome frictional resistance is Wicd Leo QLw QlLw Nye = TH “5 FREE TaD NPs (28) Ch, 11. General Theory of Conveying. Machines ~ or i Ls Nye See kW ; (29) and the total power consumption is HY L Ht L 5 Ne Nag tN em Gt LE np G4 Sw Gy If the power is determined not for the engine shaft but for the driving (main) shaft of the conveying machine, its value will be No==Nep-+-No sie Sap + Soett hp —= G 4 Shsta ew, (31. where the resistance factor wo includes the frictional resistances of all the parts of the conveying machine, except that of the trans- mission gear. The values V and No are related, since N=, (32) Ne where nz = efficiency of the transmission gear. ‘ Since No < N, obviously, wp < w. i Assuming in equations (28) and (29) Q=1 ton per hour and L=1m and designating the specific power required to do the work to overcome the forces of frictional resistance as Njrieg We find that 1 we © Nine =p bo= we, kW, (33) ie. the friction factor is proportional to the specific power. i The smaller the values of w, Njteand Nyric, the more mechan- ically efficient is the given conveying machine, The relations given above'can: be used to find N for conveying } machines designed for gradients and’ those for horizontal. and i vertical transfer of loads, therefore, the concept resistance factor | aig is in'this particular case more general than efficiency. » § * “ee horizontal conveying machines’ (H=0) relation (30) takes e form : IL: Le N= Nye YE hp = SH ew, (34) For vertical devices (L=H) N= Bt tw) hp = 21 +0) kW. (35) case (vertical devices) Sec, B; Resistance to Motion Factor’ Hees 29 Comparing relations (26). and (35) we find that-for the given f= 1-2, (36) ie., a_decrease in the resistance factor results in an increase of” the efficiency. : Theoretically the limit within which » changes. is 0 to 1, hence + w changes theoretically within +-oo to 0. At n=0.5 and w=1; he vane of Neg and Nie are equal,'as seen from equations (25) and (35). G1 lq Fig. 8. Determination of resistances on rectilinear sections Practically, however, the resistance factor varies within consid- erable limits for equipment of: different type. For conveyors.” it usually varies from fractional to one and is even larger for -ma- chines with a high power consumption. For. machines of identical type. (belt conveyors, flight conveyors, etc.) the value. of the resistance factor also changes within certain limits, depending on the capacity, length and configuration of the machine, its quality, ~ of manufacture and installation, condition and partly on the nature i of the material conveyed. . The total. resistance on a handling device is sometimes deter- mined as the sum of the resistances on its separate sections. It has been found expedient -to express the resistance factor for the separate sections w’ with respect to the gross’ weight of the load conveyed, i.e., to the weight of the material plus that of the mov- ing parts of the machine and to relate it to the normal pressure on the supporting guideways. EF Thus, if a container (trolley) weighing Gp carries a load weigh> ing G along a guideway (rails) or on wheels along a railless’: path (Fig. 8), the tractive effort for horizontal motion is : Wes (@-+G,) w! (37) where W, ary: or travelling rollers (pulleys) or along a guideway. If the 30 Ch. I, General Theory of Conveying: Machines -and-for a gradient forming an angle B with the horizontal (up or. down) We Wy Wig + (G +0) sin B +-(G 4-Qy) cos Bw! = ‘ =(G+G,)(+ sing +’cosp), — (38) == forces of useful resistance; orces of frictional resistance; esistance to motion factor. : .The plus sign’ is taken for, upward, the. minus sign for down- ward motion. The value of the resistance factor w’ for a load wheeled on rails is determined from the following equation: 7s fon C REDE 39) - wc MEER (39) where t= sliding friction factor on the wheel journals (or the friction factor in the rolling bearings reduced to the journal diameter) ; rolling friction factor, cm; journal diameter, cm: diameter of the wheels, cm; allowance for the increase in resistance due to friction between the wheel treads and the rails (C >-1). -Af the load is conveyed not on wheels’ but by. sliding and the friction factor is 7, then @’ =f, Factors.» and. & in equation: (39) vary within wide limits and. depend on the type of conveyor. and-its operating conditions, : The. values of factors w’, wand: for different working condi- tions are given.in the chapters dealing with the various types. of. conveying machines, C. RESISTANCE AND POWER IN CONVEYING MACHINES WITH A-FLEXIBLE PULLING MEMBER: 1. Resistance on Separate Sections Generally, the endless pulling member of a conveying machine moves continuously (or with periodic interruptions) along rectilin- ear sections interlinked by curvilinear sections. In its simplest form the endless pulling ‘member forms two rectilinear strands with two curvilinear links, On the rectilinear -sections- the pulling member slides on station- Sec. C, Resistance*and Power. tn Conveying, Machines load is carried by aload-catrying member (belt, apron, bucke trays, etc.), the load-carrying member and, the pulling. membe etc.), the resistance to motion factor of-the load ‘and ‘that of :the pulling member differ. ; p—the ‘angle of inclination, ‘Lnor—-the horizontal projection of length L, H — the vertical projection, q —the weight of the load per metre of the conveyor section, and go—the weight of the mdv- irig parts per metre of the section, For the first case, i.e., when the load-carrying member and the pulling member move with an iden: tical friction factor w’, the resistance on the loaded strand, accord- ) ing to,equation (38), is : t Wi = (g-+ 40) Lin H(q-+q) LevcosB = : =(g-+40)(£ H+ Leo'cos 8) =(9 +40) X “3 XE Lj). 7 (40) ward motion, For sliding motion, w’=] (where f is the sliding friction factor); ‘for motion on wheels, w’ is determined from equa- tion (39). When the resistance factors of the pulling and load-carrying members differ, the preceding equation takes the form WE (+a) + (40! + 45%) Lage ay whére w; and w/,== friction factors of the load and of the coh ly that of the pulling member). For the unloaded section of the conveyor Wu= Gol (+ sinB + w'cosp) = qu(F A+ Lior ®), (42) the signs being taken as above. For horizontal motion the above expression assumes a different form, as B=0, H=0 and Lyo»=L. ‘ Equations (40), (41) and (42) show that for downgrade motion the total resistance value on rectilinear sections may be positive, negative or nil. For upgrade or leyel motion the total resistance on the section is always positive. The pulling member may be taken over a curvilinear section in one of three ways: (1) by bending over a pivoted smooth pulley, move with an.identical resistance factor; In‘all other cases, for ‘in- sstance, when a.load is.pushed along a guideway. (flight.conveyors).. or when it is self-propelled (assembly of automobiles, tractors,’ Let us designate Las the ‘iength of the Yectilitiear section, The plus sign is taken. for upward and the minus sign for down-* veyor parts moving along the section. (usual- sprocket or drum (Fig. 9a); (2) sliding over a stationary curved, ‘drives the conveyor, the resistance on it will be within 3 to 5 per» 382 Gh. IL General Theory. of Conveying Machines oe) j ; : id guideway, generally a rail (Fig. 96), of (3) rolling over a bank of stationary rollers mounted on a curved frame (Fig. 9d). “When the pulling member. wraps: around the pulley, sprocket or / drum, the strand running on the pulley is lightened, that leaving." itis‘slackened.. . : ve The total resistance Weurs consists of the resistance set up by. the stiffness of the ‘pulling ‘member when it bends entering the curve and straightens'out leaving: it and of the frictional resistance on the hub of the pulley (sprocket, drum) or that on the journals of the ‘shaft carrying the pulley, In chain transmissions the fries tional’ resistance on the sprocket teeth is added. These resistances ." @ % Sst Fig. 9. Determination of resistances on curvilinear sections are generally proportiorial to the tight side tension of the pulling @ member. Hence, the tension of the slack strand is . a : Sa Si + Weary = Sj +S; = (1 +2), = KS;, (48) where factor K > 1, In practice the value of the resistance on the pulley, sprodk or drum Weury lies within 3 to 10 per cent of S;, generally compri ing 5 to 7 per cent, i.e., i Si, (1,05 to 1,07) S’, (A) If the pulley. (sprocket or drum) serving as tensioning gear-also cent of the summary tensions of the tight S; and slack Ss strands, | Men Wap = (S, + Sy) = (0.03 to. 0.05) (S,-+ Sy). (45) When the pulling member wraps around the curvilinear guide- way (Fig. 96) with an are of contact « (in radians), the coefficient E of sliding friction between the pulling member and the pulley being + g Sec.'C. Resistance and’ Power: in Conveying: Machines "83 } (the relatively small resistance due tothe stiffness of the pulling member being neglected), the general formula expressing the rela: _ tion between the tensions in the slack and tight strands .(accord- ing to Euler) is St, = Siel, (46) where e is the base of the Naperian system of logarithms and equals 2.7183, When the pulling member rolls over travelling rollers (Fig, 9c) 7 a bank of stationary rollers (Fig. 9d) with a friction factor of -w" Si = Siew", (47) : Oe force of resistance on the curvilinear section is correspond- ingly Wop = Si Si = Si (0/4 — 1); (48) Worry = Sop Sp = 8; (e8"*— 1). (49) 2. Determination. of the Effective Pull and Motor Power The total resistance on a conveying machine is conveniently determined: by the “outline”, sometimes termed as the “by points” method of calculation. The outline of the pulling member is divided into consecutive separate rectilinear and curvilinear sections, the points linking these sections are numbered and the tension’ of the pulling member on-the tight ‘and slack strands is determined by following its outline from point to point. The total tension is re- ceived by summing up the tensions on the separate sections, * Calculation is usually begun at the point where the- pulling member leaves the driving pulley (sprocket or drum) or at the point where it is the slackest, if these two points do not coincide. The initial tension imparted to the pulling member by the take-up depends on the type of machine and is chosen according to the requirements given in the subsequent. chapters. The tension on the other. points is calculated by following the general rule: the tension of. the pulling member in every gonsecu- tive point along its run is equal to the tension in the preceding point plus the resistance on the section between these points, i.e., 8, =S14+ Waey ton (80) where S,_; and S,= tensions in points i—1 and i; Wiu-1) i= resistance on the section between these points, .at the point where the pulling member runs on the driving: 2184 Ch: I, General Theory of Conveying Machines When: the calculation is made by following the outline of the pulling member in a* direction opposite to its run, the tension in every consecutive. point will be equal to the difference between ‘the tension: in the preceding point and the force of resistance on the intermediate section. If the number of the rectilineat and curvilinear sections into which the outline has been divided is n, the slack side tension—S,., and the tight side tension—S,, the effective tension or pull will be W=S,—S, : (51) or, including the resistance on the driving shaft Wa= Wn tots Wo= Si —Sa+ Wao. (52) The. required motor power for the conveying machine Woo Wov Nagi hp agg kW, (63) effective pull, kg; peed of the pulling member, m/sec; efficiency of the transmission gear, including the losses’ diie.to stiffness of the pulling member on the driving shaft, when Wy is determined from equa- tion (51). When W is-determined from equation (52) these losses‘are not included. D. DYNAMIC PHENOMENA. IN-CHAIN CONVEYORS 1, Speed.and Acceleration of the Chain ‘The dimensions of the pulling member of a conveyor ate caleu- lated according to the maximum. tension it is subjected to, The maximum tension determined “by the outline” is usually obtained sprocket, ’ For chain conveyors of all types, the dynamic forces coming — into play when rotation is ‘transmitted by the sprocket to the chains f* should be added to. the static forces determined as given’ above. | Irregularities in the motion of the chain (or chains) are-respon- sible for dynamic ‘stresses, In general the sprockets of a chain drive donot have a constant angular velocity ratio and, therefore, the linear velocity of the chain is irregular too. The reason for this is that the chairi does. not wrap. around the driving sprocket or straight-edged pulley-in the form of a pitch circle but in the form of a pitch polygon, a phenorienon known as “chordal action”, The. Sec. D. Dynaniié Plienomena 'in“Chain’ Condeyors 85° period of irregularity. during the pulsating motion of the chain-is equal to the time it takes the sprocket (or pulley) ‘to'turn through the angle subtending the arc of contact, corresponding to a turn “by one tooth (or edge). : The maximum dynamic stress comes into play at the moment. when the sprocket tooth (or peak of the straight-edged. pulley) comes into mesh with the next chain link. Fig. 10, Chain turning around sprocket Let us examine, in the simplest form, how the dynamic stress is approximated. Let us begin by establishing. the law governing changes in the speed and acceleration of the chain. Fig. 10 contains a diagram showing a chain running on fhe sprocket or straight-edged pulley. In the position pictured in the diagram, the pull is: transmitted by tooth /, in mesh with chain link 1’, As the sprocket rotates, tooth 2 engages with link 2, . tooth 3 with link 3’, etc, Ata constant angular velocity of the sprocket «, the-periphéral speed of the tooth remains constant, ie, 09=Ro while the chain ‘speed (ils motion being considered as near translatory) will be vu! = U Cos P= Ro cos 9, (54) where @ is the variable angle formed by the leading radius 0/=R and axis OY. Thus, the chain speed v’ during period f, required by the sprock- et to turn through the angle a, corresponding to one chain pitch 7’, represents a section of a cosine curve (Fig. 11), The chain Ie ij 36 Ch II, General Theory of ‘Conveying Machines ‘speed reaches its peak, v/,,, =Yo=Rw when p=0 and its minimum when o=—- 2 and @= 3 ie., v Fig. 10 shows three positions of the sprocket turning through angle a, namely: at the moment when link / engages (0 is in the central pos ition ( y and disengages (p=), : i T The acceleration of the chain= 2 = § can be determined as the first 7 7] derivative of the speed by the | 0 time or as the projection of cen- \ T TF! tripetal acceleration jp—-Ro? on 4 ls the direction of chain travel 8 (tangential. acceleration being | Lf zero) j= — fysing=— Ro’ sing. Fig. 11. Diagram of chain speed and (56) ‘acceleration Acceleration j* becomes zero when p=0 (v’=v/,,,) and reaches its absolute peak value at =~ % and p= %: : Inae= + Ro? sin %, 2, Dynamic Loads on the Chain The diagram in Fig, 11 shows that at the end of the initial ‘period ¢ and at the beginning’ of the next, when the sprocket tooth: engages with the following chain link, the acceleration instantly soars from — fig, 10 + Jay i.e. increases by 2/',... If m is the max reduced mass of the moving parts of the conveying machine and~ of the load, the dynamic stress at that moment is 2mji,. As the force is applied instantaneously and, therefore, brings into play as if double tension, the theoretical dynamic stress S4—2%2mj!,. As the force of inertia Ja=mjmar acting at the final moment of period ¢ is directed in the sense of chain travel and therefore of negative value, it must be added to the instantaneous dynamic stress, 4 Vantaa ty 5). natn = RO COS >. (55) The acceleration diagram of | the chain is shown in Fig. Me fF 87 See. D. Dynamte” Phenomena in- Chain Conveyors urn Thus, if Ss is the static tight side tension of the chain (or chains), determined “by the outline” and Sayn is the theoretical dynamic tension, the total theoretical tensile effort is ad Sneor= Sst Sayy = Sap t Ja ~ Sa : gil = S42 K WMfigae— Minag = Soe 8Mnaae (68) max Taking into account that inet, sin =oR3 2 xr iverage (working) chain speed, m/sec; procket (pulley) speed, rpm; number of sprocket teeth or pulley edges; : noe ? = pitch of the pulling chain, orf we obtain from equation (57): ‘ & 2 2" Imnae = 20 Sar WO ea ant wy 7 (59), Hence the maximum acceleration and consequently the maximum dynamic stress (determined as above) is proportional to the square of the chain speed, when the number of sprocket teeth and chain pitch is equal, and is inversely proportional to the number of teeth and directly proportional to the pulling chain pitch when its speed and the sprocket diameter (perimeter 2¢) are equal. : In a conveyor having a length of L metres and comprising two rectilinear strands, the loaded and return strands, ‘the mass in motion is m=(q¢+290)L:g, where g m/sec? is the gravity accel- eration. However, the kinematic law given above shows that not all of the mass is in motion, since due to the elasticity of the pulling member, acceleration is transmitted along it not instanta- neously but with the speed an elastic wave propagates, Further- more, violation of the kinematic law, is responsible for free sagging of the pulling member and makes it necessary to install a weighted or spring-loaded take-up. Therefore, not all of the moving mass of the conveyor but its mass reditced by the value of factor C <1 is included in the cal- culation, whence - 7 Cqo) L Sear = Sst 8 nae LEZ, (60). It will be found expedient to take C=20 for conveyors having a length of L<25 m C15 ditto [. = 26 to 60 m ; C= 10 ditto L> 60m eee 38 Ch, 11, General Theory of Conveying Machines ss 3, Equalizing Drives Dynamic stresses in conveyor pulling chains increase the gross. | load on the chain, making it necessary not only to employ stronger and heavier chains but also lead. to chain fatigue and decrease “| * their service life. As seen from equation (59), the larger the chain pitch and speed and the fewer the sprocket teeth (pulley edges), the ‘greater is the influence of dynamic stresses, It will, therefore, be found expedient to use special equalizing drives where the above EES E Zs oy Go SS Pig. 12 Equalizing. drive with undulated gear wheel conditions prevail. These drives diminish the irregularity of chain motion considerably. i With: few. exceptions, ‘all available types of equalizing drives -are “designed -on the principle that the driving sprockets are imparted an irregular angular velocity @ which makes the factor @ cos @ a . ‘constant quantity. This [see equation (54)] ‘makes the chain : a Speed vu’ constant. Two drives using this principle are shown in |i. ‘ Figs 12 and 13. : In the first type the driving shaft carries an undulated gear ~ wheel with a number of waves equal to the number of sprocket teeth (pulley edges). The sprocket (pulley) is driven by a pinion eccentrically mounted on its shaft, The total transmission ratio of the gear pair is equal to the number of sprocket teeth (pulley edges). When the pinion makes a’ full revolution, the driven wheel turns through angie a» which corresponds to one pitch of the pull- ing chain. The transmission ratio of a gear pair of this design does Seo, D. Dynamic Phenomena in Chain” Conveyors “89 not remain constant, therefore, the pinion rotates uniformly, while the ‘driven. wheel rotates irregularly, The period of irregularity is chosen to correspond to a complete revolution of the pinion, In the position shown’ in Fig. 12 (compare with Fig. 10) both cos p=cos “2 and the transmission fatio are ‘at minimum, and the angular velocity of the driven wheel @ attains maximum, When the pinion makes a half-turn, the driven wheel turns through the! Fig, 13, Equalizing drive with short-link chain transmission angle -J-. At that moment cosp=cos 0=1=max, and the, angular velocity of the driven wheel is.at minimum. Thus, at~a, certain: eccentricity a the relation cos p=const for all. mutual positions: ofthe pinion and driven wheel. bey In equalizing drives with short-link chain transmissions ‘shown in Fig, 13, several. links of driving chain, / ‘engage the. driven sprocket. The sprocket driving conveyor chain 2 and driven trans- mission sprocket / have parallel edges. When the rotation of the transmission driving sprocket is uniform, chain speed is practically constant. In this design the driving shaft rotates irregularly, but because the pulling chain rotates in a manner similar-to: that of the driving chain (as seen in the figure), the speed of the former is constant. . ey Equalizing drives of designs other than the two types described are also used, 7 . { fe CHAPTER It COMPONENT PARTS OF CONVEYING MACHINES A. ENUMERATION OF THE COMPONENT PARTS Though the corresponding principal parts of. various conveying machines with a flexible pulling member are of identical purpose they, may ‘be of variable design, These parts comprise: (1). the. load-carrying member; (2) the pulling member transmitting molive power to .the load-carrying. member; (3) intermediate“ supports (usually pulleys and rollers) supporting the load-carrying. and pulling members; (4) the take-up device giving the pulling member its initial tension; (5) the drive unit setting the pulling member in motion, and (6) the framing, The conveyor type is determined by the type and construction of its component parts, the type and design of the pulling member being of deciding importance, : In-certain conveyor types (for instance, bélt and some alterna: tives of rope and chain conveyors): the load is conveyed directly on the pulling member, the belt, ropes or chains, ie, a single part serves both as pulling and load-carrying member, : The parts of conveying machines without a pulling member will not fit into a general classification as they have no identical. pur- pose. : B. PULLING MEMBER The: reliable and effective operation and long service life of a conveying machine will be ensured if the pulling member wraps freely around drums, sprockets and pulleys of small diameter (for certain types of machines it must be flexible in both planes); com- bines high strength and low weight; is simply manufactured at low cost; permits convenient attachment of the load-carrying and moving parts; provides for effective transmission of the motive power to the pulling member; stretches little under load; is highly resistant to wear and, therefore, of long service life. The last prop- Sec. B, Pulling Memiber NES als erty is of special importance -when the equipment: is intended ‘to serve under severe operating conditions. in the presence of ‘dust. (often of an abrasive nature), moisture, gases, vapours, high or low temperatures, etc, The pulling member is usually a belt or chain, sometimes a’steel rope. 7 The principal advantages of belts are as follows: they simulta: neously transmit pull and carry the load, are of light weight, per- mit high conveying speeds, do not contain quick-wearing joints. Among the disadvantages of belts: are: pull is transmitted by ~ friction and this calls for high initial tension and makes driving difficult when loads-are heavy. Belts have-limited service life under severe ‘service conditions and with large-lumped or abrasive ma- terials. Chains have the following advantages: they easily wrap around sprockets and. pulleys of small diameter, this being especially true. for short-link-chains; provide for convenient and secure’ attachment .. of the load-carrying and ‘moving parts; reliably transmit the pull: by engaging with the sprocket; stretch little under load. The disadvantages of chains are: comparatively high own weight and high initial cost; many links calling for regular maintenance and lubrication and clogging when operating in a medium contain- ing abrasive dust; limited running speed because additional, so- called dynamic loads come into play; intensive wear of the chain at high speeds. ‘| Wire ropes compare favourably with chains because of lower initial cost and weight at equal strength; flexibility in all direc- tions; absence of links. which makes them Jess vulnerable to the harmful influence of dust and dirt; high running speeds, On the other hand, they are not reliable in drives; stretch under load; do not provide for convenient attachment of the load-carrying members and for simple substitution of damaged sections. The type of pulling member selected depends on the conveyot type, its operating conditions and the loads applied, Generally, chains are used for heavy loads and -scvere operating conditions. Wire ropes have as yet found only limited application in conveying machines as reliable rope drives and secure attachments for the load-carrying members have to be designed before full advantage of the merits offered by wire ropes can be taken. 1, Pulling Chains i: Pulling chains used in conveying machines differ widely’ both as regards their construction and method of manufacture. The main parameters of pulling chains are: the pitch (distance from centre to-centre between adjacent chain pins), longitudinal ulti- - , comparatively low in cost because they are easy to manufacture; 42" Ch. 11]. Component Parts of Conveying Machines _mate ‘strength and weight per metre of chain, An important index | for comparing the merits of respective chain designs is the ratio}, of the ultimate strength (breaking load) to the weight per.metre | of the chain, This ratio shows the. ultimate strength in kg (and with it the safe load) per metre of chain length, Let us make a brief survey of the chain types most frequently used in conveying machines. Round-link chains may be divided into three major groups; short-linked (Fig. 14a),-long-linked (Fig. 146) made of steel bar, “and combination chains, made’ of steel bar and strip . steel ~ ‘ (Fig. l4c). The electric or ham: mer welded: chain links are mild steel. According to the precision of manufacture, these chains are classified as calibrated or: uncalibrated. Calibrated chains (a) yd Fig, 14. Welded chain: Fig, 15. Malleable-iron a—of round steel bar, short-linked; b—ditto, hoole-link chain long-itnked; c—combined of round steel bat and steel strip 1 ®. have a more precise pitch ¢. Cam pulleys (sprockets) are used to drive the former, smooth pulleys the latter type. Round-link chains have the following advantages: they are in: certain. conveyors (overhead conveyors, for instance): their flexibility in all directions is a major asset. At the same time they have a number of limitations: the contact area of the links is negligible, and they stretch under load bring. ing about an elongation of the pitch and rapid wear of the chain Round-link chains have been applied in elevators, and practical experience has proved that in dusty and corrosive duty their life span compares favourably with thal of the more complicated link- plate bush. chains. This is explained by ‘the fact that the friction Sec. B, Pulling Member surfaces of the steel-bar chain links can accommodate less abra- sive particles which clog the link and cause intensive wear, Pana chain links are heat treated to increase their service life. These chains are generally applied where the ultimate strength does not exceed 200 to 250 kg/cm’. Round-link chains are seldom used in conveying machines, except in certain lypes of overhead and flight conveyors and also in bucket elevators, where uncali- brated short-linked chains made of 9.5- to 25-mm round steel bar are employed. : Cast malleable-iron chains may have a wide variety of designs. Their advantages are as follows: links with special lugs for the attachment of the load-carrying members and moving. parts are manufactured at comparatively low cost. re On the other hand, these chains have a comparatively large own weight and are unreliable as they may contain cavities. A hook- link chain (Fig. 15). consisting of cast links interconnected by means of hooks cast integral with the link may serve as a typical example of an all-cast chain. The links of the chain are easily detached by unhooking. Chill cast-malleable-iron chains of special profile are used for conveyors with submerged flights (see Chapter V1). Because of the disadvantages mentioned above, cast chains have found only limited application and are used only for low loads and in conveyors with submerged flights where links of a complicated. configuration are required. For all other requirements the more durable combination chains are preferred, 7 Combination chains have malleable-iron, less frequently steel links, cast in one piece with the bushes and_machined steel ‘pins © without rollers Fig... 16a) or with rollers (Fig. 16); sometimes the internal links “are cast, the external stamped from strip. steel (Fig. 16c). Combination chains are extensively applied in many different conveyor types. Link-plate chains (or leaf chains, as they are sometimes named) are divided according to the type of the joint into bushless chains without rollers 7 and ‘with rollers 2 (Fig. 17a) and bush chains without rollers / and with rollers.2 (Fig. 176) and roller chains with unflanged / and flanged 2 rollers (Fig. 17c). The rollers are mounted on the pin or bush to decrease their wear and ‘that of the sprocket tooth. Wear of the sprocket is decreased by con- yerting the sliding friction on the face of the tooth into rolling riction. - Chains may have links with straight (Fig. 17) or bent (known as “offset”) link-plates (Fig. 18). Chains with straight link-plates have paired sections and the number of links is therefore always Ch. 11, Component Parts of Conveying Machines @ 7 WA Vg Ze @) - (3) LB) Wy Sy} We Direction + of fravel t 2 ey iN ES) Direction ey ee oH (o) Fig. 16. Combination chain: Fig, 17, Link-plate chain: a—withont rollers; d—with collers; ¢—with outer link-plates made of steel ushless, without rollers 7 and with rollers 2 ushed, without rollers 7 and wita rollers 24 bushed, with unflanged 7 and flanged 2 rollers even; in offset chains all sections are identical and they may have an_even or odd number of links. Chains without bushes are both simple and cheap but the area of the friction surfaces is small (each link-plate turns freely on the pin) and the resultant high specific pressure leads to rapid wear at high loads and-high speeds. For this reason chains with- Sec,.B, Pulling Member: © out bushes ‘find application only in conveyors designed for low speeds and low working loads. : Bush and especially bush-roller chains are the best link-plate chains and are therefore preferred in conveying machines, In the joint of the bush ‘chain (Fig. 19) the internal link-plates J are press-fitted onthe groove of bush 2, and the external link-plates 3 are fixed on.the groove of pin'4 and retained by a cross bar (see Fig. 17c). When the chain enters the sprocket and articulates under pressure, the friction between pin and bush is distributed pe Direction of travel Ge (ent @)) Fig. 18, Bush-roller chain with bent Fig. 19. Joint assembly of link-plates @ link-plate bush chain over a much larger area than in chains without bushes. This de- creases wear of the joint. The pin may be secured. by riveting its A ends (undetachable connection and inconvenient in service), with split pins (applicable only in -short-linked chains), with nuts (expensive method) or by means of a notched lock strip (see Fig. 17¢), The last method has certain advantages over the others, especially in the case of long-linked chains, If duplex-chains are used to drive the conveyor, pins are elongated at certain intervals and connect the two strands (Fig. 20a). Travelling rollers are mounted on sliding (Fig. 20@) or rolling -bearings (Fig, 206); the latter are sometimes used in heavy-duty conveyors operating at high working loads to reduce the resistance z to chain motion, cts Special self-lubricating valves lubricate the chain links and {i rollers. These.valves are mounted on the conveyor and are actuated { and controlled by the chain or must be periodically packed through grease nipples mounted in the butt faces of the pins (see Fig. 20). Link-plate chains usually have a pitch f of 65, 80, 100, 125, 160, 200, 250, 320, 400, 500, 630, 800, 1000 and 1250 mm and a pin. + \ S i L L (4) Fig, 20, Roller assembly of a link-plate bush chain: @—on silding bearing; 0—on rolling bearing Sec: B. Pulling ‘Member diameter d of 9, 11,13, 16, 20, 24;.30,:36, 44 and 55 mm. Accor ing to their strength, chains. are divided: into ‘four categoties: [for very heavy, I[—for heavy, Ill—for medium, and IV—for ~ low loads. : The ultimate strength of link-plate chains according to their strength categories is given in Table 4. Table 4 Ultimate Tensile Strength of Link-plate Pulling Chains for the Different Strength Categories Pi ° tamotee a,| ~ Ultimate fenslle strength, Larsmeter d,| Ultimate tensile strength, tons ‘mm me Strength category Strength category rio fm] w ef ou [om [ow 9 | 108] .62] 49) 37 | 24 66.2 | 323] 256 | 194 4: u 150| 86| 68| 52] 30 79.0 | 45.4) 36.0 ) 27-4 13. 20.9 | 12.0 9.5.) 7.2 36. 119.0. 68.0 | 540°) 41.0 , 16 27.7 | 15.9] 126 | 9.6 44 168.0 | 100.0} 79.0 eH 20 40.0 | 23.0 | 18.2 } 13.8 55 262,0 | 150.0] 119.0 | — Chains may have links of normal or increased surface hardness, depending on the heat treatment they have been subjected to. The reliable service and life of the chain depends greatly on the correct choice of materials and proper. heat treatment. Calculation of link-plate chains. Link-plate pulling chains have to satisfy two main requirements: strength and. long: service life. A standard chain is-calculated or tested for strength by the total calculated tension it is subjected to, The theoretical force is ihe sum of the static and dyriamic forces,-ie., Sixeor=Sat+Sayn, (see Chapter II, D). : Let us adopt the- following sequence for the calculation: (1) determine the diameter of the pin and the specific pressure in the chain joint; (2) determine the outer diameter of the bush, and 3) determine the cross-section of the link-plates. ‘ Tf'should be borne in mind that the adopted method is a rough oe approximation. When the chain travels along the outline of the conveyor -and t when it runs on the driving sprocket, the pull is transmitted from a : the link engagitig with the tooth of the driving sprocket to the a other ‘links of ‘the chain, This transmission of the driving power ee subjects the chain pins. to bending strain, 5 Ch. II, Component Parts. of Conveying Machities Critical stress is applied to the pin at the moment when thé joint preceding the link with external link-plates engages with the sprocket tooth (Fig. 21), The stress in each external link-plate is theor 3 ~ [see equation (60)]. The distribution of stresses in the pin and other parts of the link has as yet not been fully investigated and experimental study is pending. Yet it may be stated : he Tooth ettort see with certainty that it differs for Sea | ‘i J 1 {] | Hil dp iit -.4 new chain and one -that has “limbered up”. In a new chain the resisting moment of the bush section is usually considerably larger than that of the pin and the fatter is. Steve Stheor 2 | Tooth effort 2 He. tH | Tj --0 ! ¢ EN ! | 4] Le apy Stheor 2 oh eg ————»] Fig. 21. Bending of the joint elements Fig, 22, Load distributi of a new chain link when the outer chain-link runs on the driving sprocket ion on pin in @ worked-in chain link joint when thi outer chain link runs of the driving’ sprocket Subjected to warpage to a greater extent than the bush. Therefore, the ‘pressure between pin. and bush concentrates at the bush ends (see Fig. 21). This: distribution of the load does not remain con- stant. As the. joints. work in, the edges of the pin and bush taking up: the maximum specific pressure are subjected to the most inten. sive wear and load distribution becomes virtually uniform, i.e., s shown diagram- i critical for the pin. This distribution of the load i. . matically in Fig, 29. may thus be assumed that the stresses in the pin begin to increase from the moment the chain is taken into’ ser their peak when the joints are fully worked in, vice and reach Sec! B, Pulling Member. When an impact load is. applied to the joint worked: in ‘bya norma! working load, the berid of the pin increases and -the:load is no longer distributed evenly along its length but. concentrates at its edges, i.e., the distribution becomes more favourable. In view: of the above it may safely be assumed that during impact loads ~ the stresses in the pin increase slower than the load on the chain. The bending strength of the pin is M=WRy (61)° bending moment, kgem; moment of resistance of the pin section, cu.cm; . where “M == Ww R, = permissible bending stress, kg/cm’, : When ‘the load is distributed evenly, equation (61) takes. the form (see Fig. 22): 3 StF) SE Re (62) whence 5 jeor (0 2A) (63) Ro In conformance with available data and the law. of stress incre- ment at impact loads, the permissible bending stress can be taken as high as Ry~ 1600 to 1900 kg/cm? for pins.made from steel with a tensile strength of not less than o,=5700 kg/cm’. The pin diameter should also be checked for shearing ‘strength. If the link-plates are filted on grooves of the pin having a di- _ ameter do where W,=static peripheral (tensile) force, equal to the differ ence of the static tensions in the tight and slack chain strands; Wo = S,—S,.; Saya = dynamic load acting on the chain according to equa- tion (58); Streor = theoretical force in the tight strand. of the chain [see equation (60)]. Stheor ¢ Tooth effort Prhear 4, Prheor Prheor nay} Seo, B, Pulling. Member . If-we assume that the pressure is-transmitted by the tooth to the. ° bush. as a uniformly distributed load, the equation for the bend takes the form =; 7 76+ b, (at — af 2 Puen = (42 — 4) AGED 2p, (8) Designating dy:d\=m (at d)~d) we obtain the stress 6. 121 Pipyor 2 (e-4 0) ~ by eee A Ry. 67) » The-average value of m varies within m~<0.5 to 0.8 and is most frequently about 0.7. ae 2 ae LB n. | (a) Fig, 24, Byes in the chain link-plates a—Inner; ¥—oster (for ungroovéd. pin) The permissible stress on the bush can be taken. as Row =750 kg/em?, : - Link-plates of the: chain, The tensile strength of the inner and outer link-plates should be calculated in their. weakest link, the. eye. The calculation can only. be an approximation,. as little is known ‘about the law governing the distribution of the pressure transmitted by the pin. to the inner face of the eye and, conse- quently, that of stress distribution. If we assume that the pressure exerted by the press-fitted’ bush (or pin) is distributed in the eye as a uniformly distributed inter-: nal pressure p”, the maximum stress in section na (Fig. 24) can be estimated from the well-known formula given in the course deal- ing with the strength of materials: 5 R42 Onae = rape X Pe (68) oo) = "Che III. Component Parts of Conveying Machines The internal specific pressure in the eye can be obtained for. the wrap angle of the eye 2a .(Fig. 24a) and the maximum theoretical total force Sineor (static plus dynamic) from the following equa- ion: ice Stheor P= Torsne | (69) Tf 2u= 180° (Fig. 246), then (70) Substituting in equation (68) omay by the permissible stress Ri, we obtain (71) The allowable stress for link-plates is usually taken as Ri +1000 to 1200 kg/cm? The dimensions of the link-plate in the eye section mm can be calculated for tensile strength with decreased stress according to ‘formula Stneor = 20 (6 —A) Ri, (72) whence, 7 — Stheor b= ane A. (73) Hence, the stress in section mm is Ss om giles < Re. (74) The allowable tensile stress Rz in equations (72) to (74) may range to from 600 to 750 kg/cm?. Since the eyes of the inner link-plates are larger than those of the outer, compressive stress is most: critical for the outer [see ; equation (69)] and tensile stress for the’ inner 'link-plates [see equation (71) or (74)]. In offset-link bush chains the section of the link-plates (see Fig. 18) should be calculated to withstand the sum of the tensile and bending stresses acting upon it. Roughly these may be. esti- mated as Om oy + Oy pepe 4. Sword 3.5 Stor < Maximum tooth thickness by Tip thickness for 9c. (90) leaf bush chains by = 0.830;3 (91) bush-roller chains 0.75043 (92) > bush-roller chains (large roller series) by = 0.720,. (93) dn addition to the designations decoded above, chain pitch, mm; diameter of the bush (for leaf bush chains) or roller (for ~bush-roller chains), mm; = ultimate tensile strength of the chain, kg; number of sprocket teeth; generally assumed as z2=6 to 10; clearance between the inner link-plates, mm. Sec, B. Pulling Member Detachable chains (Fig. 26) are forged steel-chains made of paired sections, each of which consists of two outer links /, pin 2 and the inner link 3.-The outer links have a central stiffener and profiled nests for the pin heads which prevent their turning with the chain link. To assemble or disassemble the chain, the outer links (Fig. 26c) are moved to the narrow part of two adjacent 3 Loe = ru St 125e0) Fig, 26, Detachable chain: acdénection in the ‘line’ of tite jolat axis; 'd—chain section; e—assembly and disassembly inner links, then the outer links are pushed towards each other, the pin. heads are released and the pin is removed ‘(or_ inserted through the longitudinal slots of the outer and inner links, Quicl assembly and disassembly and. the ease with which parts can ‘be. substituied comprise a major advantage of detachable chains, When the links turn, the bushing rubs against the inner link on a-wide area of contact and this decreases the specific pressure and chain’ wear: Since the bearing surfaces of the. joints are one-sided and there are lateral clearances between the inner and outer links, they can be turned sideways through a certain angle @ in the plane of their joint axes (see Fig. 26a); The chain can thus turn in two planes; 56, Ch. TH, Component Parts of Conveying Machines ‘the: horizontal (i.e; perpendicular to the axes of the joints), and the vertical (the plane ‘of the axes of ils joints), A con, ‘veyor employing these chains can, therefore, have a “contour” path, 7 In standard chains, the edge of the inner link head (Fig. 26a and 6) is sheared off straight and angle is 25 to 38°. ii the edges of the inner link heads are chamfered and rounded (as shown by the dotted line in Fig. 26a), the angle by which She chain links can be mutually displaced increases to g=8 to 10°, This-permits the chain to considerably decrease vertical bends of the chain. In both ‘cases there must be a clearance between the chain links A=1 to 1.25 mm, The properties of detachable chains place them among the best chains available.and they are, therefore, widely used in overhead, car (assembly line), load-propelling, flight and other types of con- veyors of similar application, The main:parameters of detachable chains are given in Table 5, Detachable chains, same. as link-plate chains are manufactured in four categories of strength, differing as regards the surface hard. “ness of the joint components Table 5 mee Main Parameters of Detachable Chains Pin Chain dtameter d, |” pitet t, nm mun er metre Ultimate tensile strength for different of length, kg/m strengih categories, tons ee Chatn weight | 13 80 3.2 14.4 10.7 9.1 5.6 16 100 4.9 24.3 18.1 15.4 9.4 20 125 78 35.0 26.1 22.2 13.6 24 160 10.3 44.0 32.8 27.9. 17.1 30 200 16.3 72.8 54.2 46.2 _ 36 250 24.0 106.0 79.0 67.3. —_ The safety factor for detachable chains is usually taken as 10 to 14. ‘The tensile strength of'the links of a detachable chain is caleu- lated according to. the thedtetical tensions Streor in the weakest section of a link in the tight chain strand. Calculation is made according to equation (60). The allowable tensile stress in the weakest section is R,=400 to 500 kg/cm®, The bending stress of the pin is calculated at the moment it meshes with the sprocket loolh (Ry~1200 kg/em*).-The pin and links are also checked for See. B, Pulling Member specific pressure p (p=250 to 270 kg/cm*) by their. area of -con- tact. Check is made according to equation (65): The design parameters. of sprocket teeth for detachable chains (Fig, 27) are determined from the following formulas: Sprocket pitch bap, == Ea (94) Angle subtending the 180 sprocket pitch ae (95) Compressed pitch ty = Mey (96) Half of the angle subtending & sin 2B=Asina, (97) Half of the angle “subtending 41 : y=a—p. (98) Bepr Cos B ana (99) Stretched pitch #,=Dysiny. (100) Fillet radius Toga (101) Base diameter Dy — 0.2 5p (102) Chamfer radius Lapp — (103) Outside diameter D,= Dy+2r. (104) Boltom diameter Dy == Dy cosy — 2r. (105) Maximum hub diameter D,= Dycosy— 1.20. — (106) Groove length (107) Pitch diameter Do= Base and top thickness of tooth In addition to the designations given above (see also Fig. .27) ¢== chain pitch, mm; Tower == Outer radius of the inner chain link radius, mm; ¢= chain width, mm; 6 = thickness of inner chain link head, mm; z== number of sprocket teeth; generally asstmed as z=6 to 20; most often z=6; 10; 13; 16; 20; 4 = factor depending on. the number of sprocket teeth: a= 6 7 8 9 10 u 13 16 20 A= 084 081 0.79 0.78 0.76 0.75 0.73 0.71. 0.70 Fig. 27. Tooth profile of sprocket for detachable chain Special. chains. A number of conveyors employ special chains of different design (for instance, double-jointed, flight, ete.) which will be dealt with in the chapters reviewing the corresponding _ machines. - 2. Steel Wire Ropes The following types of ‘ropes are employed as pulling member in. conveying machines: (a) single, smooth or. with couplings which mesh with a cam-type pulley; (b) -multi-wire ropes: con- sisting of separate parallel ropes ‘clamped together; (c) a rope chain consisting of separate ends. Simplest-and most reliable is a pulling member consisting.of a single rope, as employed in cer- tain light-duty overhead conveyors and certain designs of Aight conveyors. Other types of rope pulling members are difficult for manufacture and operation and, therefore, rarely used in conveyor drives, See, Dy:Tensioning' Devices or Talee-ups * C. INTERMEDIATE SUPPORTS Both the loaded andthe idle strands of a pulling member linked with a load-carrying member stiould be supported along their run, In belt conveyors and certain types of apron. conveyors the belt or other carriers of the conveyor are usually supported by station- ary rollers. Sometimes the belt slides along a’ stationary runway made.of sheet steel or wood, The pulling and load-carrying mem- bers of various chain conveyors have rollers travelling on gtide- ways (rails, rolled profile, ctc.) or, less often, simply slide along a guideway without rollers. In overhead conveyors the pull- ing and load-carrying members are suspended by travelling trol- leys from a-suitable stationary overhead track: made of rolled profile, Intermediate supports of any type or design should have: a min- imal resistance to motion factor; simplicity -of design and low weight, for a large share of ithe total ‘weight of the conveyor is. made up of the weight of its intermediate structures; high strength and resistance to wear; reliable service and long. life under severe operating conditions; reliable protection of bearings against the ingress of dust; simple maintenance and convenient lubrication of the bearings. These requirements call for thoughtful design of the moving and supporting parts of the conveyor. A major: role is assigned to proper maintenance of the machine: regular lubrica- tion; removal of dust and spilled material; preventive maintenance of its assemblies. A detailed study of idler designs is contained in the chapters dealing with different types of conveyors. D. TENSIONING DEVICES OR TAKE-UPS A take-up is an essential part of a conveying machine with a. pulling member, It gives the pulling member. initial tension,: re- moves sag between the intermediate supports, and compensates elongation under load in the course of operation. In order that the driving drum or pulley of a friction driven conveyor may obtain a grip ori the belt sufficient to drive.the con: veyor, a certain-amount of initial tension is applied to the belt by a take-up gear. In conveyors with a positive drive the slack strand of the pulling member must be put under tension to pre- vent the driving sprocket from slipping. According to their design and principle of action there are bas: ically two Types of take-ups: mechanical and counterweighted, In mechanical designs tensioning of the pulling member is. eftect- Ch, III, Component Parts of Conveying Machines ed manually by means of some contrivance such as pulling (Fig. 28a) or pushing (Fig. 286) screws, rack and pinion, ete. The tension’ of the pulling member is not constant but decreases gradually as the pulling member stretches under load, Mechanical io Ey 4 fa ora —~LSXrae | Fig. 28, Take-up gears: @ and b~screw-type; c—counterweighted eartlage-type; d—spring-and-serew-type take-ups exhibit a number of drawbacks, namely: they require con: tinuous supervision and adjustment, the pull exerted during op: eration is variable and there exists the risk that the belt may be pulled much tighter than necessary for driving contact, rigid fastening -and absence of elasticity during shock loads. Small overall dimensions and compactness may be considered: as the main assets of mechanical take-ups. Counterweighted or gravity take-ups (Fig. 28¢) ‘use a suspend- ed counterweight and automatically maintain the constant belt tension. They are self-adjusting for changes in temperature affect- ing the length of the pulling member, take up slack due to stretch and wear, take up the impact of sudden shock loads. All'the above 4 { 4 4 { Ae « Ce a é Sec, D, Tensioning Devices or Take-ups 61 speaks strongly in favour of this design. The only. disadvantage. worth mentioning is that they are not compact and the counter- — weight that must bé applied in heavy-duty conveyors is heavy. This makes it necessary to install a pulley block between the car- * © tiage and counterweight. Counterweighted take-ups are usually installed in long belt, rope and irregular contour overhead and carrier-chain conveyors; other chain conveyors and comparatively short belt conveyors (up to 30-60 m) of simple configuration are furnished with mechanical (screw-type) take-up: gear, In heavy and long chain. conveyors (except those mentioned above) it. is expedient to employ spring-and-screw take-ups, (Fig. 28d). The resilience of the springs makes this design far more suitable to, take up overloads than the rigid screw arrangements. Because of their compactness screw take-ups are used in portable conveyors, transfer machines and feeders. A tape-up gear of one of the types described is usually mounted where tension is lowest, i.c., on one of the pulleys (drum, or sprocket) over which the pulling member wraps with a 180° arc of contact. The take-up travel depends on. the length and configuration of the conveyor and the type of pulling member. In horizontal belt and rope conveyors it usually constitutes about | per cent of the total conveyor length, in inclined conveyors about 1.5 per cent. In chain conveyors, where the pulling member does not stretch considerably, take-up travel is usually equal to the length of half a chain section * plus 50 to 100 mm so as to permit the removal of one section in case of wear, The weight of the take-up gear for machines with a. pulling member consisting of two parallel strands is determined from equation Op. vy. K(Sp+- Sa Wr) Xs (109) where S, and S,, == respective tight and slack side tensions of the - pulling member (see Fig. 28), kg; - Wr=loss on travel of tHe take-up trolley or slides, kg; K==factor that.results from losses on the deflect- ing pulleys, if any are employed; i= multiplicity of the pulley block, ployed. i * Two paired links with straight link-plates or one offset link are consid~ ered a chain section, Ch. IM Component Parts of Conveying’ Machines E. DRIVE UNITS Drives (short for drive units) serve to set the pulling and load- carrying members of the conveyor in motion. Ini machines without 2 pulling member motion is transmilted directly.to the load-carry- ing member, According to the manner by which the driving force is trans- mitted, drives fall into two major groups: (1) those transmitting ~ pull by mesh, and (2) friction drives transmitting pull by friction The:latter employ belts, ropes and uncalibrated round-link chairs, Bs Drives transmitting. the pull by mesh have.a sprocket or cam drum mounted where the path of motion of the conveyor curves (0) a @) ¥ Fig, 29. Chain drives: @—angular drive with sprocket on 90° bend; Y—dltto on 180° bend; c—with sprocket on rectilinear section; d—erawler drive through 90° (Fig. 29a), 180° (Fig. 296) or sometimes on a recti- linear section (ig. 29c). Certain-drives, so-called crawler drives, employ a special driving cam chain (Fig. 29d) mounted. on a rec- tilinear conveyor section, “By -the design of their components drives are classified as open- belt. (obsolete construction), enclosed reduction gear (up-to-date construction) andcombination drives, employing a reducer and an additional V-belt, gear or chain transmission, and special built-in drives (for instance, drum-motors, see Chapter IV). Drives may have constant or variable speed. Variable speed changes are achieved by means of a variator installed in the drive unit, staged speed changes by means of change gears or a mulli. speed motor. A single or several motors may be employed. In conveyors em- ploying. several motors individual drives with independent but synchronously working electric motors are. installed along the See, E,-Drive Units © path of motion of the pulling member. This arrangement con: siderably decreases the total-tension‘of the pulling member. Multi-motor drives are now extensively employed in conveyors designed to move heavy loads over long distances. Drive designs are described in the chapters dealing with various types of conveying machines. So-called “equalizing” drives are used to decrease, the dynamic’ load on the chain’ (see Chapter II, D) in conveyors employing long-pitch chains and operating at- high speeds (generally over 0.75 to 1 m/sec).:The operating principle of these drives has been described in Chapter I, D. The location of the drive is a major design problem, since it influences the tension of the pulling member and required motor : power. The drive should be located so as to decrease the maximum ten< sion of the pulling member. To meet this demand, the drive should be installed at the end of heavily loaded sections (i:e., after sec~ tions ‘with ‘a high resistance) and so that the pulling. member passes sections: having a great number of bends: and turns with the lowest possible. tension.. Such an’ arrangement will ensure minimum absolute values’ of the losses expressed in per cent.of the effective tension, In conveyors having a path of simple config- uration (for instance, horizontal ‘or horizontal-inclined belt, apron. flight conveyors, etc.) the drive is most favourably arranged on the drum or sprocket at the end of the loaded strand. For con- ~ veyors having a complicated path of motion (overhead, bucket, tray conveyors, etc.) the location of the drive is determined by > an analysis of the advantages and drawbacks of several variants. : of tension distribution or by drawing:a special diagram of ten- sions. i - CHAPTER IV BELT CONVEYORS A. GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND PURPOSE The essentials ofa belt conveyor (Fig. 30) are: frame /, both ends of which accommodate -pulleys: driving pulley 2 at the head “end, and take-up pulley 3 at the tail. end; the .endless belt 4, wrapped around these pulleys and supported on both runs, going and.coming, by idler rullers or pulleys, the upper 5 and the low- er.6, secured on frame /. Sometimes thé belt is supported not by idlers but by a stationary runway. The load is generally conveyed on the upper (loaded) strand, the lower serving as idle return strand. In exceptional designs the lower strand is used to convey the load. In certain cases both the upper and lower strands trans- port loads (usually piece-goods) simultaneously in opposite di- rections. The driving, pulley receives its rotation from drive unit 7. The material to be conveyed is loaded onto the belt by one or-more feed hoppers 8 mounted. on the conveyor. The load con- veyed by.the belt is discharged over the tail end pulley 2 into dis- charge spout 9 or at any point along the conveying run by means. of special discharge devices. f Belt cleaner 10 removes material adhering to the outer belt face. It is usually installed near the conveyor head pulley 2. Belt conveyors are employed to convey a great variety of unit loads and buik materials along horizontal or gently inclined paths and also to carry articles of light weight in line production ‘from one operation to another. Belt conveyors are extensively used in all branchés of industry and are the principal conveying devices used to mechanize handling operations in foundries (delivery and distribution of moulding sand), deliver fuel in power plants, for ground-level and underground haulage of coal and ores in coal mining, delivery of coke and fluxes in metallurgy, transportation of grain and all sorts of unit loads in stores and grain elevators, for mechanization of handling operations in earth constructions Le ¥I fe = es £ vi Ch: IV. Belt Convéyors and building work, between processing steps in-the light and -¢ food industries, etc. Belt conveyors are often included in compli ‘cated installations such as transfer lines, handling bridges, grader elevators, etc. High capacity (500 to 5000 m®/hr and more), abil- ity.to transport loads for long distances (500 to 1000 m and up), simplicily of design and comparatively low own weight, reliable service and convenient operation have made the belt conveyor the most universally. applied conveying machine. According to design, belt conveyors are classified as stationary dealt with in this chapter), portable and mobile conveyors (see Chapter XVIII). According to their purpose, we distinguish gener- al purpose and special purpose conveyors. The latter include underground conveyors, those for the food. and corn. milling in- “dustries and for line production. Conveyor belts may be made of textile, strip steel or woven- mesh steel wire. Conveyors with rubberized textile belts have found the most extensive application. a B. CONVEYORS WITH TEXTILE BELT 1, Geometry of Beit Conveyors According to their path of motion, belt conveyors (Fig. 31) are classified as horizontal, a, inclined, b, and combined: inclined- e Table 6 : Maximum Recommended Angle of Incline of Flat Belt Conveyors Be. to Horizontal for: Various Materials 4 js ee Se ce eee eee ea eee eee eee eee EE f Maximum 7 Maxtnnsm Material of tnefine 6, Material ot incline 8, dog deg | Coal. briquetted 12 Sawdust, fresh a7 Gravel, washed and Lime, powdered 23 sized + 12 Sand, dry 18 Grain 18 Sand, clamp. 2% Foundry sand, shaken- Ore, large-luniped 18 out (burt) 24 Ore, criished 25 Foandry sand, damp : Anthracite, pebbles 7 \ (ready) 26 | Coal, run-of-mine 18 Crushed stone, unsized 18 | Coal, sized, small 22 Coke, sized 7 Cement 20 a Coke, unsized | 18 | Slag. anthracite, damp 2 B B Sec. B, Conveyors with Textile. Belt horizontal, c, horizontal-inclined; ‘d and g, and such with two, or: more bends, ¢ and f. The inclination to horizontal: (angle B). dex pends mainly on the friction factor between the material conveyed and the moving belt, the static angle of repose of the material © Drive Fig, 31, Geometry of belt conveyors (for bulk loads) and on the method by which the material is load- " ed- onto: the belt. Practical experience has shown that operation “will be efficient and reliable and there will be no spillage of the ie material over the belt edges when the angle of inclination is 7 to 4) 1 10°smaller than the friction angle of the material against the : 1 belt. This is explained by the fact that the belt’sag on the idlers j " makes the actual angle of inclination of the belt near the idlers..° >) larger than the general geometrical incline of the conveyor. Per: missible inclines for belt conveyors are given in Table 6. “<2. Parts of Belt Conveyors (a): Belts. The following types of textile belts are employed in belt’ conveyors: camel hair, cotton (woven. or sewed),. duck cotton and also rubberized textile belts of various type. Conveyor belts should meet the following requirements: low hygroscopicity; 2 , Loatted ‘side: ~ a » : st iS Tit 3 eee 5 2 ! 3 Return side fH (b) MN : ss ——————— B 1 Zz SSO Timp TAY, 1 3 Fig. 32. Cross-sections of rubberized textile belts of different types: d—cut-ply; b—folded-ply; c~spleally folded-ply; d—stepped-ply; e—tteat resistant belt; 1—tex’ Pie pitesy 2 upper covery Slower waver; de abestos layer Ge-bieaken shad high strength, low own: weight, small specific elongation, hi: ‘flexibility, high resistivity to ply separation (resulting from va able stresses due to frequent bending and friction against the con- veyed load and belt supporting structures), long service life: Rub- berized belts. meet these requirements better than other types and are, therefore, generally preferred. Rubberized textile belts (Fig. 32) are made from several day< ers /, known as plies, of'a rough woven cotton fabric, known’ as belting. The plies are connected by vulcanization with natural ‘or synthetic rubber. Sometimes the plies are made of extra strong: synthetic fabrics: capron,, perlon, nylon, etc. The belt is. provided \ Seo. B, Conveyors: with Textile Bell (69 », witha rubber cover 2.and 8, protecting it from: entrance of mois= ture, mechanical damages and abrasive abrasion and’ cutting of the material conveyed. : ; : : The plies in the'belt form the*carcass, absorbing longitudinal tensile stresses and the impact of the load falling on the belt; the rtibber cover and “skim coats” serving to cement the plies pro- tect them against moisture and mechanical damages. Conveyor belts are cut-ply (Fig. 32a), folded-ply (ig. 32b), spirally folded-ply (Fig. 32¢) and -stepped-ply (Fig:\32d) designs. Cut- ply pee are’superior to the others and, therefore, most frequeritly. used. - The strength of a belt depends on the strength of ils carcass. Plies are ‘made from belting. grade 5-820, -high ‘strength -belt- ing OTB-5 and OTIB-12, cotton-duck fabric-and also: extra-strong synthetic fabrics. Rubberized belts with.a solid-woven textilé car- ‘cass are also produced. They -have not become popular because ‘of high stiffness and.prohibitive cost, Belis are classified as gerieral purpose and special. purpose, Ordinarily, . general purpose ‘belts, are employed, ‘Special purpose belts-are uséd' to convey hot loads.” or for operation at ambient temperatures over (60° Cand: under: 25°C and also for the transport of materials chemically injus. . tious to the fabric or rubber cover of the belt. Special purpose belts include heat-resistant, frost-resistant, uninflammable, and other. types. Heat-resistant belts’ (Fig. 32e) are provided with a heat-resistant rubber cover 2 and an asbestos layer 4, which is placed.between the upper ply and the:cover. and:; reinforced on top and; at the sides. witha thin so-called.breaker . strip 5, These belts can withstand ‘operating temperatures of .up to 100°C. Frost-resistant-belts are produced -by including ,special antifreezes into the rubber compound. These belts will -operate : efficiently at temperatures of up to —45°C. . The main parameters of rubberized. general purpose and spe-:. “cial purpose belts are given in Table 7, Table 7.~ Recommended Belt Plies Belt width, mm 1g00 | 2000 Minimum and maximum number of plies 7 Recommended Cover Thickness for Rubberized Textile Belts for Bulk and Unit Loads Table 8 Cover thickness, mi (see Pig. 32) Load characteristics Materia seater Loaded side 8 A. Bulk loads Granular and powdered, | Grain, coal dust nonabrasive LS 10 Fine-grained and smail- | Sand, foundry sand, ce- lumped, abrasive, me- | ment, crushed _ stone; dium and heavy weight | coke (a <60 mm; y< <2 tons per cum) : 15 to 30} 10 Medium“lumped, slightly | Coal, peat briquettes 160mm; y> 22 tons per cu m) 6.0 15 : B. Unit toads Light loads in paper and | Parcels, packages, books | 1.0 10 cloth packing " Loads in soft containers | Bags, bales, packs 15 to 3.0 | 10 “Loads in hard containers : weighing up to 15 kg 15 to 30 | 10 i Boxes, barrels, baskets Ditto’ weighing over 15 kg 15 to 45 | 10 to £5 Untaréd toads Machine parts, ceramic articles, building ele~ ments 15 to 60 | 1.0 to 15 ee ren, Sec. °B. Conveyors twith Textile Belt : a The relation of belt width to.the number of plies.in the table: gives due consideration to the fact that in addition to flexibility, required for wrapping around the pulleys, the belt should also possess a certain transverse stiffness, Such’ stiffness will permit the belt to trough on three-roller idlers, will prevent it from straightening out and preclude “riding’’ of the belt edges on sec- tions between the idlers. Therefore, a troughed belt designed for the conveyance of heavy and large-lumped materials should con- tain. more plies than one intended for light loads. The choice of the rubber cover’ (Table 8) depends. upon the size and physical characteristics of the materials handled (see Chapter I, B). The weight of one running metre of a rubberized textile belt go of a width of B metres with i -plics of 6-mm_ thickness and covers, of 6- and “6:-mm thickness can be roughly determined from -the following formitla: Qo NAB (+8, +) kg/m. (110) The thickness of one ply’é-not including the rubber ‘skim coat equals 1.25 mm’ for ordinary cotton belting, 1.9 mm ‘for high strength belting, 2.0 mm for cotton-duck fabric and 0.9 to 1.4 mm for synthetic fabrics. The number of plies required is determined fromi equation kSmax i> fae, (uty where Spay == maximum theoretical belt tension, kg: K,==ultimate tensile strength per cm of width per ply, kg/em; &= safety factor (see Table 9); B==belt width, cm. According to the U.S.S.R. State Standard, the ultimate ten- sile strength for belts of: belting grade B-820 is 55 kg/cm; belting grade OFIB-5 and OFIB-12 is 115 kg/cm; cotton duck is 119 kg/cm; synthetic fabric. (anide or capron) is 300 kg/em Table 9 Values of Safety Factor Depending on Number of Belt Plies Number of belt plies 2toa atos. | 6to8 | Stour | tol Safety factor & DB Ch. TV.“ Belt Conveyors” ‘plies and that the belt is subjected not only to tensile stresses “rubber glue, fitted together and: pressed between the metal plates ‘As seen in the table, the safety factor grows-with an -increase in the number of plies. This is explained by the fact that the stresses in the belt are not distributed uniformly. among all thé but also t6 bending stresses, when bending over the pulleys and idler rollers (these stresses are ot takeiy into account by this method .of calculation);’ weakening of the belt as a result of fatigue Trém-bends i8° responsible for wear and. consequent Weakening of the joints, Fig. 33. Cross-section of rubberized textile belt with-steel wire-rope armouting Besides belts with plies of belting; duck or synthetic fabric, high strength belts, reinforced with steel wire ropes are produced. These belts (Fig. 33) have steel wire ropes 2 (diameter 1,2° to 4.5 mm)- vulcanized longitudinally between the belting plies 7. These belts have an ultimate ‘terisile strength of 3000 to 4000 kg/cm of belt width anda safety factor of 6 to 8. The cotveyor slope can be increased by -iising special belts with a ‘corrugated working. surface or. with special: inclined lugs (Fig. 34a) or transverse rubber ribs (Fig. 34b) vulcanized to the belt surface. ©: % . It- should, however, be borne in mind that an-incréase in th slope of the conveyor over -35 to 40° will considerably. decreasé the capacity of the conveyor. : : Bells with skirled edges are also used lo ‘inerease ‘capacity, Beli fasteners. The belt! is. joined directly on the conveyor. by rawhide splicing, cold cementing with special glues, hot cement ing (vulcanizing), rigid or-hinged metal-bell fasteners. of different design, and type. Vulcanization is the most reliable method. To vulcanize the. belt, the two. ends of the belt are cut back a ply at a time (Fig. 25), cleaned, washed ;with gasoline, covered with ofa‘ vuleanizing press. The plates are. healed by electric current (sometimes. steam.is used) to .a temperature of 140. to 150°C. The bell is-kept in the press under proper pressure and tempera. lure for. about 25 to 60 minutes, depending on the. number of Plies‘and thickness-oF the covers; Fig, 34., Rubberized textile belt for steep inclines: a—with Inclined lugs; 6—with transverse cubber ribs AY Second bolt ent Direction of belt travel View along arrow A (6) Fig. 35. Rubberized textile belt prepared. for vulcanization; q—eut’ back end; d—jolned ends 4 ° Ch-IV, Belt Conveyors: “<(b) Idlers, Generally the belt is supported by idler rollers, in rare cases by a solid wood or sheet steel runway or a combina~! lion support comprising sections of a. runway alternating with idler rollers. Idlers are used mainly in conveyors handling bulk loads, less frequently unit loads, while runways and combined supports are. predominantly used for piece-goods. Fig. 36, Idlers for rubberized textile belt: a—troughed. three-roller Idler; 6—fat upper single-oller Idler; cma return strand téter| According to their location on the conveyor, idlers are classi. fied as upper (supporting the loaded strand of the belt) and lower (supporting the idle return: strand of the belt). The upper idlers may be of the three-roller (Fig. 36a) or single-roller type». (Fig. 365).Two-roller idlers are exceptionally used for narrow belts (B=300 to 400: mm) of conveyors instalied in transfer ma- chines, Troughed five-roller idlers are sometimes used for rather wide belts. (B > 1400 mm). The lower idlers (Fig. 39¢) never con- tain more than a single roller, The belt runs flat on single-roller or flat idlers but assumes a troughed shape on multi-roller idlers, repeating the outline of the idlers. Conveyors designed to handle \ bulk loads are generally furnished with troughed idlers in which. Sec. B. Conveyors with Texille’ Belt the side rollers aré set at an angle of 20 to 35°. Conveyors; with flat--idlers: are chiefly used to convey: piece-goods- Flat ‘upper’... idlers are used only in belt conveyors with discharge ploughs and of comparatively low capacity. (up to 25 mS/hr) and’ also. when large lumped materials calling for increased belt width: are transported. : : “ (0) ; Fig, 87. Types of idler rollers: a—vitiy labyrinth-felt seal; b—with machined tabyrinti; ¢—with rubber waster Idlers of the types pictured in Figs 36 and 37 consist of brack- ets J, shell 2, shaft 3, bearings 4, seals 5 .and the supporting pase 6 (only in troughed idlers). Sections of channel bar or angle. iron, placed angle up, usually serve to support the bracket; some- times bars ot tees are used. The holes for the. bolts securing the base to the conveyor frame are elongated to permit adjustment of the idler position and. belt run (see Fig. 36, view along arrow A), The brackets for flat single-roller idlers are made from rolled angle-iron strip, those for troughed idlers are cast, welded or stamped. The roller shell is usually made of steel tube, cast iron (permanent mould) rarely of pressed plastic. The roller shaft is fixed and inserted with its milled crowned ends into the slots of the brackets (Fig. 37¢). To keep the resistance to turning os low.as- possible, the rollers -are usually .run in rolling bearings ‘(bali‘or roller: bearings *). Cermet ‘oF plastic. self-lubricaling” bushings are sometimes itsed as sliding bearings. = The outside of the bearings is. provided with. seals protecting them against the ingress of dust. These seals may be felt (hemp) tings; a labyrinth of stamped rings; a combined packing. compris- ing a labyrinth and felt rings (Fig. 37a); a labyrinth. packing ~-Made of machined parts (Fig. 376); flexible packings made of special oil-resistant rubber ‘or. resilient plastic (Fig. 37c), and packing rings with leather or felt cups. Experience has shown ~that-an ordinary felt ring packing affords little protection in even -Medium dusty duty and is completely unfit for severe duty. The Loading ida fae S49 Training fiers v Drive 20-2610 — >, |Troining toners ae oe Training 08 Ini ters lyst —» 45m ~20-25m Fig. 38: Arrangement of idlers on. the conveyor most reliable and, therefore, best seal is a labyrinth: packing with machined parts, as the snug fit of its parts provides, for minimum clearances in’ the labyrinth stages. Though the manufacture of machined labyrinths is a labour-consuming process, increased life and reliable service jitstify the extra expense, The inner face of the roller is protected by washers, grease ways 7 (Fig. 37a) or an inner tubular spindle.8 (Fig. 37a and 6) «which fully isolates the bearing from the inner recess of the roller ‘shell -and :sérves -as grease reservoir, Rollersswith: an internal ! spindle are considered to be the most reliable, The roller bearing’ is lubricated by-means of grease cup 9 . (Fig..37a)- throughothe greaseway jn. the-shaft. or is. packed with . grease during: périodic disassemblies of the rollers. . "The thain-dimensions of idlers are:_roller diameter (see Fig. 36) D=108 mm for a belt width of B=400 to 800 mm;.D= 159mm: “forB=800 to 1600: mim, and D=194.mm for B=1600 to, 2000 mm. The''total-léngth of. ‘a straight-roller Lor the total length of the separate‘ tollers-of troughed ‘idlers is 100 to 200 mm longer than 2 the. belt, vidth’ B. The arrangement of the idlers on the conveyor g is: shown. diagrammatically in Fig. 38. The spacings of idlers on Lob the loaded run of the bulk’ cofiveyor are given in Table 10, A *-Rollér bearings are used exceptionally for extra-heavy duty. Sec. B. Conveyors with Textile Bet Table 10. Maximum Idler Spactng’on the Loaded Run of a Belt - - Conveyor (see Fig. 83) for Bulk Loads na iPS oo sheaieg Ef belt win B, > olde, |~ tons ver | 400 | 500 | 650 |» 300 | 1000 | 1200 | 1400 1600 to 2000 y2 1300 |. 1300 | 1200 | 1200 } “1100 | 1100 | 1000 | - -1c09 The spacing of idlers in the loading zone of the belt li~0.5/;) onthe return-run /g~20 or an average of 3.0 to 2.5 m. In con+ veyors handling heavy lumps special shock-absorbing idlers: are installed in the loading: zone. These idlers are lagged: with. a resilient rubber coat protecting the bell agaitist the impact of the lumps falling on it, In ‘conveyors: designed to ‘handle piece-goods of a weight of up to-25 kg each, the idlers on the loaded run are installed at a pitch of 1.4 to 1.0m. Forcheavy loads (25 to 80 kg) they are spaced so that the load is supported by two or. more idlers (usuaily.at an interval of 0.4 to 0.5 m),‘a solid:run- way of wood or sheet steel is sometimes used.As runways offer high resistance to the belt they are used~in low-capacity con- veyors intended. to carry.goods for short distances. If processing steps are carried out directly om the belt (for instance, in as- sembly conveyors), the. belt is supported by a runway formed ‘by: the centre. of a table, both sides of which: are levelled’ with. the belt and serve as. work stations for the. intended . operation (Fig. 396, ¢ and d). . i (c) Centering devices. A number ‘of reasons, such as eccentric. loading, soiling; sticking. of the material.to the’ pulleys and roll- ers, etc, may cause the belt to run crooked. To prevent the -belt: from running off the rollers, special “belt training idlers” - of. various designs are used.‘ These idlers automatically maintain *<. belt alignment. . ‘The belt training idler (or self-aligning, .as it is-also called) (Fig. 40) consists of an ordinaty troughed three-roller_ idler 7, mounted on a swivel frame 2, which is Iree to swivel within con- trolled limits about a vertical pivot 8, supplied with two” ball beatings (see sections CC-DD-EE), Beating housing 4 of the vertical pivot 3 is fixed in supporting channel bar 5 which is held by stirrups bolted to the conveyor frame. Levers 6 are se- cured to both sides of swivel frame 2. Rollers & able to swivel N94 20 20 oIP—p pur 2 fsy19q omy sof KaUNE KrBNOHIEIS—g ‘sI91pI IeT—D ssiofeauoo prot un sor suoddns yeq “ge “Bly (9) ig warjoas paaad{ 1189 40 UblIaT | gg-vy voyoas 3 Ch. IV. Belt Conveyors (b) + oo =210"~ 230" @yra,2 490° Fig. 41, Typical diive arrangements for belt conveyors: @ aad 6—single-pulley; ¢ and d—twin-pulley; e—with snub’ pulley; ' f—with’ pressure belt von the ball bearings are secured’on the ends of the | aS shafts 7 which are perpendicular to the bell edges. -|« When the belt shifts off the centre, the ing roller 8 with a slight pressure, an levers on edge contacts an actuat-" |< | d this makes the swivel ° with Textile Belt. Sec. B: Conveyors position, :Le,, in a direction ‘opposite to. that’ of its deflection, When the belt has returned to its central-position, it automatically’ re- turns the idler*to its initial position..Flat-training idlers for ‘the loaded. and return strands~aré constructed as described above,~ except for. the fact. that the idler mounted on the Swivel frame is « not troughed but flat. Excessive miobility‘of the-vertical pivot is.a shortcoming of the-described. design. Other designs of belt train-.: ing’ idlers..are:based. on the ..same* operating -principle. ‘Hinge: connected banks comprising two. or, three training ‘idler's ate... sometimes used in very long conveyors. They are usually spaced 05 to lm apart. This arrangement is often effectively used to make the belt run straight Belt training idlers.are generally eflective in conveyors longer than 40 to 50 m, The layout of belt training idlers in conveyors is shown in Fig. 38. To align-the belt travel, ‘several troughing idlers are sometimes. tilted 2 fo 3° in the direction of belt travel. This method of belt training, however, is objectionable as. the tilted rollers - are fe- Sponsible for rapid belt:wear. To ‘prevent the belt from climbing; vertical.rollers with rigid shafts are sometimés mounted along the: belt edges.. This. practice, ° is strictly objectionable as vertical rollers rapidly wear the belt: at its most vulnerable-place, the edge. (d) Drive units. Ir belt conveyors thotive-power is transmitted. * to the'belt by friction as it’wraps around the driving pulley ro- tated by an electric. motor. The drive comprises the following parts: the. pulley (sometimes two pulleys), motor and the trans: mission gear between the motor and pulley, Drivés of inclined conveyors include-a braking device whiclt prevents slipping back of the loaded belt ‘under the weight of the material conveyed if the current supplying the motor is interrupted. Types: of ‘drives and essential theory. Typical: diagrams show= ing how the-belt wraps around the driving pulley-are shown in Fig. 41. Diagrams a and 06 illustrate single-pulley drives with wrap angles &%=180° and.@~<210 to 230°. The increase in the angle of wrap -in-diagram 6 is ‘obtained by means of a snub pul- ley. Diagrams ¢ and d show two-pulléy drives (or tandem drives) with a wrap angle of 350 and.480°..Diagrams e and f illustrate \ special drives with snub pulleys and pressure belts used in heavy and long conveyors, It is known from friction drive theory (Euler’s law) that there will be no belt slip on the pulley when S, hi mm, 7 (119) where & = factor of-proportionality. Hees Usually 4=125 10.150 (&=125 for i=2 to 6, and &=150 for 8 to 12) and, if space is.at.a premium (for instance, in under- ground conditions and for conveyors of transfer..machines), & is equal to 80. The pulley diameter computed from equation. (119) is rounded off to the larger diameter nearest to 250, 320, 400, 500, 630, 800, 1000, 1250: or 1600 mm. To improve friction between the belt and pulley (see Table 11), the pulley has a lagging of rubber or belting, « : A magnetic drum serving: to separate tramp iron from the ma- terial sometimes serves as tail end driver. 5 Transmission. gear: In. modern -drive designs enclosed+reducer - drives are preferred. for technical and economical . reasons. An enclosed reducer drive is compact atid reliable and compares; “favourably with other desiene as. regards. service life. A.further -advantage is its totally enclosed design and high efficiency. Char- acteristic diagrams: of single-pulley drives are shown in Fig. 42. The. electric motor shaft is coupled with the reducer shaft by means of a flexible coupling, the -reducer and, pulley shafts—through “an expansion or clutch coupling. To start ‘the conveyor smoothly and ‘decrease starting torque, drives of heavily loaded and. long belt conveyors are sometimes provided with a fluid coupling, Aa ideal drive for conveyors in transfer machines is the so-called drum-motor. In movers of: this type the electric motor and all the transmission gear, or, most of it, are housed within the drum. Drum-motors are also produced with double-geared transmission, closed planetary gear and eccentric planetary gear transmissions (Fig. 43). Sec: B,' Conveyors with Textile Belt The advaritages offeréd’ by druin-imotors are. their compactness and light weight. Complicated design, required precision of manu- facture and insufficient cooling of the motor. and its’ consequent overheating at continuous. duty may be. considered’ as disadvan: , ages. d Fig. 42, Typical transmisston gear: d—with spur gear reducer; b—with spur-bevel or worm gear; e—with reducer and chain . transmission; d—drum-motor (e) Take-ups. A belt conveyor may have a mechanical (screw- type) or counterweighted. (gravity-lype) take-up. The latter may in turn be divided into carriage-type. (sometimes called horizon- tal) and vertical. : . In the screw take-up. (Fig. 44) the: tensioning pulley. simul: taneously serves as deflecting tail erid: pulley and rotates ona fixed” shaft (best design) or in terminal bearings “(worst design). Longitudinally if is able to slide on a Stationary guideway. The tension required is created by two screws which are tightened and periodically adjusted with a spanner. It will be found expedient to use screws with a trapezoidal thread to decrease the effort required to tighten’ the belt. In gravity take-ups (Fig. 45) the tensioning pulley (serving simultaneously as tail end pulley) is placed on a movable car-, wolsstuisues) Are}ouRd otua022 YPM so}OM-WNIG “gp ‘Sig ¥ dn-aye} odh-masog "by “BEE vv wo1jaes : 7 wavy pssacgnn Edetic| ce T sojow ayaay emai, fiating SSS = i Gn-o4e) aBeyss09 pergsieasoiumon “ep “By ro aa aS Ee= 1 I { 1 1 f wo Whos FY Seo, Be-Convejors with Textile Bell — 89) riage which. is: pulled’ backwards’ by means ‘of-.a. steel rope and” defecting. pulleys. The carriage travels ‘on guideways: mounted ‘parallel to the longitudinal axis of the conveyor, i.e., horizontally tn horizontal conveyors and. at an-ineline in inclined: conveyors. Section AA Fig, 46. Vertical -counterweighted take-up BF ‘The vertical counterweighted take-up (Fig. 46) consists of three. pulleys, {wo deflecting and ‘one fensioning, and is installed on the return strand of the conveyor, The’ tensioning pulley travels, together with the moving frame, along vertical guides and takes up belt slack by its own weight and that of the counterweights suspended to the moving frame. The carriage-type take-up. is superior to the vertical {ype because il is of much simpler design and of considerably jess height. It does not, however, ensure Ch. IV. Belt Conveyors uniform tension in the slack side of the belt, Losses on the idlers cause certain variations in the belt tension, A vertical take-up does not possess these drawbacks when installed near the driving pulley. The latter type is also better. adapted for long take-up travel required to eliminate slack occasioned by belt stretch under wear and sag between the idlers. The three pulleys required and bends of the belt in different directions are drawbacks of the ver- tical arrangement. Screw take-ups are employed primarily in. short horizontal and vcinclined conveyors where the ambient temperature and humidity are: comparatively stable. Carriage-type arrangements are used preferably in conveyors of medium length (50 to 100 m) having a complicated path of motion; vertical arrangements in long con- “veyors (100 m and over), and where lack of space precludes the installation of a cafriage at the conveyor tail end. In long heavy- duly conveyors carriage-type take-ups will’ automatic (or semi- automatic) belt tensioning. devices are entployed. These devices utifize a mechanical winch driven by-a reversible electric motor; The tension of the slack side belt is set to maximum when the jbelt is started and reaches a minimum when the conveyor runs “steadily. This arrangement makes the bell tension a function of the working load: :_(f) Bending.the belt. The belt is bent by means of terminal or intermediate turning pulleys (Fig. 47a and 6), roller banks (Fig, 47c) or may form a freely sagging curve (nalural sag) arrangement. 7 7 Transition of the belt from inclined to horizontal (or less in- clined) with the aid of @ turning pulley (Fig. 476) is practical only in conveyors with flat idlers; in those with troughed idlers \ this transition’ is effected with the aid of a troughed roller bank (Fig. 47c) to keep the’ belt from running flat belween the idlers : and spilling the material conveyed. The spacing of the idlers on! the bend is p= (0.4 to 0.5); the total radius of the bend on the roller bank should not ‘be less than R > 12B (where B is the bell width); the number of rollers should ‘be three or more. The diameter of the turning pulleys (intermediate, terminal, including that of the tensioning pulley) is. determined from equation (119), taking k= 100 lo 125, exceptionally #==50, When the belt curves upwards from horizontal to an inclined section, the freely sagging bel! (Fig. 47d) forms a curve that composes part of a catenary, the are radius of which is propor: Uonal to the belt (ension and inversely proportional to the load per metre of bell length on the curved section, i.e., Ronin > Ge hs My (120) . Sec, B: Conveyors with Textile Belt where S= belt tension al the end of thé bend, kg; pete weight of the load per metre of belt: length, kg/m; =:numerical factor. At an’ angle of inclination Bp <7°, hy==1y at B= 8 to’ 15°, b= 1.05; at P= 16-to 207 hyd. Ordinarily this curved transitional section is designed as an” are of a circle with a raditis Rmin=50 to 60.m for”B=400. to | : ON SA fi <4. ) aM, 4, Fig. 47, Belt turning gear 600.mm; Rmin=75 to 90 m for B=650 to 800 mm, and Rinin= 100: to 150:m for B> 800 mm, On the curved section the idlers: are... mounted on liners the height of which-is adjusted to give the belt the required radius of curvature. (g) Loading and discharging devices, The design of the loa ing devices depends on the nature and characteristics of the loa: conveyed and the method of loading. Piece-goods are delivered to the conveyor with the aid of various types of chutes or are loaded direcily onto the belt, Loose materials are charged onto’: the conveyor from a feed hopper / via guiding chute 2 (Fig. 48). The angle of inclination of the hopper walls should be 10 to 15% larger than the friction angle of the material against the hopper walls. Special damping sealings are provided on the ends of the guiding chute side and rear walls, These sealings are made. of soft technical rubber (A and B in Fig. 48); the width of the ower . Fig. 48 Feed hopper and guide chute: a—for small-sized loads; b—for {arge-lumped lads 4—hopper; 2—gulde chute; 3—armour : plates Sec. B. Conveyors with Textile Belt 93. part ‘of the hopper should be narrower than that of the belt to avoid spillage of material. te Feed hoppers for large-lumped heavy materials. are designed so. that. the load first hits the walls of the hopper and then. slides along them to. the belt. (Fig. 486). This arrangement prevents. injuries to the belt and prolongs its ‘life. ‘Section AA a a eS . | Fig. 49. Two-sided discharge plough: ‘a—seetion of board for fine grained bulk ‘matertals; 6—ditto for large-gralned bulk loads: Replaceable armour plates 3 (Fig. 480) made of 8- to 20-mm sheet steel or ribber are uséed.to protect the hoppers against wear when abrasive materials are handled. These plates are placed at the spots bearing the load: impact’ and are substituted. when’ wott> Discharge is generally effected over thé end pulley or at.any point along the.conveying run by means of scraper plouglis or. a throw-of carriage known. as a tripper. The latter is used only for bulk materiats. The discharge plough (Pig--49) isa board placed at a certain angle @ to the longitudinal axis of the belt aid fastened on a fraine,.which can be raised together. with: the plough to idle position by means of a crank’ and. eccentrig, lever, “Ch. TV. Belt: Conveyors rod, etc. In its operating position the plough rests on the belt pressing against it with the rubber strip fastened to the board (see section AA in Fig. 49), Discharge ploughs may be single- and double-sided (Fig. 49), stationary or movable on a carriage. The former type is usually installed on horizontal or slightly ~ inclined sections (5 to 10°) of the conveyor, the latter only on horizontal sections. The ploughs can be controlled manually or automatically depending on the extent to which the hopper is filled. In automatically controlled ploughs the board is raised and lowered by means of an air cylinder, electromagnet or other. actuating device. Es To ensure normal operation of the plough, its angle ‘of inclination @ with the longitudinal.axis of the conveyor must be chosen correctly: This angle de. stermines the trajectory of a particle or separate load having a weight of G "Fig. 50) when discharged from the belt. Let us designate the friction actor of the load against the belt as p, that against the boar as fi. If can be assumed that-at a elt velocity of v the load moves along the board with a constant. Fig, 50. Determination of plough discharger inclination \ Speed ta, which is the absolute velocity of the particle, The velocity ‘of the par- ticle relative to the belt-v9 is obtained from the triangle of velocities (Fig. 50a). Let us further designate the angle at which the particle moves relative’ te the longitudinal axis of the belt as 6. Three forces are acting upon the load in the horizontal plane (Fig. 50): (1) the force of load friction against the belt, directed in the sense opposite to velocity vp of the particle relative to the belt, ie, at the angle B to the longitudinal axis of the belt’ and equal to Gu; 2) the normal reaction of the board M, and (3) the force of friction against the board directed in a sense opposite to ve and equal to Nps. I the velocity of the particle. ve. is a constant quantity, -these three forees are at equilibrium, saddyn 9jqeaowy “Is * agd) —| 099——p-— Oe) 08929. Poe yy uaiszas Fig. 52, Belt cleaners: a—seraper; b—rotating brush; . Conveyors with Textile Belt Fig. 52. é-—seraper near the end. pulley Projecting them on. the direction of:the board and~on the normal, to it, we’, obtain : Nity — Gp cos (a +B) == 0 (121) N= Gy sin (a+) =0. (122) Transferring the sccond members of these equations to the right part and dividing one by'the other, we obtain tan (op) = he Gh = cot Pr (123) Hi where py fs the frlelion angle, corresponding to friction factor ju. lence, e a+ B+ 0 = 90", (124) The same. result will be obtained directly by looking at Fig. 505, The value of B is always larger than zero, otherwise velocily vq would not be a positive quantity (see Fig. 50a), Consequently, a + p; < 90°, or a < 90° —p,. . (128) Thus, the maximum value of a depends neither, on the weight of the load nor on its coefficient of friction against the belt, but solely on the coefficient of friction of the load-against the board, As’ the friction of the load against the belt is directed at an angle B-to. the longitudinal axis of the belt, a. transverse force comes Into play’ which lends to shift the belt sideways. The value of this force is 'Gysin B. The value of ®, with ‘the angle of inclination of the board taken 2s @, is obtained from equation (124), The larger is angle a the sinall- er is angle B and, consequently, the smaller is the value of the transverse force, Generally % = 30 to 45°. and Movable trippers (Fig. 51) .are mounted on horizontal sections of long conveyors and ensure automatic discharge of the conveyor along the whole length of its discharge area. 7 —1258 Suydnoo uz poywnow.uoyop yemoyes-eBnyyweD “gg “Bry Anus J0j0ull I4psa)2 OL pigs Taam Sec, B, Conveyors, with Textile Belt. (h). Belt cleaners. Wipers or scrapers: (Fig, 52a). serve to clean; the ouder belt.surface of dry particles :clingitig to it. For wet and sticky material revolving brushes are tised (Pig. 526), The actual cleaning in scraper devices is performed by a strip of technical rubber facing a hinged bar or inthe case of brushes, by rigid bristles or 1.0- to 1.2-mm capron fibre facing the generating line of the cylindrical brush face, The-belt' cleaners are mounted near the discharge pulley and the scattér falls into the discharge spout. To clean the inner belt surface of material accidentally. spilled to the lower run, a scraper (Fig. 52c) is mounted near the end pulley. A solid partition is sometimes inistalled between the upper and lower runs of the belt (in foundry shops, for example) to prevent dribbling of the material to the lower run, (i) Automatic hold-back. brakes. A sudden stoppage of a loaded inclined belt conveyor (for instance, when the current supplying the water is interrupted) may. cause an uncéalled-for slipping back of the loaded belt. This will happen’ if ‘the longitudinal component of the load weight is larger. than the forces of. fric- tional resistance. to belt motion; Such reversal of the loaded belt. may become responsible not only for a jam of material at the bottom loading area of the conveyor, but even result in breakage of the gear or a torn belt. To prevent such spontaneous movement of the belt, a special hold-back brake is mounted on the main or auxiliary shaft of long- or medium-length inclined conveyors. 1 O5*6506 OF LI5:7528 Ay Section AA Wal ee ~ £ i = ole ee a te A Fig. 54, Intermediate sections The hold-back brake may be an ordinary or noiseless ratchet and pawl (obsolete and pnreliable design) or a roller stop, belt stop, centrifugal ratchet stop (Fig. 53) or a solenoid brake. Special protecting devices which automatically disconnect the drive when the belt slips on the pulley are also used. () Conveyor frame. The supporting structure (frame) of the conveyor ititermediate section (Fig. 54) is usually electric welded of profiled rolled stock, angle iron or channel bar, and consists Ch, IV, Belt Conveyors of longitudinal beams, uprights and cross-pieces. The height of the ‘frame is usually 400 to 500 mm, the spacing between the uprights is 2 to 3.5 m. 3, Calculation of Belt Conveyors (a) Initial data for the calculation. In order to determine the main dimensions of the belt and the required motor power of a belt conveyor the following initial data are required: character- istics of the conveyed load (see Chapter I, B), average and peak calculated capacity per hour (tons per hour. or m3/hr), geometry - of the conveyor and: its main dimensions, operating ‘conditions . (dry or damp. premises, outdoors or indoors; method of feed and discharge, ete.). (b) Belt width, When conveying bulk loads, the belt width is determined by the.conveyor ‘capacity and the size of the material conveyed; in the case of: piece-goods—by the number of pieces ‘and their overall dimensions. On a belt supported by flat idlers a free-flowing material will assume the shape of an isosceles _triangle (Fig. 55a). To.prevent spill of the belt edges, the base of the triangle is taken as’6=0.88 and the angle at the triangle base 0.359, where B is the belt. width, and @-is the static angle of repose of the load. To define possible spillage of the load on an inclined ‘belt, correction factor C, is introduced. This factor depends on the conveyor slope. The cross-sectional area of the load on a flat belt’ (see Fig. 55a) is FFE 0, = MBNABG tan 9.1682C, tan (0.359). (126) On a belt supported by. troughing idlers (Fig. 556) the cross- sectional area of the load Fis equal-to the sum of the areas of trapezoid Fy and triangle F;. If the incline of ‘the side rollers is 20° and the length of the central roller /,~0.4B, the total cross-sectional area will be Fs P+ Fy =0.16B°C, tan @, 4+0.0435B? = = B?(0.16C, tan (0.359) +0.0435]. (127) Substituting the computed values for the cross-sectional areas of the load into equation (10), we obtain the capacity of the con- Veyor: 5 for a belt supported by flat idlers Q, = 3600F wy = 576B7Cryu tan (0.359) tons per hour, (128) hence the belt widih & : : Vv S76C ypu tan (035g) (129)