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History of Technician Certification Programs

Technician certification programs can be divided into two categories. They are:

Mandatory Technician Certification Programs


Voluntary Technician Certification Programs

Mandatory Technician Certification Programs


Mandatory technician certification programs involve the Environmental Protection
Agencys (EPAs) mandated technician certification which falls under the Clean Air Act
amendments. This certification mandated that all technicians be certified after November
14, 1994. All technicians must now pass an examination administered by an approved
EPA testing organization in the private sector in order to purchase refrigerant and to work
on equipment that contains refrigerant. A technician for this mandatory certification is
defined as installers, contractor employees, in-house service personnel, and anyone else
who performs installation, maintains, or repairs that might reasonably have the
opportunity to release CFC or HCFC refrigerants into the atmosphere. The EPA created
three separate certification types:

Small appliances
High and very high-pressure appliances
Low pressure appliances

Persons who successfully pass a core of questions on stratospheric ozone protection and
legislation and also pass one of the three certification types will be certified in that type.
If all three certification types are passed, a person will be universally certified. To this
date, the EPA is not requiring re-certification. However, it will be the technicians
responsibility to keep updated on new technologies and governmental rule changes. More
on mandatory technician certification is covered in Chapter 9 of Refrigeration and Air
Conditioning Technology, 4th edition.

Voluntary Technician Certification Programs


Voluntary technician certification programs are becoming very popular because they are
industry led and are much more comprehensive in nature when compared to mandatory
certifications. They give technicians an educational opportunity from the beginning to the
end of their careers. These programs allow technicians to become recognized at their
level of expertise. Their diverse nature allow for almost every avenue of industry to be
covered. Voluntary technician certification is based on the courses taken for each level,
with an outline and roadmap of what material will be covered on the test and where to
find the material. Organizations involved with voluntary technician certification include:

Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA)


Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI)
HVAC Excellence
North American Technician Excellence (NATE)
Refrigeration Service Engineers Society (RSES)

Industry Competency Examination


(ICE)
The Industry Competency Examination (ICE) was developed in 1987 by the Air
Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) and is a voluntary entry-level examination
that has the support of many major industry associations and manufacturers. The ICE
exam is a standard measuring instrument for entry-level secondary and post-secondary
HVACR schools. The ICE examination is divided into three exams:

Residential Air Conditioning and Heating


Light Commercial Air Conditioning and Heating
Commercial Refrigeration

The ICE exam is designed for students who have completed at least 75% of a training
program or degree program. These same students should have completed all of the core
HVACR courses prior to taking the ICE test. Once a student passes the ICE exam, they
should be encouraged to take other more advanced voluntary exams after at least one year
of field experience.
Each of the three ICE tests have 100 multiple-choice questions and the student taking the
test must score at least 60% to pass. Passing the ICE test simply shows that the person
has the basic knowledge to enter the industry as an entry-level technician. The test may
be taken again if the student fails the exam. At the time of writing, the cost for each test is
$30.00. Once a student passes an ICE exam, their name will be nationally published in a
trade magazine and in a national job bank. The student will also receive a score report,
wallet card, and a certificate of competency.
The ICE test allows students to compete nationally and to compare themselves with other
students across the nation. Once a student passes the ICE test, other more advanced and
comprehensive tests can be taken, usually after at least one year of practical experience.

Why Technicians Should Become Voluntarily Certified


Some advantages of having certification are:
Customers tend to ask for certified technicians because of their reliability
Certified technicians remain in the industry longer and have more self confidence
Certification shows that the technician has entry-level ability
Certified technicians earn more money during their careers
Equipment manufacturers develop faith in certified technicians

Certified technicians are much more marketable


Certified technicians have proven technical proficiencies with measured
capabilities
Certification enhances a technicians reputation
Certification gives technicians a status symbol for others to look up to
Higher standards are set on the job by certified technicians
Customers request certified technicians because they are more productive

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technology, 4th edition is a text students can study to
successfully pass all three of the ICE examinations. The authors of this text have
provided 15 practice study questions for each of the three sections of the ICE
examination to assist the student in getting acquainted with the type of questions they
may encounter on the exam. However, memorizing the answers for these 45 questions
will not help you pass the exam because it is knowledge based. The ICE exams cover
long-term knowledge of what is taught in training or degree program curriculums and
laboratories. Listed below are 45 sample questions, answers, and associated sections in
the Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technology, 4th edition book, where the answers
to the questions can be found.

SAMPLE QUESTIONS
Residential Air Conditioning and Heating Exam
1. The recommended oil pressure from the pump to the nozzle in a residential oil
furnace is:
a. 50 psi
b. 75 psi
c. 100 psi
d. 150 psi
2. High efficiency gas furnaces (90% and higher) may:
a. have aluminum venting.
b. have an extra heat exchanger.
c. insure that flue gases are vented quickly.
d. have type B gas venting.
3. In an air conditioning unit with a TXV and no bleed port a compressor motor must be
used with:
a. a high starting torque.
b. a low starting torque.
c. a shaded pole.
d. three phases.

4. The normal air conditioning evaporator boiling temperature when operating at the
75F 50% humidity condition is:
a. 25F.
b. 32F.
c. 40F.
d. 58F.
5. The function of a heat anticipator is to cause the furnace to:
a. continue to operate in a normal manner.
b. shut down later than it would normally.
c. shut down earlier than it would normally.
d. operate in a highly efficient manner.
6. The following energy efficiency rating system of air conditioning equipment includes
the start-up and shut-down cycles:
a. PTC
b. SCR
c. EER
d. SEER
7. In an air conditioning system using R-22 the evaporator is operating under normal
conditions. The suction line pressure is 70 psig with 10F superheat. The suction line
temperature is:
a. 30F.
b. 35F.
c. 40F.
d. 50F.
8. A fully modulating gas furnace modulates the gas to the burner and:
a. varies the fan speed.
b. the amount of corrosion.
c. cycling of the limit switch.
d. flame at the thermocouple.
9. A horizontal vent pipe from a standard gas furnace should rise at least:
a. 1/8 per foot.
b. per foot.
c. per foot.
d. 1 per foot.
10. To determine whether or not an air conditioning compressor has a shorted winding,
the following instrument would be used:
a. ammeter
b. voltmeter
c. ohmmeter

d. vacuum gage
11. Three common automatic controls used in central forced air electric furnaces are a
thermostat, contactor (or relay), and:
a. thermocouple.
b. sequencer.
c. glow-coil.
d. cad cell.
12. One horsepower equals:
a. 392 W.
b. 647 W.
c. 746 W.
d. 932 W.
13. In the air source heat pump both the indoor and outdoor coil must have a:
a. metering device.
b. compressor unit.
c. glow-coil.
d. cad cell.
14. A thermostatic expansion valve(TXV) is a form of:
a. electronic control.
b. metering device.
c. check valve.
d. filter drier.
15. For greatest accuracy when measuring air movement for balancing, the velocity
should be averaged over the:
a. entire length of the duct.
b. upper width of the duct.
c. height of the duct.
d. entire cross section of the duct

Answers to Sample Test Questions for Residential Air Conditioning and


Heating Exam
Paragraph No.
1. 31.5
2. 30.28
3. 36.23
4. 40.4
5. 15.3
6. 40.10
7. 40.4

Answers
c
b
a
c
c
d
d

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

30.27
30.28
41.11
29.8
2.14
43.11
43.12
37.27

a
b
c
b
c
a
b
d

Light Commercial Air Conditioning and Heating Exam


1. Which of the following positions should a service valve be turned to before removing
the service cap and installing gage lines.
a. back-seated
b. front-seated
c. mid-seated
d. side-seated
2. Proving the flame is present and firing on a direct spark ignition
system (DSI) is accomplished with which of the following.
a. cad cell sensor
b. flame rectification
c. flame position
d. flame color
3. A good safety precaution while servicing an oil heat furnace with a
'no heat' complaint would be to:
a. turn the whole house power off.
b. a check the combustion chamber for liquid oil.
c. change the oil nozzle.
d. add oil to the tank.
4. The large insulated line between the indoor unit and the outdoor unit
on a heat pump carries:
a. hot gas during the heating cycle and cold gas during the cooling cycle.
b. liquid during the cooling cycle and hot gas during the cooling cycle.
c. cold liquid during the cooling cycle and hot gas during the heating
cycle.
d. only oil during both the heating and cooling.

5. When ice builds up on the outdoor coil of a heat pump, which of the
following is used to remove the frost?
a. electric heaters
b. warm water
c. gas heat
d. reverse cycle operation
6. The manager of a motel calls in a 'no cooling' call. The service man
arrives and finds it to be an R-22 water cooled system. The compressor
is cycling on and off from high head pressure and the liquid line is
very hot. The water from the cooling tower is 80 degs F with the water
returning to the tower being 85 degs F. The probable cause is:
a. dirty refrigerant drier
b. over charge of refrigerant
c. dirty condenser tubes
d. inefficient compressor
7. Superheat occurs in which of the two parts of the refrigerant cycle?
a. the liquid line and the thermostat
b. expansion device and the liquid line
c. liquid line and the condenser
d. evaporator and the condenser
8. When a compressor has a suction valve that is stuck open it causes:
a. high head pressure and high amperage
b. low suction pressure and high amperage
c. high suction pressure and low amperage
d. high suction pressure and high amperage
9. When a duct system is properly designed and there is a reduction in the trunk line size
as air is supplied to the system it will provide:
a. an increase in air volume
b. a decrease in static pressure
c. the correct system pressure for proper air delivery
d. too little air for the downstream outlets
10. The air that is mixed with the gas in the venturi of a gas burner is
called:
a. return air
b. primary air
c. dense air
d. dilution air
11.When taking the efficiency of an oil furnace, which of the following readings would
you take?
a. stack temperature and outlet air temperature

b. C02 and return air temperature


c. net stack temperature and CO2
d. oil temperature and net stack temperature
12. The manifold gas pressure for an LP gas system is:
a. 2 psi.
b. 10 inches of vacuum.
c. atmospheric pressure.
d. 10 to 11 inches of water column.
13. When a compressor is changed in an air conditioning system, the
system should be evacuated to:
a. atmospheric pressure.
b. 20 inches of Hg.
c. 2000 microns.
d. 500 microns or lower.
14. When an electric heat system has a voltage of 235 volts and the amperage is 22, what
is the heat output of the electric heat strip?
a. 4000 kw
b. 5170 kw
c. 5170 watts
d. 4000 watts
15. When you want a fan to move more air with a belt drive fan and motor, you would:
a.
close the drive pulley down by adjustment.
b.
open the drive pulley by adjustment change fans.
c.
install a smaller motor pulley.
d.
change fans.

Answers to Sample Test Questions for Light Commercial Air


Conditioning and Exam
Paragraph No.
1. 25.37, 25.38
2. 30.23, 30.24
3. 31.7
4. 43.10, fig. 43-10
5. 43.29
6. 28.10
7. 26.13, fig. 23-1
8. 43.36
9. 37.12
10. 25.11, 25.19
11. 31.14
12. 30.3

Answers
a
b
b
a
d
c
d
c
c
b
c
d

13. 8.5
14. 29.15
15. 23.4

d
c
a

Commercial Refrigeration Exam.


1. A multi-circuit evaporator coil incorporating a distributor may be unevenly fed
with refrigerant because of:
a. high head pressure
b. uneven air distribution
c. low suction pressure
d. high liquid subcooling
2. The best method for checking to see if an evaporator coil has the proper level of
refrigerant is to check its:
a. air flow
b. temperature difference
c. frost lines
d. superheat
3. When a technician is charging an R-400 series blend with fractionation potential
into an operating system, they must remember to:
a. remove liquid from the charging cylinder and then vaporize the liquid
through a metering valve (restrictor) before entering the compressor
b. liquid charge the compressor through the suction valve
c. remove vapor from the charging cylinder and charge the vapor in the suction
service valve
d. liquid charge the high side of the system
4. In a water-cooled condenser system, the water regulating valve varies the flow of
water to the condenser to suit the needs of the system. The bellows of the waterregulating valve is connected to the:
a. low side of the refrigeration system
b. high side of the refrigeration system
c. city water pressure
d. atmospheric pressure
5. A potential relay consists of a high resistance coil and a set of normally closed
contacts. The relay coil is wired between terminals 2 and 5, which is also in
parallel to the:
a. run winding

b. run and start winding


c. motors overload
d. start winding
6. The coil in a current relay is wired in series with the:
a. start winding
b. start capacitor
c. run winding
d. run capacitor
7. When dealing with an open-type compressor, if a larger drive pulley is used on
the same motor, the compressor will:
a. turn faster
b. turn slower
c. remain at the same speed
d. draw lower amperage
8. A gauge on the high side of a refrigeration system reads 157.6 psig. A gauge on
the low side of a refrigeration system reads 0.6 psig. What would be the
compression ratio or pressure ratio of the system?
a. 11.1 To 1
b. 13.0 To 1
c. 12.5 To 1
d. 15.0 To 1
9. A heat exchanger is often placed in or at the suction line leaving the evaporator.
The heat exchange is between the liquid line and the suction line and it causes:
a. decreased head pressure
b. increased suction pressure
c. increased evaporator capacity
d. decreased subcooling
10. An oil pressure safety control is a pressure differential control that measures net
oil pressure. The control measures the difference between the crankcase
(suction pressure) and:
a. oil pump outlet pressure
b. oil pump inlet pressure
c. low side pressure
d. high side pressure
11. Refrigerated display cases often have resistance type heaters that are run just
under the cabinet to prevent condensation formation. These heaters are called:
a. division heaters
b. side heaters
c. surface heaters

d. mullion heaters
12. The crankcase heaters purpose is to:
a. keep refrigerant from migrating to the oil during an off cycle
b. give the oil a lower viscosity
c. keep the crankcase from falling below 32 degrees Fahrenheit
d. prevent compressor flooding
13. This device is used on multi-circuited evaporators and fastened to the outlet of
the expansion valve. Its main function is to distribute the refrigerant to each
individual evaporator circuit evenly. The device is:
a. evaporator pressure regulator
b. refrigerant distributor
c. crankcase pressure regulator
d. heat exchanger
14. The function of the crankcase pressure-regulating (CPR) valve is to:
a. prevent compressor overloads during pulldowns
b. keep a constant crankcase pressure
c. keep the oil in the crankcase pressurized
d. help the compressor start during high loads
15. Which symptoms are indications of an inefficient compressor from either
leaking valves or worn rings:
a. low suction pressure and low head pressure
b. high suction pressure and low head pressure
c. high suction pressure and high head pressure
d. low suction pressure and high head pressure

Answers to Sample Test Questions for the Commercial Refrigeration


Exam
Paragraph nos.
1. 21.15
2. 21.13
3. 10.3
4. 22.9
5. 17.18
6. 17.19
7. 18.7
8. 23.9
9. 25.35
10. 14.12
11. 26.18

Answers
b
d
a
b
d
c
a
a
c
a
d

12.
13.
14.
15.

25.46
25.34
25.6
28.21

a
b
a
b

ICE TEST STUDY GUIDE


The authors of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technology 4th edition have developed
the study guide below to help technicians read and research important topics that may be
covered somewhere on the ICE exam. The three exams have been separated for ease of
study. In each case, a topic has been identified followed by the section numbers in the
book for a quick route in finding the topic and its related information for the technician to
study.

Residential Air Conditioning and Heating Exam Study


Guide
When preparing for the above ICE test, it is suggested that the following topics are
important and should be reviewed.
Topics

Paragraph Nos in Refrigeration and Air


Conditioning Technology 4th edition

Air Conditioning
Soldering and brazing
Hard-drawn copper tubing
Accumulator
Capillary tube metering devices
Heat loads across evaporator
Checking resistance on compressor
motor windings
Superheat
Evaporator coil temperatures
Leak detection
Air velocity in ducts
Potential relay
Refrigerant recovery cylinders
Speed changes in PSC blower
motors
Vibration eliminators
Infiltration
Air conditioning system evacuation
Air conditioning refrigerant charge

7.11
7.2
25.36
41.7
40.3
20.7, 20.8, 20.9, 45.32, 12.20
10.6, 41.8
36.6, Unit 41 Diagnostic Chart
8.9
5.2, 37.5, 37.27
17.18
9.15
17.14
37.9
34.2
8.1, 8.5, 8.7
28.13

Compressor crankcase heat


Electric motor protection devices
Air conditioning indoor airflow
Compressor cycling
Subcooling
Wire sizes
Refrigerant in confined spaces
Correct air quantity
High discharge pressures
Airflow over evaporator
Suction line filter-driers
Static pressure measurements
Indoor blower motors
Electric motor starting torque
Low ambient controls
Installing gages on an air
Conditioning system
Refrigerants as a toxic gas
Blower motors and fans
Flex duct
Air conditioning electrical
installation

25.46
19.6, 19.7, 19.8, 19.10
37.4
39.9, Unit 41 Service Technician Calls
3.5, 3.9
12.22
4.7
37.2
41.3, Unit 41 Preventive Maintenance
36.6, Unit 41 Diagnostic Chart
25.37
37.5
Unit 41 Technician Service Call
13.6
25.9, 25.10, 25.11, 25.12, 25.13
25.38, 25.39
4.7
37.7
38.6
38.7

Heat Pumps
Heat pump balance point
Thermostatic expansion valves
Hermetic compressor motor
windings
Heat pump metering devices
Heat pump lines
Heat pump check valves
Heat pump defrost
Heat pump refrigerant charge
Heat pump thermostats

43.20
24.2, 24.16, 24.21, 28.22 Service Technician Calls
17.17, 20.8
43.11, 43.12, 43.14, 43.17
43.10
43.12
43.29
43.34, 43.37
43.28

Heating, Gas, Oil, and Electric Furnaces


Heat anticipators
Gas furnace vent safety switch
Gas furnace spark ignition pilot
light
Manifold pressures in gas-fired
furnaces
Direct spark ignition lockout
Manifold pressures for propane

14.3
30.35
30.35
30.5
30.24

systems
Two stage gas furnaces
Gas furnace piping
Gas furnace venting
Electronic air cleaner
Gas furnace high limit control
Flame rectification
Induced draft gas furnaces
Gas furnace limit switch

30.3
30.27
30.29
30.28
30.35
30.36, Unit 30 Preventive Maintenance
30.24
30.28
30.16

Oil furnace oil pump


Oil furnace safety precautions
Oil burner ignition
Oil furnace combustion efficiency

31.5
31.7, 31.8, 31.15
31.5
31.14, 31.15

kWs to Btus
Electric furnace sequencers
Electric furnace kW

2.14
29.10
12.14, 29.15

LIGHT COMMERCIAL AIR CONDITIONING AND


HEATING EXAM STUDY GUIDE
It is suggested that when preparing for the ICE test that concentrating
on these particular paragraphs will help the applicant obtain a higher
score.
AIR CONDITIONING SERVICE
Service valves and their use
Water cooled condenser application
Crank case heat application
System evacuation practices
Refrigerant line restrictions
Dirty condenser conditions
Fan rotation analysis
TXV sensing element installation
Motor pulley adjustment
Vacuum pump maintenance

PARAGRAPH
25.37 & 25.38
22.10, 28.9, 28.10 & 44.40
38.13
8.5
28.5
28.15 & 49.11
38.13he
24.21
23.4
8.3

Measuring air flow in ducts


Low ambient condenser operation
Compressor low pressure protection
Superheat in the system
Frozen evaporator
Liquid line flash gas
Compressor capacity control
Refrigerant charging by weight
Compressor efficiency
Electrical check of a 3 phase compressor
Condenser control circuit wiring
TXV operation
Latent head load on a system
Open flame and refrigerant
Trunk duct sizing
Using nitrogen while brazing
Substituting refrigerants
Fresh air adjustment to a system
Low ambient control for condensers
Duct installation
Density of water

37.5 & 37.27


40.5
14.11
3.11, 21.13 & 23.1
42.3
28.6
48.4
43.37
28.21
20.14 & 17.41
39.6
28.16
40.2 & 40.3
4.7
37.12
4.1
3.12
35.13
25.11 & 25.19
37.16
32.8

HEAT PUMPS
Line set identification
4-way valve operation
Defrost cycle
Heat pump operating pressures
Auxiliary heat
Check valve operation
Indoor & outdoor coil descriptions
Expansion devices
Checking the refrigerant charge
Water source heat pump operation

43.10 & 43.14


43.3
43.29
43.34
43.28, 43.37 & 43.38
43.16
43.9
43.34
41.8
44.5

OIL HEAT
Liquid oil in the combustion chamber
Combustion analysis
GAS HEAT
Blowing burner flame
Draft proving circuit
Fan cycle adjustment
Flame rectification
Gas manifold pressure
Primary air adjustment

31.7
31.14
Page 608, Preventive maintenance
30.28
30.31
30.23 & 30.24
30.3
30.4

Non by pass humidifier


Heat anticipator settings
High limit control function
Soap bubbles for leak checking

34.9
14.3
30.16
30.29

ELECTRIC HEAT
Power consumption
29.15
Preventative maintenance
Page 566
Checking electrical contacts with a volt meter 19.5

COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION EXAM STUDY GUIDE


It is suggested that when preparing for the ICE test that concentrating
on these particular paragraphs will help the applicant obtain a higher
score.

Important Topics

Refrigerant distributors
Series & Parallel circuits
Electrical Power
Transformers
Oil separators
Refrigerant cylinders
Refrigerants
Refrigerant blends
Refrigerant oils and their
applications
Recover, recycle, reclaim
Restricted thermostatic
expansion valves
Inefficient evaporators
Refrigerant safety group
classifications
Manual pump downs
Single phase motors and
motor windings
Thermistors and other

Found in Book Sections

24.4 and 24.6


12.12 and 12.13
12.14
12.17
25.43
4.1 and 9.14
9.4 through 9.8
9.9
9.10 and 9.11

9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16


28.16

21.15 and 28.14


4.7 and 4.8

25.30
17.8, 17.9, 17.10, 17.12, 17.13,
17.14, 17.15
12.24, and 13.6

semiconductors
Troubleshooting and
typical operating
conditions for air cooled
equipment

28.1, 28.2, 28.3, 28.4, 28.5, 28.6,


28.7

Troubleshooting and
typical operating
conditions for water cooled
equipment

28.8, 28.9, 28.10,

Typical system problems

28.11, 28.12, 28.13, 28.14,


28.15, 28.16, 28.17.

Automatic expansion
valves

24.23, 24.24, 24.25

Capillary tube metering


devices

24.26, and 24.27

Thermostatic expansion
valves

24.2, 24.3, 24.3, 24.5, 24.6, 24.7,


24.8

Thermostatic expansion
valve charges

24.9, 24.10, 24.11, 24.12, 24.13

Remote bulb (sensing bulb)


installation

Internally and externally


equalized TXVs

24.14, 24.15

Balanced port TXV

24.18

Solid state expansion


valves

24.22

Pressure ratio or
compression ratio

23.1

Pressure and temperature


relationships

3.5

24.21

Basic system components

3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10

Understanding superheat
and subcooling

3.11, 21.13

System evacuation and


non-condensables in the
system

8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7

Pressure gages and psig to


psia conversions

1.12

Evaporator Pressure
Regulators (EPRs)

25.4, 25.5,

Crankcase Pressure
Regulators (CPRs)

25.6, 25.7

Low ambient controls

25.9, 25.10, 25.11, 25.12, 25.13,


25.19

Low and high pressure


controls

14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 25.15, 25.16,


25.17, 25.18

Oil pressure safety control

14.12, 25.20

Defrost cycles and controls

25.21, 25.22, 25.23, 25.24,


25.25, 25.26, 25.27

Crankcase heater

25.46

Suction line accumulators,


suction line filter driers,
and suction line service
valves.

25.36, 25.37, 25.38

Discharge service valves


and vibration eliminators

25.39, 25.40, 25.44

The potential relay and the


current relay

17.18, 17.19,

Three phase motors &


compressors

17.16, 17.23

Variable speed motors

17.24

Application of motors with


current and voltages

18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 18.4

Soldering and brazing


processes

7.7, 7.8, 7.9,7.10, 7.11, 7.12

Water regulating valves

14.16

Suction line/liquid line heat


exchangers

25.35

Charging refrigerants and


refrigerant blends into a
system

10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6

Restricted distributor tube

21.15 & 21.16

Water cooled condensers

22.2, 22.3, 22.4, 22.5, 22.6, 22.8,


22.9, 22.10

Ice making equipment

26.27, 26.28, 26.29, 26.30,


26.31, 26.32, 26.33, 26.34

Troubleshooting basic
controls

15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6

Typical wiring diagrams


for commercial
refrigeration circuits

26.3