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Kodaikanal is a city in the hills of the Dindigul district

in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.[2] Its name in the Tamil
language means The Gift of the Forest.[3] Kodaikanal
is referred to as the Princess of Hill stations" and has a
long history as a retreat and popular tourist destination.

'E', KODAI might be interpreted to mean Gift, rendering Kodaikanal as Gift of the Forest. Keeping the
short Tamil 'O' but adding a long 'A', Kodai could be
understood as the Tamil word for umbrella, where Kodaikanal is a forest fashioned like a protecting umbrella.
Kodaikanal was established in 1845 as a refuge from the Or perhaps 'umbrella' just because[3]of the once pristine
shola, it rained so much in Kodai!
high temperatures and tropical diseases of the plains.[4]
Much of the local economy is based on the hospitality Another Tamil word for creeper or vine is Valli, the honey
industry serving tourism. As of 2011, the town had a collecting daughter of the chief of the Veddas mountain
population for 36,501.
tribe. The chief and his wife prayed to the Mountain God
for a girl-child and their prayers were answered when the
chief found a new-born girl child during a hunting expedition. As she was found among creeper plants, they named
1 Etymology
the child Valli and she grew up as princess of the tribe in
Kurinji and became the consort of lord Murugan.[7] The
romantic traditions of Murugan in Sangam literature are
Main article: History of Kodaikanal Etymology
thus associated with the name Kodaikanal.
It is not known who rst used this name or what they intended it to mean.

2 History

The word Kodaikanal is actually an amalgamation of

two words: Kodai and Kanal. And the Tamil language
has at least four possible interpretations of the name
Kodaikanal. By pronouncing the rst syllable of Kodaikanal with a long Tamil 'O', as in koe-dei, it means
summer, whilst the nal two syllables: kanal, in Tamil
can mean to see, rendering 'Kodaikanal' as a 'place to see
in Summer'. Kodaikanal is a summer forest, and it is also
a place that the rst missionaries to settle used as a refuge
to escape the overbearing and mosquito-ridden heat of the
plains - a place that they would have counted on seeing in
the summer!

Main article: History of Kodaikanal

The earliest residents of Kodaikanal were the Palaiyar

tribal people. The earliest specic references to Kodaikanal and the Palani Hills are found in Tamil Sangam
literature of the early Common era.[8] Modern Kodaikanal was established by American Christian missionaries and British bureaucrats in 1845, as a refuge from the
high temperatures and tropical diseases of the plains.[4]
In the 20th century a few elite Indians came to realise the
"Kanal", in Tamil, can also mean dense forest or closed value of this enchanting hill station and started relocating
forest. In this case, "Kodai" can have at least four dif- here.
ferent meanings. By pronouncing 'Kodai' with the long Tourism has been impacted by industrial pollution isTamil 'O' and short 'e', Ko-dai means the end. So sues including the closure of a mercury factory owned
that KODAI KANAL could mean The End of the For- by Unilever's Indian subsidiary Hindustan Unilever afest which makes poetic as well as geographical sense, ter evidence of widespread mercury pollution.[10] To date
in that Kodaikanal is situated at the crown of the Palani no proper clean-up operation has been mounted. The isHills, and is eectively surrounded and protected by thick sue gained prominence in early 2015 when Kodaikanal
forests, which one must traverse to reach Kodai.[3]
Won't, a rap music about mercury pollution in the region
By pronouncing Kodai with the short Tamil 'O' (as in went viral globally getting more than a million views in 4
KODI), it would means Creepers or vines. So that Ko- days.
daikanal could also mean The Forest of creepers, or the
Forest of vines. The Forest of Creepers is also thought
to be the English language meaning given in 1885 dur- 3 Geography
ing the early western habitation of the place,[5] and is still
accepted.[6] They called like this with its beauty.
The town of Kodaikanal sits on a plateau above the southBy pronouncing Kodai with a short Tamil 'O', and a long ern escarpment of the upper Palani Hills at 2,133 me1

The temperatures are cool throughout the year due to the
high elevation of the city.

4 Demographics

1955 Topographic map of Kodaikanal

tres (6,998 ft), between the Parappar and Gundar Valleys. These hills form the eastward spur of the Western
Ghats on the Western side of South India. It has an
irregular basin as its heartland, the centre of which is
now Kodaikanal Lake a 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) circumference manmade lake.A few kilometers away from Kodaikanal ,a small village named Vattakanal is located in
the Dindigul District on the southern tip of the upper
Palani hills in the state of Tamil Nadu,along the eastern
coast of the Western Ghats.Vattakanal is better known as
'Vatta' by most or 'Little Israel' by the villagers that observe a large number of Israeli tourists who ock there
from October onwards.
Meadows and grasslands cover the hillsides. Gigantic
Eucalyptus trees and shola forests ourish in the valleys.
Mighty rocks and cascading streams lie above the valleys.
There are many high waterfalls and ubiquitous gardens
and ower beds in bloom.[9]

According to the 2011 census, Kodaikanal had a population of 36,501 with a sex-ratio of 1,004 females for
every 1,000 males, much above the national average of
929.[13] A total of 3,893 were under the age of six,
constituting 1,945 males and 1,948 females. Scheduled
Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 19.86% and
.28% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the city was 79.78%, compared to the national
average of 72.99%.[13] The city had a total of : 9442
households. There were a total of 14,103 workers, comprising 163 cultivators, 744 main agricultural labourers, 130 in household industries, 12,118 other workers, 948 marginal workers, 10 marginal cultivators, 51
marginal agricultural labourers, 34 marginal workers in
household industries and 853 other marginal workers.[14]
As per the religious census of 2011, Kodaikanal had
48.84% Hindus, 12.0% Muslims, 38.69% Christians,
0.02% Sikhs, 0.22% Buddhists, 0.04% Jains, 0.15% following other religions and 0.04% following no religion or
did not indicate any religious preference.[15]

5 Economy

Kodaikanal is known for its rich ora. Of the big trees,

cypress, eucalyptus and acacia are the dominant varieties.
Pear trees are numerous and the fruits are of high quality. Competing with the fruit trees are the owering ones
- mainly rhododendron and magnolia. Large dahlias of
dierent hues are the main attraction of Bryant Park, situated close to the Kodai lake. Water lilies in the parks
pond are another pleasing sight. The town abounds in a
kind of beautiful yellow wild owers.[11]
North of the town, high hills that slope down into the
villages of Pallangi and Vilpatti stand guard. On the
east the hill slopes less abruptly into the lower Palnis.
A precipitous escarpment facing the Cumbum Valley
is on the south. On the west is a plateau leading to
Manjampatti Valley, Indira Gandhi National Park, the
Anamalai Hills and the main body of the Western Ghats
of Kerala boarder.

Agriculture and tourism are two major parts of local economy.

Above, terraced farming in Kodaikanal.

The economy of Kodaikanal predominantly depends on

tourism. The number of tourists increased from two million in 1999 to 3.2 million in 2009.[16] The towns infrastructure changes every year in preparation for the peak
tourist season. Major roads are converted into one-way
lanes to regulate the constant inow of trac and special
3.1 Climate
police are brought in for the safety of the tourists and protection of local businesses. Hotels are often fully booked
Kodaikanal has a monsoon-inuenced Oceanic climate during the high season, and remain virtually empty during
(Cfb, according to the Kppen climate classication). the o-season. Due to the rapid development of nearby


Kodaikanal Mercury Poisoning

cities such as Madurai and Coimbatore, the town is learn- and 8.3 g/kg, respectively. Fish samples taken from Koing to deal with year-round tourism.
daikanal lake also showed Hg levels in the range of 120 to
Plums, pears, chile peppers, carrots, cauliower, cab- 290 mg/kg conrming that pollution of the lake had
bage, garlic and onions are cultivated by terrace farmers
in surrounding villages. Most are trucked to other parts
of India and some are sold in the local market. Popular
tourist souvenirs include handcrafts, home-made chocolates, postcards and Eucalyptus oil.
Due to its relatively unpolluted image, various
locations[17] within Kodaikanal are used for movie
shootings as well. Some examples being Jo Jeeta Wohi
Sikandar [18] though depicted as Dehradun, the Tamil
movie Guna, Manmadhan Ambu, Thenali etc.

The Hindustan Unilever thermometer factory caused

widespread mercury pollution through improper disposal
of broken thermometer waste containing large quantities
of mercury. The factory sold much of this waste to a
junkyard in Kodaikanal and also dumped large quantities
in the forest behind the factory. The factory was eventually closed in 2001 after 18 years of operation. Hindustan Lever, have used considerable legal manoeuvering to
avoid paying compensation to the ex-workers and their
families, many of whom died or became physically handicapped as a result of mercury poisoning.[22][23]

KHMS hospital in 2009 was formed to provide quality

health care to residents and visitors.

The ex-workers joined to form the 559-strong ExMercury Employees Welfare Association and in 2006
led a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) suit in the Madras
High Court. The association wants an economic rehabilitation scheme, healthcare treatment and a monitoring
programme at the companys expense for everyone who
ever worked in the factory. It also wants the company
prosecuted. Hindustan Unilever denies that any of the
health problems of the workers or their families were the
result of mercury exposure in the factory. In 2010 the
workers were still ghting for compensation.[24]

In April 1915, Dr. Van Allen raised funds to construct

the rst unit of the hospital at the entrance of Coakers
walk. It was named after him. Facilities got updated from
time to time and now it has X-ray machine, well equipped
pathological lab, and operation theatre with blood transfusion facilities.

In June 2007, the Madras High Court constituted a vemember expert committee to decide on the mercury
workers health claims. The last court hearing was in June
2008. The committee later failed to nd sucient evidence to link the current clinical condition of the factory
workers to past mercury exposure in the factory.[25]

The Government Hospital is situated on the hillside near

Rock Cottage on Lower Shola Road. It was a small municipal hospital until 1927. Now it has X-ray, Dental, and
Maternity wards and other facilities.

In November 2011, a Ministry of Labour, Government

of India commissioned report made the following observations to the Hon'ble Madras High Court:


The major medical facilities are KHMS Hospital, Van

Allen Hospital and the Government Hospital and The
Prana Spa. These hospitals treat patients with common
ailments and injuries and perform child delivery and care,
but are not equipped with modern medical equipment for
complicated diagnoses and surgery.


Kodaikanal Mercury Poisoning

Air and water-borne mercury emissions have contaminated large areas of Kodaikanal and the surrounding
forests. A study conducted by the Department of Atomic
Energy conrmed that Kodaikanal Lake has been contaminated by mercury emissions.,[19][20]
Mercury pollution was reported in Kodaikanal aecting lakes in the area. The causes, originating from a
Hindustan Unilever thermometer factory nearby, were reported to be dispersal of elemental mercury into the atmosphere from improper storage and dispersal into the
water from surface euents from the factory. Apart from
tests conducted on Kodaikanal lake, moss samples collected from trees surrounding the Berijam Lake, located
20 km (12.4 mi) from the factory were also tested. These
showed mercury levels in the range of 0.2 g/kg, while in
Kodaikanal lake the lichen and moss levels were 7.9 g/kg

The committee is of the opinion that there is a primafacie evidence from the personal & medical investigation of victims during the eld visit to HLL Factory, Kodaikanal on 4th, 5th & 6th October, 2011 that not only
the ex-workers of the HLL, Kodiakanal, but also their
new born children have suered on account of mercury
exposure such as Tremor, knee pain, Loss of memory,
Loss of teeth, Irregular menstrual period for women, Infertility, Skin problmes, Premature delivery of baby by
pregnant women and children having ailments like Mental retardation, Deformity of organ, Birth defect like blue
baby and Loss of memory were also noticed.
Additional site remediation studies are being undertaken
by national institutions, as desired by the Tamil Nadu
Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) and the Courts Scientic Experts Committee (SEC) during the project review meeting in January 2010. IIT Delhi is revalidating
the risk assessment study and site-specic clean-up standards; the National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, is studying the impact on trees and preservation
of trees; and the Centre for Soil and Water Conservation


Research and Training Institute, Ooty, is studying the impact on soil and soil erosion. Based on the above study
ndings, results of remediation trials and recommendations of the SEC, the TNPCB will take a nal decision on
the clean-up standards. Hindustan Unilever Ltd. (HUL)
will commence soil remediation work at the factory site
once a decision on clean-up standards is taken and consent is given by TNPCB.[26]


The following schools are located at Kodaikanal:

R.C.Town Higher Secondary School, Pck Presentation Convent Primary School, Bhavans Gandhi
Vidyashram,[27] Brindavan Public School,[28] Kodaikanal
International School, Kodaikanal Public School,[29] St.
Johns Girls Higher Secondary School, St. Josephs Public School, St.Peters Matriculation Higher Secondary
School,[30] St. Xaviers High School, Zion Matriculation
High School, Sankara Vidhyalaya.
The main colleges here are: Kodaikanal Christian College, which is the rst Arts and Science College in Kodaikanal established in the year 1994; ever since, the college says, it has been committed to imparting holistic education and transforming students into model global leaders, for which the evidence is seen in the strong alumni.
The American University of India (AUI) / Kodai International Business School (KIBS) ( is an
elite Business school oering MBA & BBA programs in
USA & India located in Ugarthenager. Sacred Heart College. Mother Theresas University is distinctive as Indias
only university exclusively devoted to womens issues.[31]

Kurinji Andavar (Murugan) temple built by Lady Ramanathan

(R.L.Harrison) of Australia, wife of Ponnambalam Ramanathan[32]

Vinayagar Kovil. The Muslim mosques are Ellis Villa

and Munjikal. There is an active community of Tibetan
Buddhist refugees.

9 Civil Society

In 2005 a new engineering college specializing in

Information Technology, Kodaikanal Institute of Technology under Anna University, was established 22 kilometres (14 mi) below Kodaikanal town.


Since Kodaikanal was founded by the American and European Missionaries, Christian churches are abundant in
Kodaikanal. They include the Church of South India opposite Bryant Park, St. Peters Church near Coakers
Walk, Gorapur, Lake End, La Salette, Lutheran Mission,
Sacred Heart - Munjikal, Saint Antonys - Antonyar Kovil
Street, Saint Francis Xavier, Saint Josephs, Saint Marys
and Saint Peters - Coakers Walk Road. Amongst the
most popular is Union Church with a large Tamil congregation and Margaret Eddy Memorial Chapel at Kodai International School with lively services in a typically
American style and distinctive stone architecture.

Kodaikanal Golf Club

Kodaikanal has several clubs and civil society organizations operating for social, charitable and environmental goals. Established clubs in Kodaikanal are the Kodaikanal Lions Club (est. 1985) under the jurisdiction of Lions Clubs International (district 324B); Kodaikanal Boat Club (est. 1890) with nearly 650 permanent members; Kodaikanal Golf Club (est. 1895)
with over 600 members and an 18-hole golf course,
spread over 143 acres (0.58 km2 ); The Indian Club (est.
1915) on Poet Thyagarajar Road and The Rotary Club of

In 1890, the Kodaikanal Missionary Union (KMU) was

There are many Hindu Temples in Kodaikanal includ- formed to enable missionaries of the various denomiing the Durgai Amman Kovil, Kurinji Andavar Kovil, nations to come together for recreation and to develop
Mariamman Kovil, Observatory Murugan Kovil and mission strategy and outreach in cooperation with each

other. In 1923 it built an Edwardian style clubhouse with
large central hall for social events and afternoon teas,
6 tennis courts, a reading room, and other spaces for
meetings.[34] With the decline of missionary activity in
India, the KMU was wound up in the 1980s, and the property was turned over to Kodaikanal International School.
The KMU library with many valuable old books besides
newer materials, is still functioning in one room, and provides something of a social venue. The valuable original
KMU archives materials have been incorporated into the
archives of the school, which has hired an archivist and is
in process of converting the whole original KMU building into an archives and display centre for the school and
the community.[35] (2008)

shops and roadside vendors heed the rule and use recycled
paper bags in fear of a social reprisal. Local hotels have
also participated in improving the environment by placing garbage cans all across the town, with their prominent
donated by signs acting as silent salesmen.[39]

10 Places of Interest

Kodaikanal lake

Kodaikanal lake View showing: Mount Perumal, Boat house,

Carlton Hotel, Kodaikanal International School, Fish hatchery,
Lake Road.

Kodaikanal has several Social service societies which

promote local trade and increase employment of rural
villagers in the towns periphery by participating in its
tourism fuelled growth. These include the Kodaikanal
People Development Group (KOPDEG) which has been
successful in providing employment for marginalized
women and marketing their products. The Made-in-India
tagged products from Kopedeg are unique to Kodaikanal
and are targeted at foreign tourists who regularly buy
them as souvenirs.[36]

Kodaikanal has several scenic natural attractions which

are enjoyed by its visitors and make it a popular romantic
destination for newlyweds. These are described in order
of distance from the bus-stand.
Kodaikanal Lake, is an articial, roughly star-shaped 45
ha (60 acres) lake built in 1863. It is recognized as Kodaikanals most popular geographic landmark and tourist
attraction. Rowboats and pedalos can be hired at the Kodaikanal Boat Club. Horses and bicycles can be hired
beside the lake for short periods. The 5 kilometres (3.1
mi) path that skirts the periphery of this lovely lake is a
favourite walk for the locals and tourists alike.

The Cottage Crafts Shop at Anna Salai, is run by the voluntary organisation, Coordinating Council for Social Concerns in Kodai (CORSOK). They sell goods crafted by development groups and uses the commission charged to
help the needy.[37]
In 1994 the Potters Shed was inaugurated. This pottery
and craft Shop in Kodaikanal has made and sold hundreds
of thousands of ne pieces of locally made pottery. All
prots from this business are contributed to the Bethania
Kids, Center For Children with Disabilities.[38]
Bryant Park
The Kodaikanal Lake Protection Council and Vattakkanal Organization for Youth, Community and Envi- Bryant Park: Just east of the lake and 500 metres
ronment (VOYCE) are active in preserving Kodaikanals (1,600 ft) from the bus stand, is a wonderfully mainenvironment. Plastic bags are banned and almost all tained 20.5 acres (8.3 ha) botanical garden. The park


was planned and built in 1908 by a forest ocer from

Madurai, H.D.Bryant, and named after him. With 325
species of trees, shrubs and cacti, the park is a rainbow
of stunning owers during the peak season. A large section is dedicated to nearly 740 varieties of roses. There
is an 1857 Eucalyptus tree and a Bodhi tree which adds
a religious signicance to the park. Ornamental plants
are cultivated in a nursery for sale. The park organizes
horticultural exhibits and ower shows every summer, to
coincide with the peak season. The entrance fee to the
park is nominal, and it is open all year.[40]

Village view

timber, Mr. Bryant started the Kodaikanal pine plantations in the south-west of Kodaikanal.[42]

Coakers Walk (1900)

Shembaganur Museum of Natural History, 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) from the bus-stand, founded in 1895, is open
to the public (except Tuesdays) for viewing their outstanding taxidermy collection of more than 500 species
of animals, birds and insects and a living collection of
over 300 exotic orchid species. The museum is aliated
with Loyola College in Chennai and exhibits artifacts of
the ancient Palaiyar tribes people whose descendants still
live in these hills.[43]

Coakers Walk, 500 metres (1,600 ft) from the busstand, constructed by Lt.Coaker in 1872, is a 1-kilometre
(3,300 ft) paved pedestrian path running along the edge
of steep slopes on the southern side of Kodai. The walk,
winding around Mount Nebo, starts in front of the Van
Allen hospital, running parallel to the Van Allen Hospital
Road and joins the main road beside St.Peters Church,
providing a stunning panoramic view of the plains. On
a clear day one can view as far as Dolphins Nose in
the south, the valley of the Pambar River in the southeast, Periyakulam town and even the city of Madurai. A
fascinating rare phenomenon called Brocken spectre can
be witnessed, when a person can see his shadow on the
clouds with a rainbow halo. This occurs when the sun is
behind the viewer and clouds and mist are to the front. Kodaikanal Solar Observatory
There is an observatory with a telescope halfway along
the walk. Entrance fee to the walkway is nominal and it Kodaikanal Solar Observatory, 6 kilometres (3.7 mi)
is open all year.
from the bus-stand on Observatory Road, at 2,343 meBear Shola Falls, 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) from the bus- tres (7,687 ft) is the highest location near Kodai. The
stand, is a tall waterfall in a Reserve forest. The nal rst observations were commenced here in 1901.
approach to this quiet area is a gently climbing foot-path. Former Director John Evershed discovered the phenomenon of radial motion in sunspots, now known as
Green Valley View, (formerly called Suicide Point) 5.5 the Evershed eect. The Kodaikanal Terrestrial Telekilometres (3.4 mi) from the bus-stand and near the golf scope can view a grand panorama including: Sothupparai
course, has an excellent panoramic view of the plains and Dam, Vaigai Dam, Periyakulam and Varaha river. This
a sheer drop of 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) overlooking the Indian Institute of Astrophysics facility has a comprehenVaigai Dam to the south. The stairway leading up to it sive Astronomical Science museum with organized pubis highly commercialized and lined with rows of shops to lic tours, access to the astronomy library, and scheduled
tempt tourists.[41]
night-time telescopic sky viewing. It is open daily to the
Pine forests, In 1906, with a view to growing valuable public during peak season, and a few hours each Friday

the rest of the year.[45]

which crosses the stream here.

Silver Cascade Waterfall is formed from the outow of Kodaikanal Lake

Dolphins Nose

Dolphins Nose, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from the bus

stand, is at rock projecting over a breathtaking chasm
6,600 feet (2,000 m) deep. It is an undisturbed area 1
kilometre (0.62 mi) down a very steep rocky trail beginning soon after Pambar Bridge. Orange juice vendors
along the trail oer a welcome rest stop. Beautiful views
of steep rocky escarpments rising from the plains can be
seen. The old village of Vellagavi can be reached through
a rugged bridle path here. A short paved walkway leads
from the road here to Pambar falls (which is also locally
addressed as 'Liril Falls after the famous Liril Soap Advertisement lming in 1985).
Pillar Rocks

Pillar Rocks, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from the bus-stand,

is a set of three giant rock pillars which stand 122 metres
(400 ft) high.[46] Managed by the Tamil Nadu Forest Department, The viewpoint can be crowded but is not commercialized. There is an excellent public garden adjacent
to the viewpoint.
Guna caves,[47] made popular by the Tamil movie Guna,
previously called Devils Kitchen, are deep bat-infested
chambers between the three gigantic boulders that are the
Pillar Rocks. The deep narrow ravines of the caves are
now closed to public due to the tragic deaths of twelve
youths there.[48] These dangerous caves are highly protected now, and tourists can see sections of the cave system from afar.[49] In the late 1970s the inside of the caves
was well photographed.
Silver Cascade, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from Kodaikanal
at a wide bend in the long and winding Laws Ghat
Road, at altitude 1,800 metres (5,900 ft), is a 55-metre
(180 ft) waterfall formed from the outow of Kodaikanal
Lake.[50] The water quality is reportedly poor and not
good enough for bathing.[51] This impressive waterfall is
a popular stop for rst-time visitors. There are a few souvenir and fruit vendors and many monkeys here. There is
also a smaller but more serene waterfall below the bridge

Kurinji Andavar Murugan temple, 4 kilometres (2.5

mi) from the bus-stand, is famous for its Kurinji ower
which blossoms in the area only once every 12 years.
The deity here is called Sri Kurinji Easwaran, who is in
fact Lord Murugan. This temple was built in 1936 by a
European lady, who on coming to Ceylon, converted to
Hinduism.She changed her name to Leelavathi and married Mr.Ponnambalam Ramanathan. She is also known
as Lady Ramanathan. This temple was handed over to
Arulmighu Dhandayuthapani Swamy Thiru Kovil, Palani
by Mrs Devi Prasad Bhaskaran (also known as Padmini,
niece and adopted daughter of Mr S Natesan Pillai, son
in-law of Lady Ramanathan) and her husband Dr R.
Berijam Lake: A calm serene lake surrounded by mesmerizing nature at a distance of around 20 km from Kodaikanal. Boating is prohibited as the lake is a source
of water for villages. Forest department permission is
required and limited number of vehicles are allowed to
enter the forest area where the lake is situated. Entry
is restricted into the Berijam Lake area to between 9.30
a.m. and 3 p.m. Bison, deer, panthers and snakes are
often spotted in this area. The re tower, Silent Valley, Medicine Forest, and Lake View are other attractions around the lake. Psilocybin mushrooms which produce hallucinogenic eects when consumed, and other
poisonous mushrooms grow around Berijam. Medicine


Forest has a certain species of trees whose fragrance is believed to be having hallucinogenic eects. To enter into
the Berijam Lake permission must be obtained from the
Forest Department. Usually they give permission around
8 a.m. every day except on Tuesdays. They give permission to about 80 to 100 vehicles per day and collect the
entry fee of around Rs.150 depending upon the vehicle.


[7] Sangam landscape#Kurinji .E2.80.93 Mountainous Region

[8] Mitchell Nora, Indian Hill Station: Kodaikanal, University
of Chicago, Dept. of Geography, Kodaikanal Sangam,
p97, 1972 Original from the University of California Digitized 28 Jan 2008
[9] Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation and Department of Tourism, Kodaikanal Princess of Hill Stations



[10] Unilever Environmental Pollution. Corporate Watch.

Retrieved 2007-08-08.

Almost all distances from Kodaikanal are calculated with

the lake as the central point of reference. The near- [11] The declining Kodai Frontline Magazine pgs 74-81, 26
May-Jun 8, 1989
est airports are Madurai (135 kilometres or 84 miles),
Coimbatore (170 kilometres or 110 miles) and Trichy [12]
(200 kilometres or 120 miles). The nearest railway stations are Palani Station (64 kilometres or 40 miles) north, [13] Census Info 2011 Final population totals. Oce of The
Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of
Kodaikanal Road Station (80 kilometres or 50 miles)
Home Aairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26
south east and Dindigul Junction (100 kilometres or 62
Jan 2014.
miles) east.[52]
From Madurai Aarappalayam bus stand, frequent bus ser- [14] Census Info 2011 Final population totals - Kodaikanal.
Oce of The Registrar General and Census Commisvices are available; the rst bus in the morning leaves at
sioner, Ministry of Home Aairs, Government of India.
2.30 am, then 3.30 am and 4.0., 5.0, 6.0 am; there are no
2013. Retrieved 26 Jan 2014.
buses after 5 pm in the evening
The 2 to 3 hours drive to Kodai via the steep and wind- [15] Population By Religious Community - Tamil Nadu
(XLS). Oce of The Registrar General and Census Coming Ghat roads from Batlagundu or Palani is a memorable
missioner, Ministry of Home Aairs, Government of Inexperience. Travellers may stop at turnouts on the road
dia. 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
and enjoy the scenic beauty of the Palani hills. There
is a 28 km shortcut from Periyakulam to Kodaikanal
[16] S. Molur, K.G. Smith, B.A. Daniel and W.R.T. Darvia Kumbakarai. Bicycle rental, taxis, vans and limwall, Anon. 2011. Tourism in forest areas of Western
ited city buses are available.[54] Auto rickshaws are not
Ghats. Equations, January 2001, Bangalore. (PDF), THE



[1] Kodaikanal Department Of Municipal Administration

And Water Supply, Historical Moments, 2005
[2] Aringnar Anna Zoological Park. 8
February 2013.
[3] About City. Government of Tamil Nadu. Kodaikanal
Department Of Municipal Administration And Water
Supply. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
[4] Mitchell Nora, Indian Hill Station: Kodaikanal, University of Chicago, Dept. of Geography, ch 2, Rational for
Tropical Hill Sations, pp13-15, 1972. Original from the
University of California Digitized 28 Jan 2008
[5] The Cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern
Asia by Edward Balfour, Published by B. Quaritch, 1885,
Item notes: vol.2 H-NYSA, P583, Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized 29 Jan 2008
[6] Mitchell Nora, Indian Hill Station: Kodaikanal, University
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[17], Movie Location > Kodaikanal

[18], Ratans Town in Jo Jeeta Wohi Sikandar
[19] The Hindu, Prevent mercury pollution, (2007-8-23),
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(2) ; ARUNACHALAM J. (1) ; Author(s) Aliation(s)
(1) National Center for Compositional Characterization
of Materials (CCCM), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Department of Atomic Energy, ECIL Post, Hyderabad
500 062, INDE, (2) Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukkatpally, Hyderabad, INDE Studies of mercury pollution
[21] D. Karunasagar, M.V. Balarama Krishna, Y. Anjaneyulu,
J. Arunachalam (September 2006). Studies of mercury pollution in a lake due to a thermometer factory situated in a tourist resort: Kodaikkanal, India
(PDF). Environmental Pollution (Elselvier) 143: 153

[22] Rathnavelu R., Amudhan R.P (7 November 2011),

Mercury in the Mist, Chai Kadai U-Tube, retrieved 201112-09
[23] Chameleon Studio USA LLC (19 February 2011), Kodai
vs Hindustan Lever press release.mp4, Greenpeace International, U-Tube, retrieved 2011-12-09
[24] Sarah Hiddleston (11 September 2010), Poisoned
Ground, The Hindu, Volume 27 - Issue 19 (Kasturi &
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[25] Kodaikanal, India, The Facts: Mercury contamination
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[26] Update on Progress of Environmental Issue of Erstwhile
Kodaikanal Thermometer Factory in India (PDF), Mumbai: Hindustan Unilever Ltd., 2011, retrieved 2011-12-09
[27] Bhavans Gandhi Vidyashram.
[28] Brindavan Public School.
[29] Kodaikanal Public School.
[31] Theresa University

[44] Indian Institute of Astrophysics - A Brief History, Solar

Observatory at Kodaikanal, retrieved 3/13/2007.
[45] Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, Kodaikanal
[46] Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation and Department of Tourism, Kodaikanal-Princess of Hill Stations, p. 2
[47], Movie Location > Guna Cave (Devils
[49] Saravanan Ang Mo Kio, Life is 2 Alive, The Guna Cave Devils Kitchen (2006-10-9)
[50] , By Indian Academy of Sciences, Published by Indian
Academy of Sciences (1972) Item notes: v.76 1972 JulDec, Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized
12 Apr 2006, Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, p. 126
[51] TripsGuru Travel Services, Switzerland of the East, Silver
[52] Kodaionline, Kodaikanal Travel Mode, 2008
[53] Dindugal District Collectors Oce, retrieved 4/12/2007
About Dindugal District
[54] Kodai Travel Guide,Kodaikanal a Beautiful Hill Resort


[55] NLC Ltd., Important places around Neyveli Kodaikanal

[34] Heideman, Eugene P. From Mission to Church: The Reformed Church in America Mission to India, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing,Kodaikanal Missionary Union (KMU),
p. 348 (2001) ISBN 0-8028-4900-8, ISBN 978-0-80284900-7 512 pages

13 Further reading

[35] Kodaikanal International School, KIS Archives

[36] Kodaikanal People Development Group
[37], Kodaikanal - Shopping
[38] Bethania Kids Potters Shed, Kodaikanal
[39] R.W. Stewart and Tanya Balcar,Shola - Environmental
Newsletter, The Anglade Institute of Natural History, Sacred Heart College, Shembaganur, Kodaikanal 624104,
India, pp318-319, No. (26 December 2000) Environmental Information System - ENVIS : India, Pambar
Shola : A Success Story in Conservation-V - Prot from

Charlotte Chandler Wycko: Kodaikanal: 18451945. London Mission Press, Nagercoil, Travancore, Indien. 1945.
Nora Mitchell: The Indian Hill Station Kodaikanal.
Research paper, University of Chicago, Department
of Geography, No. 141. Chicago Ill., 1972.
Volker Winkler: Kodaikanal. Land of the Clouds.
Hillsboro Press, Franklin (Tennessee) 1999.

14 External links
Kodaikanal tourism and unseen places

[40] Kodaikanal Travel Guide, Bryant Park, 2007

Kodaikanal Tour Guide and Photos

[41] TripsGuru Travel Services, Switzerland of the East, Green

Valley View

12 Lesser known Hill Stations in South India

[42] Madras (India : State); B. S. Baliga (Rao Bahadur) (2002).

Tamil Nadu district gazetteers. Printed by the Superintendent, Govt. Press. p. 166.


[43] NLC Ltd. (2004) "Important places -Kodaikanal" retrieved 4/12/2007 "Important places -Kodaikanal"

Kodaikanal, 'Switzerland of the East', Trekking


Comprehensive further information on Kodaikanal

Map of Kodaikanal City
Palani Hills Conservation Council
Photo essay on Mercury poisoning in Kodaikanal





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