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Interpretation of test pumping test in a fractured reservoirs

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38 просмотров6 страницInterpretation of test pumping test in a fractured reservoirs

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diagnosis in fractured fonnation

L Bardenhagen

lJeparrmenta/Wo/er Affairs, WindJwek,Namibia

ABSTRACT: In this paper methods and techniques for the diagnosis of pumping tests in fractured aquifers

are reviewed and extended. These techniques, which include the comparison of drawdown and recovery data,

straight-line analysis, special plotS, derivatives, and pseudo-skin analysis are demonstrated on a continuous

fractured model (double porosity case) and a discontinuous model (single fracture case) using theoretical and

practical examples.

1 INTRODUCTION

aquifer investigation in the groundwater industry, as

they are the only method that provides information

on the hydraulic behavior of the well, and reservoir

boundaries. These are essential information for an

efficient aquifer and well field management mId frequently, togetlter with drilling results, are the only

information available for. tlte establishment of

groundwater extraction schemes. To achieve reliable

reservoir information in fractured aquifers, a sound

understanding of tlte drawdown behavior is of high

importance. A detailed diagnosis of drawdown data

in combination witlt geological data can help to

comprehend tlte reactions in a llactured aquifer. This

paper will briefly review the two important and

well-known models for fractured aquifers, the continuous model for double porosity or natural fraclUred aquifers and the discontinuous model for a

single fracture or fault embedded in a homogenous

matrix. These models will be used to demonslrate

the diagnostic tools available to identify tlte different

flow phases tltat can occur during a pumping test in

. fractured environment. Field data will be presented

to illustrate and discuss some of these cases.

2 THEORY

2.1 Double porosity models

The concept of double porosity introduced by

8arenblatt et al. (1960) considers homogenous dislributed conductive fractures embedded in a homogenous distributed matrix. Two matrix types are

. 81

'(Warren & Root 1964) used to represent aquifers

like quartzite and tlte layered matrix (Kazemi 1969)

adopted for example for sandstones with bedding

planes. Commonly a pseudo-steady state block-tofracture flow is assumed, which is a special case of

transient flow reslricted by skin, as illustrated by

Moench (1984).

,

Moench (1984) considers that two representative

elementary volumes (REV), one for ~ fractu&s

and'one for the matrix, are necessaryJor tlte matltematical description of tlte flow in such aquifers. The

classic concept of double porosity cannot be applied

if tlte cone Qf depression is not considerably larger

tItan botlt REV because tlte influence of tlte single

ftactures is not negligible as demonstrated by Wei et

al. (1998).

The typical drawdown curve in a double porosity

aquifer is shown in Figure 1. Initially, mainly tlte

fracture network releases water and tlte drawdown is

characterized by a straight line in a semi logarithmic

(scmilog) plot. The flattening of the curve is originated by the ever-increasing additional contribution

from the matrix. Thc later drawdown is the response

of tlte matrix alone, which. is represented by a

slraight line parallel to tlte initial one in the semilog

plot. In a double logarithmic (log-log) plot, botlt the

initial and tlte late drawdowns are characterized by

Theis curves shifted horizontally from each oilier.

The distance between tlte two parallels or two Theis

curves depends on .the fracture/matrix storage coefficient ratio.

Both tlte pseudo-steady state and transient models

show an almost horizontal flattening when block-tofissure skin is present. The flattening in tlte transient

model witltout block to fissure skin is not horizontal.

it,

(Fig. 1).

flow phases that can occur while pumping from. a

vertical fracture as follows:

Cr < 0.1, bilinear flow (after well bore storage or

linear fracture flow), thereafter pseudo-radial

flow

- . 0.1 :s Cr < 100, bilinear flow, linear formation

E

..

When these single vertical fractures are represented in a log-log plot, the following characteristics

can be depicted (Cinco-Ley & Samaniego (198Ia):

Linear fracture flow appears as a straight-line

with slope 0.5 in the very early time data

Bilinear flow is plotted as a straight-line with ...

slope 0.25 in the early time data (Fig. 2)

Linear formation flow shows a str!rightline with

slope 0.5 in the intermediate time data (Fig. 2).

The radial-acting flow phase plots on a straight

.

line in a semilog plot.

9lOO

10.'

10"

I (mini

Figure 1. Drawdown

in slab-shaped

double porosity

and transient block to fissure flow, A = fracture/formation

skin-factor ofO.

factor of 5. B = fracture/formation

aquifer

skin-

In Iow permeability rock, features like fractures,

faults, dykes, or bedding plains can represent zones

of high permeability that act as conduits. Basically

five models can be applied for these features:

Finite vertical fracture with infinite fracture conductivity (Gringarten et al. 1974)

Finite vertical fracture with finite fracture conductivity (Cinco-Ley & Samaniego 1978)

Infinite vertical fracture with finite fracture conductivity (Boehmer &

Boonstra

1986

.

dyke/formation m'6del)

Finite horizontal fracture with infinite conductivity (Gringarten & Ramey 1974)

Finite horizontal fracture with finite conductivity

(Valk6 & Economides 1997)

Whether a vertical feature is finite or infinite

conductive depends on the relative conductivity Cr

defined as:

Cr=Kr'w/(7t'Km'Xr)

[-]

~.

I (minI

Figure 2, Drawdown

diagnoses

ferent relative conductivity

Cr.

for vertical

fractures

with dif-

The characteristic slopes found for a single horizontal fracture with infinite conductivity (Gringarten

& Ramey 1974) are depending on the dimensionless

formation thickness h.Jdefined as

(1)

h.J = h ' Kr I(re Kv) [-]

where:

Kr = conductivity of the fracture [lit]

w - fracture'swidth[I]

Km - conductivity of the matrix [I/t]

Xr .. holf-Iength of the frneture [I]

(2)

where:

h = reservoir thickness [I]

rr ...fractureradius[I]

Kr .. radial Crncture

conductivity [1/1]

Ky '" wrliclIl f(mnnlionconductivity [1/11

Cll1co-LtlY& Snll1nnlcgo(l97K) dol1H1nMlrnlcd

that for nil practical purposesa single vertical frae.

When hi.< 1, the following characteristicnow

ture with Cr ~ 100could be regardedas an infinite phasesareobservedin a log-logplot:

conductive fracture that coincides with the GringarVery early time data shows a slope of 1 that inten et nl. (\ 974) Infinite nux model fOf Infinite con.

dicntcsfmct\l\'Cstorn~cnow

dudlvl! tfnctures.

Ent'ly time lIntn showstI slope ot' 0,5 tOr IIn@l\t

IfCf < \00. then the fracture has finite conductivnow

\~. 1\\,,-'t""\.~ \\\t'lM~ thnt ro"!1.\t'~~ tht t~\\\~

l'1.""

82

tbr tntl\sict\tnow innuct\ccJby the limitedt~

ture reservoir

log-log plot. are reduced to a slope of 0.5 from very

early time data to intermediate time data, indicating

linear flow.

However, due to the very short early time period,

this phase might be masked by wellbore storage or

simplY be missed. Va1k6& Economides (1997) investigated the behavior of a horizontal penny-shaped

fracture with finite conductivity, but did not find

characteristic slopes over the dimensionless time t.J

period in the range ofO.! to 100.

In all these cases the radial-acting flow phase

commences approximately at the dimensionless time

t.J==15, which is defined as:

t.J=T.tI(S'x()

(3)

[-]

where:

t =Real time [t]

T =Formation transmissivity [l2/t]

S =Formation storage coefficient [-]

Only after the radial~acting flow phase is reached

can the common analysis methods for primary aquifers be applied to determine the transmissivity T,

e.g. Jacob or Thcis. The storage coefficient S can be

estimated with equation (3), if the fracture halflength Xc is known. Figure 3 illustrates the extremely large error made in the calculation of S

when the Jacob straight-line method for time drawdown data is applied to.the data measured in an observation well located near an infinite conductive

vertical fracture with uniform flux. The straight-line

method is only applicable when the distance of the

observation well is at least 5 times that of the fracture half-length (which is in fact the REV of such a

system).

However, Figure 3 can also be used to either determine the correct storage coefficient if the relative

position of the observation well to the fracture is

known or to determine the fracture half-length if the

storage coefficient is known.

The influence of the fracture storage can be de. scribedwith the

where Sc

,...

..

. curves show

as a result of the leakage from the formation that

gradually replaces the storage in the fl!icture. Once

the radial-acting flow phase is.reached, all water is

provided by the formation.

. ,..

,..'2LFa__""",

,,,"

1...0

.'.0-1

1Iopo0.5

Ba"""""

b<uIdaty, IIopo 1

1.0-4

1.0-$

to

,

i

(4)

Figure 4 shows the drawdown in a vertical fracture with infmite conductivi~ and infinite flux with

COf between 10-0and IQ-IO.All curves commence

with linear flow (slope 0.5). All curves with

COf < 10-4describe the drawdown in high storage

capacity fractures and their behavior is' significantly

different to that of well bore storage. In these curves

the slope of 0.5 indicates linear fracture flow and not

linear formation flow and indicates that all discharged water is provided solely by the fracture. The

100

:!:

relativestoragecapacityCOf after

-'f/

'.""..1'.""""'.0-4'.""."".."".0'.."'...2

.......

-....---

10

.....

.. ......

Id 1.1

(Cr - 10000) with various relative fracture capacity CDf (dimensionless dJ-awdown pd

11 T

5/(2 . Q) [-] where: s

drawdown,Q discharge rate, T - formation transmissivity)

- . .

0

2

0

Dlm

lonl...

3

dllWlCl If'"

using the lacob's

straight-line

method for data of the radialacting flow phase in obserVation wells in the vicinity of a single vertical infmite conductive

fracture with uniform flux.

the storage coefficient S is a function of its location

and not the extraction time although the radial-acting

flow phase in the observa~on well has been reached!

coincides exactly with the drawdown curve observed

in a isolated single fracture for the early time data

and partly with the transient phase. It confums the

fact that the transition zone is caused by the limited

extent of the fmite fracture because the water

pumped from such a isolated single fracture is provided only by the fracture storage. This observation

leads to the interpretation that these effects i.e.,

wellbore storage, fracture storage, and the closed

boundary reservoir can be described by the same

principle of pumping from a limited reservoir.

83

determine whether a well is located in a fracture

zone or not, due to the fact that, in principle, no

negative skin factor or enlarged effective radius can

be observed in a primary or continuous fractured aqui(er. One useful application is for example to distinguish between the drawdown of a horizontal fracture with infinite conductivity and the drawdown of

a well in a homogenous aquifer with wellborestorage. Unfortunately this holds true only for h.i:S 1

where the skin-factor is always negative, because the

skin-factor increases towards positive values with

h.i> I. Similarly, the method can be used for vertical

features.

diagnose of pumping test data in fractured aqui-

. the

fu~:

Pseudo-skin analysis

Straight-line analysis in log-log and semilog

plots

Special plots

First and second derivative of the drawdown data

The fIrSt check during a pumping test data evaluation should be the comparison of the drawdown and

recovery behavior of the data if both are available.

Due to the superimposing theory, both should show

the same principal curve shapes. If a flattening is

observed in the drawdown curve, the same typical

flattening must appear in the recovery data. If this is

not the case, the flattening in the drawdown was

caused by:

Variation of the discharge rate during the drawdown phase

Discharge from a closed reservoir (limited reser-

voir)

time correction (Birsoy & Summers 1980) can be

used. In the second case, the late time recovery data

will show a horizontal flattening instead of a steep

increaseas it is observedduringthe latetime dataof

the drawdown phase (Streltsowa 1988). This flattening of the recovery data should never be confused

with a leaky boundary. A leaky boundary would lead

to a fully recovery, which is never the c~e in a limited reservoir.

appear during a pumping test in a fractured aquifer

show characteristic straight-lines either in a log-log

or in a semilog plot. However, the log-log plot provides additional information as follows:

Well bore storage shows a slope of 1

Fracture storage shows a slope between 0.5 and

1 for linear flow and 0.25 to 1 for bilinear flow.

Two parallel closed boundaries show a slope 0.5.

0 (Ehlig-Economides & Economides 1985)

Three equidistant closed boundaries U-shaped

show a slope 0.5

Limited reservoir (four closed boundaries) shows

a slope of 1.

The semilog plot provides additional information

regarding the presence of negative boundaries: .

One closed boundary doubles the slope of the

radial-acting flow straight-line

.

Two perpendicularsclosedboundaryquadruples

the slopeof the radial-actingflowstraight-line. .

the boundaries .are located equidistant to the pumping well. If this is not the case, each boundary will

increase the slope of the previous straight-line

reached.

.

A well located within or in the vicinity of a conduit

(if the distance is below the REV) shows less drawdown than expected for wells in a homogeneous

formation. This effect is known as pseudo-skin

(Gringarten & Ramey 1974). The application of the

skin determination methods as in wells situated in

homogenous aquifers would lead to a negative skinfactor sf [-]. The skin factor sf and the drilled radius

rw are related to the effective radius roffas follows

(Sabet 1991):

roff= rw e-sf [I]

Besides ~e semilog and log-log plots, the following

three additional plots are very useful for the diagnose of pumping test data (Cinco-Ley & Samaniego

1981b):

Linear drawdown ve~uS square root of time

Linear drawdown ve~us fourth square root of

time

Linear drawdown versus one divided by square

root oftime

The first plot is useful for the determination of the

linear flow behavior. The drawdown data of linear

and bilinear phases will plot on a straight line that

commences at the origin of the diagram. In the second plot the drawdown data of the bilinear flow

(5)

(well in a fracture) would lead to an effective radius

of the well larger than the real radius. In the case of

a positive skin-factor (well in homogenous aquifer)

the well is effectively acting with a radius smaller

than the actual one.

84

4 FIELD EXAMPLES

phase will plot on a straight line starting at the origin. The drawdown data of a spherical flow will plot

on a straight line that commences in the origin in the

thirdplot.

on a 15 km long, sub-vertical (77S) fault zone

crossing the Fish River in the southern part of Namibia, which might be a potential recharge source.

The fault partly separates two low yielding formations composed at horizontal intercalated layers of

claystone, siltstone and sandstone. Both boreholes

intersect the fault at 27m below the surface. The water level in both boteholes rose immediately after the

fault was struck at a level of 906.1 m amsl (8.3 m

below surface in BHl and 5.3 m below surface in

BH2). The airlift yield was estimated at more than

100 m3fh in each borehole. Screens with 0.5 mm

slots were installed to avoid borehole collapse. Figure 5 shows the drawdown measured during one of

the constant discharge tests. Only the drawdown in

the. observation well shows a slope of 0.5 indicating

linear formation flow. However, the drawdown in

the pumped well starts almost horizontal and developes at late time to radial-acting flow. This behavior

is typical for a skin that is located at the well.

that the first two diagrams are very useful to determine skin effects in drawdown data of wells in single fractures with either linear or bilinear drawdown

behavior. Such skin effects cause an additional

drawdown that increases clogging phenomena and in

extreme cases can even destroy the stimulation effect of drilling. in a fracture zone (Economides &

Nolte 1989).

Cinco-Ley & Samaniego (1981b) found that, due

to skin effects, the early time linear flow data in a

log-log plot are represented as an almost horizontal

Onethat develops into the radial-acting phase (bilincar flow would plot similarly). Plotting the same

data in a linear drawdown versus square root of time

diagram will also show a straight-line, but will be

shifted downwards from the origin. Both authors

stated that, by data from the pumped well only, it is

not possible to. obtain a Unique solution for the determination of the skin location, which could be 10c:atedat the well, or between fracture and formation,

or at both. However, Bardenhagen (1999) showed an

unique evaluation method for the skin location for a

single vertical fault with a relative conductivity

Cr ~ 100 by using the plot linear drawdown versus

square root of time for drawdown data of a pumped

well and an observation well located in the same

fiwlt.

All these plots can also be applied for horizontal

features as they are only related to the flow regime.

10

0.1

0.01

3.5 Derivatives

10

100

1000

10000

100000

11"*'1

8dvantage because they are sensitive to small

changes in the rlrawdown curve and are independent

of skin effects, as illustrated in Figure 6. Usually, the

derivative is plotted as (tW6.t . t), which provides

the following advantages:

All characteristic

straight-line

in a pumped well.

The slope of.0.5 in the drawdown

data of the observation

well

indicates linear formation flow. Simulation

for a vertical infi-

nite conductive fracture with uniform flux results: T = 0.0007; xf=.460 m; sf= 1.78.

200 m2/d; S

A borehole was drilled into the dolomites of the

Tsumeb area, northern Naplibia. The constant discharge test indicated a short period of linear flux to a

fracture in the early stages. Water strikes were recorded at depths between 14 m and 27 m below the

water table. As soon as the water level in the

pumped well fell to the level of the rust water strike

a significant increase in the drawdown was measured, with a further increase as the water level fell

below to the second strike (Fig. 6). This behavior is

a clear indication of over-abstracting at a rate of

20 m3fh.However, due to unknown reasons an additional drawdown of 7 m can be determined from the

special plot.

same

Radial-acting flow phase is plotted as a horizontal fuie, which eases the identification for the

human eye

Unfortunately, derivatives applied to real data ofreo show too much noise. Smoothing of the derivatives would overcome this problem, but it cannot be

ensured that the applied mathematical algorithm

would not produce misleading artifacts. However,

recovery data are usually less noisy as they are not

iDfluenced by variations in the discharge rate and

can be used. Nevertheless, with some experience

even noisy derivative curves can be interpreted.

!

85

Engineers, American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and

Petroleum Engineers.

Cinco-Ley, H. & Samaniego, V. 1981a. Transient Pressure

Analysis for Fractured Wells. SPE 7490, Richardson,

Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers, American Institute

pfMining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers.

Cinca-Ley, H. & Samaniego, V. 1981b. Transient Pressure

Analysis: Finite Fracture versus Damaged Fracture 'case.

SPE 10179, Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers, American Institute of Mining, Meta1\urgical and Pe-

300.0

10.0

20.0

troleum Engineers.

of draw down curve.

'

2nded. Englewood Cliffs. New Iersey: Prentice Hall

Ehlig-Economides, C. & Economides, MJ. 1985. Pressure

Transient Analysis in an Elongated Linear Flow System.

SPE 12520, Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers, American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and P.etroleum Engineers.

Gringarten, A.C., Ramey Jr., HJ., & Raghavan, R. 1974. Unsteady-state pressure distribution created by a well with a

single infinite-conductivity vertical fTacture. SPE 4051, In

Proceedings of SPE-AIME 47th Annual Fall Meeting, San

Antonio, Texas, Oct. 8-11, 1972. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers, American Institute of Mining,

Meta1\urgical and Petroleum Engineers.

Gringarten, A.C., & Ramey Ir., H.I. 1974. Unsteady-state Pressure Distribution Created by a We1\ With a Single Horizontal Fracture, Partial Penetration, or Restricted Entry; Society of Petroleum Engineers Iournal, Transaction Vol. 257:

413-426.

.

Kaiemi, H. 1969. Pressure transient analysis ofnatura1\y fTaetured reservoirs with uniform fTacture distribution. Trans.

Soc. Pet. Eng. American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical

and Petroleum Engineers AIME, 246: 451-462.

Moench, A.F. 1984. Double-Porosity Models for Fissured

Groundwater Reservoir with Fracture Skin. Water Resources Research, Vol. 20, No 7: 831-846. Ramey Ir., H.J. & Gringarten, A.C. 1976. Effect of highvolume vertical fTactures on geothermal steam well behavior. In Proceedings Second UN. Devel. And Use of Geathermal Resources, San Fransisco, U.S. Governmerit PrintingOffice, WashingtonD.C., Vol.'3: 1759-1762.

'

Sabet, M.A: 1991. Well Test Analysis. Contributions in Petroleum Geology and Engineering, Gulf Publishing Company,

Houston, Texas.

Streltsowa, T.D. 1988. Well Testing in Heterogeneous Formations. An Exxon Monography. New York: John Wiley &

Sons, Inc.

t~(mInJ~

using the linear flow period

5 CONCLUSION

It is demonstrated that pumping tests can provide

various types of useful information regarding the

reservoir behavior of fractured rock aquifers, if reliable data and principal structural geological

information are available. Furthermore, it is shown

that only a detailed data analysis can produce

reliable results, using a combination of diagnostic

methods and tools. Some of the most important

functions are assuring data quality by comparing

drawdownand recoverydata.

Use pseqqo-skin analysis to overcome masking

or coinciilentaleffects

Identify different flow regimes with detailed

straight-line diagnosis Obtain skin effects with application of special

plots

Use derivatives from real data. This requires

much experience. Nevertheless, they are especially useful to identify radial-acting flow, because they are not affected by skin effects.

However, further investigations are necessary,

especially for the Cjvaluationof data from pumping

tests performed in discontinuous aquifers below the

representative elementary volume (REV).

M.I. 1997. Transient Behavior ofFinite Conductivity

Horizontal Fractures. SPE 38436. Society

of Petroleum Engineers,

SPE Iournal, Vol. 2: 213-222.

Warren, I.E. & Root, P.J. 1963. The behavior of naturally fractured reservoirs. Trans. Soc. Pet. Eng. American Institute of

Mining,

Metallurgical

and Petroleum

Engineers

AIME,

REFERENCES

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