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# 8/30/2015

## ELE 361: Communications

Fourier Analysis Review
Fall 2015
Dr. Mahmoud H. Ismail Ibrahim
Associate Professor
Department of Electrical Engineering
American University of Sharjah

FOURIER SERIES

+ 0 = ,

## 0 is the fundamental period (sec) and 0 is the

fundamental frequency (Hz).
Using Fourier series expansion,

2 , =

=
=

1
0

20
0

= ,
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Amplitude
spectrum

Phase
spectrum

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NOTES

## All frequencies are integer multiples (harmonics) of the

fundamental frequency.
DC component (average value) is 0
If () is real, then
=
even
= odd
EXAMPLE 1

().
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## PARSEVALS POWER THEOREM

Average power of a signal can be obtained from the timedomain or the frequency-domain and they should be the
same!

1
=
() 2 =
2

=

EXAMPLE 2

## Find the average power of the rectangular pulse train

1
with = 1, = 4 , = 1.
Sketch the percentage of power as a function of the
frequency components.
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SOLUTION

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FOURIER TRANSFORM

## The frequency spectrum of a non periodic signal can be

obtained using FT

2 =

2 = 1

EXAMPLE 3

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/2

/2

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1,
< /2

=
0,
Otherwise

NOTES

## Note that the spectrum of non periodic signals is a

continuous function of frequency not like in FS.
() is usually complex so we have an amplitude and
phase spectra.
DC value is 0 . How?
If () is real, then = .
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()

()

EXAMPLE 4

## For the rectangular pulse, calculate the total energy and

the energy in the main lobe. How much of the total
energy is contained in the main lobe?

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IMPORTANT SUMMARY

Periodic
Discrete.
Continuous
Aperiodic.
FS is utilized for periodic, continuous signals.
FS coefficients are discrete (due to periodicity),
aperiodic (due to continuity).
FT is utilized for aperiodic, continuous signals.
FT signal is continuous (due to aperiodicity),
aperiodic (due to continuity).
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y(t )

g (t ) * h(t )

g(t)

h(t)

y(t)

Applying FT
g (t )

G (f )

h (t )

H (f )

y (t )

Y (f )

## The output in the frequency domain

Y (f ) G (f ).H (f )
Convolution
Multiplica tion
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## IMPORTANT EXAMPLE (FREQUENCY SHIFTING PROPERTY)

Baseband

Passband
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ESSENTIAL BW OF A SIGNAL

## Note that the BW is calculated from one side of the

spectrum only.
Most signals are finite in time
infinite in
frequency.
We usually suppress the signal spectrum beyond B
Hz with little effect on the signal shape and energy.
The BW B is called the essential BW.

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