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ELE 361: Communications


Fourier Analysis Review
Fall 2015
Dr. Mahmoud H. Ismail Ibrahim
Associate Professor
Department of Electrical Engineering
American University of Sharjah

FOURIER SERIES

Let () be a periodic signal with period 0 = 1/0 , i.e.,


+ 0 = ,

0 is the fundamental period (sec) and 0 is the


fundamental frequency (Hz).
Using Fourier series expansion,

2 , =

=
=

1
0

20
0

are the FS coefficients given by


= ,
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Amplitude
spectrum

Phase
spectrum

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NOTES

All frequencies are integer multiples (harmonics) of the


fundamental frequency.
DC component (average value) is 0
If () is real, then
=
even
= odd
EXAMPLE 1

Find FS coefficients for the signal


().
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PARSEVALS POWER THEOREM

Average power of a signal can be obtained from the timedomain or the frequency-domain and they should be the
same!

1
=
() 2 =
2

=

EXAMPLE 2

Find the average power of the rectangular pulse train


1
with = 1, = 4 , = 1.
Sketch the percentage of power as a function of the
frequency components.
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SOLUTION

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FOURIER TRANSFORM

The frequency spectrum of a non periodic signal can be


obtained using FT

2 =

2 = 1

EXAMPLE 3

Find the FT of the signal .

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/2

/2

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The unit rectangular pulse is expressed as:

1,
< /2

=
0,
Otherwise

in the previous example can thus be written as:

NOTES

Note that the spectrum of non periodic signals is a


continuous function of frequency not like in FS.
() is usually complex so we have an amplitude and
phase spectra.
DC value is 0 . How?
If () is real, then = .
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PARSEVALS ENERGY THEOREM

()

()

Energy Spectral Density (ESD)

EXAMPLE 4

For the rectangular pulse, calculate the total energy and


the energy in the main lobe. How much of the total
energy is contained in the main lobe?

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IMPORTANT SUMMARY

Periodic
Discrete.
Continuous
Aperiodic.
FS is utilized for periodic, continuous signals.
FS coefficients are discrete (due to periodicity),
aperiodic (due to continuity).
FT is utilized for aperiodic, continuous signals.
FT signal is continuous (due to aperiodicity),
aperiodic (due to continuity).
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LINEAR TIME-INVARIANT (LTI) SYSTEMS

The input-output relationship is


y(t )

g (t ) * h(t )

g(t)

h(t)

y(t)

Applying FT
g (t )

G (f )

h (t )

H (f )

y (t )

Y (f )

The output in the frequency domain


Y (f ) G (f ).H (f )
Convolution
Multiplica tion
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IMPORTANT EXAMPLE (FREQUENCY SHIFTING PROPERTY)

Baseband

Passband
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ESSENTIAL BW OF A SIGNAL

Note that the BW is calculated from one side of the


spectrum only.
Most signals are finite in time
infinite in
frequency.
We usually suppress the signal spectrum beyond B
Hz with little effect on the signal shape and energy.
The BW B is called the essential BW.

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