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Unit 1 Segment 1

Welcome to all our course participants!


course instructor:
Margaret Wooldridge
Arthur F. Thurnau Professor
Departments of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan USA
professional expertise in power, propulsion, energy systems,
combustion systems, fuel chemistry, advanced engine strategies,
exhaust gas treatment, mobile and stationary sectors, etc.

What is thermodynamics all about???


This course will provide you with an introduction to the most
powerful engineering principles you will ever learn:
thermodynamics! Or the science of transferring energy from one
place or form to another place or form. We will introduce the tools
you need to analyze energy systems from solar panels, to engines,
to insulated coffee mugs.

More specifically, we will cover the topics of mass and energy


conservation principles; first law analysis of control mass and
control volume systems; properties and behavior of pure
substances; and applications to thermodynamic systems operating
at steady state conditions.

Course objectives:
To make familiarize you with the basic concepts,
devices, and properties used in thermal science
To teach the behavior of a simple pure substances
including solid, liquid, and gas phases
To teach how to evaluate energy, work and heat
transfers processes
To teach the conservation laws for mass and energy for
various physical systems
To teach application of process knowledge to the
analysis of complete systems

Course Outcomes:
Identify different subsystems, indicate where there is work, heat transfer
and the importance of temperature, pressure and density
Given a set of properties, identify the correct phase and remaining
properties for a substance
Given a physical setup, determine the associated work and heat transfers
that are the most reasonable approximations
Given a physical device and process, compute the work and heat transfer
Given a physical setup, formulate the ideal approximation to the
behavior and compute the corresponding work and heat transfer
Given an actual device, analyze the corresponding ideal device
Understanding how energy processes affect the environment

To help you understand the concepts, we will use freely available


references and tools
1.
2.
3.

U.S. Department of Energy Fundamentals Handbook Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow,
Volume 1 of 3 (http://www.hss.doe.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/docs/handbook/h1012v1.pdf)
Thermodynamics and Chemistry, 2nd Edition, by Howard DeVoe, Associate Professor Emeritus,
University of Maryland (http://www2.chem.umd.edu/thermobook/)
Online calculator of steam (i.e. water), which includes links for carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonia
(NH3) properties: http://www.steamtablesonline.com/

The weekly reading assignments are listed in the course syllabus

Course schedule:
All reading material is from the reference texts Thermodynamics and Chemistry, 2nd
Edition by Howard Devoe, and the U.S. Department of Energy Fundamentals
Handbook Volume 1 Thermodynamics.

Week
1
2

3
4
5
6
7
8

Supportive Reading Material


Devoe: Chapters 1-2.1
Devoe: Chapter 2.1-2.3
DOE: Thermodynamic Properties ,
Temperature and Pressure Measurements,
Property Diagrams and Steam Tables
Devoe: Chapter 2.4-2.5
Devoe: Chapter 2.6
DOE: Energy, Work, and Heat
Devoe: Chapter 3.1-3.2
DOE: Energy, Work, and Heat, First Law
of Thermodynamics
Devoe: Chapter 3.3-3.10
DOE: Energy, Work, and Heat
DOE: Energy, Work, and Heat,
Thermodynamic Systems and Processes,
First Law of Thermodynamics
DOE: Energy, Work, and Heat,
Thermodynamic Systems and Processes,
First Law of Thermodynamics

Topic
introduction, concepts, definitions, and
UNITS!!
thermodynamic properties, measuring
temperature and pressure
describing the states of different systems,
processes and pathways between states
the energy of a system
the 1st law of thermodynamics/the
conservation of energy
heat and work transfer
energy analysis of closed systems, internal
energy, enthalpy, specific heats
energy analysis of open systems, steady
state systems

Frequently asked questions:


What are the prerequisites for taking this course? An introductory background (high
school or first year college level) in chemistry, physics, and calculus will help you be
successful in this class.
What will this class prepare me for in the academic world? Thermodynamics is required
for many follow-on courses, like heat transfer, internal combustion engines, propulsion,
and gas dynamics to name a few.
What will this class prepare me for in the real world? Energy is one of the top
challenges we face as a global society. Energy demands are deeply tied to the other
major challenges of clean water, health, and poverty. Understanding how energy
systems work is key to understanding how to meet all these needs around the world.
Because energy demands are only increasing, this course also provides the foundation
for many rewarding professional careers.

Based on what we just reviewed, look around you and identify 5


systems where energy transfer is important.

Unit 1 Segment 2

Based on what we just reviewed, look around


you and identify 5 systems where energy
transfer is important.
Now look again and identify 25 systems!
Your laptop and desktop computers, cell phone,
car, train, bus, office heating/cooling, coffee
mug, printer, scanner, lighting, clock, watch,
television, bicycle, boiler, furnace
Energy transfer is everywhere in varying levels
of importance.

What are the drivers for changing the way we currently


use energy?

Global energy demands are high!


The night-time city lights of the world constructed from images taken by the U.S. Defense Meteorological
Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System.

Source: Science@NASA, Lighting up the ecosphere

Population cartogram

U-M Physics Professor Mark Newman


http://www.umich.edu/news/research/story/networks.htm

Energy consumption cartogram

U-M Physics Professor Mark Newman


http://www.umich.edu/news/research/story/networks.htm

Energy demands are


only going to get higher

Total Population by Region, 1950, 1995, 2025, and

Between now and 2050


world population growth
will be generated
exclusively in developing
countries Heilig, 1996.
In the next 50 years, the
world population is
projected to grow by
over 2 billion people.
G.K. Heilig, IIASA LUC-Project, World Population Prospects:
Analyzing the 1996 UN Population Projections, WP-96-146,
December 1996

2050 (in million)

Population growth is projected to grow by two billion people in


the next 50 years. If each person uses one 50 Watt light bulb,
how much new power will we need?

Unit 1 Segment 3

Population growth is projected to grow by two billion people in


the next 50 years. If each person uses one 50 Watt light bulb,
how much new power will we need?
50 W x 2,000,000,000 people =
100,000,000,000 W!!!!
How many nuclear power plants is that??? A lot. More on this
later.

Global consumption of energy by source

Renewables = net geothermal, solar, wind, and wood and waste electric power
Based on U.S. Energy Information Administration data, 1980-2004

UNITS ARE ABSOLUTELY CRITICAL FOR THERMODYNAMICS


Common Units and Conversion Factors for Energy Analysis
Pressure
1 Pa = 1 N/m2 = 1 kg/m/s2 = 1 kg/(m s2)=110-5 bar = 1.450410-4 psia =
9.869210-6 atm
1 bar = 105 Pa = 0.98692 atm = 14.504 psia = 2088.6 lbf/ft2
1 lbf/in2 (psia) = 144 lbf/ft2 = 6894.8 Pa = 6.894810-2 bar = 0.068046 atm
1 atm = 101.325 kPa = 14.696 psia = 1.0133 bar = 2116.2 lbf/ft2
Energy
1 J = 1 Nm = 1 kg m2/s2 = 1 Ws
1 kJ = 1 kWs = 0.94783 Btu = 0.23885 kcal = 737.56 ft lbf
1 Btu = 1.0550 kJ = 0.252 kcal = 778.16 ft lbf
1 kcal = 4.1868 kJ = 3.9684 Btu = 3088.0 ft lbf
1 kWh = 3.60103 kJ = 2655.2103 ft lbf = 3412.2 Btu
1 ft lbf = 1.285110-3 Btu = 1.355810-3 kJ
1 therm = 105 Btu = 29.3 kWh = 1.05506108 J
1 eV = 1.60210-19 J
1 MTOE = 1 million tonnes of oil equivalent = 0.041015 Btu = 6.9107 BOE
1 BOE = 1 barrel of oil equivalent = 5.8106 Btu
1 gallon of gasoline = 1.24105 Btu
1 cubic foot of natural gas = 1028 Btu

Common Units and Conversion Factors for Energy Analysis


Energy Rate or Power
1 W = 1 J/s
1 W = 3.4122 Btu/h = 0.85987 kcal/h = 1.3410210-3 hp = 0.73756 ft lbf/s
We = Watt of electric power
Wt = Watt of thermal power
1 Btu/h = 0.29307 W = 0.252 kcal/h = 3.9310-4 hp = 0.21616 ft lbf/s
1 kcal/h = 1.163 W = 3.9683 Btu/h = 1.559510-3 hp = 0.85778 ft lbf/s
1 hp = 550 ft lbf/s = 2544.5 Btu/h = 745.7 W
1 ton (cooling capacity) = 12,000 Btu/h = 3.5168 kW
Energy Density (Energy per Unit Mass or per Unit Mole or per Unit Area)
(Mass)
1 kJ/kg = 0.42992 Btu/lbm = 0.23885 kcal/kg = 334.55 ft lbf/lbm
(Mole)
1 kJ/kmol, 1 Btu/mol, etc.
(Rate per Area)
1 W/m2 = 0.317 Btu/(h ft2) = 0.85986 kcal/(h m2)
1 Btu/(h ft2) = 3.1546 W/m2 = 2.7125 kcal/(h m2)
1 kcal/(h m2) = 1.163 W/m2 = 0.36867 Btu/(h ft2)

Prefixes and other assorted measurements


1 megawatt = 1MW = 1106 W
1 gigawatt = 1GW = 1109 W
1 terawatt = 1 TW= 11012 W
1 petawatt = 1 PW = 11015 W
1 exawatt = 1 EW = 11018 W
1 zettaawatt = 1 ZW = 11021 W
1 yottawatt = YW = 11024 W

1 Quad Btu = 1 quadrillion Btu = 11015 Btu


1 thousand Btu = 1 MBtu = 1000 Btu
1 million Btu = 1 MMBtu = 1106 Btu
1 short ton = 1 ton = 2000 lbs
1 metric ton = 1 tonne = 2200 lbs

Btu = British thermal unit


Hp = horsepower
kWh = kilowatt hour

U.S. consumption of energy


by source

Small improvements in
combustion of fossil fuels can
have huge impact on carbon
reduction; compare to doubling
the contributions of renewable
resources in the global energy
portfolio, yet renewables are
vital to long term energy
solutions

Energy supply and demand by sector in the U.S.

Source: DOE http://www.eia.doe.gov

Energy supply and demand in the U.S.


Energy use by sector

Different energy sectors


have dramatically different
needs: transient propulsion
systems, high heating rates
for manufacturing, etc.
There is no silver bullet, no
one-fuel, no one method
solution.
Source: DOE http://www.eia.doe.gov

What energy sector has the most demanding requirements for


transient energy, i.e. energy demands that change as a
function of time?

Unit 1 Segment 4

What energy sector has the most demanding requirements for


transient energy, i.e. energy demands that change as a
function of time?
You might think of seasonal changes for heating or cooling or
even daily cycles, like changes in manufacturing production
during the day and evening shifts. Now consider the power
demands from a passenger vehicle!

Thermodynamics is the study of energy and the


interaction of energy with matter.

Heat transfer is how energy is transferred when


there is a temperature difference.

Fluid mechanics is the motion of fluids (which


includes gases and liquids) and the
transformation of energy between mechanical
and thermal forms.

Terminology and definitions:


System - the object(s) under consideration
A closed systems is also called a control mass.
Mass can not cross the system boundary.
There is a fixed quantity of matter in the
system.
An open systems is also called a control volume.
Mass can cross the system boundary.
The amount of matter within the control
volume can change.

Is the coffee in your thermos or mug best described as a control


mass or control volume?
Is the CPU in your computer best described as a control mass or
control volume?

Unit 1 Segment 5

Is the coffee in your thermos or mug best


described as a control mass or control
volume?
That depends. Is the system the coffee or the
cup? Is the coffee being poured into the cup?
Is the CPU in your computer best described as a
control mass or control volume?
That depends. Is the system the CPU or the air
used to cool the CPU?
Sometimes the system is obvious. Other times
it can be more challenging to define.

Properties describe the characteristics of the


system
Thermodynamic properties describe the
thermal properties of the system
State the condition of the system as described
by the system thermodynamic properties
Steady state means the system properties are
not changing as a function of time

Extensive properties depend on the extent (or


amount) of material in the system; these are
properties that are additive, like mass
Intensive properties do NOT depend on the
extent (or amount) of material in the system;
these are properties which are NOT additive,
like temperature
Equilibrium when the system is unchanging
in terms of thermal, mechanical, phase and
chemical characteristics
Process a path between two states

Introduction to some properties


Density = mass per unit volume = = 1/v
Specific volume = volume per unit mass = v = 1/
Pressure (absolute and relative)
Temperature

You should have seen some of these properties before. What are
the units of density, specific volume, pressure and
temperature?
What category of properties are density, specific volume,
pressure and temperature? Intensive or extensive?

Unit 1 Segment 6

You should have seen some of these properties before.


What are the units of density, specific volume,
pressure and temperature?
The answers will vary based on which system of units
you choose, SI or British. Here are some examples:
density [kg/m3], specific volume [m3/kg], pressure
[kPa] or [atm], temperature [oC ] or [K]
What category of properties are density, specific
volume, pressure and temperature? Intensive or
extensive?
Every one of these properties are intensive properties.

Units are critical to thermodynamics analysis and they


are a HUGE asset.
Pressure
1 Pa = 1 N/m2 = 1 kg/m/s2 = 1 kg/(m s2)=110-5 bar = 1.450410-4 psia = 9.869210-6
atm
1 bar = 105 Pa = 0.98692 atm = 14.504 psia = 2088.6 lbf/ft2
1 lbf/in2 (psia) = 144 lbf/ft2 = 6894.8 Pa = 6.894810-2 bar = 0.068046 atm
1 atm = 101.325 kPa = 14.696 psia = 1.0133 bar = 2116.2 lbf/ft2
Energy
1 J = 1 Nm = 1 kg m2/s2 = 1 Ws
1 kJ = 1 kWs = 0.94783 Btu = 0.23885 kcal = 737.56 ft lbf
1 Btu = 1.0550 kJ = 0.252 kcal = 778.16 ft lbf
1 kcal = 4.1868 kJ = 3.9684 Btu = 3088.0 ft lbf
1 kWh = 3.60103 kJ = 2655.2103 ft lbf = 3412.2 Btu
Energy Rate or Power
1 W = 1 J/s
1 W = 3.4122 Btu/h = 0.85987 kcal/h = 1.3410210-3 hp = 0.73756 ft lbf/s
1 Btu/h = 0.29307 W = 0.252 kcal/h = 3.9310-4 hp = 0.21616 ft lbf/s
1 kcal/h = 1.163 W = 3.9683 Btu/h = 1.559510-3 hp = 0.85778 ft lbf/s
1 hp = 550 ft lbf/s = 2544.5 Btu/h = 745.7 W
Energy Density (Energy per Unit Mass or per Unit Mole)
Mass 1 kJ/kg = 0.42992 Btu/lbm = 0.23885 kcal/kg = 334.55 ft lbf/lbm
Mole 1 kJ/kmol, 1 Btu/mol, etc.

Energy in closed systems:


kinetic energy = K.E.

potential energy = P.E.

Work energy transfer across the system


boundary
Work transfer is not a system property.
Work transfer depends on the process path.
There are many types or forms of work tranfser.

What does a constant pressure compression


process look like on a pressure-volume
diagram?