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Jack Lavey

Final on Wed. Dec 21st, 2011

Saxton: USS
Unit One- Reconstruction (Ch 12)
Freedmens Bureau- An agency established by Congress in 1865 to
help poor people (AAs) throughout the South post CW
Andrew Johnsons Plan- A continuation of Lincolns plan for
reconstruction10% Plan=forgive south, required at least 10% of
states voters to have taken oath of loyalty to union- ironclad oath
Radical Republicans Plan= 50% Plan= 505 of voters to take oath
14th Amendment- Gave full voting/citizenship rights to alien
born/naturalized people in US (excludes NAs)
Impeachment-The process used by a legislative body to bring
charges of wrongdoing upon a public official.Happened to Johnson
after he fired Stanton for undermining Congress
Sharecropping-System used on Southern farms after CW in which
farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small
portion of the crop. Most FM were sharecroppers who were kept in a
debt cycle by it.
Hiram Revels- First AA in Senate.
Enforcement Acts- Group of laws made in 1870-71 which banned the
activities of racist groups, and empowered army courts to capture and
punish members of said groups.
Compromise of 1877- Settled the dispute over 76 election in which
dems agreed to accept Rutherford B. Hayes as pres as long as reps
pulled military out of south.
Solid South- Nickname for south after recon because it was solidly
democratic, and racist.
Unit Two- The West (Ch 13), Cities (Ch 14)
Battle of Little Bighorn- 1876 battle in which Sioux forces led by
chief Sitting Bull defeated US army troops under Lt. Col. George
Armstrong Custer. Really showed US that NAs meant bus.
Dawes Act- 1877 legislation that split up NA reservation lands among
individual NAs and promised them citizenship
Comstock Lode- Nevada gold and silver mine to which thousands
rushed in promise of fortune.
Joseph Glidden- Farmer who patented barbed wirefencing West
Homestead Act- 1862 law that encouraged westward settlement by
giving small farmers govt-owned land plots. Over 21 y/o=160 acres.
Had to build house, make improvements, farms for five yrs . 2 million
Frederick Jackson Turner- Historian who developed the idea that
the US was distinctive bc of manifest destiny. Thats what made us a
thriving ntn.

Transcontinental Railroad- Crossed from Omaha to Sacramento.

Employed thousands of immigrant workers, helped build huge
companies like Carnegie Steel and Rockefeller Oil into monopolies.
Laissez Faire- Bus. allowed to go on with out govt interference
Social Darwinism- Belief that the strongest people, bus, ntns, etc
would come out on top, just like Charles Darwins theory of natural
Vertical Integration- Owning all of the companies involved in each
step of the manufacturing process.
Horizontal Integration- Taking over companies that make the same
product as your bus.
Rockefeller (oil) Carnegie (steel)- The richest and most powerful
owners of monopolies during the late 1800s. They controlled literally
everything that AMs did at the time.
Knights of Labor (Powderly)- Secret society that became the first
US labor union, led by Terrence V. Powderly, accepted everyone in
American Fed. of Labor (Gompers)- Won wage increases and
shorter work weeks under 1886 leadership of Samuel Gompers.
Sherman Antitrust Act-1890 act which stated that it was illegal to
create monopolies that restricted free trade.
Mass Transit- Public transportation systems that carry lots of people.
Subways, trolleys, etc.
Alexander Graham Bell- Inventor of the telephone.
Unit Three- The Gilded Age (Chs 15 & 16)
Ellis/Angel Island- The ports at NYC and San Francisco which
admitted thousands of immigrants into the US during the late 1800s.
Gentlemens Agreement- Pact between US and Japan to limit
immigration to the US in exchange for Pres Roosevelts approval of San
Francisco schools segregating Japanese and American children.
Jane Addams- Social worker and activists, co-founder of Hull Houseorg that focused on immigrants needs.
Social Gospel- Idea that religious faith should be expressed through
good works.
Wainwright Building- First skyscraper in STL.
Economic Classes- Upper, middle and lower classes represented by
portioned out triangle.
William Boss Tweed- Controlled NYCs Tammany Hall and ran huge
part of the citys gang/organized crime system.
Populist Party- 1892 party that supported free coinage of silver, work
reforms, immigration restrictions, and govt ownership of railroads and
telegraph and phone systems. Mostly farmers.
Bi-Metallism- The idea that not just gold, but also silver was needed
for the economy to thrive.

Election of 1896- Between William McKinley (dem) and William

Jennings Bryan (populist). Election was a high point for the populist
Plessy v Ferguson- Supreme court case in which the separate but
equal doctrine was established. This was never really that true bc black
got all of the crappy stuff.
Booker T. Washington-AA civil rights leader wo became head of the
Tuskegee Institute for Career Training of AAs.
WEB DuBois-AA who led the Niagara Falls mvmt calling for econ and
edu equality for AAs. Helped found the NAACP.
Progressivism- Group of reform mvmts in the late 1800s that
focused on urban problems, the plight of workers, and corrupt pol
Muckrakers (Riis, Nast)- Journalists who raked up the corruption of
society. Jacob Riis wrote How the Other Half Lives. Thomas Nast was a
political cartoonist for Harpers Weekly.
16th Amendment- Allowed cong to levee taxes based on personal
17th Amendment- Allowed voters to directly elect their senators.
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire- NYC event in which a clothing factory
caught fire and killed most women working in it bc exits were locked.
Caused by cloth catching fire on eighth floor. Showed how bad bus
safety regulations were.
WCTU- Womens Christian Temperance Union led crusade against
18th Amendment- Banned all alcohol in the US. Created speakeasies,
Al Capone, etc.
NAWSA- National Womens Suffrage Assoc. founded by Elizabeth
Stanton and Susan B. Anthony in 1890 to obtain womens rights.
19th Amendment- Gave women full voting rights.
Roosevelt, Taft, Wilson- Presidents.
Square Deal: Regulatory Govt- Roosevelts campaign slogan the
expressed the idea that bus., workers, and consumers should be
Conservationism- Belief that land should be saved and not plowed
over, which was a very common practice during this time period.
Payne-Aldrich Tariff- A tariff that raised price on imported goods.
Outraged the progressives.
Federal Reserve Act- 1913 law that created central fund from which
banks could borrow money to prevent collapse during financial panic.
Clayton Antitrust Act- 1914 law that made it illegal to form
monopolies. Also legalized strikes, boycotts, and picketing.
Unit Four- Imperialism (Ch 17) and War (Ch 18)
Hawaii- Taken control of by US in late 1800s bc of its ease in
pineapple and sugar production. We wanted to annex it, so we put a

gun to the kings head and made him sign the bayonet const which
seriously limited Hawaiians rights. Queen Liliuokalani was also taken
over when she wanted to stop the BC, so minister John Stevens illegally
ordered marines to force her to surrender. We then annexed under
China- Was a huge port of interest for imperialistic powers. Proposed
the Open Door Policy which would allow all to have equal trading rights
there. Boxers then laid siege to Beijing we send troops to helpchina
agrees to open trade.
Spain in China- Spain was cruel to Cuba. Yellow journalism helps get
Am excited about going to war with Spain. USS Maine explodes in
Havana harbor, de Lme Letter ridicules McKinleysets US into Sp/Am
Philippines- Spain also controlled Phil with primitive weapons in
Manila Bay so we basically blew the entire fleet to smitherines.
San Juan Hill- TRs rough riders along with other US cavalry wanted
Santiago We sank the fleet in the harbor and took San Juan Hillwon
Teller Amendment- Stated that Am would leave Cuba alone after Sp
was eliminated.
Platt Amendment- Part of Cubas new const that limited Cubas
treaty making rights, and gave the us the US right to intervene in
Cuban affairs, required Cuba to sell/lease land to US.
Panama Canal- TRs stretch of land between Atlantic and Pacific
oceans that would provide easier trade. Received from Panama when
US defended them from Colombian attack.
Roosevelt Corollary-An addition to the Monroe Doctrine that said the
US would protect Dominican Rep from attempts at colonization from
Eur. powers.
Four isms of WWI:
Nationalism- Extreme devotion to a particular nation or culture. Slavic
ntns sorta caught in middle of AH and Rus trying to take over the
former Ottoman empire.
Imperialism- The quest for colonial empires. Showed that you were
the most powerful ntn (Eng, Ger, Sp, Am, etc.)
Militarism- Building up military preparedness. Ger did this with its
navy and footsoldiers. Created the Schlieffen Plan to be able to take on
both Rus and Fr at the same time.
Isolationism- Not getting involved in foreign affairs. US tried this until
they were forced to enter.
Western Front-New Weapons- Tanks, gas, planes, machine guns,
trenches, submarines all became staples of good warfare. War had
never been fought in trenches before.
Womens Role- Women took the jobs that men had left. Worked in
every field, especially factories, selling liberty bonds, etc. Over 1 mil
women entered workforce.

Luistania- Ger U-Boot sinks innocent passenger ship.. 1200 died.

Caused uproar in US.
Zimmerman Note- A note to the Ger minister in Mex saying that they
should try to take back Mex terr in US to try and distract US from
intervening in Eur. Intercepted and pushed US farther into favor of war.
Liberty Bonds- Bonds the Am people bought to help pay for the war
effort. Would be repayed after war.
Schenk v. US- 1917 court case that explained that during certain
times, the right to free speech (1st amend) is not guaranteed.
John J Blackjack Pershing- Army commander who led
Expeditionary Forces in WWI. Made US soldiers stay in US battalions
and ordered them to more training before they went out to fight.
League of Nations- International body of nations formed to prevent
wars created by Wilson bc he wanted WWI to be the war to end all
wars. Caused conflict in Am so we never joined.
Reservationists- Sen Lodges group that supported LoN only of it
didnt require us to send military.
Unit Five- 1920s (Chs 19 & 20) and the Great Depression (Ch
Red Scare: Communism- The fear of communism. Caused Palmer
Raids in which unwarranted police came and searched private
properties for communist behavior.
Henry Ford- Owner of Ford automotive. Made cars a big deal that
were easy to produce.
Welfare Capitalism- A system in which companies provided fringe
benefits to employees in an effort to promote worker satisfaction and
Installment Buying- A system of borrowing money form banks or
lenders to make purchases, then paying it back later with interest.
buying on a margin extremely dangerous practice.
Teapot Dome Scandal- Fed owned land in Wyoming that was drilled
for oil illegally when Hardings Sec of Interior accepted bribes in return
for allowing oil cos to drill.
Kellog-Briand Pact- 1928 treaty that rejected war as a way of solving
problems between countries.
Women- Clothes got shorter-flappers, sexuality was much more
prevalent, birth control-Sanger
Values- Moneydepression, having fun, beauty
Prohibition (18th Amendment)- The ban of all alcohol in the US
organized crime, speakeasies, partying, etc.
Arts- Silent filmsRudolph Valentino, Charlie Chaplin. Jazz George
Gershwin, Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington
Harlem Renaissance- Music Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington,
George Gershwin. Literature Langsotn Hughes, Claude McKay.

Sports- FootballRed Grange. Baseball Babe Ruth. Tennis Helen

Causes of the Depression- Buying on a margin, overspending,
Dorthea Lange- Govt commissioned photographer who took pics of
Hoovers Response- Rugged individualismthe ntn would sort
itself out on its own.