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C3 - ln x and ex

Natural Logarithms and Exponentials


Natural Logs

n+1
n kx
We know that ∫ kx dx = , except for n=-1 (i.e., we do not know how
n +1
1
to evaluate ∫ dx. or ∫ x dx ) This integral must have a value because if we
−1

x
3
1
look at the graph of y = x and consider the definite integral ∫
1 dx, which
1
x
represents the area under the curve between x = 1 and x = 3, it is clear from

the graph that this must have a value, i.e.

1 3

In fact, the integral turns out to be a log function, which we call the natural log
function. This has the base e (≈ 2.718) . On your calculator the natural log is
denoted by lnx.

The graph of lnx has the characteristic shape of all log functions:

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C3 - ln x and ex

We can transform the graph using translation, reflection and stretch eg

(i) y= ln(x+3) (ii) y = - lnx (iii) y=ln(2x)

-3 1 0.5

The Exponential Function ex: We know that the inverse of y = log a x is


y = a x . Similarly, the inverse of y = Inx is y = e x .

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C3 - ln x and ex

The graphs of inverse functions are the reflections of each other in the line
y = x, so the graph of y = ex must look like this:

y=x

y = ex

y = Inx

It also follows, since ff-1(x) = f-1f(x) = x, that


elnx = x and ln(e x ) = x. LEARN

The graph can also be translated, reflected and stretched, eg


(i) y = ex + 3 (ii) y = e-x (iii) y = e2x

3
1 1

Exponential growth and Decay

Example of exponential growth.

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C3 - ln x and ex

The number, N, of insects in a colony is given by N= 2000e0.1t where t is the


number of days after observations have begun.

i) Sketch he graph of N against t


ii) What is the population of the colony after 20 days?
iii) How long does it take the colony to reach a population of 10000?

Solution i) When t=0, N=2000, and the graph is an x-stretch of


 1 
scale factor 10  = x
 of the graph y = e . It therefore looks like this:
 0.1 

2000

ii) When t=20, N=2000e 0.1x 20


= 14778

iii) When N=10000,


10000= 2000e 0.1t
5 = e 0.1t

Taking logs of both sides (natural logs since ex is involved)

In 5 = ln e0.1t
ln 5 = 0.1t

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C3 - ln x and ex

In5
t= = 16.09
0.1

It takes just over 16 days for the population to reach 10000.

Example of exponential decay

The radioactive mass, M grams, in a lump of material is given by M=25e


−0.0012t when t is the time in seconds after first observation.

i) Sketch the graph of M against t


ii) What is the initial size of the mass?
iii) What is the mass after 1 hour?
iv) The half life of a radioactive substance is the time it takes to decay to
half of its mass what is the half-life of this material?

Solution

i) When t=0, M = 25, and e-0.0012t is a reflection of et in the M axis with a


 1 
t-stretch of scale factor 833  =  . The graph must therefore look like
 0.0012 
this:

25

ii) When t = 0, M = 25eo = 25


∴ initial mass =25g

iii) After 1 hour t = 3600.

M = 25e−0.0012 x3600 = o.33 g (to 2 dp)


1
iv) After 1 half life, M = X 25 g = 12.5 g .
2

∴12.5 = 25e −0.0012t


0.5 = e−0.0012t
In 0.5 = ln e-0.0012t

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C3 - ln x and ex

In 0.5 = −0.0012t ⇒ t = 557.6 (to 1 dp)

The half life is 557.6 seconds, just under 10 minutes


∴ Very highly radioactive.

Solving equations with ex and Inx

To solve an equation with ex, first combine all the e functions into a single e
function on one side of the equation, then ‘take ln’ of both sides.

To solve an equation with ln x, first combine all the ln functions into a


single ln function on one side of the equation, then ‘take e’ of both sides.

Examples Solve the equations (i) ex x e2x = 3


(ii) lnx – ln3 = lnx2

Solutions

(i) ex x e2x = 3
ex+2x = 3
e3x =3

lne3x = ln3
3x = ln3
ln 3
x = = 0.366(3sf)
3

(ii) lnx – ln3 = lnx2


lnx – ln3 –lnx2 = 0
x
ln [ 2 ] =0
3x

 x 

e
ln  2 
 3x  = e0

x
=1
3x 2
x = 3x2
2
x - 3x = 0
x(1 – 3x) = 0

1
x = 0, x =
3

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C3 - ln x and ex

Example: Find an expression for p if Inp − In(1 − p) = t

Solution

Inp − (1 − p ) = t
p
In =t
1− p

‘Take exp’ of both sides

In p
1− p
e = et
p
= et
1− p
p = et (1 − p)
p = et − pet
p + pet − et
p(1 + et ) = et
t
p= e t
1+ e
Differentiating Inx and ex

1
Since ∫ xdx = ln x + c ,
d 1
it follows that (lnx) = LEARN
dx x
The derivative of y = ex may be found by interchanging x and y and finding
1
dy
dx from dx , ie
dy.

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C3 - ln x and ex

y = ex
⇒ x = lny
dx 1
. ⇒ =
dy y
dy 1 1
⇒ = = = y = ex
dx dx 1
dy y

Therefore,
d (e x ) = e x
dx

∫ e dx = e +c
x x

So, e x is unchanged when differentiated or integrated. LEARN

dy
Example 1: Find if y = 2e x + 5.
dx
dy
Solution: = 2e x
dx
dy
Example 2: Find if y=e 5x
dx
This is a function of a function ∴ use substitution + chain rule.

Solution

Let t = 5 x ⇒ y = et
dy dy t
=5 =e
dx dt
dy dy dt
∴ = x = 5 x et = 5e5 x
dx dt dx

d mx
In general, (e ) = memx LEARN
dx

4
Example 3 Differentiate y=
e2 x
Solution:

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C3 - ln x and ex

y = 42 x = 4e−2 x
e
dy
⇒ = −2 x 4e−2 x
dx
= −8e−2 x

y = 3e x +1
2
Example 4 Differentiate

Solution
t = x2 +1 ⇒ y = 3et
dt = 2 x dy
= 3et
dx dt
dy dy dt
= x
dx dt dx
= 3et x 2 x
= 6 xet
= 6 xe x +1
2

Example 5

Differentiate the following functions:

(a) y=2Inx (b) y=In(3x)

Solution

dy 1 2
(a) =2 x = (b) Let t = 3x ⇒ y = Int.
dx x x
dt dy 1
= 3⇒ =
dx dt t
dt dy dt 1 1
= x =3 x =3 x
dx dt dx t 3x
1
=
x

An alternative solution to (b) is y = In 3x


=In3 + Inx

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C3 - ln x and ex

dy 1
= 0+
dx x
1
=
x

d 1
In general, [ln(mx)] = LEARN
dx x

Example 6

Differentiate the following functions:

a) y= In ( x 4 ) b) y= In ( x 2 + 1)

Solution

a) y= In x 4 = 4 In x
dy 4
=
dx x

b) y=In ( x 2 + 1)
Let t = x2 +1 ⇒ y = In t
dt dy 1
= 2x =
dx dt t
dy dy dt 1 2x
= x = 2x x = 2
dx dt dx t x +1

ln x
Example 7: Differentiate y =
x
Solution: Use quotient rule.

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C3 - ln x and ex

lnx u
y= =
x v
dy vu ' − uv /
=
dx v2
1
dy x x x − ln x x 1
=
dx x2
1 − ln x
= 2
x

Example 8

Differentiate 3x ln x
Solution: Use the product rule
y = uv = 3x x ln x
dy
= uv / + vu /
dx
dy
= 3x x 1 + ln x x 3
dx x
= 3 + 3ln x
Integrals involving the exponential function

d ax
Since you know that (e ) = aeax
dx
You can see that
1
∫e dx = eax + c
ax
LEARN
a

Also, if you use integration by substitution,

∫e
ax +b
dx = 1 eax +b + c LEARN
a

Example: Find the following integrals;

∫e ∫ ∫e ∫ 3e
2x 5 4 x +5 2 x −3
a) dx b) 6e3x dx c) dx d) dx

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C3 - ln x and ex

1
∫e dx = e2 x + c
2x
Solution a)
2
5
5 6 
b) ∫1 6e3 x dx =  e3 x 
 3 1
5
=  2e3x 
 1
= 2e15 − 2e3 = 6.54x106 (3sf )

c) ∫e
4 x +5
dx = 1 e4 x+5 + c
4

∫ 3e dx = 3∫ e2 x−3dx
2 x −3
d)
3
= e2 x−3 + c
2
Integrals involving Inx

1
∫ x dx = ln x + c N.B: note the mod x sign i.e always use the + value of x

1
Example1 : Evaluate ∫ 2 x dx
Solution:

1
∫ 2 x dx = 1 ∫ 1 dx
2 x
1
= ln x + c
2

5
7
Example 2: Find ∫ x dx
1

Solution;

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C3 - ln x and ex

dx = 7 ∫ 1 dx
5 5
7
∫1 x 1
x
5
=7 ln x  .
1

=7ln 5-7ln1 (NB: ln1=0)


=7ln 5

5
Example 3: Find ∫ 3x dx
Solution:

5 dx = 5 1 dx
∫ 3x 3 ∫ x
= 5 ln x + c
3

1
Find ∫ 2 x + 3
dx
Example 4:

Solution: Using integration by substitution,


du = 2 ⇒ dx = du
Let u=2 x + 3 ⇒
dx 2
Then I = ∫ 1 du
u 2
1 1 du
= ∫ = 1 ∫ 1 du = 1 ln u + c
2 u 2 2 u 2
1
= ln 2 x + 3 + c
2
In General,

1 1
∫ ax + b dx = a ln ax + b + c LEARN

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