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CONTENTS
Conference at a glance

Plenary Session Abstracts ...

Featured Panels Abstracts .

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Parallel Sessions Timetable .

14

Parallel Sessions Abstracts ..

23

Guidelines for Paper Presenters ..

78

Guidelines for Moderators ................

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Practical Information ...

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Campus Map .

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CONFERENCE AT A GLANCE
All plenary sessions and business meetings will convene at the COE
Amphitheatre
FRIDAY, 16 OCTOBER
7:45-8:30
Registration
8:30-9:00
Opening Program
9:00-10:30
Plenary Session 1
The Economic Sociology of Subnational Conflict:
Shadow Identities and Violent Entrepreneurs in the
Bangsamoro, Dr. Francisco Lara, Jr, International
Alert
Disrupting Conflict Strings: Experience from Muslim
Mindanao, Philippines, Nikki Philline C. Dela Rosa,
International Alert
10:30-10:45
Coffee Break
10:45-11:45
Plenary Session 2
Federalism as an Option for Peace and Development
in the Philippines, Dr. Sukarno D. Tanggol,
Chancellor, Mindanao State University-Illigan
Institute of Technology
11:45-13:00
Lunch Break
13:00-14:00
Plenary Session 3
May Tiwala: The Trust Factor in Peace Building and
Conflict Transformation, Prof. Miriam Coronel-Ferrer,
University of the Philippines-Diliman, Government
Peace Negotiating Panel for Talks with the Moro
National Islamic Liberation Front
14:00-15:30
Parallel Sessions 1
15:30-15:45
Coffee Break
15:45-17:15
Parallel Sessions 2
17:30-19:00
Business Meeting of the Philippine Sociological
Society (PSS members are expected to attend this
meeting)
19:00
Dinner and Fellowship

SATURDAY, 17 OCTOBER
9:00-10:30
Featured Panel A: Options for Peace in Mindanao
(COE Amphitheatre)
Deconstructing the Concept of a Nation-State from
the Perspective of the Bangsamoro. Commissioner
Robert Maulanta Alonto, Member, Bangsamoro
Transition Commission, MILF Peace Negotiating
Panel, and Central Committee, Moro Islamic
Liberation Front
Kalinaw Mindanaw: Pagtanggap sa Isat-isa sa Iisang
Bansa, Prof. Rudy B. Rodil, Mindanao Status
University-Iligan Institute of Technology

10:30-10:45
10:45-12:15
12:15-1:00
1:00-2:30
2:30-2:45
2:45-4:15
4:15-5:30

5:30-6:00
7:00

Featured Panel B: Modalities of Revolutionary Violence


(CED Amphitheatre)
The Foundations of Marx's Sociology of Conflict in
Dialectical Materialism: An Affirmation and
Implications for Sociological Theory, Dr. Gerardo M.
Lanuza, University of the Philippines Diliman
Towards the Crimson Horizon: Rituals of Mourning and
Renewal, Prof. Arnold P. Alamon, Mindanao State
University-Iligan Institute of Technology
Coffee Break
Parallel Sessions 3
Lunch Break
Parallel Sessions 4
Coffee Break
Parallel Sessions 4
Business Meeting: Sharing of common concerns;
planning for the 2016 National Conference (open to
all)
Closing Ceremonies
Dinner and Fellowship, Conference Participants and
PSS members

PLENARY SESSION ABSTRACTS


The Economic Sociology of Subnational Conflict: Shadow Identities and
Violent Entrepreneurs in the Bangsamoro
Dr. Francisco Lara, Jr.
The transition to a durable peace in the
Bangsamoro has been hampered by legislative
and armed challenges from both sides in the
Mindanao conflict. Turning the Bangsamoro
political settlement into law has been delayed.
The flashpoint in Mamasapano has eroded
public confidence in the peace process.
Institutional theorists, political scientists, and
development specialists mostly trace the
impasse to various causes: the failure of Congress to recognize the
legitimate aspirations of the Bangsamoro people, the inability of both
sides to police their armed units, or the flaws in a negotiation process
that excluded some strategic groups and sectors from shaping the
agreement. Few seem to realize that every transition inevitably brings
episodes of disruptive violence that are as real and dramatic as any
shift from night to day. Yet the truism about how its going to get worse
before it gets better does not only apply because the path to peace
is inherently fragileit is also relevant because the sources of violence
at the sub-national level brings with it a cast of characters and settings
that are often obscured by customs and tradition, hidden from the
state, and embedded in intimate relationships of trust and reciprocity
that entrusts non-state actors with the task of providing protection, or
enables the persistence of shadow economies that secures local jobs
and livelihoods better than what the State or local businesses can
provide. If all economic institutions are social institutions as
Granovetter and Swedberg (2011) argued, then arent we better
served by studying conflict longevity in Mindanao by looking at the
rules that emanate from the grassroots and the shadow identities and
violent entrepreneurs they create?
Dr. Francisco Lara, Jr. is a Lecturer of Sociology at the University of the
Philippines Diliman and Country Manager of International AlertPhilippines.

Disrupting Conflict Strings: Experience from Muslim Mindanao,


Philippines
Nikki Philline C. Dela Rosa
Global experience suggests that declines in
rebellion-related conflict can lead to an
intensification of transition-induced horizontal
violence between clans, tribes, political elites,
and criminal entrepreneurs. However, there
are few robust sources of data that can test
this relationship at the subnational level. The
presentation offers fresh evidence of the
phenomena of transition-induced violence in
the particular case of subnational conflict. The author presents data
gathered from police databases and media reports in the southern
provinces of Muslim Mindanao where conflict has endured between
Moro insurgents and the Philippine state for the past forty years. The
Bangsamoro Conflict Monitoring System (BCMS) is a conflict database
that traces the manifestations, triggers, actors, and costs of violent
conflict in Muslim Mindanaoyielding a nuanced understanding of
sources of violence and contribute to the design of conflict prevention
in post-peace agreement scenarios and more broadly, towards a more
resilient peace in fragile conflict-affected contexts. The authors
presentation will demonstrate the initial results of the conflict mapping
system (2011-2013) and explain the phenomenon of violent conflict
strings that morph from community-level conflict or clan feuds to
rebellion and criminal violenceproving that violent conflicts cannot
be examined through singular incidences but an investigation of strings
of two or more incidences and an exploration of how this can
effectively be disrupted. A case study on interrupting violence strings
through hybrid governance processes in sub-national contexts will be
showcased.
Nikki Philline C. Dela Rosa is the Deputy Country Manager and Head of
Mindanao operations of International Alert in the Philippines. She
graduated BA Sociology at the University of the Philippines-Diliman and
MSc Development Studies at the London School of Economics.

Federalism as an Option for Peace and Development in the Philippines


Dr. Sukarno D. Tanggol
The paper explores the potentials and
prospects, as well as the challenges, of a
federal government not only in Mindanao but
also in the Philippines. It situates this position
through localizing what federalism scholar
Thomas Fleiner identifies as the roots of conflict:
(1) economic and historical injustices, (2)
unfriendly policies, (3) egoism of power, (4)
illegitimacy of the state or the nation, and (5)
fear and mistrust. In discussing these, the paper draws insights from
Galtungs framework for federalism as a peace structure that may be
used to address these roots of conflict, and that may provide the
answer to the decades-old conflict in Mindanao. This framework
includes concepts of higher autonomy in the periphery that would
reduce exploitation, oppression, and alienation. Taking into account
the structures of multiculturalism in the Philippines, the paper argues
against maintaining a unitary systema political arrangement that has
failed the Filipino people for decades. Alongside this, it puts forward the
concept that a federal arrangement might be the most feasible
alternative for the Philippines in its quest for lasting peace in Mindanao
and in addressing national concerns such as development and good
governance.
Dr. Sukarno D. Tanggol is the Chancellor of Mindanao State UniversityIlligan Institute of Technology.

May Tiwala: The Trust Factor in Peace Building and Conflict


Transformation
Prof. Miriam Coronel-Ferrer

Prof. Miriam Coronel-Ferrer is Professor of


Political Science at the University of the
Philippines Diliman and Chair of the
Government Peace Negotiating Panel for
Talks with the Moro National Islamic
Liberation Front.

FEATURED PANELS ABSTRACTS


Featured Panel A: Options for Peace in Mindanao
Venue
Plenary Hall
Moderator
Dr. Nimfa Bracamonte
Deconstructing the Concept of a Nation-State from the Perspective
of the Bangsamoro
Commissioner Robert Maulanta Alonto
There are two colliding principles being asserted that underpin the
sovereignty-based conflict that is the Bangsamoro Question: the
Philippine States assertion of its national sovereignty and territorial
integrity; and the Bangsamoro peoples assertion of their right to selfdetermination.
The first assertion is inherited by the Philippine State from past
colonizers, resulting in the institutionalization of the regalian doctrine as
a fundamental law. This resulted to the emergence of a highly
centralized unitary state, whose present construct is ideationally
derived from the concept of a modern day nation-state meaning,
one nation, one state.
On the other hand, the second assertion contests the historical
validity, morality and legitimacy of the first assertion. The Moros, who
were independent and sovereign sultanate states that resisted foreign
colonization, were gradually annexed to the Philippines. After major
resettlement programs implemented by state instrumentalities had
resulted in the marginalization of the Moros, liberation movements
emerged to defend their territories from state sponsored violence.
In analyzing the existing agreements forged by both the Moro Islamic
Liberation Front (MILF) and the Philippine State, the concept of state
plus nations as proposed by Gotlieb (1993) in contrast with the one
nation, one state concept shall be utilized as an ideational tool to
further understand the dynamics underlying the Bangsamoro
Question. This presentation shall attempt to deconstruct the very
fabric of a highly centralized, unitary nation-state and rationalize the
imperative recognition of a separate nation, the Bangsamoro, existing

within the larger framework of a Philippine State.


Commissioner Robert Maulanta Alonto is a member of the
Bangsamoro Transition Commission, the MILF Peace Negotiating
Panel, and the Central Committee of the Moro Islamic Liberation
Front.
Kalinaw Mindanaw: Pagtanggap sa Isat-isa sa Iisang Bansa
Prof. Rudy B. Rodil
Ang aking diskusyon ay iikot sa peace Credo, ang Kalinaw
Mindanaw, na sinulat ko noong 1996. Mula sa Tagalog, ito ngayon ay
naisalin na sa labing-walong wika sa Pilipinas. Totoong ibat ibang
wika, totoong ibat ibang tono, pero isa lamang ang nilalaman: ang
pagtanggap sa isat isa, at pagtanggap na iisa ang ating bansa.
Kalinaw Mindanaw
Lumad, Muslim, Kristiyano
Magkaiba, magkaisa
Isang diyos
Isang lupain
Isang adhikain
Kalinaw Mindanaw
Prof. Rudy B. Rodil is a Mindanao historian and a former member of
the GRP-MNLF and GRP-MILF Peace Panel.

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Featured Panel B: Options for Peace in Mindanao


Venue
CED Amphitheater
Moderator
Dr. Maria Cecilia Ferolin
The Foundations of Marx's Sociology of Conflict in Dialectical
Materialism: An Affirmation and Implications for Sociological Theory
Dr. Gerardo M. Lanuza
This paper will discuss the roots of Marx's sociology of conflict and
violence in the dialectical method of Marx derived from Hegel. This
paper will attempt to resurrect and re-affirm the validity and
relevance of Marx's dialectical method in the current developments in
sociological theory dominated by post-modernism and
postcolonialism. It will argue that Marx's dialectical method, grounded
in Hegel's dialectics, provides better and relevant vocabularies to
understand the conflicts at the levels of nation state, social
interactions, and global context. Marx's dialectical method that is
framed within materialist philosophy of social sciences, provides a
good starting point in pursuing Bhaskar's fundamental question for
sociology -- "what must the world be like for science to be possible?'
This paper will argue that the world is dialectical. Thus, conflicts must
be seen under dialectical analysis.
Dr. Gerardo M. Lanuza is a Professor of Sociology from the University of
the Philippines-Diliman

Towards the Crimson Horizon: Rituals of Mourning and Renewal


Prof. Arnold P. Alamon
On March 8, 2015, Commander Parago o Leoncio Pitao of the New
Peoples Army was killed by together with his medical assistant by the
elements of the AFP. His 37 years of service as a respected defender
of the most exploited and oppressed sectors of Philippine society have
earned him the fitting moniker.
On the day of his funeral, thousands descended from the hinterlands
and converged from the cities by the busloads to pay their last
respects at his wake. In the final night of his body's mortal stay in this

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world, they filled a Davao City arena to the rafters, outside long
orderly lines of people awaiting their turn to view and honor his gutted
remains. And they came from all walks of life national and local
politicians, professionals, students, teachers, farmers, and the lumads,
many of whom may or may not have known the man.
In a display of political defiance never before seen in the streets of the
city or perhaps anywhere else in an urban area since the martial law
years, they hoisted banners that celebrate the cause of the
revolutionary movement Parago served and chanted slogans
affirming the necessity of the armed struggle that he fought and died
for. Funerals are always occasions for myth making. But this is one
powerful myth that transcends Parago and his person.
How is violence refracted in rituals of mourning and renewal involving
one of the longest-running revolutionary movements in the world?
How do these refractions construct the revolutionary bid for peace?
This study offers a sociological understanding of this phenomenon
through the identification and analyses of themes inherent in the
rituals of mourning and renewal. These themes include transgression
and the class dynamics of conflict. They provide a rich cultural
resource for problematizing the communist vision of democracy as an
open participation in the public sphere.
Prof. Arnold P. Alamon is an Assistant Professor Sociology at the
Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology

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PARALLEL SESSIONS TIMETABLE


PARALLEL SESSION 1
16 OCTOBER | FRIDAY | 14:00-15:30
Panel 1A: AGENTS OF SOCIAL CONTROL AND SOCIAL ORDER
Venue
Plenary Hall
Moderator
Manuel Sapitula
Paper 1
Allopoiesis and the Armed Forces of the Philippines: A
Luhmannian Reflection on the Philippine Military
Yvan Ysmael Yonaha
Paper 2
An Analysis of the Gunless Society Movement in the
Philippines
Arjay Arcinue Dineros
Paper 3
Police Reform for Social Transformation: From Law
Enforcement Technicians to Social Actors From
Peacekeepers to Peacebuilders
Cedrick G. Train
Paper 4
From Conflicts to Consensus: Negotiating Order In a
Philippine City Jail
Hannah Glimpse Nario
PANEL 1B: CONFLICT IN THE CHANGING FILIPINO FAMILY
Venue
CED 202
Moderator
Maria Cecilia Ferolin
Paper 1
Aging and Life Continuity: A Research on Selected
Members of St. John of God Tanglaw Buhay Elderly
Mark Anthony Abenir, Maria Martina V. Mancenido
Paper 2
Marital Conflict and Parental Separation: Its
Consequences on the Couple and their Children
Ma. Rhea Gretchen A. Abuso
Paper 3
My Husbands Lover: Wives Diaries
Ronald Edria Batoto, Odessa Mae Ramos, Joy Linao,
Saidamin P. Bagolong
Paper 4
Incarceration and Its Effect Toward Family Functioning
Across the Family Life Cycle: A Case Study of Inmates
Kristine Gail C. Lobo, Marison R. Dy

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PANEL 1C: FRONTIERS IN SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIZING


Venue
CED 203
Moderator
Nicole Curato
Paper 1
Pluralism and Modern Societies: The Challenge of Peace
Jesse Angelo L. Altez
Paper 2
Prospecting for Peace: Territory, Sovereignty, and
Ecology in the Neoliberalisation of post(?)-conflict
Statescapes
Christopher John J. Chanco
Paper 3
Peace Process: A Dearth in Sociological Theory
Delfo C. Canceran
Paper 4
Ang Mapagkunwaring Kapayapaan sa Pandayan ng
Pantas: Tunggalian sa Pulitikat Ideolohiya
Gerome Nicolas Dela Pea, Lilimay R. Manalo
PANEL 1D: PROBLEMATIZING THE MAGUINDANAO PROBLEM
Venue
CED AMPITHEATRE
Moderator
Maria Cecila T. Medina
Paper 1
The Aftermath of the Mamasapano Encounter
Bai Putri Morayah A. Amil, Esnairah S. Salem
Paper 2
The Armed Conflict in Maguindanao: Its Social and
Economic Consequences to the Internally Displaced
Persons
Monela M. Mua
Paper 3
Is there a Potential for a Cultural Sociology of Collective
Victimhood in the Philippines?
Macario Lacbawan Jr.

PARALLEL SESSION 2
16 OCTOBER | FRIDAY | 15:45-17:15
PANEL 2A: CONTESTING CAPITALISM
Venue
Plenary Hall
Moderator
Arnold Alamon
Paper 1
Talisay Beach Resorts Polluting Taal Lake Waters:
Sketches on Synergy Among Stakeholders
Enrico C. Garcia
Paper 2
Disaster Activism Confronts Disaster Capitalism: A Case
Study of a Coastal Community in Tacloban City, Leyte
April Porteria
Paper 3
Limits and Challenges to Participatory Urban Planning:

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Exploring the Experience of Kalipunan ng Damayang


Mahihirap (KADAMAY)/National Alliance of Urban Poor
Cleve Kevin Robert V. Arguelles
Paper 4
Living in a Managed Chaos: Social Movements for a
Moving City
Gina R. Gatarin
PANEL 2B: THE PROMISE OF EDUCATION
Venue
CED 202
Moderator
Angelo Altez
Paper 1
An Assessment of the Human Rights Conditions of the
Polytechnic University of the Philippines
Mercedes Camille B. Ocampo, Alvin G. Allam, Camille
Iglesias, Jacqueline Obidencio
Paper 2
After Mapping, Now What? An Initial Analysis of
Sectioning Practices Among Public Secondary Schools in
Manila
John N. Abletis
Paper 3
Learning about the Moros: A Content Analysis of
Selected Philippine History Textbooks
Jorge S. Baclor
Paper 4
Fostering Religious Literacy in Philippine Public Schools:
Assessing Possibilities and Challenges
Manuel Victor J. Sapitula
PANEL 2C: GENDERED DIMENSION OF SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION
Venue
CED 203
Moderator
Michael Labayandoy
Paper 1
Conflict and Transformation Experiences Among the
Bangsamoro Women
Monela M. Mua
Paper 2
Living and Leaving the Revolutionary Movement in
Compostela Valley Province: The Struggles and
Ideologies of Former Women Revolutionaries
Septrin John A. Calamba, Liwayway S. Viloria, Mark
Jason T. Cesar, Gary Ben S. Villocino
Paper 3
Nagtutunggaling mga Katangian ng LGBT Pride March
John Andrew Gatchalian-Evangelista

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PANEL 2D: PEACE AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE COMMUNITY


Venue
CED Amphitheater
Moderator
Jayeel Cornelio
Paper 1
Policy Analysis on Peace and Development: A Case of
Barangay One, Malaybalay City, Bukidnon
Rona Celeste V. Pasamonte, Jade Harley C. Bretaa
Paper 2
Socio-cultural Roles and Access to and Control Over
Resources, Benefits, and Opportunities among Women
and Men Farmers in the NGOs Sustainable Agriculture
Program in Upper Pugaan, Iligan City
Grace Majorenos-Taruc
Paper 3
Conflict in One Upland Community in Oroquieta,
Misamis Occidental and Two Coastal Communities in
Iligan City and Lanao del Norte
Nimfa L. Bracamonte, Sulpecia L. Ponce

PARALLEL SESSION 3
17 OCTOBER | SATURDAY | 10:45-12:15
PANEL 3A: COMPARATIVE ANALYSES OF CONFLICT
Venue
Plenary Hall
Moderator
Enrique Oracion
Paper 1
Post-Conflict Actor's Behavior: The Case of the
Government of National Unity of Zanzibar
Amour Mmanga
Paper 2
Critical Reflections on the Politics of Identity: Crosscultural Comparisons between the Philippines and
Indonesia
Craig Cook
Paper 3
Chinas Path to Domination: Straighter than Aquinos
Matuwid na Daan
Louie Benedict Ignacio
PANEL 3B: CONFLICT AND LABOR MARKETS (1)
Venue
CED 202
Moderator
Mario J. Aguja
Paper 1
Muted Hidden Transcript: The Art of Muting the
Resistance among Filipino Call Center Agents
Floramante Sir John Don King Howard T. Ponce III
Paper 2
On Minimal Justice: Exploring the Unknown Voice of the
Coconut Farm Workers with Rainer Forst

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Michael P. Gatchalian
Ang Trabaho sa Pelikula: A Visual Analysis of
Representations of Work in Selected Filipino Films (1970
2010)
Christian Joshua D. Lomahan, Clarence M. Batan
PANEL 3C: HISTORICAL SOCIOLOGY: CONFLICT AND CONTROL
Venue
CED 203
Moderator
Maria Cecila T. Medina
Paper 1
Ang Peace Time sa Pasig, 1941-1945
Danim R. Majerano
Paper 2
Crime in a Time of War: Notes on Criminality in Japanese
occupied Manila
Aaron Abel Mallari
Paper 3
Urban Planning and Colonialism: The City Beautiful Plan
(Arellano Plan) of Iloilo City (1928-1930)
Elgin Glenn R. Salomon
PANEL 3D: RELIGION: SOURCE OF CONFLICT OR INSTRUMENT OF PEACE?
Venue
CED Amphitheater
Moderator
Jayeel Cornelio
Paper 1
Comparative Study on Muslim-Christian Relations in
Conflict Affected Areas
Amane U. Amanoden
Paper 2
"Walang away-away" : The Peace Village Residential
Experience (PVRE) of Schoolchildren in Lanao del Norte
Noriko Hashimoto, Menandro Abanes
Paper 3
Peace after the Mamasapano Incident: A Comparison
of Muslim and Non-Muslim Perceptions
Sherifa Rossmia O. Kadil, Mary Beth Ann O. Odo, Lucille
A. Bayron, Sulpecia L. Ponce
Paper 4
The Sacred of Religion and the Sublime of Ideology:
Constructing Collective Identity through Religious
Solidarities
Emanuel De Guzman
PANEL 3E: SOCIOLOGY OF YOUTH (1)
Venue
COE room (TBA)
Moderator
Clarence Batan
Paper 1
When Acceptance Demands Pain: Experiences Among
Frat Members
Paper 3

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Paper 2

Paper 3

Danica Rose I. Bolivar, Jee Irvin T. Erag, Angielyn O.


Petere, Saidamin P. Bagolong
Virtual Community in the Age of Conflict: Clash of Clans
Solidarity and Online War Phenomenon
Jade Harley C. Bretaa
A Sociological Inquiry into Sexual Exploitation of
Children: An Assessment of the Efficiency of Philippine
Public Policies on Child Trafficking
Joseph Franco F. Febre

PARALLEL SESSION 4
17 OCTOBER | SATURDAY | 13:00-14:30
PANEL 4A: COMMUNITIES IN CONFLICT
Venue
Plenary Hall
Moderator
Diana Therese M. Veloso
Paper 1
Conflicts in Marawi Elections
Seddik U. Magadapa, Myrma Jean A. Mendoza
Paper 2
Political Rivalry and Marine Protected Areas: Case Study
of a Visayan Coastal Municipality
Enrique G. Oracion
Paper 3
Effects of the Establishment Of CMRCF in Sitio Bangko,
Brgy. Bonbonon, Iligan City: Its Social Implications
John Albert M. Quijano, Fitzgerald N. Torralba, Maria
Cecilia M. Ferolin
Paper 4
Social Divisiveness in Filipino Village post-Haiyan:
Outcomes of Humanitarian Agencies Targeted Aid
Pamela Combinido, Jonathan Ong, Jaime Manuel
Flores
PANEL 4B: CONFLICT AND LABOR MARKETS (2)
Venue
CED 202
Moderator
Cleve Arguelles
Paper 1
Taming Class Conflict? Industrial Peace Policy and
Workers Strike in the Philippines from 2001 to Present
Jane A. Siwa, Jessica Viliran
Paper 2
Ora et Labora: Understanding the Role of Religion and
Religious Organizations in the Life and Work of Overseas
Filipino Workers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Minami Iwayama
Paper 3
Empowerment or Exploitation?: Conflict and resolution in

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a new knowledge industry in the Philippines


Jeffrey J. Sallaz
PANEL 4C: SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF POLITICS, PEACE AND PRAYER
Venue
CED 203
Moderator
Nicole Curato
Paper 1
A Critical Discourse Analysis of Media Framing of the
Bangsamoro Basic Law (BBL)
Alejandro S. Ibanez
Paper 2
Salaam and Salaah On Becoming a Catalyst for
Peace Through Islamic Ritual Prayer: Muslim Filipino
Mystic Perspective
Kamaruddin Bin Alawi Mohammad
Paper 3
The Yellow Propaganda: Daang Matuwid and the Social
Construction of Philippine Politics
Bonifacio G. Train
PANEL 4D: SOCIOLOGY OF YOUTH (2)
Venue
CED Amphitheater
Moderator
Clarence Batan
Paper 1
Experiences of Children in Conflict with the Law on
Davao Citys Diversion Program
Melvin C. Pilvira, Jessica C. Tado, Jaysa G. Valentin,
Saidamin P. Bagolong
Paper 2
Gender Differences of the Resiliency of Early and Late
Adolescent Sendong Survivors in Terms of Emotional Selfdisclosure, Life Orientation, PTSD Level and Service
Learning
Antoniette Zacarina B. Sansona, Joannie C. Alarde,
Jannah Jean I. Pescador, Cristy Marie L. Pagalan
Paper 3
The Voice: Teenage pregnancy and communitys
response as told by young mothers
Veronica L. Gregorio

PARALLEL SESSION 5
17 OCTOBER | SATURDAY | 14:45-16:15
PANEL 5A: INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES: IDENTITY, DIVERSITY AND
CONFLICT
Venue
Plenary Hall
Moderator
Gina R. Gatarin,
Paper 1
Shifting Ethnic Identities: Voices of Marginal Maranao

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Students in Lanao
Myrma Jean A. Mendoza, Charlotte Quiros
Paper 2
Paradise Lost: The State and Ati Community on the
concept of Ancestral Domain
Maria Corinna Prisicila D. Escartin
Paper 3
Level of Literacy of the Indigenous People in Barangay
Diteki, San Luis, Aurora
Jetron S. Velasco
Paper 4
Environmental Impacts of War on the Indigenous
Knowledge on Natural Resource Management of the
Locals in Mindanao
Ma. Cathrene Lagare
PANEL 5B: PROSPECTS OF PEACE BUILDING
Venue
CED 202
Moderator
Alejandro S. Ibaez
Paper 1
Indigenous People Conflict Resolution: The Case of Sal
among Bukidnon and Higaonon Ethnic Communities
Loreta Sol L. Dinlayan, Rotchel L. Amigo, Jade Harley C.
Bretaa
Paper 2
Addressing the Roots of the Armed Conflict: The
Philippine Ecumenical Peace Platforms (PEPP)
Experience of Peacebuilding
Jerry D. Imbong
Paper 3
Conflict to Resolution: The Case of Dumagats in the
Philippines
Kristine Gail C. Lobo
Paper 4
Himig ng Kapayapaan: Ang Mga Awitin nina Francis M.
at Papa Dom
Danim R. Majerano, Lilimay R. Manalo, Domenick M.
Somoray, Maria M. Theresa Verian
PANEL 5C: RESEARCHING VULNERABLE POPULATIONS: METHODS AND
ETHICS
Venue
CED 203
Moderator
Grace Majorenos-Taruc
Paper 1
Meanings of the Life Experiences and Partnership of
Recovery through Practices of Restorative Justice for the
Sexually Abused Women in the Philippines
Marina D. Gamo

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Paper 2

Exploration on Domestic Violence against Women in the


Philippines: Narratives of the Victims
Mary Antonnette C. Santos
Paper 3
Bakla, Baklang-bakla at Ayaw Magpahalatang Bakla:
Metodo, Etika, at Paggitna sa Nagtutungaliang mga Uri
ng Pagkabakla
Michael Eduard Layco Labayandoy
PANEL 5D: DISPLACEMENT, MARGINALIZATION AND RESISTANCE
Venue
CED Amphitheater
Moderator
Emanuel de Guzman
Paper 1
The Politics of Everyday Resistance in the Violent Land
Conflict of Pangarap Village, Caloocan City, Philippines:
A Case Study
Jose Paulino M. Domingo
Paper 2
From Self-sufficiency to Socioeconomic Insecurity: The
Case of Displaced Families from the Laguindingan
International Airport
Liwayway S. Viloria, Hilda R. Betonio, Mary Jane E. Edios,
Roselie B. Janubas, Ramelyn L. Bracero
Paper 3
Fisherfolks and Reclamation in Conflict: Manila Bay in
Context
Arlen A. Ancheta, Paula G. de Castro
Paper 4
Of Conflict, Displacement, and Gender-Based Violence:
The Narratives of IDPs in Zamboanga City
Diana Therese M. Veloso

21

PARALLEL SESSIONS ABSTRACTS


PANEL 1A | 16 OCTOBER | 14:00-15:30 | PLENARY HALL
AGENTS OF SOCIAL ORDER
Moderator: Manuel V. Sapitula
Allopoiesis and the Armed Forces of the Philippines: A Luhmannian
Reflection on the Philippine Military
Yvan Ysmael Yonaha, University of the Philippines-Diliman
Militaries and armed movements have long played a significant role in
the historical development of the Philippines, marking pivotal
moments with armed resistance or military defection. This role extends
to contemporary Philippine society where militaries have decided on
the establishment and maintenance of regimes as in the
administration of Ferdinand Marcos, Corazon Aquino and recently of
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. This paper is an application of the Systems
Theory of Niklas Luhmann on the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP).
It argues that the military be treated as a system as understood in
the theory and characterizes it thus. Drawing from the experience in
Latin America, the AFP is treated to have a national security/lack
thereof binary code which brought about a unique program of
operations. Finally, it posits that the AFP exemplifies an allopoietic
system because it is over-determined by inputs from its environment
and other systems (e.g. economic and political). This is opposed (but
not inconsistent) to Luhmanns concept of autopoiesis where systems
receive input from its environment and other systems as irritations.
This analysis is arrived at through manifestations at the institutional and
actor level.
Police Reform for Social Transformation: From Law Enforcement
Technicians to Social Actors, From Peacekeepers to Peacebuilders
Cedrick G. Train, Philippine National Police
Policing is a social fact which evolved out of social necessity. As laws
emerged and institutionalized, so does the police as a formal
institution of social control. Society reaffirms its values through police
enforcement of laws. This paper attempts to analyze and define

22

policing, its role and context, from a sociological perspective. It has its
conceptual underpinning on Emile Durkheims concept of
normlessness, that crime is a functional necessity and that social
solidarity is required to protect societal norms. To remain relevant, the
police needs to redefine itself from the traditional law enforcement
character fixed by enabling law to community policing demanded by
the social scenario and public expectation. This position justifies the
need for police reform. The paper zeroes in on the development of
service delivery framework or value chain as a backdrop to police
reform and social transformation agenda. The framework is intended
to be utilized in dissecting the police organization and its core business
of public safety and social defense including its essential and inherent
function of preventing criminality, insurgency, violence, terrorism and
other forms of lawlessness. The paper includes a presentation of
community-based approaches, projects and activities in crime
prevention and control that showcase active police social
engagement and collaboration. It briefly presents the challenges
posed by Super Typhoon Yolanda to policing in Eastern Visayas. It
concludes that the police is a major contributor to national
development and that the police is a functional necessity to
maintain a healthy society.
From Conflicts to Consensus: Negotiating Order In a Philippine City Jail
Hannah Glimpse Nario, University of the Philippines-Diliman
The recent expos on the lavish conditions of VIP detainees in the
New Bilibid Prison poses a puzzle on the real life of inmates under the
custody of the countrys criminal justice system. While many seek
justice, take the side of the victims, and believe that human rights in
penitentiary and detention centers must be minimal, some are also
concerned about the subhuman conditions in Philippine prisons and
jails and how these affect the delivery of rehabilitative justice. This
paper extends that interest but shifts the spotlight to the other side of
the barstoward the officers who also experience the same dismal
conditions. This research focuses on the narratives of the jail officers,
and proposed an alternative way of looking at the effects of the
structural deficiencies of the Philippine criminal justice system: from jail
management and down to the daily custodial work of officers. This

23

research is limited to the one particular city jail, the Quezon City Jail
(QCJ) under the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology. This study
employed informal interviews, focus group discussions, and the study
of official documents to inquire on the following themes: (a) standard
routines, dealing with jail life, and unexpected situations; (b) order and
disorder in jail life; and (c) conflicts and consensus among officers and
inmates. The study found that QCJ officers constantly faced the
challenge of assuming responsibilities under stressful and hazardous
conditions with limited and vacillating support from the government.
On a daily basis, they have to negotiate their custodial roles by
accommodating significant parcels of the jail culture, where inmate
culture and practices have considerable influence, while still
maintaining institutional expectations on their roles as jail officers.
An Analysis of the Gunless Society Movement in the Philippines
Arjay Arcinue Dineros, Ateneo de Manila University
As gun-related violence continues to eclipse various newspaper
headlines, the movement for a gunless society also bides to flag its call
for a stricter gun regulation in the Philippines. This present paper
identifies and discusses: (1) the external factors that influence the
growth and activities of the movement; (2) how the movement
mobilizes the resources; (3) the main grievance and other issues that
the movement attempts to highlight and incorporate; and (4) the
strategies and tactics employed by the movement. The abeyance
structure, or (5) the process of abeyance in which the movement
sustains itself in nonreceptive political environment and provides
continuity from one stage of mobilization to another (Taylor,
1989:761), is also spotlighted.
PANEL 1B | 16 OCTOBER | 14:00-15:30 | CED 202
CONFLICT IN THE CHANGING FILIPINO FAMILY
Moderator: Maria Cecilia Ferolin
Aging and Life Continuity: A Research on Selected Members of St.
John of God Tanglaw Buhay Elderly
Mark Anthony Abenir, University of Santo Tomas
This paper, utilizing the Continuity Theory, focuses on the lives of the

24

selected organized group of the Filipino elderly, known as Tanglaw


Buhay, in Quiapo Manila. The paper explores the challenges they face
for their continued engagement in safeguarding their rights as
contributory members of society. The paper argues that by joining an
organization, the elderly become open to an opportunity for
continued socialization and are presented with an avenue to actively
participate in claiming their rights toward inclusive development. This
study makes use of the case study as a research design employing
mixed methods through interviews, focus groups, and surveys as a
means in gathering data. Findings reveal that Tanglaw Buhay
members have been engaging in organizational and societal
activities that promote inclusivity. However, there are inequality issues
within their organization that need to be addressed so the benefits of
inclusive development can be fully achieved. This study contributes to
the better understanding of the plight of the Filipino elderly by
providing an in-depth analysis of their life situation in an organized
group setting working towards continuity and inclusive development.
Marital Conflict and Parental Separation: Its Consequences on the
Couple and their Children
Ma. Rhea Gretchen A. Abuso, Xavier University- Ateneo de Cagayan
This discussion focuses on the disruption brought by the separation of
couples to the family. Specifically the paper highlights the changes in
the familys domestic conditions following the marital breakup, coping
strategies and resources utilized by the spouses and their personal
satisfaction in the aftermath. Most social scientist cites the standard
family environment model which assumes that the stability of the
parents marriage causes a variety of consequences on the childrens
social relationships and academic performance. With that, changes in
the childrens behavior is also examined in this study as well the role of
significant others in their adjustment. This study used responses from
thirty (30) separated spouses in Cagayan de Oro, a highly urbanized
first class city and found that following the dissolution of their marital
partnerships, spouses end up in varied conditions with no definite
predictor of what type of household one will wind up with after the
breakup of a marriage. The heaviest burden that separated spouses
face after their marital union was dissolved is sending their children to
school. This study also confirmed the significance of immediate

25

families of the separated spouses as the most important social network


for separated spouses. As post-dissolution resource, educational
attainment, employment and the social networks of the spouses were
also found to be variables of significance in how they maintained or
attempted to improve their household income, living conditions and in
continuing to send their children to school. Majority of the respondents
downplay any impact of the parental separation on their childrens
academic performance and social relationships. Spouses attributed
these observations to their own efforts to talk to the children and child
caring support from their parents and siblings.
My Husbands Lover: Wives Diaries
Ronald Edria Batoto, Saidamin P. Bagolong, University of Mindanao
All relationships have standards and we expect that our partners will
remain to be faithful. But when a heterosexual couples encounters
betrayal, it flips around the universe. Marital relationships must be
between a man and woman. If betrayal is between same sexes, they
are scorned out by society for it disturbs the teachings of our religion.
This study aims to have an in-depth understanding on the wives
perspectives with their husbands infidelity, a husband having
relationship with another woman and a husband with same sex
partner particularly on determining their views before, during and after
knowing the marital affair as well as the differences and similarities
they experienced in both situations. This study used a qualitative
multiple-case research design employing interview and questionnaire
to two wives. Data were analyzed using manual NVIVO and content
analysis. Findings showed that it is difficult and heartbreaking to
experience trials in married life to have infidelity. It affects our whole
being as a person and it destroys the family. Once infidelity happens,
it affects both partners especially the welfare of the children. Both
wives undeniably stick to their husbands though the feeling is not
mutual anymore. The wives only stayed because of the attachment
made by both of them that are clear magnets for them to stay. Their
kids serve as their bond to stick together and to continue their lives
together despite all odds. Its emotional attachments rooted from their
love to their kids, especially the wives. Thus, staying honest and faithful
to ones partner is a challenge to all married couples.

26

Incarceration and Its Effect Toward Family Functioning Across the


Family Life Cycle: A Case Study of Inmates
Kristine Gail C. Lobo, University of the Philippines Los Baos
This study aimed to determine the effects of incarceration on family
functioning by family life cycle stages as experienced by inmates. A
qualitative research design was used to look into the lives of five
medium security prisoners who are currently enrolled in
baccalaureate programs. In-depth interviews were done with each of
the respondents. Findings show that in the Beginning Family stage, the
inmates emotional aspect is the main concern because his family of
orientation cannot visit him. Despite this, the inmate and his wife
focused on building their own family. In the Child Bearing stage, the
problem is with the inmates financial aspect because he cannot
provide adequately for his family. Still, the family re-organized and redefined its roles in order to function as a whole. In the End of Child
Bearing stage, the inmate is concerned with the emotional and
economic aspects because he cannot perform his financial
obligations to his family. As a result, the family became dysfunctional
due to their emotional distancing. Furthermore, in the Empty Nest and
Family Dissolution stages, their problems were also with the emotional
and financial aspects. Both inmates experienced abandonment from
their families and financial difficulties inside the prison. Thus, these
stages experienced family crises most and it was difficult for them to
function as a whole. Family intervention programs for left-behind wives
and children should be part of the rehabilitation programs offered by
the government so that as the inmate is rehabilitated within, the family
is helped to cope with the fathers incarceration.
PANEL 1C | 16 OCTOBER | 14:00-15:30 | CED 203
FRONTIERS IN SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIZING
Moderator: Nicole Curato
Pluralism and Modern Societies: The Challenge of Peace
Jesse Angelo L. Altez, Mindanao State University-General Santos City
Pluralism is one of the celebrated features of postmodernity. In the
contemporary world, it is thought to be a major prerequisite for the
fruition of a vibrant democracy. Most theorists hinge the success of

27

modern societies on its affirmation of plurality, recognizing its logical


priority for real and actual dialogue to unfold. While the idea has its
shares of detractors, majority of the world accepts the view that
plurality is an ontological feature of the finite human reality, that we
cannot go away with it, and the only way forward is to find common
grounds through which we can establish good relations with one
another as members of a single race despite the many diversities we
all share. Following such elaboration, this study explores the limits and
provides an assessment of pluralism in relation to the plausibility of
peace in modern societies. While many think that embracing pluralism
is the way forward for peaceful human relations, the author argues
that such poses a genuine challenge on the theorization of peace in
the social sciences, for the typical conceptualization of peace in the
latter is based on an aspiration that usually leads to a utopian
abstraction which most social theorists tend to fall itself in. Following
Reschers understanding on pluralism, the author argues that the
consequences of pluralism requires a reframing on the theorization of
peace by social and political scientists. A pluralistic society can never
be peaceful, but a society that constantly invites altercation and
conflict due to its apparent diversity. Such reframing is crucial in the
context of social sciences, especially in the field of sociology for the
latter to become more effective and grounded in the prescriptive role
it plays in the betterment and understanding of societies.
Prospecting for Peace: territory, sovereignty, and ecology in the
neoliberalisation of post(?)-conflict statescapes
Christopher John J. Chanco, University of the Philippines- Diliman
A geographic perspective on peacebuilding as statebuilding offers an
avenue for rethinking Lefebvrian state space in the neoliberalisation of
post(?)-conflict states. This paper interrogates the nature of
peacebuilding practices in the global south, offering five theses on the
neoliberalisation of post-conflict statescapes. Recommendations for
future research on the shifting geographies of peacebuilding are
provided, concluding with an initial case study on the Bangsamoro
peace process in the Southern Philippines. Critiques of contemporary
peacebuilding practices and assumptions are in need of a more
thorough engagement with state theory. As a dynamic sociospatial
configuration, due attention to the changing nature of the state can

28

be a useful lens for understanding precisely how elite-negotiated


peace deals and post-conflict reconstruction come to a consensus
around the production of a neoliberal peace.
Peace Process: A Dearth in Sociological Theory (The Case of the
Bangsamoro in Mindanao)
Delfo C. Canceran, De La Salle University
This paper attempts to contribute to the sociology of peace.
Sociological theory is sated with conflict but wanting in peace.
However, conflict and peace are correlative. In short, there can be no
theory on peace without addressing social conflict. This paper uses
the theories forwarded by John Burtons Human Needs Theory (HNT)
and Edward Azars Protracted Social Conflict (PSC) in understanding
conflict and peace. Both theorists recognize the necessity of radical
solution to conflict because they focus on significant factors that
generate conflict, namely, the debilitating poverty that holds up the
flourishing of their identity. We shall then relate basic needs and
collective identity. It is only in addressing social justice that restores
identity of a people. This understanding of conflict and peace will be
applied in the case of the peace agreement forged between the
Government of the Philippines (GPH) and the Moro Islamic Liberation
Front (MILF). Both parties have acknowledged and identified the
problem of historical injustice. Historical justice demands not only
recognition of the atrocities, but more importantly, their reparation.
However, historical injustice cannot be addressed in a short period of
time but in a long process. We have to note that a past is a contested
zone since we do not only refer to the store of memory but also its
interpretation. In this sense, we need transitional justice in order to
address this injustice. Transitional justice requires accountability and
responsibility of the government to the people. As the term suggests,
transition is a process of shift or change from this injustice to justice. This
shift calls for substantial reforms not just in Mindanao but the whole
country.
Ang Mapagkunwaring Kapayapaan sa Pandayan ng Pantas:
Tunggalian sa Pulitikat Ideolohiya
Gerome Nicolas Dela Pea, Tanggol Wika Pasig

29

Mahirap bigyang kahulugan ang salitang kapayapaan. Kadalasang


iniuugnay ito sa kawalan ng kaguluhan o karahasan. Ngunit ang
kawalan ng pisikal na karahasan ay hindi naman nangangahulugan
ng pagkakaroon ng kapayapaan. Ayon kay Johan Gatlung, marapat
pag-ibahin ang kahulugan ng positibo at negatibong kapayapaan.
Ang pag-iiba nito ay maiuugnay sa pag-unawa sa ibat ibang tipo ng
karahasang nagaganap sa lipunan at maging sa mga institusyon.
Ang papel na ito ay isang pagtanaw at pagsusuri sa kalagayan ng
mga guro, mga mag-aaral at magulang, at iba pang bahagi ng
isang lokal na institusyon o pamantasan sa Lungsod ng Pasig.
Sisiyasatin kung papaano tinutunghayan ang kapayapaan sa loob ng
pamantasan sa kabila ng mga kontradiksyon at tunggalian sa pulitika
at ideolohiyang dala ng mga pangunahing aktor sa loob nito. Gamit
ang interbyu, analisis ng mga dokumento at obserbasyon, bibigyanghugis ang konsepto ng kapayapaan sa dalawang kinakaharap na
kondisyon: ang pagpapanatili ng staus quo o ang pagsusulong ng
aktibismo. Nakapaloob dito kung papaano tinatanaw ng dalawang
magkaibang panig ang konsepto ng kapayapaan, karahasan at
kaguluhan, at kung anong uri ng pagtugon ang kanilang inilalatag.
Sa pag-aaral, titignan ang mga ispesipiko at konkretong kaganapan
sa loob ng pamantasan (i.e. porum ng mga mag-aaral, mapanlinlang
na mga alituntunin, atbp.) bilang patunay ng mapagkunwaring
kapayapaan sa likod ng tunggaliang pulitikal at ideolohikal.
PANEL 1D| 16 OCTOBER | 14:00-15:30 | CED AMPHITHEATER
PROBLEMATIZING THE MAGUINDANAO PROBLEM
Moderator: Maria Cecila T. Medina
The Aftermath of the Mamasapano Encounter
Bai Putri Morayah A. Amil, Mindanao State University - Maguindanao
The research will examine the aftermath of the dreadful Mamasapano
encounter last January 25, 2015. In particular it will try to look at the
wider impact of the encounter to the lives of the residents of
Mamasapano, specifically those from Tukanalipao and nearby
affected areas mainly in terms of living, trade, occupation ,
education, health and governance. It will also try to investigate if
there were any assistance and support from the government, NGOs
and other concern institutions to the residents who were affected by

30

the conflict between the government forces and armed groups. The
main objective of the research is to describe and examine the
aftermath of the Mamasapano encounter to the residents of
Mamasapano specifically those living in Tukanalipao and nearby
affected areas. Also, this will seek the following objectives; 1. To find
out the wide impact of the encounter to the Mamasapano resident in
terms of: a. living/social condition b. Trade c. economic condition d.
Occupation e. education f. health and g. governance/political
condition 2. To investigate if there were any assistance and support
from the government, NGOs and other concern institutions to the
affected residents. 3. To come up with a recommendation for our
lawmakers and other concerned institutions regarding the plight of the
displace people affected by the conflicts happening in our society.
The study is expected to expose the difficulties face by the victims of
the never-ending conflict between the government and the armed
groups in the Philippines. The data that we will obtain from this study
will serve in identifying the needs of the IDPs so that proper
intervention from government, NGOs and other concern institutions
can be formulated.
The Armed Conflict in Maguinadanao: Its Social and Economic
Consequences to the Internally Displaced Persons
Monela M. Mua, Mindanao State University Maguindanao
The Philippines has been experiencing armed conflicts in the form of
insurgency and armed struggle secession. The struggle has resulted to
armed conflicts and caused displacement of a large number of
population in Central Mindanao particularly in Maguindanao
province, which is the biggest in the current record of displacement.
Consequences of armed conflicts are far-reaching. They could
destroy the local economy and social relations of people, disrupt
cultural activities and demolish the spirit of the people and their
community. It is along this context that this study aimed to investigate
the social and economic effects and changes brought about by the
armed conflict on the Internally Displaced Persons. Specifically, the
historical events that led to the displacement; the disruption to the
personal, family and community activities triggered by the
displacement; the economic support; and the manifestation of
dehumanization experience by the IDPs and the new form that have

31

emerged among the IDPs as a result of the displacement were dealt


with. The study used the descriptive method with the use of survey
questionnaire and interview guides. Records of the different agencies
like the DSWD were also used to contribute to the data collected.
Visits to the IDP's centers were also done to have acquaintances with
the IDPs. Observation and FGD were also used to strengthen and
deepen the results. The findings in this study revealed that IDPs in the
conflict affected areas in Maguindanao have suffered and their
social, economic and cultural activities had been disrupted due to
their displacement. Also, because of their situation, they experience
dehumanization and new norms have emerged as a consequence of
the displacement. It is then concluded that problems like armed
conflicts such as this current situation that displace many people in
Maguindanao would have negative effects on the people socially,
economically and culturally.
Is there a Potential for a Cultural Sociology of Collective Victimhood in
the Philippines?
Macario Lacbawan Jr., Goethe University Frankfurt
Rhetoric of victimhood bedecks any forms of violent confrontation.
Rebel groups or secessionist movements, for instance, couch their
claims by invoking traumatic events in the past that could illustrate
how their enemy has committed wrong to their community. This
rhetoric is then utilized to galvanize their call for collective resistance
and create a way to seek redress from their perceived antagonists.
Yet, the depiction of an event as a source of collective victimhood
goes beyond individual pain and suffering. To transform the death of
one person or the massacre of a particular group as a collective
suffering involves a cultural production that weaves diverse elements
into coherent normative assemblages of pain. Kenneth Burkes
victimage ritual has succinctly illuminated how the formation of
victimhood is constructed through rhetorical devices. However, in this
paper, I reconsider his work as a starting point for a cultural sociology
of victimhood. I argue that the symbolic construction of victimhood
also involves the deployment of cultural codes that are deeply
informed by binarism, in Durkheimian sense. The Strong Program of
Cultural Sociology recognizes that binary oppositions occupy an
essential function in how actors deal with events that leave indelible

32

mark in the collective consciousness. Hence, creating collectivized


victimhood through rhetorical and performative resources is deeply
truncated by binarism. To illustrate my claim, I revisit the Mamasapano
clash and describe how the death of 44 soldiers is made into a
narrative of victimhood informed by a script populated by sneaky
enemies vs innocent martyrs or the violent rebels vs heroes.

PANEL 2A | 16 OCTOBER | 15:45-17:15 | PLENARY HALL


CONTESTING CAPITALISM
Moderator: Arnold Alamon
Talisay Beach Resorts Polluting Taal Lake Waters: Sketches on Synergy
Among Stakeholders
Enrico C. Garcia, Lyceum of the Philippines University- Laguna
The overarching goal of this paper is to contribute to the discourse on
capitalisms collision with the environment. Particularly, this study
examines the negative effects of local beach resorts in Talisay,
Batangas to the quality of Taal Lake Waters. This paper focuses on four
barangays: Tumaway and Aya (with only two beach resorts) and
Buco and Sampaloc (with eighteen beach resorts). The results of the
water quality indicator tests elucidate that the Dissolved Oxygen (3.66
mg/L), Phosphate (0.09 mg/L), Chlorates (5.4 mg/L), and pH (8.66) of
baranggays Buco and Sampaloc do not conform to the standards set
by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). Ttest results show significant difference in the overall average of four
compared sites (p<0.05). The increasing volume of wastes from beach
resorts in Talisay, Batangas is one of the major threats in the water
quality of Taal Lake. Specific contributors of beach water pollutant
include wastes from sewage system, boating, beach goers, fresh
water debris, and plastic pollution. This paper sees the urgency for the
Local Government Unit to reinforce the Local Sanitation Law for all
beach resorts in Talisay, Batangas. Implementing such a law, however,
is not easy and it amplifies tensions. While the local government is
mandated to promote local tourism/businesses, it also has the moral
obligation to protect the environment. I provide preliminary sketches
to protect the water quality of Taal Lake. I argue that the three main
stakeholdersthe local government, the locals/local businesses, and

33

the touristsneed to create a synergy. This synergy, following Peter


Evans, pertains to institutional partnerships and embeddedness of
actors relations, among others.
Disaster Activism Confronts Disaster Capitalism: A Case Study of a
Coastal Community in Tacloban City, Leyte
April Porteria, Ateneo de Manila University
In this age of neo-liberalization, it is no longer surprising that even the
most distressing situations can be a source of profit. The term disaster
capitalism has been used to describe the global pattern of big
businesses profiting from disasterswhether climate or war-related.
This was seen in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in the United
States, Indian Ocean Tsunami in South and Southeast Asia and the
Haiti earthquake. The same phenomenon is being observed in the
aftermath of super typhoon Haiyan (locally known as Yolanda), the
strongest typhoon on record that hit Central Philippines in November
2013. The rehabilitation phase of the disaster has received major
criticisms as mainly led by the private sector, which has opened to
different warnings against disaster capitalism, a condition that exploits
than provide solutions to communities. This paper highlights the role of
peoples movements in resistance and efforts of insulating the country
from such phenomenon, looking at the case of Barangay 37Reclamation Area in Tacloban City, Leyte. The paper also explains
that disaster capitalism in the Philippines has its specific nuances that
mirror the pre-existing characteristics of the Philippine political
economy, which is a combination of patronage politics and
neoliberal policies.
Limits and Challenges to Participatory Urban Planning: Exploring the
Experience of Kalipunan ng Damayang Mahihirap
(KADAMAY)/National Alliance of Urban Poor
Cleve Kevin Robert V. Arguelles, University of the Philippines Manila
Recent discourses in participatory urban planning have centered
primarily on locally led plans for a collaborative approach in
community engagement as manifestations of the impact of
neoliberalism on urban governance. Through privately led publicprivate partnerships, critical scholars have noticed the increasing

34

reliance on the relationship between local government units and


corporate groups that manages to co-opt and marginalize
community-driven efforts to air dissent and perform protest. This
preliminary case study explores the experience of the urban poor
group Kalipunan ng Damayang Mahihirap (KADAMAY) in
participating in participatory urban planning involving demolition and
resettlement of communities for business districts. Preliminary results
show that the participation practices of the urban poor group and the
communities reveals multiplicity in meanings. The experience of
KADAMAY in dealing with participatory urban planning also
complicates the dominant narrative of the success of the
collaborative approach in community engagement. In fact, in several
cases, initiatives to participatory urban planning were cancelled after
meetings reveal a foundational difference in the community and
governments/business groups vision for the neighborhood. In such
instances, KADAMAY perceives that calls for participatory urban
planning are excuses to legitimize community demolitions. The long
experience of KADAMAY pose a question on the truthfulness of the
government agenda for participatory urban planning and exposes
fundamental differences on the nature and consequentiality of
participation. This paper explores the limitations and challenges to
participatory urban planning, and hopefully, offers fresh insights on
possibilities for reframing the politics of participatory practice.
Living in a Managed Chaos: Social Movements for a Moving City
Gina R. Gatarin, University of the Philippines Diliman
Living in contemporary Third World cities has become an irony. While
megacities such as Metro Manila are seen as a source of opportunities
for social mobility, city life has been embedded on enormous threats
to peoples well-being. Challenges to inclusive development and wellbeing especially in the case of mobility and transportation are now
more serious than ever. In this study*, which remains to be a work in
progress, I shall explore the chaos and opportunities in transportation
governance in Metro Manila in the context of the struggles of
organizations and networks pursuing a safe, convenient and efficient
system wherein those who have less in wheels will have more on the
road. I utilized textual analysis of existing laws and regulations on
transportation policies in the Philippines with a focus on Metro Manila;

35

key-informant interviews with government officials such as the


Departments of Public Works and Highway and Transportation and
Communication and the Metro Manila Development Authority; and
accounting the experiences of several civil society groups active in
pursuing alternative modes of transport. The study has shown that the
country has a number of laws and regulations which are confusing
and are continuously changing depending on who is at the position in
various government institutions. However, the various social
movements involved in changing the culture, infrastructure and
policies are an interesting element of the current state of chaos in
Metro Manilas transportation system as they account the everyday
frustrations and anxieties of citizens of the metropolis. The study then
moves toward the exploration of how civil society participation
becomes one of the fundamental avenues to re-direct the mess and
inequalities associated with the domination of the car mania and the
lack of a transportation system which is supposed to move people
rather than just vehicles.
PANEL 2B | 16 OCTOBER | 15:45-17:15 | CED 202
THE PROMISE OF EDUCATION
Moderator: Jesse Angelo Altez
An Assessment of the Human Rights Conditions of the Polytechnic
University of the Philippines
Mercedes Camille B. Ocampo, Alvin G. Allam, Camille Iglesias,
Jacqueline Obidencio, Polytechnic University of the Philippines
It has been argued that there is a necessity to develop
comprehensive systems of education that incorporate the values of
human rights, intercultural understanding and tolerance in order to
promote and maintain peace. Thus, it is imperative that human rights
education and awareness are given primary importance in schools.
This paper is an assessment of the human rights conditions of the
Polytechnic University of the Philippines through a survey. The survey
aims to help reflect critically on forces within the university that affect
the human rights climate and design action plans that could improve
human rights activities. Although this paper is limited in scope, it is
intended to help identify specific areas of concern in peace and
human rights education in the university that may need to be

36

addressed.
After Mapping, now what? An Initial Analysis of Sectioning Practices
among Public Secondary Schools in Manila
John N. Abletis, Polytechnic University of the Philippines
This paper is part of a large ongoing project that tries to explore how
homogeneous student-sectioning/tracking/ability-grouping is done
among public high schools. It presents my initial analysis of the
different student sectioning/classifying practices in Manila and the
reasons and considerations school administrators have in doing them.
Using Kathy Charmazs constructivist grounded theory strategies, my
goal is to sociologize the conditions of possibility that these practices
are creating and their possible consequences to our society.
Learning About the Moros: A Content Analysis of Selected Philippine
History Textbooks
Jorge S. Baclor, University of the Philippines Manila
This paper examines the extent of the discussion of about the Moro
people and their struggle in selected Philippine history textbooks used
in the high school from 2002-2012. Results show that while the
textbooks discuss cultural topics in detail (i.e. the spread of Islam, and
Islamic beliefs), the textbooks are almost silent on socio-political topics
(i.e. resistance to foreign rule, integration into the republic, and the
issue of secession). In conclusion, this paper analyzes the impact of
the K-12 curriculum in textbook writing and in learning about the Moro
people and their struggle.
Fostering Religious Literacy in Philippine Public Schools: Assessing
Possibilities and Challenges
Manuel Victor J. Sapitula, University of the Philippines Diliman
The implementation of the K-12 curriculum in the Philippines allows for
a closer look at the challenges in fostering religious literacy in the
current public school system. Incorporated into the school curricula of
various countries like the United States, the United Kingdom and India,
religious literacy aims to equip students in dealing with the realities of
religious pluralism and diversity in contemporary societies. This paper

37

looks into the concept of religious literacy in the Philippine context


using approaches from the sociology of religion and sociology of
education. Using insights from existing literature on religious literacy in
other countries, the paper assesses local experiences of religious
diversity that is relevant in framing classroom instruction and the
training of educators. This paper aims to contribute sociological
insights that influence the content and pedagogical approaches of
religious literacy programs that will be used in Philippine public schools.
PANEL 2C | 16 OCTOBER | 15:45-17:15 | CED 203
GENDERED DIMENSION OF SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION
Moderator: Michael Labayandoy
Conflict and Transformation Experiences Among the Bangsamoro
Women
Monela M. Mua, Mindanao State University Maguindanao
This is a study on the different conflict experiences of the Bangsamoro
Women in the different of conflict like personal, rational, cultural and
structural. The Women respondents for the study were residents of
eight barangays in four municipalities, namely: Pokay, Kabacan,
Sultan Kudarat and Datu Saudi Ampatuan in the province of
Maguindanao. The provinces were hotbeds of armed conflict which
beset the areas even before the year 2000. Aside from armed conflict,
there were some condition and experiences which the Bangsamoro
Women have suffered from. Part of the conflicts on the personal level
was brought about by marital rift or dispute, conflict with children and
parents as well as with in-laws. On the relational kind of conflict, this
has to do with conflicts with other people especially on their face to
face interaction with one another, and conflicts with other tribes,
neighbors, local officials and some religious leaders in the community.
For the cultural conflict, it occurs when the women were subjected to
force marriage or parental -arranged marriages, when their families
have "rido", a local term for family feud, and land conflict with
relatives or the husband remarry again. All of these kind of conflicts
were anchored on John Paul Lederachs 's Conflict Transformation
Theory which uses four dimensions of conflicts such as Personal,
Relational, Cultural and Structural. The methods use in this study was
quantitative, making use of survey for the gathering of data on profiles

38

of the respondents, and qualitative, which made use of case studies


to substantiate the data gathered from the survey. The objectives
were to find out the conflict and transformation experiences among
the Bangsamoro Women, the form of conflict experiences in terms of
personal, rational, cultural and structural dimensions and the effects of
these conflicts that led to women transformation.
Living and Leaving the Revolutionary Movement in Compostela Valley
Province: The Struggles and Ideologies of Former Women
Revolutionaries
Septrin John A. Calamba, Liwayway S. Viloria, Mark Jason T. Cesar,
Gary Ben S. Villocino, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of
Technology
Membership in the Philippine revolutionary movement is basically
rooted in their desire to contribute to social structural change to uplift
the miserable conditions of the masses. This same desire continues to
be nourished by them even when they have already left the
movement. The study intends to address the womens experiences
and involvement in the Communist Party of the Philippines New
Peoples Army (CPP-NPA). This mainly seeks to deal with womens
views and perceptions on the current social, political, and economic
issues of the country. This is a case study by design using snowball
sampling, individual interview as the main data gathering method,
and thematic data analysis approach. This study is informed by the
theories of conflict, relative deprivation, liberal feminism, and Maslows
hierarchy of needs, among others. Socio-economic problems such as
financial crisis, poor governance, and family disorganization drove
them to engage in the movement in their belief that it can solve these
circumstances. As women revolutionaries, they believe they can help
save other women from injustices, inferiority and inequalities. By serving
as medical and political officers, and combatants, they have
experienced respect, fairness, and meaningful camaraderie in the
movement, in spite of such internal problems as financial crisis,
misunderstandings with comrades, and exhausting combat operations
against the established forces. Primarily, family concerns especially the
welfare of their children drove these women revolutionaries to leave
the movement. Although they have already left the movement, their
progressive political ideology is evident in their constant

39

communication with the active members of the CPP-NPA, and in their


views about the countrys suffering from economic instability and
social inequalities caused by corruption of the government officials,
imperialism, and capitalism.
Nagtutunggaling mga Katangian ng LGBT Pride March
John Andrew Gatchalian-Evangelista, University of the Philippines
Diliman
Mahaba ang kasaysayan ng LGBT Pride March. Una itong ginanap
noong June 26, 1970 sa tatlong lungsod sa Estados UnidosNew York,
Los Angeles at Oregon. Ang orihinal na layunin ng martsang ito ay
alalahanin ang katapangan ng mga miyembro ng LGBT (lesbian,
gays, bisexuals at transgenders) noong nilabanan nila ang puwersa
ng kapulisan na sumugod sa Stonewall Inn noong gabi ng June 26,
1969. Pinaniniwalaan na ang marahas na kaguluhan sa pagitan ng
kapulisan at mga LGBT noong gabing iyon ay nanatiling malaking
inspirasyon para sa pagkilos ng komunidad ng mga LGBT. Sa
pagdaan ng panahon, ang mga tagapangasiwa at kalahok sa
martsa ay nagkabit ng ibat ibang pagpapakahulugan sa simboliko
at taunang gawaing ito. Ang papel na ito ay isang komprehensibong
paglalagom ng literaturang naglalarawan sa mga nagtutunggaling
pagpapakahulugan sa LGBT Pride March. Sisilipin rin sa huling bahagi
ng sulatin ang kasaysayan ng LGBT Pride sa Maynila upang maipakita
ang natatanging posisyon ng Metro Manila Pride March sa kalakhang
pagsasasagawa ng martsa sa buong mundo. Ipinalalagay ng papel
na ito na mayroong kakayahan ang queer theory na bigyang
resolusyon ang mga nagtatalong kahulugang ito.
PANEL 2D| 16 OCTOBER | 15:45-17:15 | CED AMPHITHEATER
PEACE AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE COMMUNITY
Moderator: Jayeel Cornelio
Policy Analysis on Peace and Development: A Case of Barangay One,
Malaybalay City, Bukidnon
Rona Celeste V. Pasamonte, Jade Harley C. Bretaa, Bukidnon State
University
Malaybalay is located at the heart of the Province of Bukidnon. It is

40

strategically positioned in Region 10 in Mindanao. Malaybalay is also


known for its tranquillity. However, the growing number of conflicts is
also visible. This conflict affects not only the tourist but also the locals.
The livelihood, employment and the mere living of people as well. In
this paper, researchers looked at the function of the Local
Government Unit. In every LGU, there is a committee on peace and
order. The committee is in charge of the creation, implementation,
evaluation, and analysis of the policy and ordinances in terms of
peace and order. Together with the committee is the congruency of
the Philippine National Police. Moreover, both the 2 have co-equal
function and responsibility not only to the City but more importantly to
the people. This paper assessed the selected policies and ordinances
implemented both by the LGU and PNP in Barangay One, Malaybalay
City, Bukidnon. The researchers applied purposive sampling to
comprise the sample of the study. Data were gathered using focus
group discussion on the selected Barangay officials of the said
barangay. Findings were identified what barriers need to be
addressed, if not to eradicate immediately, but progressively to
eliminate the conflicts. Further, it will provide awareness as of the
status of Malaybalay City in terms of Peace and Development.
Socio-cultural Roles and Access to and Control Over Resources,
Benefits, and Opportunities among Women and Men Farmers in the
NGOs Sustainable Agriculture
Grace Majorenos-Taruc, Mindanao State University- Main
This paper focuses on gender division of labor among women and
men farmers in community spheres and their differential access to and
control over resources, benefits, and opportunities. It also highlights the
factors affecting gender division of labor and access to and control,
and the implications of such factors to sustainable agriculture in the
community. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions
were conducted among farmer beneficiaries of NGOs sustainable
agriculture program. Some Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools
were also utilized. Findings show that women in Upper Pugaan areas
are either part-time or full-time farmers and are actively involved in
resource management. They are major contributors to the household
economy, both through their remunerative work on farms and through
the unpaid work they traditionally render at home and in the

41

community. Moreover, there is an increasing social mobility and


participation of women in community management work. However,
community politics still remains as mens domain. Constraints prevailed
among women vis--vis men concerning access to and control over
economic resources, benefits, and opportunities in the household,
farm, and community: structural, geophysical, and socio-cultural.
However, there is an apparent shift toward egalitarianism. These
factors can facilitate, constrain or both towards maximum
participation and equal access and control of women and men
which have implications to sustainable agriculture program in the
community.
Conflict in One Upland Community in Oroquieta, Misamis Occidental
and Two Coastal Communities in Iligan City and Lanao del Norte
Nimfa L. Bracamonte, Sulpecia L. Ponce, Mindanao State UniversityIligan Institute of Technology
Employing a triangulation of survey, focus group discussion, key
informant interviews, and secondary data, the study focuses on
conflict in three research settings: Sebucal, an upland protected area
in Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park, Oroquieta, Misamis Occidental;
Lapayan, a rural coastal community in Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte;
and Canaway, an urban coastal community in Iligan City.The nature
of conflict in Sebucal involves stealing of animals and crops, petty
quarrels, and boundary disputes in a protected area that are
interpersonal or intra-group in nature from within the local community.
Lapayan captures the micro aspect of the Mindanao problem with
the August 2008 MILF attack. It is an intergroup conflict with national
and global bearing. Domestic violence that is basically
interpersonal/intra-group in nature is also present. In the case of
Canaway, domestic violence, conflict among neighbours,
drunkenness, petty crimes, and land disputes depict the urban blight.
In regard to conflict resolution, amicable/informal settlement is the
modal strategy. The role of the barangay council and the lupong
tagapamayapa is crucial. Lapayans case indicates military
intervention. This study exemplifies that the nature of conflict bears on
the geophysical and socioeconomic characteristics of the setting, as
well as, the sociodemographic and economic profile of the local
population. Conflict may manifest a combination of any of the

42

following patterns: simple/moderate and/or complex/intense, local


and/or national/global, intergroup and/or intra-group,
personal/domestic and/or structural/institutional, individual and/or
societal. In general, considering the interrelatedness of the
components of society, it is vital to respect and draw from the culture
and knowledge of a people in developing appropriate models of
handling conflict incorporating education, advocacy, and mediation
(Lederach, 1996:13-14, 19).
PANEL 3A | 17 OCTOBER | 10:45-12:15 | PLENARY HALL
COMPARATIVE ANALYSES OF CONFLICT
Moderator: Enrique Oracion
Post-Conflict Actor's Behavior: The Case of the Government of National
Unity of Zanzibar
Amour Mmanga, University of Dar Es Salaam
When tracing history of Zanzibar and the Mindanao conflict through
the CR-SIPABIO tools of the conflict analysis, you can get the similar
result but the different is in the behavior or outcome. Zanzibar
emergence of social political destabilization during this period is not
result of multi-party competition, but also colonial legacy of ethnic
and racial practice. While Mindanao was the political control and
land reform but its genesis was through the religious identity which
develops progressively in time bases. Many outcome or behavior
adopt, that badly engage the life of many people into death or
collapse economically for example The NPAs armed struggle against
military forces and civilian militia units resulted in heavy casualties and
displacement. Several efforts have been made to restore situation by
stake holders of peace like National Unification Commission 1992 and
Common wealth 1999 it was complex and difficult task due to political
pressure and tension for example two peace accord was failed
recently after the part agree and signed, was similar to Mindanao
1986 peace talks with the rebels. Why these behaviors occur after
coalition? Post conflict time some actors became pessimistic because
of including the opposition members into the government. Those who
thought of becoming the peace actors become betrayal and
behave negatively toward the positive peace, and give hard time to
operate the coalition structure. Therefore it revealed that the actors

43

behaviors and practices in the GNU face ambiguous situation of either


sticking to the original objectives or turning against the GNU. They are
afraid of the fact that the coming general election in October 2015
might be full malpractices and turmoil which devalue of agreed
peace accord. Comparatively In 2011 Despite formal peace talks
between the New Peoples Army (NPA) and government forces,
violent clashes continued. Why the actors behave like this in post
conflict of after the peace accord took place? This paper comes up
with investigation of post-conflict actors behavior. The Government of
National Unity in Zanzibar and Mindanao are taken as a case study.
Critical Reflections on the Politics of Identity: Cross-cultural
comparisons between the Philippines and Indonesia
Craig Cook, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Jakarta, Indonesia
This paper addresses the politics of identity shaping through
comparative analysis of two distinct socio-cultural and religious
minority identities, both embedded in larger hegemonic nation-state
identities. The cultural identities to be probed are those of the Muslim
minority population of Mindanao, along with the minority Chinese
population of Indonesia. In the post-Suharto Reformasi period of the
past 17 years in Indonesia, a threat has emerged to former nationstate ideologies, such as Pancasila, which attempted to hold
disparate groups together. The threat to stable nation-state identities
can be seen in rising conflicts in places like Papua, and Aceh, where
independence movements are on the rise. How do these
transforming cultural, ethnic, and religious identities take shape under
a new order of things? How do the state, education, mass media,
religious organizations, and civil society in general, seek to shape
these identities? How do social actors themselves define their identities
in new ways? What, if any, implications hold true concerning the
politics of identity for Muslim Mindanao? Through ethnographic
observation in both locales, as well as interviews with university
students in Jakarta of multiple religious and ethnic backgrounds, these
issues will be probed as to how identities are shaped under an
emergent social order which now offers multiple identity
configurations. Through critical analysis using Benedict Andersons
model of Imagined Communities, and through cross-cultural
comparison, the author wishes to shed light on approaches to identity

44

politics formation that may be seen as a threat or opportunity in


building a stronger civil society.
Chinas Path to Domination: Straighter than Aquinos Matuwid na Daan
Louie Benedict Ignacio, Colegio de San Juan de Letran
The adversities brought about by the conflict in the West Philippine
Sea have put the ability of the Philippine Government to defend the
country for its territories in question. This paper looks at the history how
the power of China in the West Philippine Sea (South China Sea) rose
with the deep-blue sea maritime technology. This paper also looks at
the role that China and other super powers, including the United
States and Japan, play in the conflict arising in the area. As a
conclusion, the paper looks at possible options the Philippine
Government, under the current administration of Aquino could and
should address the issue.
PANEL 3B | 17 OCTOBER | 10:45-12:15 | CED 202
CONFLICT AND LABOR MARKETS (1)
Moderator: Mario J. Aguja
Muted Hidden Transcript: The Art of Muting the Resistance among
Filipino Call Center Agents
Floramante Sir John Don King Howard T. Ponce III, Ateneo de Manila
University
This paper explores the practice of muted hidden transcript among
non-mobile Filipino call center agents. To examine this practice, I have
taken concepts 'weapons of the weak' by Scott and 'muted back talk'
by Fabros to frame this study. In the narratives of 28 Filipino agent
informants gathered through face-to-face, in-depth key-informant
interview, enriched with direct personal and participant observation in
a call center company (under the hidden name TechnoLink), and
supplemented by secondary data collection, the study focuses on the
transnational on-work practices of Filipino agents that avoid conflict
with their foreign customers while muting their resistance. These
practices allow them to voice out what is on their minds, and to
breathe and escape from the pressure of the work performance in
front of their onshore customers. Moreover, these permit them to

45

critique power, in this case, of the customers, that go on offstage and


also allow them to resist reflexively in a hidden way against the tightly
controlled, highly monitored, pressured structure of the work. The
Filipino agents way of masking resistance through muted hidden
transcript, call transfer, and no talking until they drop the call, is not
only an on-work lifestyle practice that saves social relations with
customers from onshore, but is also an elaborate exercise to subsume
their agency. That is, to become the agentat once a
representative that works in behalf of others, and an actor with the
capacity to assert his will.
On Minimal Justice: Exploring the Unknown Voice of the Coconut Farm
Workers with Rainer Forst
Michael P. Gatchalian, St. Marys College of Tagum Inc.
The issues of globalization have triggered controversies for more
than three decades. Globalization, generally construed, is observed
in various forms of social activity including economic, political and
cultural life. Perhaps, people who are marginalized (the coconut farm
workers) experienced the intense disrespect, struggling human
condition, and status or class maintained by the hybrid landowners
and the question; why they remain poor? Therefore, the task of this
study is to trace the periphery in search of justice in extent of
accepting the moral norms of recognition in the process of
justification. Acknowledge the fact that justification is the practical
way of addressing the issue of struggles.
Ang Trabaho sa Pelikula: A Visual Analysis of Representations of
Work in Selected Filipino Films (1970 2010)
Christian Joshua D. Lomahan, Clarence M. Batan, University of Santo
Tomas
This paper problematizes how the concept of work or in the local
parlance, trabaho is represented in five selected Filipino films in the
last four decades from 1970s to 2010. Using Denzins (2004) film and
qualitative content analysis method, the paper probes into work
dynamics in the Philippines in terms of (a) the nature of work, (b)
varied representations of work issues, problems and concerns; and (c)
work intersections with local and global processes as portrayed and

46

represented in these selected films. The paper argues about the


power of portrayals of these selected Filipino films when historically
read against political and socio-economic backdrop of the country.
As part of the istambay study series, the paper aims at furthering the
discourse of the sociology of labor and work in the Philippines
specifically along the social issue of the persisting unemployment in
the country.
PANEL 3C | 17 OCTOBER | 10:45-12:15 | CED 203
HISTORICAL SOCIOLOGY: CONFLICT AND CONTROL
Moderator: Maria Cecila T. Medina
Ang Peace Time sa Pasig, 1941-1945
Danim R. Majerano, Samahang Saliksik Pasig, Inc.
Ang Pasig ay saksi sa Ikalawang Digmaang Pandadigdig. Ito ay
nahati sa dalawang panig bilang Maka-Hapon at Maka-Amerikano
sa konteksto kung papaano tinanggap ng bayan ang digmaan.
Layunin ng papel na talakayin at suriin ang sinasabing peace time o
panahon ng katahimikan sa usapin ng talaban ng ideolohiya at
pulitika sa kamalayang bayan. Sa tulong at paggamit ng mga
kuwento, alaala, historikal na dokumento at pamanang kultural ay
mahuhubog at maitatanghal na sa loob ng katahimikan, batbat ng
mga negosasyon at kontestasyon sa kalagayan ng surbaybal sa
panahon ng digmaan.
Crime in a Time of War: Notes on Criminality in Japanese Occupied
Manila
Aaron Abel Mallari, University of the Philippines Diliman
When the fires of the Second World War engulfed Manila and placed
the Filipino people under Japanese rule, the return to normalcy
figured to become a major project of the newly established regime.
To maintain order in the everyday context, therefore, was paramount.
However, the distressing times made it difficult for the people to return
to their pre-war lives. The harsh conditions, in one way, also became a
factor that pushed people to certain acts deviant and criminal.
Through a reading of select memoirs and news reports from the

47

Tribune, this piece explores the different discursive meanings attached


to crime/criminality (particularly cases of theft, looting) in Philippine
society in the context of the Japanese occupation. In a sense, this
inquiry also attempts to treat criminality as a window to further
understand the everyday conditions during wartime Manila. Corollary,
the research also aims to throw some light on how the Japanese
regime operated on the ground as the news reports can also provide
a glimpse on the ways the Japanese responded to criminality in the
attempt to normalize (i.e. pacify) the atmosphere in Manila especially
in the early years of the occupation. This piece ultimately intends to
contribute to historical criminology research and the further
understanding of the Japanese occupation as a major juncture in
Philippine history.
Urban Planning and Colonialism: The City Beautiful Plan (Arellano Plan)
of Iloilo City (1928-1930)
Elgin Glenn R. Salomon, University of the Philippines-Visayas Miag-ao
Colonialism shaped the Philippine history and society for the past
centuries. On the other hand, urban planning function is not only
limited on determining the use of space and design of the urban
environment but it also defines power. Hence, this paper then attempt
to interpret the Proposed Development Plan of the City of Iloilo and
Vicinity or the City Beautiful Plan and prove that behind the idea of
this grand masterplan by Juan Arellano, a pensionado was the
rationale of American colonialism in the country such as domination,
subjugation and control. This paper employed interdisciplinary
analyses based of poststructuralist (Foucaldian approaches on social
control), postcolonial (Orientalism) and dependent urbanist (rooted
on Wallersteins World-Systems theory) perspectives. It is also backed
by evidences on cases of City Beautiful Plans and existing government
institutions /establishments in the United States and other parts of the
country that time. As a result, despite the existing conflicts in race and
class, the colonizers utilized tactics such as introduction of public
health, sports education and transportation and infrastructure building
to pacify the Filipinos against their abuses and at the same time, they
operated these establishments to assert their power and to exploit the
resources of the archipelago for their economic advantage.

48

PANEL 3D| 17 OCTOBER | 10:45-12:15 | CED AMPHITHEATER


RELIGION: SOURCE OF CONFLICT OR INSTRUMENT OF PEACE
Moderator: Jayeel Cornelio
Comparative Study on Muslim-Christian Relations in Conflict Affected
Areas
Amane U. Amanoden, RC AL-Khwarizmi International College
Foundation Inc.
The study aimed to determine the effects of Mindanao Conflict on
Muslim-Christian relations in the two conflict affected barangays in
Maigo, Lanao del Norte: Barangay Liangan West (Christian dominated
area) and Barangay Mentring (Muslim dominated area). The MuslimChristian relation was diagnosed in the following areas of concern
such as marriage patterns, dwelling arrangement, economic
activities, religious activities, educational situation, internal resolution
and political activities. The study showed that there are three factors
that bind the Muslim and Christian residents to stay together within the
same barangay, such as: the common mutual economic interests,
intermarriages, and place of origin of the residents were quite far.
Dwelling patterns can be classified into Purok dominated by Christians,
Purok dominated by Mranaos, and Puroks in which Mranaos and
Christians stay together. The two major religions practiced in the two
barangays are Islam and Roman Catholic. The mestizo/mestiza in
Barangay Liangan West practice Christianity while in Barangay
Mentring, they practice Islam. The conflict alerted the residents to
observe their own respective religion.The conflicts between Muslim
and Christian individuals are always taken as an individual problem
and not a matter between the Muslim and Christian groups. Conflicts
were settled through negotiations of the Barangay Chairman and the
leaders from both Mranaos and Christians.There are places where
Muslims and Christians have frequent contacts and which fortified
their harmonious relationships like schools where Muslim and Christian
pupils and parents mingle together. Politically, the barangay officials
from Barangay Liangan West are mostly composed of Christians while
in Barangay Mentring are mostly Mranao. Currently, chairpersons
from both barangays are mestizo and mestiza. In general, the
Mindanao Conflict did not affect the relationship of the Muslims and
Christians in the two barangays. It is even a motivating factor for them

49

to find ways by which they could stay together.


"Walang away-away" : The Peace Village Residential Experience
(PVRE) of Schoolchildren in Lanao del Norte
Noriko Hashimoto, Menandro Abanes, Ateneo de Naga University
Several studies attribute religious differences as the persistent driver of
the Mindanao conflict. Children are one of the most affected by the
conflict. This research focuses on the schoolchildren who participated
in the Department of Education (DepEd)-initiated Peace Village
Residential Experience (PVRE) in the Division of Lanao del Norte. It aims
to answer, do schoolchildren perceive these religious differences? To
what extent do the differences in religion among children play in their
relations with religious outgroups? Are interactions and contacts
limited because of the differences? The PVRE includes activities which
make pupils think and encourage them to experience shared interests
(e.g. games, dances, and artworks), which essentially create the
space for interactions. For seven years, the PVRE has been bringing
Bisaya-speaking Christian and Maranao-speaking Muslim
schoolchildren together. Do the PVRE activities make a difference in
the way schoolchildren view religious outgroups? To answer these
questions, a small survey and interviews with schoolchildren were
conducted. Actual observation and participation in several activities
were also made by the researchers in 2011 PVRE in Kapatagan, Lanao
del Norte. Social identification with an ingroup, derived from Social
Identity Theory, and limited contact with the outgroup have informed
schoolchildren's view of fellow schoolchildren whose religion and
language are different from theirs. The PVRE activities have been
found to be a good venue for schoolchildren to counter the formation
of prejudices and negative attitudes towards outgroups at their young
impressionable age.
Peace After the Mamasapano Incident: A Comparison of Muslim and
Non-Muslim Perceptions
Sherifa Rossmia O. Kadil, Mary Beth Ann O. Odo, Lucille A. Bayron,
Sulpecia L. Ponce, Mindanao State University- Iligan Institute of
Technology
The road to peace in Mindanao is a journey with lots of opportunities

50

and historical challenges. The crafting of the Bangsamoro Basic Law


(BBL) by the negotiating panels of the government and the Moro
Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) aims for the institutionalization of a
structural foundation to peace in the archipelago. This study
examines the perceptions of selected Maranao and non-Maranao
respondents in Iligan City on peace and BBL after the Mamasapano,
Maguindanao incident, which caused the death of 44 the Special
Action Force personnel of the PNP. It further seeks to determine their
views on human security after the incident and on the prospects of
peace in Mindanao. Through a survey of 60 respondents representing
the aforementioned ethnic groups chosen through convenience
sampling, findings show that respondents view peace as the
absence of conflict between Muslims and Christians, the absence of
fear and anxiety, and presence of unity and open-mindedness
among people. For the non-Maranaos, however, the creation of the
BBL led to confusion, indifference and validation of the demarcation
between ethnic lines. On the other hand, the Maranaos find BBL as
the solution to peace and security issues in Mindanao, a position they
held even after the Mamasapano incident. In contrast, to the nonMaranaos, this tragic incident intensified further their sense of social,
economic and personal insecurity. However, both groups expressed
strong faith that Mindanao will achieve peace if the people are
determined to make it happen. This paper proposed that Galtungs
view on positive peace through collaborative enterprises of conflicting
parties, in the case of Mindanao, between Muslims and Christians and
among the diverse ethnic identities, can become a promising
framework to end Mindanao conflict.
The Sacred of Religion and the Sublime of Ideology: Constructing
Collective Identity through Religious Solidarities
Emanuel De Guzman, Polytechnic University of the Philippines
The sacred is ontologically central to the discursive construction of
collective identity. Being the institutional expression of the sacred,
religion is a staple in all human collectivities and a constitutive force in
forging group identities. Hence, religion is coeval and coterminous
with society and the human being: religion is society's birthright and
fate. As an ontologically religious being who derives an identity from
the social body, the human being is always susceptible to ideological

51

corruption, to an excessive forging of identity and solidarity that blurs


the sense of the other, that which is fundamental in the human as a
social being. The observed fatal journey of group solidarities from the
sacred to religion to ideology in history provides a wealth of data for
theorizing the process of ideologization and the susceptibility of
religion to undergo this process. The answer lies in the the structure
sacred-religion-ideology where ideology is seen as an embedded
corruptive symptom in all social groups.
PANEL 3E| 17 OCTOBER | 10:45-12:15 | COE ROOM TBA
SOCIOLOGY OF YOUTH (1)
Moderator: Clarence Batan
When Acceptance Demands Pain: Experiences Among Frat Members
Danica Rose I. Bolivar, Jee Irvin T. Erag, Angielyn O. Petere, Saidamin P.
Bagolong, University of Mindanao
Despite the danger it may bring due to hazing, more and more
individuals are enticed to join fraternity. Their outlook lays an optimistic
mind-set that joining fraternity shall benefit them in one way or
another. This study explores the experiences of several fraternity
members just as they are about to enter, when they are already on
the process of entering, and after they become an official member. It
also aims to determine the motivational factors and their significant
experiences as well as how they changed their lives in general. This
study used phenomenological research design utilizing a focus group
discussion (FGD) to different college students in Davao City. Data
gathered were analyzed using manual NVIVO and cluster analysis to
categorize their responses. Findings showed that joining fraternities
before being accepted physically demands pain. It requires initiation
rites, a servicing and body contact which demand a lot of efforts and
determination that one may regret if he/she will give up so easily
especially investing his/her time just to be wasted. The enjoyment and
true brotherhood/sisterhoods acceptance is what they reap after
being subjected to painful experiences upon entering the fraternity to
which they all agreed to be worthwhile. Despite hearing all hazingrelated deaths in colleges, this phenomenon still takes place, and
more and more are still joining even great probability of harm and the
existence of law condemning it. Hence, the pain experienced by frat
members is a collective consciousness towards treating each other

52

equally. There is nothing wrong with initiation rites but the thing that we
have to focus our attention to is how critical the position of the master
initiator during the rite, the degree to which a pledger experiences so
much injury lies on the hands of the master initiator.
Virtual Community in the Age of Conflict: Clash of Clans Solidarity and
Online War Phenomenon
Jade Harley C. Bretaa, Bukidnon State University
Community is always evolving and changing. Todays generation is
getting harder to feel any sense of community yet people find ways
and means adapting to these changes. As people continue to
interact, conflict is inevitable. This paper examines and reports: (1)
Clash of Clans (COC) virtual community as to answer if it is a
community and what kind of solidarity is being manifested; (2)
dynamics of the war game as to its relevance to real life situation;
and (3) gamers reasons of playing as to elucidate their case to nongamers why they play COC every day. The researcher used Clash of
Clans as the platform of this community because it constantly
engaging into conflict, battles and clan wars. As the game is also
being played by millions of players around the world. According to
Think Gaming, a website based in New York, there are 4,379,699
average daily active Iphone users from May 19 June 17, 2015 in
United States. COC is considered top 1 grossing game in many
countries. It is also considered top 1 grossing game in the Philippines as
of June 6, 2015 (www.appannie.com). Philippine Clash of Clans
Battleground (PCCB) at one point had 13,000 members and over 90
active clans (PCCB, 2014). Purposive sampling was employed to
comprise the sample of the study. Data were gathered using survey
questionnaire. Findings show that clash of clans virtual community
appertain virtual solidarity. A distinct form of solidarity composite to
Durkheims mode of analysis of the society: organic solidarity (urban
society) and mechanical solidarity (rural village). It suggests that
COCs virtual community has a distinct form of interaction and
dynamics. Lastly, with the average of 2-4 hours a day spent on playing
is a manifestation of the gamers satisfaction towards the game and
the said virtual community.
A Sociological Inquiry into Sexual Exploitation of Children: An

53

Assessment of the Efficiency of Philippine Public Policies on Child


Trafficking
Joseph Franco F. Febre, University of Santo Tomas
This paper explores into sexual exploitation of children in the
Philippines and assessed the efficiencies of Philippine public policies
on child trafficking through policy review to determine inconsistencies
and gaps in existing mandated institutional mechanisms that may
account to the continuous increase of sexually exploited children in
the Philippines. Moreover, this paper systematically analyzed seven (7)
female victims cases on commercial sexual exploitation between the
age of 8 and 17 years old since this age group has the most number of
victims of child trafficking in the Philippines. The researcher employed
a constructivist philosophical worldview in conducting this research
with an exploratory research design to determine the socio-cultural,
economic, legal and political factors why child trafficking persists in
the country. This research also utilizes a qualitative case study
approach with semi-structured qualitative interview (step-wise
interview) and policy analysis as major methods in order to document
the different cases and experiences that child victims went through,
and to determine the gaps and frailties of existing laws and public
policies that would have addressed and restricted this inhumane
practice. Based from the findings of this research, online private chat
rooms for cybersex emerged as one of the major avenues for
victimizing children to engage in commercial sexual exploitative acts
(i.e. prostitution, pornography, sex slavery and sex tourism). Hence, the
researcher concludes that child trafficking is highly prevalent to the
Philippine society because it is globally affected by the rapid
modernity and availability of accessible technology such as the
internet, wherein it negatively developed to a major contributing
factor to cybercrime that the legal system of the country inevitably
struggle to keep track.

PANEL 4A | 17 OCTOBER | 13:00-14:30 | PLENARY HALL


COMMUNITIES IN CONFLICT
Moderator: Diana Therese M. Veloso
Conflicts in Marawi Elections

54

Seddik U. Magadapa, Myrma Jean A. Mendoza, St. Peters College


Iligan
This is a qualitative study which delves into the culture of politics and
conflict in Marawi City, an urban community in Southern Mindanao.
The location of the study has always been identified by the
Commission on Election as among the election hotspots in the
Philippines. Eleven individuals, knowledgeable of Marawi politics and
culture, served as key informants in this study who were identified
through referential sampling. The sample group is composed of
community and traditional leaders, political adviser, wife of a former
governor, security officers of politicians, press, and an academician,
mostly Muslims and a few Christians. Findings in the study identify
cultural practices which influence the nature of politics and election
which is characterized by conflict and violence. Their views as to how
pre and post-election violence may be reduced were solicited.
Framed within the Marxist conflict and Webers rational-legal
perspectives, the data identify a confluence of factors in Marawi
politics among Maranao ,such as family pride/status
/honor(maratabat), family influence and connections, and financial
capacity of contending politicians and followers to engage in
election-related violence. Typical conflicts during election include
murder, firing of guns, riots and bombing. Politician supporters are the
usual victims of such atrocities. The proliferation of guns and private
armies in Maranao society reinforce and perpetuate the culture of
conflict especially during election. From the viewpoint of the key
informant, Marawi politics is a fight between two or more contending
powerful Maranao families. Political candidates together with their
allies of relatives and friends resorted to various strategies to win in an
election, after all it is the family pride/status (maratabat) which is at
stake when a family member runs for an electoral position.
Political Rivalry and Marine Protected Areas: Case Study of a Visayan
Coastal Municipality
Enrique G. Oracion, Silliman University
Central Visayas is known as the origin of marine protected areas
(MPAs) in the history of marine conservation in the Philippines,
specifically off the islands of Sumilon in Cebu and Apo in Negros

55

Oriental. The MPAs are primarily promoted as tools in the rehabilitation


and preservation of fragile marine habitats to address dwindling
fisheries for food security. These are also attractions to coastal and
dive tourism that provide additional or alternative livelihood sources to
fishing households affected by the closure of their traditional fishing
grounds. There are success stories of MPAs in the country but whose
beginnings must have been filled also with tensions. In this light, this
paper looks at two adjacent MPAs in a Visayan coastal community as
symbols of spatial expressions within a local political culture and of
struggle of rival fishers associations for political identity. But these were
eventually merged by the election of a mayor who changed party
affiliation and brought the management of these MPAS under one
association amid the resistance of former party members. These MPAs
reflect the political history of the municipality characterized by highly
volatile political alliances evident in the forging and severing of party
affiliation or familial connection in order to pursue an ambition to
become mayor. The association behind MPA management also drew
in members who identified themselves with incumbent mayors as
political patronage. Thus, the annual income from tourism user fees is
seen not only as measure of biological and economic success of
MPAs but also as political capital in local elections.
Effects of the Establishment Of CMRCF in Sitio Bangko, Brgy.
Bonbonon, Iligan City: Its Social Implications
John Albert M. Quijano, Fitzgerald N. Torralba, Maria Cecilia M. Ferolin,
Mindanao State University- Iligan Institute of Technology
The main concern of this study is to determine how the establishment
of City Material Recovery and Composting Facility (CMRCF) affect the
residents of Sitio Bangko, Brgy. Bonbonon, Iligan City, using Peace &
Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) and participatory development.
These two frameworks are helpful in ascertaining that development
interventions, in this case the CMRCF will not create cause community
conflicts or exacerbate existing conflicts. CMCRF is basically the citys
segregating and waste handling processing plant. The construction of
the facility was completed in late 2011 and had been in operation
until early 2014. This study will inquire on the impacts of the CMRCF in
terms of social, economic, environmental and health, to the residents
in the said sitio. Moreover, the study will also find out the issues and

56

concerns regarding the establishment and operation of the facility.


This study uses triangulation method which includes qualitative and
quantitative approaches. Survey respondents are randomly chosen
from the residents who live closely in the area of CMRCF. The key
informants include officials who played a vital role in the establishment
and the operation of the CMRCF. This study hopes to contribute to
the well-development of the city of Iligan by providing additional
supplemental information from the residents as well as from the key
informants. Also, it aims to mitigate the conflict between different
sectors and actors in the community through providing policy
recommendations. The struggle on how to manage waste disposal
and the different roles and interests of stakeholders are the potential
areas of conflicts perceived in this study.
Social Divisiveness in Filipino Village post-Haiyan: Outcomes of
Humanitarian Agencies Targeted Aid
Pamela Combinido, Jonathan Ong, Jaime Manuel Flores, University of
the Philippines Diliman
Drawing from a wider learning and research component of Pamati
Kita (Lets Listen Together) in the aftermath of typhoon Haiyan (Ong et
al., 2015), this paper explores how local cultureshared cultural norms
around gratitude and obligation, as well as political structures and
established practices of political participationmediated the relief
process. In particular, this paper presents the resentment of local
communities on humanitarian agencies standard procedures of
targeting and selective distribution within barangays. Given the local
context of Filipinos as having relational selves and a consciousness
of shared identities, neighbor envy and status anxiety were outcomes
of targeted aid that caused new material inequalities and social
divisiveness within the community. It shows how exclusion from aid
created more than just an economic burden of having to find
alternative means to secure shelter or source of livelihood postdisaster, but also a deep emotional imprint in people that manifested
as shame and jealousy in their neighborly interactions. Being
excluded, compounded by the dread of being left behind by
neighbours considered to be their extended family, had a profound
impact on peoples self-confidence and civic and political
connectedness. This paper argues for the importance of multiplicity of

57

check and balance structures, decentralized participation at the


local level, and active role of humanitarian agencies given the
context of patronage and structural exclusion from aid of individuals
within a community.
PANEL 4B | 17 OCTOBER | 13:00-14:30 | CED 202
CONFLICT AND LABOR MARKETS (2)
Moderator: Cleve Arguelles
Taming Class Conflict? Industrial Peace Policy and Workers Strike in
the Philippines from 2001 to Present
Jane A. Siwa, Jessica Viliran, Center for Trade Union and Human Rights
The strike has been considered the workers' most potent tool against
exploitation and other forms of abuses committed against them by
capitalists. It is a concretization of class conflict, a cathartic moment in
a seemingly covert contradiction between classes inside a capitalist
firm. Over the last two decades, official government data on workers'
strikes in the Philippines show that the number of incidents significantly
decreased from 94 strikes in 1995 alone to as low as one strike
recorded in 2013. The governments of both Presidents Gloria
Macapagal-Arroyo and Benigno Aquino III have hailed this
phenomenon as a reflection of industrial peace, achieved through
social dialogue and the effective use of tripartite and multistakeholder mechanisms. Using data from documentation of
independent labor groups and analysis of government policies, this
paper will argue that the governments pursuit of industrial peace is
anchored very minimally, if at all, on social dialogue or effective
negotiation of conflicts between capitalists and workers. Rather, it is
based upon relentless, systematic, and multi-faceted suppression of
independent unions and conscious value-subjects. Contrary to the
principle of social dialogue, Philippine labor policies, laws and use of
state power to suppress workers freedom to organize or stage
collective resistance only validate the necessarily antagonistic nature
of contradictions between workers and capitalists. The paper will
further cite case studies and interviews with protesting workers to
demonstrate various types and new forms of workers' collective
resistance not previously reflected in official data, thus rendering a
clearer picture of the persistence of working class struggle and its

58

potential future directions.


Ora et Labora: Understanding the Role of Religion and Religious
Organizations in the Life and Work of Overseas Filipino Workers in the
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Minami Iwayama, University of the Philippines Los Baos
The study discusses the situation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in
terms of policies on migrants and religious practices. It identifies
different Christian religious organizations present within Saudi Arabia
where members include OFWs and examines their current status,
organizational operations, and religious practices. It discusses how
religion and religious affiliations affect the life and work of OFWs in
Saudi Arabia. The study also describes the religious beliefs and
practices of OFWs in Saudi Arabia, a host country where religious
freedom is restricted. The study employs qualitative research methods.
A review of literature on policies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and
interviews were used as methods of data collection. The study made
use of a thematic analysis as method of data analysis. Participants are
Christians who have worked or are currently working in Saudi Arabia
as professionals, skilled, or domestic workers. The Kingdom of Saudi
Arabia remains a conservative host country and such is reflective of its
policies on migrants and religious practices. Saudi Arabia, in principle,
tolerates religious practices of migrants, however, officers and
members of the Muttawa (religious police) and some Saudi citizens
remain intolerant of religions and religious practices other than
Wahhabi Islam and its practices. Three dominant Christian
organizations were found to be actively conducting religious activities,
albeit clandestinely within Saudi Arabia. Religion acts as [1] a source
of strength, [2] a form of amusement, [3] a form of motivation to
become a better person, [4] an anesthetic that numbs the physical,
emotional, and mental strains, [5] a source of networks, and [6] a
method of knowing God for Christian OFWs in Saudi Arabia.
Empowerment or Exploitation?: Conflict and resolution in a new
knowledge industry in the Philippines
Jeffrey J. Sallaz, University of Arizona
This paper is an ethnographic case study of a labor dispute that

59

emerged in a knowledge process outsourcing (KPO) industry in the


Visayas region of the Philippines. Western firms discovered this region
in the early 2000s, mainly as a source of cheap labor. This part of the
Philippines provides a surplus of young computer science graduates
and college graduates generally, willing to work for the minimum
wage (under 300 pesos, or eight US dollars) per day. But during the
authors fieldwork, employees became dissatisfied with the pay,
working conditions, and management style of the firm. It is my
assessment that their treatment by the firm was in violation of labor
standards endorsed by the International Labor Organization as well as
industry-specific labor codes. Being forced to work overtime is one
such example. Workers in turn launched a unionization drive, basically
unheard of in the Philippines outsourcing industry. As an
ethnographer, I was on the ground for the duration of this campaign,
and can describe how it began and how it was resolved. Ultimately, I
argue that the attempt to organize workers as a union failed because
the firm utilized its immense material resources to establish patrimonial
control over the workforce. Through displays of intense generosity
and in particular a Christmas party that functioned as a prototypical
potlatchmanagement quelled the unionization drive. My study
reveals the conflicts and dysfunctions that underlay the Philippines
recent rise as the worlds outsourcing capital. Workers are
underpaid by global standards, but firms must continuously find ways
to placate the workforce through various means.
PANEL 4C | 17 OCTOBER | 13:00-14:30 | CED 203
SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF POLITICS, PEACE AND PRAYER
Moderator: Nicole Curato
A Critical Discourse Analysis of Media Framing of the Bangsamoro
Basic Law (BBL)
Alejandro S. Ibanez, University of the Philippines Diliman
This paper unravels the framing of the Bangsamoro Basic Law by
media organizations in the aftermath of the Mamasapano incident.
With the use of Faircloughs approach in critical discourse analysis, the
paper examines the way national broadsheets (Philippine Daily
Inquirer, Philippine Star, and Manila Bulletin) through its editorial
pieces, frames the debate on the BBL which reflects the socio-political

60

processes and social context in which the articles are embedded. I


argue that through the editorial pieces, discursive practices are
disentangled which reflect power relations and mind-framing. The
framing of the debate brings about positioning of media organizations
through its power to frame perceptions, reflect social conditions, and
redefine politics. Through critical discourse analysis, the paper reveals
that editorial pieces tend to structure the BBL debate in the
background of other socio-political issues such as 2016 elections,
conflict in Mindanao, among other things. In this way, the BBL debate
goes beyond the legalities of the law and tries to situate it in a more
contextualized discussion to reflect other contemporary socio-political
issues. In this process of framing, editorial pieces illuminate power
relations between which interests are being positioned and which
interests are negated. The paper concludes that discursive practices
of national broadsheets are significant in looking at a certain sociopolitical issue at it ensue framing and power dynamics at play.
Salaam and Salaah On Becoming a Catalyst for Peace Through
Islamic Ritual Prayer: Muslim Filipino Mystic Perspective
Kamaruddin Bin Alawi Mohammad, University of the Philippines
Diliman
This paper seeks to advance knowledge about Islamic ritual prayer,
the Salaah, as a viable tool in reforming oneself into an effective
catalyst for peace as advanced by Muslim Filipino mystics. The
objectives of this paper include the following: To present basic
information about Muslim mystic, Islamic ritual prayer and its relation to
the notion of peace; To highlight how local Muslim mystics understood
and practice Islamic ritual prayer in reforming the self to be an
effective catalyst for peace; To address the validity of such
understanding and practice in relation to existing Islamic concepts in
particular as well as Islamic textual sources in general; To highlight the
effect of the practice and further address its maintenance for long
term goal; To promote the Culture of Peace in Islam through Islamic
ritual prayer. This paper reveals that comprehensive approach of local
Muslim mystic to Islamic ritual prayer proves effective as far as
reforming the self - ethically and spiritually - is concerned. The fact that
transformation exists within and without, there is a rather radical
change on the personality of a Muslim making him worthy of being an

61

effective catalyst for peace. This is the total opposite of a bias


notion that Muslims are antagonists of peace.
The Yellow Propaganda: Daang Matuwid and the Social Construction
of Philippine Politics
Bonifacio G. Train, Ateneo De Manila University
The daang matuwid (straight path) was among the yellow
propaganda that the Philippines Liberal Party used during the 2010
Presidential elections in order to package the bid for presidency of
Benigno P-noy Aquino III. The daang matuwid which started as a
political propaganda eventually became a pro-forma for Aquinos
incumbency as the elected president. Daang matuwid was more of
an ideology than its ironic reference. It is ideological because it
intends to change habits. For analysis, Peter Berger and Thomas
Luckmans concepts in their book entitled: The social construction of
reality: a treatise in the sociology of knowledge (1966) was used. The
authors contend that reality is socially constructed and that the
sociology of knowledge must analyse the process in which it occurs.
This paper, then, presents the social construction of Philippine politics
in the context of how the daang matuwid propaganda socially
institutionalises politicking and all of its underpinnings through the
power of what it symbolizes; how it legitimizes its claim that there is no
other road to tread but the daang matuwid through the plasticity of
public opinion; and how it internalises its appeal for treading the
righteous path through the constituents predisposition towards
socialisation. Consequently, what was seemingly metaphorical is
actually a self-evident politically determined reality, therefore, an
ideology. It must be mentioned that this paper does not intend to
criticize the incumbency of the Aquino office neither does it present
an exhaustive discourse about the Philippine politics.
PANEL 4D| 17 OCTOBER | 13:00-14:30 | CED AMPHITHEATER
SOCIOLOGY OF YOUTH (2)
Moderator: Clarence Batan
Experiences of Children in Conflict with the Law on Davao Citys
Diversion Program
Melvin C. Pilvira, Jessica C. Tado, Jaysa G. Valentin, Saidamin P.

62

Bagolong, University of Mindanao


Children in conflict with the law (CICL) had their rights too. They are
not just flaccid objects of sympathy and disdain but are members of
community who also have needs to be addressed in a holistic way.
This study tries to determine the experiences of the children in conflict
with the law on the Diversion Program offered by the local
government of Davao City particularly on their reactions and
responses on the diversion contract and restitution agreement as well
as the issues and concerns encountered. It employed instrumental
case study using an in-depth interview and content analysis to the
CICL who were used to be under the custody of Lamdag sa
Kabataan- Boys Home and after having granted by the prosecutor at
the court level to undergo a diversion program. Findings showed that
most of the respondents were grateful to be granted with communitybased diversion program and not to be placed in the rehabilitation
center but a bit anxious because of the stigma as people labeled
them young criminals. Issues and concerns of the respondents focused
on financial stability where theyre afraid to violate the diversion
contract and restitution agreement due to expensive cost and lack of
monitoring from the district social workers since they were required to
visit the Barangay hall and the City Social Services Development
Office to report about their involvement in the community activities.
Thus, diversion program can only be effective if the implementation is
clearly understood by both the CICL and the parents concerned as
provided by Republic Act 9344.
Gender Differences of the Resiliency of Early and Late Adolescent
Sendong Survivors in Terms of Emotional Self-disclosure, Life
Orientation, PTSD Level and Service Learning
Antoniette Zacarina B. Sansona, Joannie C. Alarde, Jannah Jean I.
Pescador, Cristy Marie L. Pagalan, Mindanao State University- Iligan
Institute of Technology
This paper investigates the level of resiliency of the survivors of typhoon
Sendong, in terms of their emotional self-disclosure, life orientation,
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) level and service learning in the
context of gender differences. There were 120 respondents, divided

63

into two groups the early adolescents and late adolescents with an
equal number of female and male respondents. The results of this
study implied that there are significant factors affecting the student
survivors' resiliency levels. Between early and late adolescent Sendong
survivors, they differed in their life orientation (t=-2.733, p=.007) and
service learning (t=- 2.46, p=.009), and their ability to become resilient,
their willingness to disclose themselves and their PTSD level are more
likely the same. It would seem that age was an important determinant
of the differences in how Sendong survivors respond to the
experience of trauma. Between genders, the result showed that
regardless of the gender, becoming resilient, their willingness to
disclose oneself, their life orientation, PTSD level and service learning,
do not have any differences. Results challenge the perspective that
gender differences is socially constructed, and that gendered
subcultures perpetuate the expectation that differences are present
between males and females. The results showed that when faced with
a traumatic experience such as the Typhoon Sendong, males and
females share the same experiences, cope with the trauma, disclose
to significant others, view life and engage in service learning in the
same way. Additionally, both male and female Sendong survivors
exhibit PTSD symptoms 3 years after the typhoon.
The Voice: Teenage Pregnancy and Communitys Response as Told by
Young Mothers
Veronica L. Gregorio, University of the Philippines-Diliman
According to the National Statistics Office (2013), the incidence of
reported teenage pregnancies in the Philippines (ages 10 to 19)
increased by 65% in the span of 10 years, from 126, 025 in 2000 to 207,
898 in 2010. Quantitative studies on teenage pregnancy reveal
statistical data such as age bracket, family characteristics,
educational attainment, and many more. However, these data are
limited as it does not include the stories of the teenage mothers from
their own perspective. This paper looks into the experiences of four
teenage mothers from Aroma Compound, an urban poor community
in Tondo, Manila. It aims to give voice to teenage mothers by
providing a venue for them to: (1) speak about their own stories and
(2) identify how their community perceives their stories. Through photoelicitation, participants shot their own photos representing their ideas

64

on the issue of adolescent sexuality and teenage pregnancy. Using a


feminist framework, the paper presents how the current set-up of
society affects and influences the daily struggles of teenage mothers.
In the end, the paper provides research and policy recommendation
on how adolescent sexuality and teenage pregnancy should be
analyzed.

PANEL 5A | 17 OCTOBER | 14:45-16:15 | PLENARY HALL


INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES: IDENTITY, DIVERSITY AND CONFLICT
Moderator: Gina R. Gatarin
Shifting Ethnic Identities: Voices of Marginal Maranao Students in
Lanao
Myrma Jean A. Mendoza, Charlotte Quiros, Mindanao State UniversityIligan Institute of Technology
This paper is about ethnic identities of marginal Maranao, more known
as mestizo/mestiza Maranao in Lanao area. Data used in this paper
are culled from FGD and life story findings of another research of the
author. Ethnic identity of marginal Maranao is interesting because
their descents, both Muslims and Christians, had had long history of
conflict in Mindanao. Ethnic identity is viewed as multi-dimensional,
dynamic, and situational. Having parents from differing and even
conflicting cultural and religious milieus, these marginal offsprings were
raised in dual socialization at one time or another in their lives. Thus,
experiences of role conflicts are common lived experiences among
the informants. Apart from cultural expectations, familial structures
and community setting have influenced the construction and shifting
of ethnic identities. The informants have developed strategies in
dealing with conflicting expectations and situations and have
become adept in shifting ethnic identities. Shifts in ethnic identities are
analyzed within the changing social contexts of their families and
communities.
Paradise Lost: The State and Ati Community on the concept of
Ancestral Domain
Maria Corinna Prisicila D. Escartin, University of the Philippines-Diliman

65

This paper analyzes how the state vis--vis the Ati Community nuance
ancestral domain in relation to issues of land displacement this
community faces in Boracay. In doing so, pertinent literature on the
situation of the ati community, the governments role in the problem
of domain, the politics of tourism, the influence of the elite and the
other conditions that perpetuate tensions in different dimensions are
discussed. The analysis zooms in on the dynamics of the state and the
Ati Community, incorporating citizenship, ethnicity and state
intervention as contexts for discussion. This paper concludes that (a)
the State is not a passive machine controlled by non-state forces such
as the elites and civil-society groups. It, in fact, contributes to defining
Indigenous Communities based on the rights and obligations
presented in IPRA; (b) the Ati community as an indigenous group is coopted into indirectly assisting the implementation of government
projects; (c) the authenticity of the space functions as a deterrent
from land-grabbing of other stakeholders such as real-estate
developers and migrant settlers. The identification of owners, however,
makes the process complex and controversial due to the nuancing of
the purpose of the land.
Level of Literacy of the Indigenous People in Barangay Diteki, San Luis,
Aurora
Jetron S. Velasco, Colegio de San Juan de Letran Bataan
The Philippines, because of its archipelagic nature and the long history
of colonization, developed a diverse cultural entity that has long been
separating its members due to some barriers like ethnicity, cultural
differences, and geographical location. This diversity is characterized
by an estimated of 14- 17 million Indigenous Peoples (IPs) belonging to
110 ethno-linguistic groups. They are mainly concentrated in Northern
Luzon (Cordillera Administrative Region, 33%) and Mindanao (61%),
with some groups in the Visayas area (San Juan, 2011). International
Labour Organization (2013) estimates that there are 12-15 million
indigenous people inhabit the Philippines (approximately 15-20% of
the total population), speaking around 170 different languages and
belonging to 110 ethnic communities. Also, according to the National
Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP), the majority (61%) of
indigenous peoples in the country live in Mindanao, while a third (33%)
are in Luzon, and the remaining (6%) population are in Visayas. San

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Luis, is one of the municipalities of the province of Aurora, with a land


area of 62, 068.17 hectares which represents roughly 20 percent of the
total land area of the province. It has 18 barangays including Brgy.
Diteki and 17 more (Provincial Government of Aurora, 2013). Barangay
Diteki, is a forest village in San Luis, Aurora, about 230 kms. northwest of
Manila (Bolos, 2006.)It is home for the local tribe of Agta-Dumagat,
that houses more or less 150 households. The Chieftain, during the
study and interview, stated that because of the tension between the
local rebels and the Armed Forces of the Philippines, the tribes
people were forced to leave the mountain and live with the
lowlanders. With their life dependent on the mountain, they found it
hard to cope-up. Education was last in their priority and only few
members of the tribe have knowledge in reading, writing and
arithmetic.
Environmental Impacts of War on the Indigenous Knowledge on
Natural Resource Management of the Locals in Mindanao
Ma. Cathrene Lagare, Ateneo de Davao University
The paper aims to examine the nature of the impacts of war on the
indigenous knowledge of the locals in Mindanao in terms of natural
resource management. The basic principle of war is to somehow
advance the state's goal of acquiring peace within the nation. But by
doing so, various entities are getting ravaged due to the ongoing
conflicts. There is already numerous deliberations on the influence of
war in the human and infrastructural aspects, but by some means we
forgot about the environment. Only a few are able to stand as
stakeholders representing the environment as one of the ongoing
struggles in the conflict in Mindanao. We have to realize that as we
continue this warfare, we are also causing the depletion of natural
resources in order to provide for the demand of supplies needed for
the combat, imagine the amount of flora and fauna being cleared in
order to provide base camps for the military and also including those
that are damaged due to explosions. As conflict arises in some areas,
one of its impacts is population displacement. This paper highly
focuses on the environmental impacts of war as indigenous people,
who were regarded as stewards of biodiversity, are displaced along
with their local knowledge on natural resource management. IPs in
some local areas have already been practicing their own land

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management system that has sustainably regulated the area for a


long-time including its floras and faunas, as the system has been
disrupted, the environment becomes more vulnerable and exposed
to destruction. This paper utilized the framework on indigenous
knowledge systems in documenting and evaluating the concerns held
by the local population.
PANEL 5B | 17 OCTOBER | 14:45-16:15 | CED 202
PROSPECTS OF PEACE BUILDING
Moderator: Alejandro S. Ibaez
Indigenous People Conflict Resolution: The Case of Sal among
Bukidnon and Higaonon Ethnic Communities
Loreta Sol L. Dinlayan, Rotchel L. Amigo, Jade Harley C. Bretaa,
Bukidnon State University
Bukidnon is located at the heart of Mindanao and it is the home of the
7 ethnic communities: Bukidnon, Higaonon, Talaandig, Manobo,
Umayamnon, Matigsalog and Tigwahanon. In a multi-ethnic society,
disagreements and misunderstanding transpire. To maintain peace,
each group created their own form of conflict resolution. Among the
indigenous groups in Bukidnon, sal has been used to resolve internal
and external problems. It is within this parameter that the context of
sal had yet to gain its popularity among non-Lumads. This study aims
to illuminate and deepen the understanding of the people about sal
as a means of conflict resolution. Researchers used purposive
sampling and interview to gather the data. Informants were the Datu,
Bae and elders of the Bukidnon and Higaonon ethnic communities.
Addressing the Roots of the Armed Conflict: The Philippine Ecumenical
Peace Platforms (PEPP) Experience of Peacebuilding
Jerry D. Imbong, Colegio de San Juan de Letran
This research examined the significant role of the Philippine
Ecumenical Peace Platform's (PEPP) in brokering the peace between
the Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GPH) and the
National Democratic Front of the Philippines (NDFP). PEPP is the
biggest ecumenical church group in the country which includes the
Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines (CBCP), National

68

Council of Churches in the Philippines (NCCP), and the Ecumenical


Bishops Forum (EBF). It aims to help push forward the resumption of
formal peace talks between the GPH and the NDFP in order to attain
a just and lasting peace. Anchored on the peacebuilding theory of
Johan Galtung, this research sought to answer the following questions:
What are the various peace initiatives, strategies or platforms of the
PEPP in accompanying the peace process? As a civil society group,
how does PEPP contribute to the resumption of the GPH-NDFP peace
talks? How far has the PEPP succeeded in advancing the peace
process? The results show that a just and lasting peace can only be
attained through principled negotiations which focuses on providing
concrete and comprehensive solutions to the primary causes of the
armed conflict. This can only be achieved by following the
Substantive Agenda of the formal peace negotiations laid upon by
both parties. The results further show that civil society groups play an
important role in providing hybrid mechanisms to the field of
mediation and conflict transformation. This is manifested by exerting
proper leverage and sustaining the interest of the parties as well as
maintaining a level of comfort that restores mutual trust. Exploring
multiple paths to peacebuilding can help manage situations of violent
conflict. Hence, it is crucial to enable sectors and communities
affected by conflict to determine the peace agenda.
Conflict to Resolution: The Case of Dumagats in the Philippines
Kristine Gail C. Lobo, Lyceum of the Philippines University
This research aimed to explore how Dumagats handled conflict in their
clan. A qualitative research design was used to look into the
Dumagats process of resolving conflict. Focus group discussion and indepth interviews were done. Results indicate that elders were being
consulted. After consulting the elders, the chieftain has the authority
to mediate, facilitate negotiations and impose punishments to resolve
the said conflict.
Himig ng Kapayapaan: Ang Mga Awitin nina Francis M. at Papa Dom
Danim R. Majerano, Lilimay R. Manalo, Domenick M. Somoray, Maria
M. Theresa Verian, Samahang Saliksik Pasig, Inc.
Ang sining sa kanyang kalikasan ay balon ng mga damdamin at

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pananaw. Ang paghahanap sa kapayapaan ay hindi natapos sa


EDSA Revolution 1986. Ito ay patuloy na sinisikap na makamit at
mapanatili. Ang ganitong tunguhin ay maririnig at makikita sa mga
awitin nina Francis M. at Papa Dom. Layunin ng pag-aaral na sipatin
ang papel ng musika sa pagpapalaganap ng konsepto ng
kapayapaan. Gamit ang apat na antas sa pagsusuri ng sining (basic
semiotic, iconic, contextual at evaluative planes) nahinuha ang
konstruksiyon ng mga mang-aawit sa halaga ng pagkamit ng
kapayapaan. Ito ay pumapaloob sa sosyo-historikal na konteksto
hinubog ng anyo, wika at produksyon ng sining. Bagamat wala na
ang mga mang-aawit, patuloy pa ring ginagamit ang kanilang
musika sa mga pakikibaka tungo sa pagkamit ng tunay na
kapayapaan.
PANEL 5C | 17 OCTOBER | 14:45-16:15 | CED 203
RESEARCHING VULNERABLE POPULATIONS:
METHODS & ETHICS
Moderator: Grace Majorenos-Taruc
Meanings of the Life Experiences and Partnership of Recovery through
Practices of Restorative Justice for the Sexually Abused Women in the
Philippines
Marina D. Gamo, De La Salle University-Dasmarias
Perhaps one of the most sensitive and socially neglected areas of
study nowadays is the situation of the sexually abused women and
their lives before and after an experience of sexual violence and
sexual assault. This paper is an attempt to analyze dimensions of
engagements and disengagements, processes of connections and
disconnections, and discourses on attachments and detachments
that these women had undergone; thus, arguing that they experience
both social engagements and disengagements on specific life
domains as they reconstruct their lives and undergo a process of
recovery. Using the Care System Model as a model of social
reintegration from social alienation for these women, the study utilizes
the layering scheme in problematizing concepts, such as social
acceptance and social alienation, and in understanding the meaning
of meanings of their life experiences. In the end, the paper draws
insights on (a) how this study could become a tool in drawing a needs

70

program for the sexually abused women, (b) contribute to the


paradigm of restorative justice practices, and (c) further define the
mutuality of obligations and responsibilities of multi-stakeholders in the
community.
Exploration on Domestic Violence against Women in the Philippines:
Narratives of the Victims
Mary Antonnette C. Santos, University of Santo Tomas
This research determines the factors that contributes to and causes
domestic violence against women. Violence against women in the
Philippines is not a new phenomenon, with a significant number of
domestic violence continuously increasing to this day; the
phenomenon should be alarming as to call the attention of any
concerned citizen. This study uses a qualitative approach and a
research method called life history that obtains data from five (5)
selected sample of victims of domestic violence who are under the
care of the following organization and government units in the
Philippines: a) Womens Crisis Center (WCC); b) Womens Legal
Bureau: Brgy. Malanday, Marikina City: VAWC Unit. The initial result
provides a view of the situation of the victims base on their narration
that elaborates the existing factors that led their perpetrators to
commit the act of violence towards them. The result also shows that
even though domestic violence against women is usually done by
men, some also experiences abuse from women. Other factors like the
effect of poverty in a family or relationship unit shows the possibility of
violent act as to where examples like jealousy and unemployment
crisis triggers perpetrators to abuse the victims. Through the analysis of
the victims socio-demographic profiles and life story narratives, the
researcher concludes that the victims experience, acceptance,
toleration and reaction towards violence gives negative effect to the
victims as a member of their family and society. This studys result aims
to aid advocacy works and policy not just to help and support victims
but to efficiently address and mitigate the incidence phenomenon.
Bakla, Baklang-bakla at Ayaw Magpahalatang Bakla: Metodo, Etika,
at Paggitna sa Nagtutungaliang mga Uri ng Pagkabakla
Michael Eduard Layco Labayandoy, Lyceum of the Philippines
University- Laguna

71

Malalim ang suliranin ukol sa diskriminasyon at hindi pagtanggap sa


mga bakla sa ating lipunan. Kung tutuusin, may suliranin din sa
mismong hanay ng mga bakla. Nagtutunggalian ang mga uri ng
pagkabaklamula sa bakla, baklang-bakla, mga baklang ayaw
magpahalata, hanggang sa mga baklang walang nakakaalam na
sila ay bakla. Ang tensiyon at tunggaliang ito ay naka-ugat sa
pamamayani ng heterenormatibong pananaw sa sekswalidad at
kasarian at pagbibigay-diin at halaga ng lipunan sa mga katangiang
panlalaki. Ang papel na ito ay isang pagbabalik-tanaw at
pagmumuni-muni na bunga ng higit dalawang taon na pananaliksik
tungkol sa mga baklang hindi tago subalit lalaking-lalaki sa kilos at
anyo. Sa pag-aaral na ito, maliwanag ang paglayo ng mga baklang
kilos-lalaki sa mga baklang kilos-babae. Dito ay nalantad ang tensiyon
at tunggalian ng mga bakla ayon sa lapit o layo sa itinakdang
kahulugan at imahe ng pagkalalaki sa lipunang Pilipino.Batay sa mga
direktang karanasan at kritikal na mga desisyon na isinagawa sa
nasabing pananaliksik, ang papel na ito ay umiinog sa usapin ng
metodo, etika, at tayo o posisyon ng mananaliksik sa pag-aaral ukol
sa tensiyon at tunggalian sa kasarian at sekswalidad ayon sa
naghaharing diskurso sa lipunan. Ipinapalagay ng papel na ito na
ang uri ng metodo ay may kakayahang palabasin ang mga tensiyon
at tunggalian. Subalit mayroon ding tensiyon at limitasyon sa usapin
ng etika, partikular sa bigat ng layunin, pagtitimbang sa lente ng
pagsusuri, at kapakanan ng mga kalahok. Ang suliranin sa etika ay
mas pinaiigting ng tayo o posisyon ng mananaliksik. Bilang isang
baklang mananaliksik, halimbawa, ano ang ibig sabihin at ano ang
mga posibleng praktikal at teoretikal na lenteng maaaring gamitin sa
paggitna sa mga nagtutunggaliang kasarian, sekswalidad, at
identidad?
PANEL 5D| 17 OCTOBER | 14:45-16:15 | CED AMPHITHEATER
DISPLACEMENT, MARGINALIZATION AND RESISTANCE
Moderator: Emanuel de Guzman
The Politics of Everyday Resistance in the Violent Land Conflict of
Pangarap Village, Caloocan City, Philippines: A Case Study
Jose Paulino M. Domingo, Colegio de San Juan de Letran

72

Complementing Scotts (1985) Weapons of the Weak framework


with key informant semi-structured interviews, field notes and
secondary data, the study explored a two-track resistance movement
unconsciously and/or semi-consciously perpetuated by the 30,000
residents of Pangarap Village (PV) against the everyday harassments
and human rights abuses beyond land-related measures of the
Carmel Development Inc. (CDI). The PV resistance consist of the
Visible and Confrontational and the Hidden and NonConfrontational resistance factions which are in constant internal
conflict with each other and with their sub-factions within, divided by
their means and reasons for resisting. Their resistance is driven and
directed against the capitalist hegemony and market globalization
and for their own personal agenda and vendetta against CDI. The
implications of such led to a stronger and functional communal
relationship and achieve support groups from outside PV, yet still
divided by individualistic ways of making a living and survival, but
nevertheless enabled them to somehow achieve gains and minimize
their losses amid the capitalist incarceration. The study adds novel
findings to the resistance literature specifically on subaltern resistance
in class conflicts, and bridges the literature gap between land
conflicts in highly urbanized societies and the concept of everyday
resistance.
From Self-sufficiency to Socioeconomic Insecurity: The Case of
Displaced Families from the Laguindingan International Airport
Liwayway S. Viloria, Hilda R. Betonio, Mary Jane E. Edios, Roselie B.
Janubas, Ramelyn L. Bracero, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute
of Technology
Large infrastructure projects such as airports are established to spur
development in a community, region or nation. Sociologically,
development may be referred to as the process of deliberate change
in various institutions to better address human needs and wants
through appropriate social policies and programs. In the case of the
displaced families, however, unfavorable impacts of these projects
tend to outweigh the favorable ones. This phenomenon has been
scarcely studied in the local context. Using case study design,
operationalized through interview with 30 household head
respondents, non-participant observation and archival methods of

73

data gathering and thematic data analysis, this study describes how
the Laguindingan International Airport Development Project (LIADP)
has changed the socio-economic conditions of the displaced families
now relocated in a government shelter program in Golden Village,
Laguindingan, Misamis Oriental. Contrary to what the affected
respondents had expected, their socio-economic conditions at the
relocation site have worsened in terms of the quality of shelter,
occupation or livelihood, and facilities for water, health, education,
recreation and religious involvement, among others. Sadly, the LIADP
has fallen short of the expectations of the affected families even as it
failed to fully fulfill its commitments under the Environment
Compliance Certificate, particularly on the specifications of basic
community facilities, employment or livelihood opportunities, payment
for farm lots and houses, disturbance fee and food support. With the
great socio-economic disadvantages of the Laguindingan
International Airport Development Project to the displaced families,
their ability to survive, adapt and thus attain integration in their new
environment, has been weakened as viewed under Parsons social
system theory. Indeed, development does not occur at a uniform rate,
within a given country or community. And as contemplated under the
underdevelopment theory, the development of one sector may be
achieved at the expense of some others. The road to socio-economic
security of the relocated families is indeed a complex and difficult
one, requiring not only physical relocation but a package of quality
services that would ensure their survival and sustainable life.
Fisherfolks and Reclamation in Conflict: Manila Bay in Context
Arlen A. Ancheta, Paula G. de Castro, University of Santo Tomas
This paper aims to understand the views of the fisher folks on
reclamation that would affect the economic activities in Brgys. Tanza,
Navotas City and Hulong Duhat, Malabon City, along the Manila Bay.
It argues that the views of the fisher folks on this infrastructure
development are essential in crafting relocation program. This paper is
anchored on the concept of place dependence (Stokols and
Shumaker 1981), which has two components: (1) the quality of the
current residential situation; and (2) the relative quality of alternative
residential situations. In this case, the fisherfolks of Tanza and Hulong
Duhat are dependent on their place as it provides economic

74

livelihood. On the other hand, the proposed relocation area in Pandi,


Bulacan is limited in responding to the economic needs of the
fisherfolks. Qualitative methods used are: (1) focus group discussion;
(2) in-depth interviews; (3) field observations; and (4) secondary data
analysis. Results show that the fisher folks refused to be relocated
because they have been living on the shoreline of Manila Bay all their
lives and it means they will be deprived of fishing and related
livelihood. In conclusion, fisher folks prefer to live in precarious areas
where livelihood is available rather than be relocated where they
have difficulty looking for economic activity.
Of Conflict, Displacement, and Gender-Based Violence: The
Narratives of IDPs in Zamboanga City
Diana Therese M. Veloso, De La Salle University
This paper presents the preliminary findings of a research project
relating to internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the Joaquin F. Enriquez
Grandstand in Zamboanga City. The researcher examines womens
and mens heightened risk for gender-based violence in conflict
zones, using the situation of the evacuees of the September 2013
Zamboanga Siege as a case in point. To contextualize the discussion,
the researcher examines the dynamics of violence, conflict, and war
from a gendered perspective and illuminates the extent to which
gender-based violence exists on a continuum from personal, to
community based and/or state-sponsored violence during war and
conflict. Drawing upon interviews and focus group discussions with
the residents and community workersincluding Facilitators at the
Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD)-sponsored
Women Friendly Space (WFS) and Peacekeepersat the Grandstand,
the researcher discusses the trends and nuances in womens and
mens experiences of private and community and/or state-sponsored
violence as IDPs. The researcher exposes the numerous incidences of
lawlessness and violence experienced by the residents, especially
during the early months of their displacement, the vulnerability of
women and children to domestic violence, prostitution, and
trafficking, and the covert attempts to recruit men into extremist
groups. The researcher also highlights the link between racial, ethnic,
gender, and social class inequality in the Philippines and the

75

continued vulnerability of the residents at the Grandstand on account


of their dismal living conditions, the absence of normalization in their
lives for nearly two years after the siege, and their neglect due to
limited interventions by government authorities. This paper highlights
the intersections between private and public forms of violence and
control, as reflected in the experiences of the evacuees in
Zamboanga City, and the local and international responses to
gender-based violence.

76

GUIDELINES FOR PAPER PRESENTERS


BEFORE THE CONFERENCE
Presenters may provide an advanced copy of their paper for other
conference participants to read ahead of time. Organizers can upload
the paper at http://philippinesociology.com/. This is optional. Papers
can be sent to philippinesociology@gmail.com. There is no word limit
for conference papers.
Presenters are advised to limit their PowerPoint presentation deck to 810 substantive slides, assuming there is 2-3 minutes per slide. This will help
presenters manage their time.
Consider distributing handouts to the audience (20 copies) especially
for presentations with data sets that cannot fit in one PowerPoint slide.
Participants must bring their own handouts.
For Apple users, please ensure that your presentation is compatible with
Windows-based platforms. Bring a DVI converter for the projector.
DURING THE CONFERENCE
Arrive at your room ten minutes before your session. Load your
PowerPoint presentation before the session begins.
You only have twelve to fifteen minutes to provide a summary of your
paper. This depends on the size of your panel. Moderators are
instructed to inform speakers to wrap up on their final two minutes and
stop the presentation should the participant speak beyond fifteen
minutes. This is to ensure that all panelists have enough time to discuss
their work and receive feedback from the audience.
There will be time to answer questions and brief comments from the
audience.

77

GUIDELINES FOR MODERATORS OF PARALLEL


SESSIONS
1. During registration, claim the certificates of participation for paper
presenters from the Secretariat.
2. Arrive at your room at least ten minutes before your session begins.
3. Ensure that all presenters have uploaded and checked their
PowerPoint presentations.
4. Introduce each presenter before he or she speaks. Before the
session begins, consult participants on how they want to be
introduced. Confirm the title of the presentation as some presenters
may have changed their presentations titles.
5. Be strict with time. Speakers only have 15 minutes to present. Notify
the presenter when he or she has two minutes remaining. Make sure
that the presentation does not exceed fifteen minutes.
6. After all presenters are finished, the audience may provide brief
comments and/or ask questions. Be ready to ask questions in case
questions from the audience are sparse.
7. Before concluding the session, award the paper presenters their
certificates for participation.
8. Make sure to conclude the session on time and vacate room to
make way for the succeeding parallel sessions.

78

PRACTICAL INFORMATION
Airport Transfers
The organizers are arranging complimentary airport transfers from
Laguindingan Airport in Misamis Oriental (an hour away) to the MSU-IIT
Campus (and vice-versa) on the following dates and time.
FROM LAGUINDINGAN AIRPORT
14 October (Wednesday)
10 am; 3 pm
15 October (Thursday)
10 am; 3 pm
TO LAGUINDINGAN AIRPORT
18 October (Sunday)
7 am; 12 nn
Participants are encouraged to arrange their flight schedules to meet
these dates/time. Participants who wish to avail of this service should
email their itinerary to apalamon@gmail.com on/before 9 October
2015. This is to ensure that the organizers can properly arrange pickup upon arrival and departure.
Those who are unable to make it to these assigned times can take
Super 5 vans at the airport which, for P50 per person, will bring you to
the Super 5 Bus Terminal bound for Iligan City. Bus fare from Cagayan
De Oro to Iligan is Php 150. To return to Laguindingan Airport , the
same Super 5 bus and then van can bring you back.
Optional Tour
The optional tour costs P600 inclusive of entrance fees, lunch, morning
and afternoon snacks. Participants must get in touch with Septrin Badz
Calamba
on/before
10
October
(09177147840
or
sjcalamba.msuiit@gmail.com) to confirm a slot in the tour. Please crossreference to schedule in previous page.
Key Contacts
PSS Secretariat

Arnold P. Alamon

For queries about registration matters,


invitation letters, certificates, parallel
sessions and timetable.
philippinesociology@gmail.com
For queries about the conference
venue and other practical matters in

79

Septrin Badz
Calamba

Iligan City
apalamon@gmail.com
For queries about the optional tour
09177147840
sjcalamba.msuiit@gmail.com

Conference Venue
The plenary sessions will convene at the College of Engineering. Parallel
sessions will be held at the College of Education. Lunch and dinner will
be served at the gymnasium. The campus map is printed on the
following page.

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