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# Single phase capacitor sizing

## 21/03/2011 by Lemau 13 Comments

When install a motor using capacitor for starting or running methods,we must sizing the rated of capacitor suitable with motor to get correct
starting torque and avoid winding from overheating and can cause a damage.
This is basically a question of motor design.There is no straightforward regular relationship between capacitance and the motor size in kW.
When replacing these capacitors, the capacitance value and voltage should be taken from the manufacturers plate on the motor or from
the old capacitor.This must be correct within 5% and is sometimes stipulated down to a fraction of a F.The choice of a running capacitor
is even more limited than with a starting capacitor.

## How to sizing the starting capacitor?

1) A rule of thumb has been developed over the years to help simplify this process. To select the correct capacitance value, start with 30 to
50F/kW and adjust the value as required, while measuring motor performance.
We also can use this basic formula to calculate capacitor sizing :

## 2) Determine the voltage rating for capacitor.

When we select the voltage rated for capacitor,we must know the value of our power supply.For safety purpose,multiply the voltage of
power supply with 30%.Factors that affect the selection of the proper voltage rating of the capacitor include:
Voltage de-rating factor
Safety agency requirements.
Reliability requirements
Maximum operating temperature
Space available

## How to sizing the running capacitor?

When selecting motor run capacitors all of the required parameters above need to be identified in an organized process. Remember that,
not only are the physical and basic electrical requirements important.

But the type of dielectric material and the metallization technique should be examined.The wrong choice here can have adverse effects on
the overall performance of the capacitors.Please refer to motor nameplate or contact supplier or manufacture to get a accurate value of
capacitor.Safety First
- See more at: http://www.electricneutron.com/electric-motor/single-phase-capacitor-sizing/#sthash.2uIVJEqN.dpuf

http://www.temcoindustrialpower.com/

Overview

A start capacitor is used to briefly shift phase on a start winding in a single phase electric motor to create an increase in
torque. Start capacitors possess a very large capacitance value for their size and voltage rating. As a result, they are only
intended for intermittent duty. Because of this, start capacitors will fail after being left energized for too long due to a faulty
starting circuit on a motor.

## Start vs. Run Capacitors

Start capacitors give a large capacitance value necessary for motor starting for a very short (seconds long) period of time.
They are only intermittent duty and will fail catastrophically if energized too long. Run capacitors are used for continuous
voltage and current control to a motor's windings and are therefore continuous duty. They are generally of a much lower
capacitance value.

## Are start and run capacitors interchangeable?

Yes and no. In unusual circumstances, a run capacitor could be used as a start capacitor, but the values available are
much lower than the values usually available for dedicated start capacitors. The capacitance and voltage ratings would
have to match the original start capacitor specification. A startcapacitor can not ever be used as a run capacitor, because
it could not handle current continuously (only a couple of seconds).
View our video tutorial below to learn the differences between start and run capacitors.

## What is a resistor and do I need one?

Most replacement start capacitors will not include a resistor. You can check the condition of the old one by checking the
resistance value, or just replace it with a new one. This should read somewhere around 10-20k Ohms and around 2 watts.
The resistors are usually either soldered or crimped to the terminals. The purpose of the resistor is to bleed off residual
voltage in the capacitor after it has been disconnected from the circuit after motor start up. Not all start capacitors will use
one, as there are other ways to accomplish this. The important part is if your original capacitor had one, you'll need to
replace it on the new capacitor.
Learn how to install a bleed down resistor on your start cap.

Troubleshooting
How do I know if my start capacitor is bad?

Most electric start motor capacitor failures are one of two types:

"The Start Cap blew its guts out!" This is what we call catastrophic failure. It is usually caused by an electric motor's
starting circuit being engaged too long for the intermittent duty rating of a start cap. The top of the start cap has literally

been blown off, and the insides have been partially or fully ejected. Similarly but not quite as dramatic, a start cap may just
exhibit a ruptured pressure relief blister. In either case, it's easy to tell that the start cap is in need of replacement.

## My motor is slow to start. Is my start capacitor bad?

The answer to this question is maybe. Your start capacitor may have lost its capacitance rating due to wear and age, or
you may have other non-capacitor related issues that have to do with other motor components.

Specifications

Most start capacitor applications use a rating of 50-1200 uf capacitance and voltages of 110/125, 165, 220/250 and 330
VAC. They are also usually always 50 and 60 Hz rated. Case designs are typically round and cast in black phenolic or
Bakelite materials. Terminations are usually " push on terminals with two terminals per connection post.

Voltage
Select a capacitor with a voltage rating at or above the original capacitor. If you're using a 370 volt capacitor, a 370 or 440
volt one will work. The 440 volt unit will actually last longer. A capacitor will have a marked voltage indicating the
accpetable peak voltage, not operational voltage.
Capacitance
Select a capacitor with a capacitance value (given in MFD, uf or microfarad) that is equal to the original capacitor. Do not
deviate from the original value, as it sets the operational characteristics of the motor.

Frequency (Hz)
Select a capacitor with the Hz rating of the original. Nearly all replacement capacitors will be labeled 50/60.
Connection terminal style
Nearly every capacitor will use a " flag style push-on connector. The next question is, "How many terminals per terminal
post are needed for the application motor?" Most start capacitors have two terminals per post, and most run capacitors will
have either 3 or 4 terminals per post. Verify that your selected capacitor has at least the number of connection terminals
per connection post as the original motor capacitor.
Case shape
Nearly all start capacitors have a round case. Round run capacitors are by far the most common, but many motors still
use oval designs. Electrically speaking, there is no difference. Fit is the only question here. If space in the mounting box is
not limited, the case style does not matter.
Case size
Just like case shape, overall size makes no difference electrically. Select a capacitor that will fit within the space provided.

Product Selection

110/125 VAC
Capacitanc
1 Piece Price
e
w/ Shipping
Value

5 Piece Price
w/ Shipping

10 Piece Price
w/ Shipping

108-130

SC0005
SC0006
SC0007
\$8.63 view \$29.16 view
\$46.56 view
You Save \$13.99 You Save \$39.74

161-193

SC0008
SC0009
SC0010
\$8.25 view \$30.41 view
\$47.53 view
You Save \$10.84 You Save \$34.97

189-227

SC0011
SC0012
SC0013
\$8.38 view \$30.98 view
\$48.21 view
You Save \$10.92 You Save \$35.59

200-240

SC0089
SC0090
SC0091
\$54.32view
\$8.63 view \$31.55 view
You Save \$11.60 You Save \$31.98

216-259

SC0014
SC0015
SC0016
\$8.63 view \$32.04 view
\$50.44 view
You Save \$11.11 You Save \$35.86

233-280

SC0017
SC0018
SC0019
\$8.74 view \$32.51 view
\$50.44 view
You Save \$11.19 You Save \$36.96

270-324

SC0020
SC0021
SC0022
\$9.06 view \$33.85 view
\$52.38 view
You Save \$11.45 You Save \$38.22

324-389

SC0023
SC0024
SC0025
\$9.60 view \$36.15 view
\$55.22 view
You Save \$11.85 You Save \$40.78

340-408

SC0026
SC0027
SC0028
\$9.67 view \$36.44 view
\$55.77 view
You Save \$11.91 You Save \$40.93

378-454

SC0029

SC0030
\$37.59 view

SC0031
\$57.95 view

## \$9.93 view You Save \$12.06 You Save \$41.35

400-480

SC0032
SC0033
SC0034
\$9.98 view \$37.78 view
\$58.31 view
You Save \$12.12 You Save \$41.49

460-552

SC0035
SC0036
SC0037
\$11.04 view \$42.28 view
\$66.84 view
You Save \$12.92 You Save \$43.5+

540-648

SC0038
SC0039
SC0040
\$12.01 view \$46.40 view
\$74.66 view
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590-708

SC0041
SC0042
SC0043
\$11.96 view \$46.21 view
\$74.29 view
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708-850

SC0044
SC0045
SC0046
\$13.34 view \$52.05 view
\$85.37 view
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829-995

SC0047
SC0048
SC0049
\$14.19 view \$55.69 view
\$92.28 view
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1000-1200

SC0050
SC0051
SC0052
\$18.52 view \$74.07 view
\$127.16 view
You Save \$18.53 You Save \$58.04

220/250 VAC
Capacitanc
1 Piece Price
e
w/ Shipping
Value

5 Piece Price
w/ Shipping

10 Piece Price
w/ Shipping

59-71

SC0053
SC0054
SC0055
\$50.44 view
\$8.72 view \$32.42 view
You Save \$11.18 You Save \$36.76

64-77

SC0056
SC0057
SC0058
\$8.74 view \$32.51 view
\$50.44 view
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72-86

SC0059
SC0060
SC0061
\$8.99 view \$33.57 view
\$51.41 view
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88-106

SC0062
SC0063
SC0064
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\$53.58 view
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108-130

SC0065
SC0066
SC0067
\$9.98 view \$37.78 view
\$58.31 view
You Save \$12.12 You Save \$41.49

124-149

SC0068
SC0069
\$10.86 view \$41.52 view

SC0070
\$65.40 view

## You Save \$12.78 You Save \$43.20

145-174

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SC0072
SC0073
\$11.29 view \$43.33 view
\$68.84 view
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161-193

SC0074
SC0075
SC0076
\$11.67 view \$44.96 view
\$71.94 view
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189-227

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SC0078
SC0079
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216-259

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SC0081
SC0082
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340-408

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SC0084
SC0085
\$17.64 view \$70.33 view
\$120.07 view
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430-516

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SC0002
SC0003
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630-750

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SC0087
SC0088
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165V
Capacitance 1 Piece Price
Value
w/ Shipping

5 Piece Price
w/ Shipping

10 Piece Price
w/ Shipping

124-149

SC0092
SC0093
\$8.53 view \$40.14 view
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SC0094
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189-227

SC0095
SC0096
\$9.21 view \$36.44 view
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SC0097
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400-480

SC0098
SC0099
SC0100
\$10.67 view \$42.87 view
\$78.57 view
You Save \$10.48 You Save \$28.13

330V
Capacitance 1 Piece Price
Value
w/ Shipping

5 Piece Price
w/ Shipping

10 Piece Price
w/ Shipping

88-106

SC0101
SC0102
SC0103
\$11.83 view \$45.63 view
\$78.57 view
You Save \$13.52 You Save \$39.73

135-162

SC0104
SC0105
\$12.46 view \$58.18 view
You Save \$4.12

SC0106
\$99.93 view
You Save \$24.67

Overview
A run capacitor is used to continuously adjust current or phase shift to a motor's windings in an effort to optimise the
motor's torque and efficiency performance. Because it is designed for continuous duty, it has a much lower failure rate
than a start capacitor.

## Dual Run vs. Run Capacitors

The dual run capacitor design's only advantage is that it comes in a small package with only 3 connections. Aside from
this, here is no other difference between run and dual run capacitors. If there is enough space for mounting, using two
separate run capacitors in place of your original dual run capacitor is acceptable. They generally have connections
marked "C" for "common", "H" or "Herm" for "Hermetic Compressor" and "F" for "Fan." They will also have two different
capacitor ratings for the two different parts. See our guide on dual run capacitors for more details.

## Start vs. Run Capacitors

Start capacitors give a large capacitance value necessary for motor starting for a very short (seconds long) period of
time. They are only intermittent duty and will fail catastrophically if energized too long. Run capacitors are used for
continuous voltage and current control to a motor's windings and are therefore continuous duty. They are generally of a
much lower capacitance value.

## Are start and run capacitors interchangeable?

In unusual circumstances, a run capacitor could be used as a start capacitor, but the values available for them are much
lower than the values usually available for dedicated start capacitors. The capacitance and voltage ratings would have to
match the original start capacitor specification. A start capacitor can never be used as a run capacitor, because it could
not handle current continuously (only a couple of seconds).

View our video tutorial below to learn the differences between start and run capacitors.

Specifications
Most run capacitor applications use a rating of 2.5-100 uf (microfarads) capacitance and voltages of 370 or 440 VAC.
They are also usually always 50 and 60 Hz rated. Case designs are round or oval, most commonly using either a steel or
aluminum shell and cap. Terminations are usually " push on terminals with 2-4 terminals per connection post.

Voltage: Select a capacitor with a voltage rating at or above the original capacitor. If you're using a 370 volt capacitor, a
370 or 440 volt capacitor will work, though the 440 volt unit will actually last longer. A run capacitor will have a marked
voltage indicating peak voltage acceptable - not operational voltage.

Capacitance: Select a capacitor with a capacitance value (given in MFD, uf or microfarad) that is equal to the original
capacitor. Do not deviate from the original value, as it sets the operational characteristics of the motor.
Hz: Select a capacitor with the Hz rating of the original. Nearly all tun vapacitors will be labeled 50/60.
Case Style: Round or Oval? Round Run Capacitors are by far the most common, but many motors still use oval designs.
Electrically speaking, there is no difference. Fit is the only question here. If space in the mounting box is not limited, the
case style does not matter.
Overall Size: Just like case style, overall size makes no difference electrically. Select a capacitor that will fit within the
space provided.
Terminal Type: Most run capacitor terminal designs include 1-4 " push on tab and will have either 3 or 4 tabs. Just
make sure you have enough tabs per connection post to make the connections you need.

## Round, 370 VAC

Capacitanc
e
Value (uf)

1 Piece
w/ Shipping

5 Lot
w/ Shipping
RC0021
\$25.02 view
You Save \$5.98

10 Lot
w/ Shipping

60 Lot
w/ Shipping

RC0006
\$6.20 view

RC0036
\$47.60 view
You Save \$14.40

10

RC0007
RC0022
RC0037
\$11.92 view \$36.10 view
\$50.20 view
You Save \$23.50 You Save \$69

15

RC0008
\$7.50 view

RC0023
\$35 view
You Save \$2.50

RC0038
\$52.16 view
You Save \$22.84

20

RC0009
\$7.8 view

RC0024
\$37.61 view
You Save \$2.39

RC0039
\$53.16 view
You Save \$26.84

25

RC0010
\$7.40 view

RC0025
\$28.89 view
You Save \$8.11

RC0040
\$55.43 view
You Save \$18.57

30

RC0011
\$7.89 view

RC0026
\$34.95 view
You Save \$4.50

RC0041
\$60.90 view
You Save \$18

35

RC0012

RC0027

RC0042

\$9.60 view

\$40.29 view
You Save \$7.71

\$58.05 view
You Save \$37.95

40

RC0013
\$8.50 view

RC0028
\$40 view
You Save \$2.50

RC0043
\$72.28 view
You Save \$12.72

45

RC0014
\$9.15 view

RC0029
\$40 view
You Save \$5.75

RC0044
\$61.38 view
You Save \$30.12

50

RC0015
\$9.35 view

RC0030
\$40 view
You Save \$6.75

RC0045
RC0046
\$55.05 view
\$375 view
You Save \$38.45 You Save \$186

## Round, 370-440 VAC

Capacitanc
e
Value (uf)

1 Piece
w/ Shipping

5 Lot
w/ Shipping

10 Lot
w/ Shipping

25 Lot
w/ Shipping

50 Lot
w/ Shipping

RC0047
RC0053
\$6.37 view \$12.35 view
You Save \$19.50

40

RC0090
RC0091
\$6.20 view \$28.13 view
You Save \$2.95

RC0092
RC0093
RC0094
RC0095
\$47.53 view
\$105.73 view \$193.03 view \$363.75 view
You Save \$14.90 You Save \$50.75 You Save \$120.50 You Save \$264

100

RC0096

RC0098
\$86.33 view

RC0097
\$47.53 view

RC0059
RC0074
\$48.75 view
\$92.5 view
You Save \$110.50 You Save \$226

100 Lot
w/ Shipping

RC0099
\$169.75 view

RC0100
\$290.03 view

RC0079
\$156 view
You Save \$481

RC0101
\$532.53 view

## Oval, 370-440 VAC

Capacitanc
1 Piece
e
w/ Shipping
Value (uf)

5 Lot
w/ Shipping

10 Lot
w/ Shipping

25 Lot
w/ Shipping

50 Lot
w/ Shipping

100 Lot
w/ Shipping

RC0048
RC0054
\$6.37 view \$12.35 view
You Save \$19.50

RC0075
\$92.5 view
You Save \$226

RC0080
\$156 view
You Save \$481

7.5

RC0049
RC0055
\$5.60 view \$14.20 view
You Save \$13.80

RC0061
RC0071
RC0076
\$27.50 view \$56.50 view
\$104 view
You Save \$28.50 You Save \$83.50 You Save \$176

RC0081
\$179 view
You Save \$381

10

RC0050
RC0056
\$8.20 view \$18.05 view
You Save \$22.95

RC0062
RC0072
\$31.10 view \$62.25 view
You Save \$50.90 You Save
\$142.75

RC0077
\$115.50 view
You Save
\$294.50

RC0082
\$200 view
You Save \$620

15

RC0084
RC0085
\$5.33 view \$24.25 view
You Save \$2.45

RC0086
RC0087
RC0088
\$43.65 view \$86.33 view
\$154.23 view
You Save \$9.90 You Save \$48.25 You Save
\$115.50

RC0089
\$290.03 view
You Save \$250

50

RC0052
RC0058
\$9.95 view \$29.95 view
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RC0064
RC0073
\$59.95 view \$129.95 view
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RC0083
\$449 view
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RC0060
\$48.75 view
You Save
\$110.50

RC0078
\$249 view
You Save

\$118.80

\$248.50

Troubleshooting
When is it time to replace a run capacitor?

As a general rule of thumb, a run capacitor will far out-last the same motor's start capacitor. A run motor capacitor will
wear down differently, making them a bit more complicated when trying to determine if it needs to be replaced.

When a run capacitor begins to perform outside the allowable range,it is usually indicated by a dropping of the rated
capacitance value. For most standard motors, a run capacitor will have a "tolerance" specified describing how close to the
rated capacitance value that the actual value may be. This will be usually +/- 5% to 10%. For most motors, as long as the
actual value is is within the 10% mark of the rated value, you're in good shape. If the capacitance drops outside of this
range, the capacitor should be replaced.

Due to a defect in a capacitor's construction or a non-capacitor related motor issue, a run capacitor will sometimes bulge
from internal pressure. For most modern run capacitor designs, this will open the circuit, disconnecting the internal spiral
membrane as a protective measure to prevent the capacitor from popping.

The test in this case is simple: if its bulging, time to replace. If you measure no continuity across the terminals, it is also
time to replace.

View the video below on how to replace a run capacitor in an air conditioning unit.

Causes of Failure
Depending on how close the run capacitor is to its design life, there may be multiple factors that determine why a run
capacitor has failed.

Time - All capacitors have a design life. Several factors may be interchanged or combined to increase or reduce the life of
a run capacitor, but once the design life is exceeded, the internals may begin to more rapidly decay and drop in
performance. Simply put, a failure may occur because the capacitor is "just old."

Heat - Exceeding the design limit of operating temperature can have a big effect on run capacitor life expectancy. In
general, motors that are operated in hot environments or with little ventilation will experience a dramatically reduced

lifespan on their run capacitor. The same can be caused by radiated heat from a generally hot running motor, causing the
capacitor to run hot. If you can keep your run capacitor cool, it will last a lot longer.

Current - Motor failure causes the capacitor to be overloaded. This scenario is less commonly noticed, as it would usually
be accompanied by a partial or complete failure of the motor. The motor is overloaded or has a failure in the windings,
causing the current to climb. This can have an effect on the capacitor.

Voltage - This single factor can have an exponential effect in shortening design life. A run capacitor will have a marked
voltage rating that should not be exceeded. Let's use 440 volts as an example. At 450 volts, the life may be reduced by
20%. At 460 volts, the life may be reduced by 50%. At 470 volts, there is a 75% life reduction, and so on. The same can
be applied in reverse to help increase life by using a capacitor with a voltage rating significantly higher then needed,
although to a less dramatic degree.

Capacitor Lifespan
The mid point for a good quality aftermarket run capacitor (one that didn't come with your motor) would be 30,000 to
60,000 running hours. Factory-installed run capacitors sometimes have a designed lifespan that is much lower. In highly
competitive industries where every part can have a significant impact on cost, or where a motor's intended use would
likely be intermittent and infrequent, a lower grade of run capacitor may be selected with a design life of as little as 1000

hours. Additionally, all of the factors from the section above (run capacitor causes of failure) may dramatically modify the
reasonable expected life of a run capacitor.

Overview

Dual run capacitors are commonly used in HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) units. Dual capacitors have
three terminals, unlike regular run capacitors, which have only two. Electrically, they are the same as run capacitors that
have two terminals. Using a dual run capacitor allows you to save space if you have a small mounting area. The terminals
are also clearly marked, making it easy to hook it up to the different components of your air conditioner.

Dual capacitors usually have connections marked "C" for "common," "H" or "HERM" for the hermetic compressor, and "F"
or "FAN" for the fan in an HVAC unit. They also have two different capacitance ratings (for exampple, 35/5 uf). The larger
value is always connected to the compressor (35 uf in the example), while the smaller value will always be connected to
the fan (in this case, 5 uf).

Specifications
Below is a list of specifications that must be taken into consideration when selecting a new capacitor.

Capacitance
Make sure the capacitance of your new capacitor is the same as that of the one you're replacing.
Voltage
Dual capacitors are usually rated for 370V or 440V. Use a capacitor that has the same or higher voltage as your system
voltage. Never select one that has a lower voltage rating than your system voltage.
Frequency
Most capacitors will be rated for both 50 and 60 Hz.
Oval vs. Round Case Style
As long as the capacitance, voltage, and frequency of your capacitor is right for your application, the shape of the
capacitor does not matter as long as it can fit within the provided mounting space in your motor or air conditioning unit.
Terminal Type
Most capacitor terminals include one to four " push on tabs. Most have 3 to 4 tabs, so make sure you have enough tabs
per connection post to make the connections you need.

## Video - Replacing a Dual Run Capacitor

View our video tutorial on how to diagnose problems with your air conditioning unit and how to replace the run capacitors
in it. For a more in-depth look at troubleshooting, check out our Troubleshooting Guide.

Product Selection

Capacitance
(uf)

1 Piece

35/5

RC0102
\$7.57

## RC0103 RC0104 RC0105 RC0106 RC0107

\$29.10
\$53.35
\$105.73
\$193.03
\$363.75
Save \$9 Save \$48 Save \$165 Save \$360 Save \$750

40/5

RC0108
\$7.61

## RC0109 RC0110 RC0111 RC0112 RC0113

\$28.62
\$55.29
\$107.67
\$193.03
\$367.63
Save \$9.75 Save \$49 Save \$166 Save \$363 Save \$755

45/5

RC0115 RC0116
RC0117 RC0118 RC0119
RC0114 \$29.05
\$54.27
\$126.05
\$241.53
\$435.53
\$8.58
Save
Save
Save \$191 Save \$412 Save \$855
\$14.30
\$58.55

50/5

RC0120
\$8.92

60/5

5 Lot

10 Lot

25 Lot

50 Lot

100 Lot

## RC0121 RC0122 RC0123 RC0124 RC0125

\$31.04
\$59.17
\$134.83
\$260.93
\$445.23
Save \$14 Save \$60 Save \$198 Save \$428 Save \$888

\$9.55

70/5

\$33.95
Save
\$14.25

\$63.05
Save
\$63.50

\$140.65
\$266.75
\$464.63
Save \$211 Save \$457 Save \$950

RC0133 RC0134
RC0137
RC0135 RC0136
RC0132 \$37.83
\$66.93
\$474.33
\$144.53
\$270.63
\$10.95
Save
Save
Save
Save \$243 Save \$525
\$17.45
\$73.90
\$1090

Overview

A start capacitor resistor (also called a "bleed down resistor") is used to bleed off residual voltage in a start capacitor
after it has removed from a motor circuit after start up. Not all start caps use resistors, as there are other ways to
accomplish the task of reducing residual voltage in a capacitor.

What is important to note is that if the capacitor you are replacing had a bleed down resistor, then you will need to replace
the resistor in your new start capacitor. You can either check to see if the old resistor is still good, or you can replace it with

a new one. The resistance value should read somewhere between 10 to 20k Ohms and around 2 watts. Resistors are
usually crimped or soldered to the start capacitor's terminals.

## Specifications & Product Selection

Use for start capacitors:

Voltage: up to 330V
Capacitance: up to 1200 uf
Mounting type: Solder
Resistor body diameter: 0.1255 in.
Resistor body length:
Overall length (including leads): 2.363 in.
Lead length: 1 in. per side

View our selection of start capacitor resistors. All prices listed have free shipping included.
Quantity

Part Number

Price

SCR001

\$3.95

SCR002

\$4.95

10

SCR003

\$6

25

SCR004

\$9

50

SCR005

\$15

100

SCR006

\$25

Replacing a Resistor

Most start capacitors do not have a resistor. But if you need to replace a start capacitor that does have one, you'll need to
use a resistor on the new capacitor as well. You can either see if the old resistor is still good, or just use a new one.

View our video tutorial on how to install a start capacitor bleed down resistor.