1 Голоса «за»0 Голоса «против»

Просмотров: 1.3K102 стр.:)

Nov 04, 2015

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

:)

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 1.3K

:)

© All Rights Reserved

- Neuromancer
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- How Not to Be Wrong: The Power of Mathematical Thinking
- Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us
- Chaos: Making a New Science
- The Joy of x: A Guided Tour of Math, from One to Infinity
- How to Read a Person Like a Book
- Moonwalking with Einstein: The Art and Science of Remembering Everything
- The Wright Brothers
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- The 6th Extinction
- The Housekeeper and the Professor: A Novel
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The 10X Rule: The Only Difference Between Success and Failure
- A Short History of Nearly Everything
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- The End of Average: How We Succeed in a World That Values Sameness
- Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- The Universe in a Nutshell

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 102

SESSION 1& 2

AIM

Basic definitions and their explanations

BASIC DEFINITIONS AND THEIR EXPLANATIONS

Distance: The actual path length of the particle from initial to final

positions of journey.

Symbol: S SI unit: m The distance travelled by the particle is

independent of direction of motion and it is scalar quantity.

Displacement: The shortest distance between initial and final

positions of journey.

Displacement is a vector quantity and its magnitude is the shortest

distance between the initial and final positions of journey.

Displacement and distance can be evaluated not only between

initial and final positions but also between any two points of

journey.

Consider A and B are two positions of particle in its journey.

y

=

=

=

Initial position vector

Displacement vector

Hence displacement is final position vector minus initial position

vector. Displacement can have zero magnitude, but distance

travelled can never be zero.

If r =a1 +b1 +c1 and r = a2 +b2 +c2 then r = r r =

(a2 +b2 +c2 ) (a1 +b1 +c1 )

= (a2a1) + (b2b1) + (c2c1)

Speed: The distance travelled per unit time

Symbol: v SI unit: ms-1

Speed is the scalar quantity

Velocity: The displacement of the particle per unit time.

Symbol: v: SI unit: ms-1

Velocity is a vector quantity; its direction is same as that of

displacement.

Let us consider an example to discuss their concepts:

2

B

3

Along path 1, distance travelled is 100m, time taken is 10s

Along path 2, distance is 200m, time taken is 15s

Along path 3, distance travelled is 150m, time taken is 12s

Velocity = =

ms1 = 10ms1;

Along path 2: displacement = 100 m; time = 15 s speed =

ms1;

Velocity = =

ms1 (from A to B)

Speed =

= ms1; velocity =

= ms1 (from A to B)

Note: The direction of displacement and velocity is same for all the

three paths i.e. imagine a vector drawn from A to B. The direction of

vector gives the direction of displacement and velocity.

Average Speed: - When any object travels with non-uniform speeds

during different time intervals or travelling different segments of

path, the ratio of total distance covered to the total time taken is

called 'Average Speed'.

e.g. Average Speed= (

intervals t1, t2, t3 ...tN, travelling for distances s1, s2, s3..........sN, its

average speed can be discussed in following three ways.

When Distances & Speeds are When Distances & Time intervals are

When Speeds & Mentioned Time intervals are mentioned

Average Speed ( ) =

.

.

.

Average Speed ( ) =

Average Speed ( ) =

Average Speed ( ) =

If t1 = t2 = t3...........tn= then

Average Speed ( ) =

These are Basic independent cases. In practice you may have

combination of two or more.

Average velocity: It is defined as the ratio of displacement to time

taken by the body

Average Speed ( ) =

Instantaneous velocity:

The term instantaneous is used to explain an event happening in a

very smallinterval of time. Usually instantaneous time is denoted as

dt. The numerical value of dt is nota definite constant, but we

can say that it less than one and close to zero i.e. about 0.01s or

0.001s. (Let us not assign a fixed value for it. Its depends on the

context of explanation).

Let us consider a situation of a particle moving along a straight line

from A to B. At a time t = 0 (usually called initial time) the particle is

at A and at a time t = 10s. Let AB = 100m. As the particle crosses the

point C, can we guess time taken to cross this point. The answer is

simple. Impossible. If we consider two nearest points, one point D

just before reaching C and another point E just after crossing C. The

displacement/ distance between D and E are denoted as / i.e.

is called infinitesimal (very small) displacement ( ) DE is

called infinitesimal distance (ds)

Instantaneous speed: It is the infinitesimal distance travelled per

infinitesimal time.

Vinst =

Instantaneous velocity: It is the ratio of infinitesimal displacement

to infinitesimal time.

in st =

path in this infinitesimal time.

Uniform speed: Speed of the particle is said to be uniform, if it

covers equal distances in equal intervals of time taken, however

small the intervals are.

i.e. VAB = VAc = VCB = VDE

Non-uniform Speed: Speed of the particle is said to be non-uniform,

if it covers unequal distances in equal intervals of time, however

small the intervals are.

Non-uniform velocity: Velocity of the particle is said to be nonuniform, if it travels unequal displacements in equal intervals of

time, however small the intervals are.

Uniform speed is possible for any path of particle i.e. straight line,

curved paths. Uniform velocity is possible only for a straight line

path, because velocity is a vector quantity i.e. for velocity to be

constant, the direction of velocity should be same.

5

CLASS EXERCISE :

1] A circular park has a radius of 1 km. A man standing from the

center of park, walking towards East and going along the

circumference of the park reaches the North gate. What is his

displacement?

2]

a)2 km

b) 1.57 km c) 1 km

d) 2.57 km

If a cyclist takes one minute to complete half revolution on a

circular path 120m radius, what is the average velocity?

a) 1 m/s

3]

4]

5]

b) 2 m/s

c) 3 m/s

d) 4 m/s

A car covers the 1st half of the distance between two places at

a speed of 40 km/hr and the second half at 60 km/hr. The

average speed of the car is

a) 100 km/hr

b) 48 km/hr

c) 50 km/hr

d) 25 km/hr

An aeroplane moves 400m towards north, 300m towards west

and then 1200m vertically upwards. Then its displacement

from the initial position is

a) 1300m

b) 1400m

c) 1500m

d) 1600m

An ant starts from one corner of a cube of side length 3m and

reaches the diagonally opposite corner. The displacement is

SESSION-3, 4 & 5

AIM

Definition of acceleration, explanation of equations of motion.

Definition of acceleration, explanation of equations of motion.

Acceleration: The rate of change of velocity is acceleration.

The direction of acceleration is the direction of change in velocity

There is misconception that direction of acceleration is either along

the direction of motion or opposite to direction of motion. It need

not be parallel to direction of motion.

=

; 1 and 2 need not be in the same direction 2 1need

not be either in the direction of 1 or 2.

For a particle moving along a straight line, direction of acceleration

is either in the direction of motion (in case of increasing velocity) or

in the opposite to direction of motion (in case of decreasing

velocity)

Uniform acceleration: The body is said possess uniform

acceleration if it executes equal change in velocity in equal intervals

of time, however small the intervals are.

There are two possible paths for this type of motion (i) straight line

(ii) parabolic

Non-uniform acceleration: The body is said to possess nonuniform acceleration, if it executes unequal change in velocity in

equal intervals of time, however small the intervals are.

during an interval of t=t1 to t=tz, the Average Acceleration is given

as

Average=< >=

Instantaneous = = lim

You know that the definitions might be boring but simple but

applications are always interesting. Therefore, let's come to

application

For Motion in One Dimension you have already learnt Equations of

Motion in One Dimension

v=u+at s = ut + at2 vz = uz + 2as

We can not only establish same set of equation without graphs but

we can derive any result if we use Calculus Technique.

Calculus Techniques:- The Equations of Motion in One Dimension

are consistent to constant acceleration only. Therefore to start with

consider constant acceleration.

i.e. = constant t Therefore by definition For 2nd Equation we can

use =

d = dt = . [ ] = [ ]

= = ( 0) = +

Therefore you got your 1st Equation = + t or v = u + at because

for Motion in One Dimension only +ve & -ve sign are more than

sufficient to rep represent direction. "+ve" means away from Origin

i.e. towards Right or Upwards and "-ve" means towards the Origin

i.e. towards left or Downwards. = + t Sufficient for any type of

motion with Constant Acceleration.

d =

= ( + ).

[ ] = . +

.

= . + .

Where = (Displacement)

for Motion in One Dimension only "+ve" &" -ve "sign are more than

sufficient to represent direction. +ve" means away from Origin i.e.

towards Right or Upwards and "-ve" means towards the Origin i.e.

towards left or Downwards.

NOTE: = + is sufficient for any type of motion with Constant

Acceleration.

For 2nd Equation use =

d = .

= (+ )

[ ] = . + .

= . + .

Where = (Displacement)

or s = u.t. +

a.t2 because for Motion in One Dimension only "+ve" &-ve" sign

are more than sufficient to represent direction. "+ve" means away

from Origin i.e. towards Right or Upwards and "- ve" means

towards the Origin i.e. towards left or Downwards.

Note: = . + .

Constant Accelection.

definition =

Therefore =

= =

= .

. .d

= . [ ]

Therefore you got your 3rd Equation. =

+ 2. . or

=

+ 2. . because for Motion in One Dimension only "+ve" &

"-ve" sign are more than sufficient to represent direction. "+ve"

means away from Origin i.e. towards Right or Upwards and " - ve"

means towards the Origin i.e. towards left or Downwards.

NOTE: =

+ 2. . is sufficient for any type of motion with

Constant Acceleration.

Instantaneous Acceleration: Instantaneous Acceleration is the

Acceleration of the object at a particular instant. Here we get to use

Calculus once more.

Sn = u + (2n - 1); Sn is displacement of the particle in the n-th

second

The term n-th second is to be understood with clarity. This instant

with duration of 1 second.

The instant with duration of t seconds can have duration less than

or greater than or equal to one second. But the n-th second always

has the interval one second.

The last equation should not be used to calculate displacement if

the interval of time not equal to 1 second.

10

Example:

(i) A car travels for six seconds. The last second of travel is 6th

second. (Interval of last second is one second)

(ii) A vertical travel for 6.1 seconds. The last second of travel has an

interval of one second. i.e. from 5.1 s to 6.1 s

(iii) A cyclist travels for 0.95 seconds. There is no last second,

because the travel time is less

than one second.

To calculate displacement from t1 to t2 seconds, use

s = ut + at2 i.e. s1 = ut1 + a and s2 = ut2+ a (s2-s1)

= u (t2 -t1) + a ( -

along with Sn = u + (2n -1)

To calculate displacement from 5s to 6s.

Use Sn = u + (2n -1) with n= 6

For a body moving with uniform acceleration, average velocity is

given by

and by definition, average velocity =

11

EXERCISE (A)

1]

2]

3]

4]

5]

10sec so that it covers 24 m during the tenth second. Find the

initial velocity and acceleration of the body

a) 2 ms1; 5 ms2

b) 5ms1; 2 ms2

c) 3 ms1; 4 ms2

d) 4ms1;3ms2

A body moving with uniform acceleration covers 100m in the

first 10 seconds and 150m in the next 10 seconds. The initial

velocity of the body is

a) 15 ms1 b) 7.5 ms1 c) 5 ms1

d) 2.5 ms1

A particle moving with a constant acceleration describes in the

last second of its motion th of the whole distance. If it starts

from rest, how long is the particle in motion

a) 5s

b) 10s

c) 15s

d) none

A body starts with initial velocity u and moves with uniform

acceleration f. If when the velocity has increased to 5u, the

acceleration is reversed in direction, the magnitude remaining

constant; it turns to the starting point with velocity of

a) u

b) 6u

c) 7u

d) 9u

A body moving with uniform acceleration travels a distance

Sn = (0.4n + 9.8) m in nth sec. Find the initial velocity of the

body in ms1

a) 0.4

b) 10

c) 5

d) 4

12

6]

7]

8]

starts moving in the positive x direction with a velocity which

varies as V = K, where K is constant. The relation between V

and t is

a) Kt/2

b) Kt3/2

c) K2t/2

d) 2Kt2

A particle starts from rest with constant acceleration for 20sec.

If it travels a distance y1 in the first 10 sec and a distance y2 in

the next 10 sec then

a) y2 =2y1

b) y2 =3y1

c) y2 =4y1

d) y2 =5y1

The ends of a moving train with a constant acceleration pass a

certain point with velocities u and v. What is the velocity V

with which the midpoint of the train passes through the same

point?

a) v =

b) v = +

c) v =

d) V =

velocity is 30 ms1. How many seconds earlier from the

instant, it might have started? Assume acceleration is uniform

a) 8sec

b) 10sec

c) 6sec

d) 7sec

10] The engine of a train moving with uniform acceleration passes

an electric pole with a velocity u and the last compartment

with a velocity V, the length of train that has passed the pole

when the velocity is

, if the total length of the train is l

9]

a)

(

(

)

)

b)

c)

d)

13

SESSION - 6

AIM

Motion with Variable Acceleration

Motion with Variable Acceleration

(i) If acceleration is a function of time then a = f (t) then v = u

+ ( ) and s = ut +( ( ) )

(ii) If acceleration is a function of distance a = f(x) then

v2=u2+2 ( )

(iii) If acceleration is a function of velocity a = f (v) then t =

and x = x0 +

( )

( )

ILLUSTRATION:

Problem1. An electron starting from rest has a velocity that

increases linearly with the time that is v = kt where k = 2

m/sec2. The distance travelled in the first 3 seconds will be

a) 9 m

b) 16 m

c) 27 m

d) 36 m

Sol: (a) x =

= 2

=2

= 9m

14

time t as bt. The particle starts from the origin with an initial

velocity The distance travelled by the particle in time t will be

a) V0t + bt2 b) V0t + bt3 c) V0t + bt3 d) V0t + bt2

Sol: (c)

= ( )

v2 v1=

S=

at. The distance travelled by the particle in the first 4 seconds

a) 4

b)12

c)6

d) 8

Sol: d) u = at =at

S=

=a

=8a

initial velocity. Another body B starts from the same point

moves in the same direction with a constant velocity v. The two

bodies meet after a time t. The value of t is

a)

b)

c)

d)

Sol: (a) Let they meet after timet. Distance covered by body A

Distance covered by body B= vt and

=

=

15

bus. As soon as the bus starts its motion with an acceleration of

1ms-2, the student starts running towards the bus with a

uniform velocity Assuming the motion to be along a straight

road, the minimum value of , so that the students is able to

catch the bus is

a) 5 ms-1

b)8 ms-1

c) 10 ms-1 d)12 ms-1

Sol: (c) Let student will catch the bus after sec. So it will cover

distance ut. Similarly distance travelled by the bus will be

for the given condition ut = 50 +

(As a = 1 m/s2)

=50 +

10 sec the velocity changes to 5 m/s northwards. The average

acceleration in this time is

a) Zero

b) toward north-west

c) m/s2toward north-east

Sol: b) =

=

90 =

5 + 5 = 52

v1

2 5m / s

90o

1 5 m / s

16

= 52 Average acceleration =

/ toward north-

Problem7. A body starts from the origin and moves along the xaxis such that velocity at any instant is given by where t is in

second and velocity is in m/s. What is the acceleration of the

particle, when it is 2m from the origin?

a) 28 m/s2 b) 22 m/s2 c) 12 m/s2

d) 10 m/s2

Sol: (b) Given that = 4 2

x=

at x = t4-t2+c at t =0, x=0 C=0

When particle is 2m away from the origin

2= t4t2 t4t22=0 (t22) (t2+1) = C t=2 sec

a=

(4

2 ) = 12

= 12

2for

Problem 8. A body of mass 10 kg is moving with a constant velocity

of 10 m/s. When a constant force acts for 4 sec on it, it moves

with a velocity 2 m/sec in the opposite direction. The

acceleration produced in it is

a) 3 m/s2

b) 3 m/s2 c) 0.3 m/s2 d) 0.3 m/s2

Sol: (b) Let particle moves towards east and by the application of

constant force it moves towards west

= +10 /

dx

and

= 2 / Acceleration

=

(2) (10)

12

=

= 3 /

4

4

17

by brakes after at least 6m. If the same car is moving at a speed

of 100 km/hr, the minimum stopping distance is

a) 6m

b) 12m

c) 18m

d) 24m

Sol (d): v2 = u2 - 2as s = s u2 (As a = constant)

=

s2 = 4s1 = 4 x 12 = 24m

100m/s while travelling through a wooden block of thickness

10cm. The retardation, assuming it to be uniform, will be

a) 10 x 104 m/s2

b) 12 x 104 m/s2

c) 13.5 x 104 m/s2

d) 15 x 104 m/s2

Sol: (d) u = 200 m/s, v = 100 m/s, s = 0.1 m;

(

) (

)

a=

=

= 15 x 104 m/s2

.

seconds, another body B starts from rest with an acceleration.

If they travel equal distances in the 5th second, after the start

of A, then the ratio is equal to

a) 5 : 9

b) 5 : 7

c) 9 : 5

d)9 : 7

Sol: (a) By using Sn = u+ (2n -1), Distance travelled by body A in

5th second= 0 +

(2 x 5 -1)

According to problem: 0+ (251) = 0+

5a2

(231)

(231) 9 a1 =

18

acceleration travelling a distance of 3.06 m is 0.34 ms-1. If the

change in velocity of the body is 0.18ms-1 during this time, its

uniform acceleration is

a) 0.01 ms-2 b) 0.02 ms-2 c) 0.03 ms-2 d) 0.04 ms-2

.

Sol: (b) Time =

=

=9sec

.

and Acceleration =

=0.02 m/s2.

sec. Assuming constant acceleration what is the distance

travelled in next 2 sec

a) 8.3 m

b) 9.3 m

c) 10.3 m

d) None of above

Sol: a) Let initial (t = 0) velocity of particle = u for first 5sec of

motion s5 = 10 metre, so by using s= ut + at2

10 = 5u + a (5)2 2u + 5a = 4

for first 8 sec of motion s8 = 20 metre

20 = 8u + a (8)2 2u + 8a = 5

......... (i)

........ (ii)

Now distance travelled by particle in total 10 sec.

s10 = u10+ a(10)2

by substituting the value of u and a we will get s10 = 28.3 m

So the distance in last 2 sec = s10 - s8 = 28.3 - 20 = 8.3 m

19

constant acceleration. If it travels distances S1, S2 and S3 in the

first five seconds, second five seconds and next five seconds

respectively the relation between S1, S2 and S3 is

a) S1 = S2 = S3

b) 5S1 = 3S2 = S3

c) S1 = S2 =

d) S1 = S2 = S3

Sol: (c) Since the body starts from rest. Therefore u = 0

S1 = a(5)2 =

S1 + S2 = a (10)2 =

S2 =

-S1 = 75

S1 + S2 + S3 = a (15)2 =

S3 =

-S2 - S1 =

Thus Clearly S1 = S2 = S3

Problem15. If a body having initial velocity zero is moving with

uniform acceleration the distance travelled by it in fifth second

will be

a) 36 metres b) 40 metres c) 100 metres d) Zero

Sol: (a) sn= u + a (2n - 1) = 0 + (8) [2 x 5 - 1] = 36 metres

Problem16. The engine of car produces acceleration 4m/sec2 in

the car, if this car pulls another car of same mass, what will be

the acceleration produced

a) 8 m/s2

b) 2 m/s2

c) 4 m/s2

d) m/s2

Sol: (b) F = ma a if F = constant. Since the force is same and the

effective mass of system becomes double

a2=

=2m/s2

20

distance travelled by the body during the 4th and 3rd second?

a) 7/5

b) 5/7

c)7/3

d)3/7

Sol: (a) As Sn (2 1), =

CLASS EXERCISE :

1] If the relation between distance x and time t is of the from t =

x2+ x here and being appropriate constants, then the

retardation of the particle is

a) 2 v3

b) 2 v3

c) 2 v3

d)2 2v3

2] A particle moves along a straight line according to the law

= + 2 + . . The acceleration of the particle varies as

a) S3

b) S2/3

c) S3

d) S5/2

3] A point moves rectilinearly with deceleration whose modulus

depends on the velocity v of the particle as = , where k is

a positive constant. At the initial moment the velocity of the

point is equal to v0. What distance will it traverse before it

stops? What time will it take to cover that distance?

4] If the displacement of the particle varies with time as

x1/2=t+7, then

a) velocity of the particle is inversely proportional to t

b) velocity of the particle is proportional to t

c) velocity of the particle is inversely proportional t1/2.

d) the particle moves with a constant acceleration.

5] A point moves in a straight line under the retardation kv2. If

the initial velocity is u, the distance covered in t second is

a) kut

b) log (k ut)

c) log(1+ kut)

d) k log (k ut)

21

6]

7]

under the influence of a force F(x) = (k/2x2) where

k = 102 Nm2. At time t = 0 it is at x = 1 m and its velocity v = 0.

(i) Find its velocity when it reaches x = 0.5 m

A particle moving in a straight line has an acceleration of

(3t - 4) ms-2 at timet seconds. The particle is initially 1m from

O, a fixed point on the line, with a velocity of 2 ms-1. Find the

times when the velocity is zero. Find also the displacement of

the particle from O whent = 3.

22

SESSION 7, 8 & 9

AIM

Graphical Representation of motion

Motion of Body under Gravity (Free Fall).

The force of attraction of earth on bodies is called force of gravity.

Acceleration produced in the body by the force of gravity, is called

acceleration due to gravity. It is represented by the symbol g.

In the absence of air resistance, it is found that all bodies

(irrespective of the size, weight or composition) fall with the same

acceleration near the surface of the earth. This motion of a body

falling towards the earth from a small altitude (h << R) is called free

fall.

An ideal one-dimensional motion under gravity in which air

resistance and the small changes in acceleration with height are

neglected.

(1) If a body dropped from some height (initial velocity zero)

(i) Equation of motion: Taking initial position as origin and

direction of motion (i.e., downward direction) as a

positive, here we have

u=0

2h

v

g

2 gh

2g

23

u=0

a = +g

[As acceleration is in the direction of motion]

v=gt

(i)

h=

.... (ii)

=2gh

.... (iii)

hn= (2n+1) .... (iv)

(ii) Graph of distance velocity and acceleration with respect to

time:

s

a

g

tan = g

3t, etc., will be in the ratio of 12 : 22 : 32, i.e., square of

integers.

(iv) The distance covered in the nth sec, hn = (2 1)So

distance covered in I, II, III sec, etc., will be in the ratio of

1: 3: 5, i.e., odd integers only.

(2) If a body is projected vertically downward with some initial

velocity

Equation of motion: h = ut + gt2

= u2+2gh

hn= u+ (2n 1)

(3) If a body is projected vertically upward

(i) Equation of motion: Taking initial position as origin and

direction of motion (i.e., vertically up) as positive

a =g [As acceleration is downwards while motion upwards]

24

reaches up to height h then

v=0

2h

u

g

u

u

2 gh

2g

h = ut gt2

= u22gh

hn= u (2n 1)

u = gt, h = gt2 and

=2

(iii) Graph of distance, velocity and acceleration with respect to

time (for maximum height) :

s

(u2/2g)

v

+

O

(u/g)

(u/g)

(2u/g)

the body or we can say that in absence of air resistance, all

bodies fall on the surface of the earth with the same rate.

(4) In case of motion under gravity for a given body, mass,

acceleration, and mechanical energy remain constant while

speed, velocity, momentum, kinetic energy and potential

energy change.

25

equation of motion, mass is not involved. That is why a heavy

and light body when released from the same height, reach the

ground simultaneously and with same velocity i.e., t =

(2/ )and v = 2

(6) In case of motion under gravity time taken to go up is equal to

the time taken to fall down through the same distance. Time of

descent (t1) = time of ascent (t2) = u/g

Total time of flight T = t1 + t2 =

(7) In case of motion under gravity, the speed with which a body is

projected up is equal to the speed with which it comes back to

the point of projection. As well as the magnitude of velocity at

any point on the path is same whether the body is moving in

upwards or downward direction.

(8) A ball is dropped from a building of height h and it reaches

after t seconds on earth. From the same building if two ball are

thrown (one upwards and other downwards) with the same

velocity u and they reach the earth surface after t1 and t2

seconds respectively then

t1

t2

u=0

t=

26

taken into account, then the time of ascent is less than the time

of descent. t2> t1

Let u is the initial velocity of body then time of ascent =

and h =

work vertically downward.

For downward motion a and g will work in opposite direction

because a always work in direction opposite to motion and g

always work vertically downward.

So h = (g-a)

= ( )

t2=

)(

(g + a) > (g - a)

(10) A particle is dropped vertically from rest from a height. The

time taken by it to fall through successive distance of 1m each

will then be in the ratio of the difference in the square roots of

the integers i.e.

u=0

1m

t1 1

1m

t2 2 1

1m

t3 3 2

1m

t4 4 3

1,(21),(11).(4 3),.

27

CLASS EXERCISE :

1]

straight line is illustrated in the following figure. The distance

traveled by the particle in 4sec. is

m/s

30

A

20

B

C

D

10

1

3]

E

4

a) 60m

b) 45m

c) 55m

d) 50m

In the given v-t graph, the distance travelled by the body in 5

second will be

a) 20 m

b) 40 m

c) 80 m

d) 100 m

For the displacement- time graph shown in fig. the ratio of the

magnitudes of the speeds during the first two second and the

next four second is

displacement

2]

a) 1: 1

b) 2 : 1

20m

0s

2s

Time

6s

c) 1 : 2

d) 3 : 2

28

line is shown in fig. The displacement of the body in 5 second is

2

1.5 1

V (m /s -1 )

4]

1.5

a) 2.5m

b) 1m

0

1

1

4 5

t(ins)

c) 2m

d) 3m

29

AIM

Motion of a body under gravity

Projectile -Motion in Two Dimensions

Motion in a plane is called as motion in two dimensions e.g.,

projectile motion, circular motion etc. For the analysis of such

motion our reference will be made of an origin and two co-ordinate

axes x and y. Position of particle is known by knowing its coordinate (x, y). Velocity of particle will be resultant of velocities in x

and y direction Vx and Vy. Similarly acceleration will be in the two

directions. For analysis of such motion we analyses the motion

along two axes independently i.e., while dealing motion in xdirection we need not to think what is going on in y-direction and

vice versa.

We have to study about projectile motion, circular motion and

relative velocity under the head of motion in two dimensions.

Projectile Motion

A projectile is a particle, which is given an initial velocity, and then

moves under the action of its weight alone. If the initial velocity is

vertical, the particle moves in a straight line and such motion we

had already discussed in motion in one dimension as motion under

gravity. Here we are going to discuss the motion of particle which

is projected obliquely near the earths surface. While discussing

such motion we shall suppose the motion to be within such a

moderate distance from the earths surface, that acceleration due to

gravity may be considered to remain sensibly constant. We shall

30

vacuum.

Important Terms used in projectile motion

When a particle is projected into air, the angle that the direction of

projection makes with horizontal plane through the point of

projection is called the angle of projection; the path, which the

particle describes, is called the trajectory, the distance between the

point of projection and the point where the path meets any plane

draws through the point of projection is its range; the time that

elapses in air is called as time of flight and the maximum distance

above the plane during its motion is called as maximum height

attained by the projectile.

Analytical treatment of projectile motion

Consider a particle projected with a velocity u of an angle with the

horizontal from earths surface. If the earth did not attract a particle

to itself, the particle would describe a straight line; on account of

attraction of earth, however, the particle describes a curved path.

This curve will be proved later to be always a parabola.

Let us take origin at the point of projection and x-axis and y-axis

along the surface of earth and perpendicular to it respectively as

shown in figure.

y

O x

the body only has effect on the motion in vertical direction. It,

31

direction, and horizontal velocity therefore remains unaltered.

Motion in x- direction:

Motion in x - direction is motion with uniform velocity.

At t = 0, x0 = 0 and ux = u cos

Position after time t, x = x0 + uxt

x = (u cos ) t

Velocity of any time t, vx = ux

vx= u cos

Motion in y-direction:

Motion in y-direction is motion with uniformly acceleration

When, t = 0, y0 = 0, uy = u sin and ay = -g

After timet, vy = uy + ay t

vy = u sin - gt

y = y0 + uyt + ayt2 y = uyt + ayt2

y = (u sin ) t Also,

=

+ 2ayy

= u2 sin2 - 2 gy

Time of Flight (T):

Time of flight is the time during which particle moves from O to O

i.e., when t = T, y = 0

From equation (iv)

32

O = u sin T- gT2

T=

Range is horizontal distance travelled in time T.

i.e., R = x (in time T)

From equation (ii)

R = ucos .T

= ucos

R=

Maximum height reached (H):

At the time particle reaches its maximum height velocity of particle

becomes parallel to horizontal direction i.e., vy = 0 when y = H

From equation (v)

0 = u2 sin2 2 gH; H =

Equation of trajectory:

The path traced by a particle in motion is called trajectory and it

can be known by knowing the relation between x and y.

From equation (1) and (2) eliminating time t we get

y = x tan sec2

This is trajectory of path and is equation of parabola. So we can say

the path of particle is parabolic.

Velocity and direction of motion after a given time:

After timet vx = ucos and vy = usin -gt

Hence resultant velocity v =

+

33

=

+(

)

If direction of motion makes an angle

tan = =

=

with horizontal

At a height h, Vx = ucos

And Vy =

Resultant velocity v =

;v =

Note that this is the velocity that a particle would have at height h if

it is projected vertically from ground with u.

SOME IMPORTATN POINTS REGARDING PROJECTILE MOTION

OVER A HORIZONTAL PLANE

i) For a given velocity of projection, the range of horizontal plane

will be maximum when angle of projection is 450.

We have range of projectile. R =

Therefore if we keep on increasing range will increase and then

decrease. Its value will be maximum when sin2 is maximum i.e.,

= 450

Also, maximum range Rmax =

ii) For a given range and given initial speed of projection, there are

two possible angle of projection which are complementary angle

i.e., if one is other will be (900- ).

34

1]

2]

3]

In the last second of free fall, a body covered 3/4 of its total

path. Then the height from which the body is released will be

a) 4.9m

b) 9.8m

c) 19.6m

d) 39.2m

A freely falling body travels a distance X in the nth second. In

the next second if it travels a distance, Y. Then

a) X+Y=g

b) X Y=g

c) Y X =g

d) X = Y/g

A body is released from height h above the ground which takes

t seconds to reach the ground. The position of the body after

t/2 seconds is

a) above the ground

b)

d) Depends upon the size of the body

4]

5]

6]

released from a height equal to

a) 5m

b) 90m

c) 30m

d) 60m

A window is 0.5m high. A stone is released from a height 0.4m

above the top of the window. The time taken by the stone to

cross the window is

a) 4 s

b) 3/7 s

c) 1/7 s

d) 2/7 s

A stone is dropped into a well and sound of the splash is heard

3 s later. If the depth of well is 44.1m find the velocity of

sound in air (g = 9.8ms-2)

a) 252.6ms-1 b) 352.8ms-1 c) 300ms-1

d) 350ms-1

35

7]

with horizontal and length 19.6m starting from rest at the top.

Find the speed and time to reach the bottom. (g = 9.8ms-2)

a) 2.5s, 15ms-1

b) 3.83s, 15.4ms-1

c) 2.83s, 13.87ms-1

d) None

8]

A stone falls from the top of a tower in 8s. How much time will

it take to cover the first quarter of distance starting from top?

a) 2s

b) 3s

c) 4s

d) 8s

1]

2]

3]

Two bodies one held 10m vertically above the other are

released simultaneously. After falling freely for 3 seconds

under gravity, their relative separation is

a) 10m

b) 5m

c) 1m

d) none

After falling through the first h metres, a freely falling body

acquires velocity V. After falling through the next h metres,

velocity acquired by it would be

a) 2 V

b) 2

c) V/2

d) 4 V

A body is released from height h above the ground. Exactly at

the midway if g vanishes suddenly, its total time of fall is

a)

4]

b) 2

c)

d)

19.6m after which the parachute opens and he decelerates

downwards at 1.1ms-2. He reaches the ground with a speed of

2ms-1. Find total time taken and the height from the ground

where parachutist bails out.

a) 20s, 200m b) 40s, 300m c) 18s, 192.4md) 16s, 172.8m

36

5]

6]

7]

the same height after 2s. Their separation after 2 more second

is

a) g

b) 2g

c) 4g

d) 6g

A stone is dropped into water from a bridge 44.1m above the

water. Another stone is thrown vertically downwards 1second

later. Both strike the water simultaneously. Then initial speed

of the second stone is

a) 24.5ms-1 b) 49 ms-1 c) 9.8 ms-1 d) 12.25ms-1

A stone is dropped from a multistored building. If it crosses 2

floors in the first second of its free fall, the numbers of floors it

can cross in the 3rd second of its fall is

a) 5

b) 7

c) 10

d) 9

CLASS EXERCISE (C):

1] A body is projected upwards with a velocity 98 m/s. Find:

a) The maximum height reached

b) The time taken to reach the maximum height

c) Its velocity at a height 196 m from the point of projection

d) Velocity with which it will cross down the point of

projection

e) The time taken to reach back the point of projection

2] A boy throws a stone vertically up and catches it after time t

seconds. Then maximum height reached by the stone is

a)

b)

c)

d)

37

3]

4]

the i) displacement after 4s ii) displacement in 2nd second.

iii) Velocity after 3 seconds iv) ratio of displacements in 1st

and 2nd second. iii) Velocity after 3 seconds iv) ratio of

displacements in 1st and 2nd seconds respectively.

A body projected vertically up reaches a maximum height h in

time t. The time taken to reach half of the maximum height is

a) t/2

b) t/4

c)

d) t 1

5]

6]

7]

8]

9]

and B at a distance h with velocities U/2 and U/3. The

maximum height reached by the stone is

a)

b)

c)

d)

A body is projected vertically upwards. If t1 and t2 be the times

at which it is at a height h above the point of projection while

ascending and descending respectivley then

a) h = t1t2

b) h = 2gt1t2 c) h=

d) h =

In above problem the velocity of projection is

a) g(t1+t2) b) g(t1+t2) c) 2g(t1 + t2) d) 4g(t1 + t2)

In above problem the maximum height reached by the body is

a) g

b) g

c) g( + )2 d) g(t1+t2)2

In above problem the velocity of the body at height is

a) gt1

b) gt2

c)

d)

38

1]

projected from bottom of tower with velocity u1 and another

particle is dropped from top of tower with velocity u2. The

time when the particles meet is T then

a) T = (

b) T = (

)

)

c) T = (

2]

3]

4]

5]

d) T = (

ms----1 more at one place than at another in falling through the

same distance. If g1 and g2 are accelerations due to gravity at

those two places, then x: y is equal to

a) g1 / g2

b) g2 / g1

c)

d) 1/

A rocket is fired vertically from the ground with a resultant

vertical acceleration of 10 ms---2. The fuel is finished in one

minute and the rocket continues to move up. If g = 10 ms---2,

maximum height reached by the rocket is

a) 36 Km

b) 18 Km

c) 9 Km

d) none

A body is projected vertically up from ground. In the last 2

seconds of its ascent distance travelled by it will be

numerically

a)

b) g

c) 2g

d) 4g

A body is projected vertically up from ground. In the last of its

total journey distance travelled by it is h. Then its initial

velocity of projection is numerically

a) (h + g)

b) (h _ g)

c) (h + g / 2) c) (h - g / 2)

39

6]

intervals of time. The first drop striking the floor when the

fifth drop begins to fall. The height at which the third drop will

be, from ground, at that instant when first strikes the ground,

will be (g=10 ms-2).

a) 1.25 m

b) 2.15 m

c) 2.75 m

d) 3.75 m

CLASS EXERCISE (E):

1] A balloon is ascending up with a velocity of 4 ms--1. An object

is dropped from it when it is at a height of 100 m above the

ground. The distance between the object and balloon after 2

seconds is (g = 10 ms--2)

a) 10 m

b) 20 m

c) 30 m

d) 40 m

2] A balloon rises from rest with a constant acceleration. A stone

is released from it when it has risen to a height h. The time

taken by the stone to reach the ground is

a)

3]

b)

c)2

d) 4

velocity 20 ms---1. After t seconds another3] from the top of a

tower a stone is projected vertically up with a velocity 20

ms---1. After t seconds another stone is projected vertically

down with a velocity 20 ms---1 so that both the stones reach

the ground simultaneously. The t = (g = 10 ms--2)

a) 2

b) 4

c) 5

d) 8

40

4]

tower reaches the foot of the tower with velocity 2u. Then

height of that tower is

a)

5]

6]

7]

8]

9]

b)

c)

d)

has its engine exhausted in 10 second. What is the maximum

height reached by the rocket if its velocity at the end of 10th

second 600 ms-1? [g = 10 ms---2]

a) 600 x 5 m b) 600 x 25 m c) 600 x 35 m d) 600 x 40 m

A particle is projected vertically upwards. Prove that it will be

at of their greatest heights at times which are in the ratio 1: 3

A stone is released from a hydrogen balloon, going upwards

with velocity 12 m/s, when it is at height of 65m from the

ground. Time the stone will take to reach the ground is

a) 5 sec

b) 6 sec

c) 7 sec

d) 8 sec

From the top of a tower a stone is projected vertically upward.

When it reaches a distance h below that point, its velocity is

double that of its velocity when it was at a height h above the

top of the tower. Then greatest height attained by the stone

above the top of the tower is

a) 2h

b) h/3

c) 5h/3

d) 4h

A balloon rises from rest on the ground with a constant

acceleration . A stone is dropped when the balloon has rises to

a height of Hm. Find the time taken by the stone to reach the

ground

41

Aim:

Projectile -Motion in Two Dimensions

PROJECTILE -MOTION IN TWO DIMENSIONS

Motion in a plane is called as motion in two dimensions e.g.,

projectile motion, circular motion etc. For the analysis of such

motion our reference will be made of an origin and two co-ordinate

axes x and y. Position of particle is known by knowing its coordinate (x, y). Velocity of particle will be resultant of velocities in x

and y direction Vx and Vy. Similarly acceleration will be in the two

directions. For analysis of such motion we analyses the motion

along two axes independently i.e., while dealing motion in xdirection we need not to think what is going on in y-direction and

vice versa.

We have to study about projectile motion, circular motion and

relative velocity under the head of motion in two dimensions.

Projectile Motion

A projectile is a particle, which is given an initial velocity, and then

moves under the action of its weight alone. If the initial velocity is

vertical, the particle moves in a straight line and such motion we

had already discussed in motion in one dimension as motion under

gravity. Here we are going to discuss the motion of particle which

is projected obliquely near the earths surface. While discussing

such motion we shall suppose the motion to be within such a

moderate distance from the earths surface, that acceleration due to

gravity may be considered to remain sensibly constant. We shall

42

vacuum.

Important Terms used in projectile motion

When a particle is projected into air, the angle that the direction of

projection makes with horizontal plane through the point of

projection is called the angle of projection; the path, which the

particle describes, is called the trajectory, the distance between the

point of projection and the point where the path meets any plane

draws through the point of projection is its range; the time that

elapses in air is called as time of flight and the maximum distance

above the plane during its motion is called as maximum height

attained by the projectile.

Analytical treatment of projectile motion

Consider a particle projected with a velocity u of an angle with the

horizontal from earths surface. If the earth did not attract a particle

to itself, the particle would describe a straight line; on account of

attraction of earth, however, the particle describes a curved path.

This curve will be proved later to be always a parabola.

Let us take origin at the point of projection and x-axis and y-axis

along the surface of earth and perpendicular to it respectively as

shown in figure.

y

O x

the body only has effect on the motion in vertical direction. It,

43

direction, and horizontal velocity therefore remains unaltered.

Motion in x- direction:

Motion in x - direction is motion with uniform velocity.

At t = 0, x0 = 0 and ux = u cos

Position after time t, x = x0 + uxt

x = (u cos ) t

Velocity of any time t, vx = ux

vx= u cos

Motion in y-direction:

Motion in y-direction is motion with uniformly acceleration

When, t = 0, y0 = 0, uy = u sin and ay = -g

After timet, vy = uy + ay t

vy = u sin - gt

y = y0 + uyt + ayt2 y = uyt + ayt2

y = (u sin ) t Also,

=

+ 2ayy

= u2 sin2 - 2 gy

Time of Flight :

Time of flight is the time during which particle moves from O to O

i.e., when t = T, y = 0

From equation (iv)

O = u sin T- gT2

T=

Range of projectile (R):

44

i.e., R = x (in time T)

From equation (ii)

R = ucos .T

= ucos

R=

Maximum height reached (H):

At the time particle reaches its maximum height velocity of particle

becomes parallel to horizontal direction i.e., vy = 0 when y = H

From equation (v)

0 = u2 sin2 2 gH; H =

Equation of trajectory:

The path traced by a particle in motion is called trajectory and it

can be known by knowing the relation between x and y.

From equation (1) and (2) eliminating time t we get

y = x tan sec2

This is trajectory of path and is equation of parabola. So we can say

the path of particle is parabolic.

Velocity and direction of motion after a given time:

After timet vx = ucos and vy = usin -gt

Hence resultant velocity v =

=

+(

)

If direction of motion makes an angle

tan = =

=

with horizontal

45

At a height h, Vx = ucos

And Vy =

Resultant velocity v =

;v =

Note that this is the velocity that a particle would have at height h if

it is projected vertically from ground with u.

SOME IMPORTANT POINTS REGARDING PROJECTILE MOTION

OVER A HORIZONTAL PLANE

i]

will be maximum when angle of projection is 45.

We have range of projectile. R =

Therefore if we keep on increasing range will increase and

then decrease. Its value will be maximum when sin2 is

maximum i.e., = 450

Also, maximum range Rmax =

ii]

are two possible angle of projection which are complementary

angle i.e., if one is other will be (900- ).Class Exercise solved

= 3

/2. The angle of projection is

a) 30o

b) 45o

c) 60o

d) None of these

Sol: (c) By comparing the coefficient of x in given equation with

standard equation

y = x tan

tan = 3 = 60

46

given as by y = 3 (1/2)x2 if g = 10 m/s, then the initial

velocity of projectile will be - (x and y are in m)

a) 310 m/s b) 210 m/s c) 103 m/s d) 102 m/s

Sol: (b) By comparing the coefficient of x2 in given equation with

standard equation y = x tan

The horizontal

range is

a) 16 m

b) 8 m

c) 3.2 m

d) 12.8 m

Sol: (d) Standard equation of projectile motion y = x tan 1

Given equation: y = 16x

or y = 16x 1

Problem4: A body of mass 2 kg has an initial velocity of 3 m/s

along OE and it is subjected to a force of 4 Newton's in OF

direction perpendicular to OE. The distance of the body from O

after 4 seconds will be

a) 12 m

b) 28 m

c) 20 m

d) 48 m

Sol: (c) Body moves horizontally with constant initial velocity 3

m/s upto 4 seconds

=

= 3 4 = 12m and in perpendicular direction it

moves under the effect of constant force with zero initial

velocity upto 4 seconds. = +

=

4 =16m

So its distance from O is given by d =

+

= (12) + (16)

= 20

47

m/s2 along the x-axis and 8 m/s2 along the y-axis. Its distance

from the origin after 4 seconds will be

a) 56 m

b) 64 m

c) 80 m

d) 128 m

Sol: (c) Displacement along X- axis x =

+

= 6

(4) = 48

Displacement along Y- axis: y =

+

= 8 (4)

= 48

Total distance from the origin =

+

= (48) + (64)

= 80

Problem 6: In a projectile motion, velocity at maximum height is

a)

b)

c)

d) None of these

Sol: (b) In a projectile motion at maximum height body possess

only horizontal component of velocity i.e. u cos.

Problem7: A body is thrown at angle 30o to the horizontal with the

velocity of 30 m/s. After 1 sec, its velocity will be (in m/s)

( = 10 / )

a) 107

b) 70010 c) 1007

d) 40

Sol: (a) From the formula of instantaneous velocity

=

+

2

= (30) + (10) 1 2 30 10 1

30

= 107 /

Problem 8: A projectile is fired at 30o to the horizontal. The

vertical component of its velocity is 80 ms-1. Its time of flight is

T. What will be the velocity of the projectile at t = T/2

a) 80 ms-1

b) 80/3ms-1

c)(80/3) ms-1

d)40 ms-1

48

Sol: (b) At half of the time of flight, the position of the projectile will

be at the highest point of the parabola and at that position

particle possess horizontal component of velocity only.

Given uvertical =usin = 80 =

= 160 /

horizontal= ucos = 160cos 30 = 803 /

Problem 9. A particle is projected from point O with velocity u in a

direction making an angle with the horizontal. At any instant

its position is at point P at right angles to the initial direction of

projection. Its velocity at point P is

90o

P

v

a) u tan

b) u cot

c) u cosec

d) u sec

Sol: (b) Horizontal velocity at point O = ucos

90o

v sin

90o

u sin

u cos

In projectile motion horizontal component of velocity remains

constant throughout the motion

v sin =

=

49

30o with the horizontal. Another particle Q is thrown vertically

upwards with velocity u2 from a point vertically below the

highest point of path of P. The necessary condition for the two

particles to collide at the highest point is

u1

u2

30o

Q

a)

=

b)

=2

c)

=

d)

=4

Sol: (b) Both particle collide at the highest point it means the

vertical distance travelled by both the particle will be equal, i.e.

the vertical component of velocity of both particle will be equal

30 = =

= 2

Problem 11.Two seconds after projection a projectile is travelling

in a direction inclined at 30o to the horizontal after one more

sec, it is travelling horizontally, and the magnitude and

direction of its velocity are

a) 220 / , 60

b) 203 / , 60

c) 640 / , 30

d) 406 / , 30

Sol: (b) Let in 2 sec body reaches upto point A and after one more

sec upto point B. Total time of ascent

v

A

30

u cos

50

=3

= 10 3 = 30 .. (i)

Horizontal component of velocity remains always constant

ucos =

30 ......... (ii)

For vertical upward motion between point O and A

30 =

2[

= ]

30 = 30 20[

= 30] = 20 /

Substituting this value in equation (ii)

ucos = 20 30 = 103.. (iii)

From equation (i) and (iii) and u =203 = 60

Problem12: A body is projected up a smooth inclined plane (length

=202m) with velocity u from the point M as shown in the

figure. The angle of inclination is 45o and the top is connected

to a well of diameter 40 m. If the body just manages to cross

the well, what is the value of .

45o

M

40 m

a) 40ms1

b) 402 ms1 c) 20 ms1

d) 202 ms1

Sol: (d) At point N angle of projection of the body will be 45. Let

velocity of projection at this point is v. If the body just manages

to cross the well then

51

v

N

R

45o

u

M

= 40 [as

40 m

= 45 ]

= 400 v = 20 m/s

But we have to calculate the velocity (u) of the body at point M.

For motion along the inclined plane (from M to N) Final

velocity (v) = 20 m/s, acceleration (a) = - g sin = - g sin 45o,

distance of inclined plane =

202(20)

. 202[Using v2 = u2 + 2as]

= 20 +

400 =

.

Problem 13: A projectile is fired with velocity u making angle with

the horizontal. What is the change in velocity when it is at the

highest point?

a) ucos

b) u

c) u sin

d) (u cos - u)

Sol: (c) Since horizontal component of velocity remain always

constant therefore only vertical component of velocity

changes. Initially vertical component usin .Finally it becomes

zero. So change in velocity = u sin

Problem14: A body of mass 0.5 kg is projected under gravity with

a speed of 98 m/s at an angle of 30o with the horizontal. The

change in momentum (in magnitude) of the body is

a) 24.5 N-s b) 49.0 N-s c) 98.0 N-s d) 50.0 N-s

52

= 2musin =20.598sin300=49 N-s.

Problem15: A particle of mass 100 g is fired with a velocity 20 m

sec-1 making an angle of 30o with the horizontal. When it rises

to the highest point of its path then the change in its

momentum is

a) 3 kg m sec1

b) 1/2 kg m sec-1

c) 2 kg m sec1

d)1 kg m sec-1

Sol: (d) Horizontal momentum remains always constant

So change in vertical momentum ( ) = Final vertical

momentum - Initial vertical momentum

= 0 mu sin

|P| = 0.1 20

30 = 1 /

Problem 16: Two equal masses (m) are projected at the same angle

( ) from two points separated by their range with equal

velocities (v). The momentum at the point of their collision is

a) Zero

b) 2 mv cos c) - 2 mv cos

d) None

Sol: (a) Both masses will collide at the highest point of their

trajectory with equal and opposite momentum. So net

momentum of the system will be zero.

mv cos

mv cos

53

making an angle of 45o with the horizontal. The magnitude of

the angular momentum of the particle about the point of

projection when the particle is at its maximum height is

(where g = acceleration due to gravity)

a) Zero

b) mv3/ (42 )

c) mv3/(2 )

d) mv2/2g

Sol: (b) = L =

=

[As = 45o]

angle of 30o with the horizontal. It will hit the ground after a

time

a) 1.5 s

b) 1 s

c) 3 s

d) 2 s

Sol: (b) T =

.

.

= 1sec

as shown in figure. They are projected at the same time as

shown in figure with different initial speed. The time after

which the horizontal distance between the particles become

zero is

a) u/2x

b) x/ u

c) 2u / x

d) u /x

Sol: (b) Let x1 and x2 are the horizontal distances travelled by

particle A and B respectively in time t.

x1 = .

30 .......... (i) and x2=

60 ......... (ii)

x1+x2=

30 +

60 =

= /

in a direction making an angle upward with the horizontal.

After some time at point P it is moving at right angle with its

initial direction of projection. The time of flight from O to P is

a)

b)

c)

d)

54

Sol: (b) When body projected with initial velocity by making angle

with the horizontal. Then after time t, (at point P) its

direction is perpendicular to.

u sin

90

v cos

(90 )

v

u cos

(from

sample problem no. 9).For vertical motion: Initial velocity (at

point O) = usin

Final velocity (at point P) = v cos =

Time

of flight (from point O to P) = t

Applying first equation of motion =

= usin

[

=

=

+ cos ] =

Problem 21: A ball is projected upwards from the top of tower

with a velocity 50 ms-1 making angle 30o with the horizontal.

The height of the tower is 70 m. After how many seconds from

the instant of throwing will the ball reach the ground?

a) 2.33 sec b) 5.33 sec c) 6.33 sec

d) 9.33 sec

Sol: (c) Formula for calculation of time to reach the body on the

ground from the tower of height 'h' (If it is thrown vertically up

with velocity u) is given by t =

1+ 1+

So we can

the above formula. Initial vertical component of velocity

55

t=

1+ 1+

.

( )

=6.33 sec

is doubled, the time of flight becomes

a) 4 times

b) 2 times

c) 2 times d) 1/2times

Sol: (c) =

and T =

In the given condition to make range double, velocity must be

increased upto 2

times that of previous value. So

automatically time of flight will becomes 2 times.

Problem 23. A particle is thrown with velocity u at an angle from

the horizontal. Another particle is thrown with the same

velocity at an angle from the vertical. The ratio of times of

flight of two particles will be

a) tan 2 : 1 b) cot 2 : 1 c) tan : 1

d) cot : 1

Sol: (c) For first particles angle of projection from the horizontal is

So T1=

For second particle angle of projection from the vertical is . It

mean from the horizontal is (90- )

(

)

T1=

=

So ratio of time of flight

56

equal to one tenth of the acceleration due to gravity (Take g =

10 ms-2). The time of flight will be decreased by

a) 0%

b) 1%

c) 9%

d) 11%

Sol: (c) T =

Percentage decrease = 9%

Problem25: A boy playing on the roof of a 10m high building

throws a ball with a speed of 10 m/s at an angle of 30o with

the horizontal. How far from the throwing point will the ball be

at the height of 10 m from the ground (g = 10 m/s2, sin 30o =

sin 30o = )

a) 8.66 m

b) 5.20 m

c) 4.33 m

d) 2.60 m

Sol: (a) Simply we have to calculate the range of projectile

u

30o

10 m

R=

10 m

R=5 3

57

SESSION 16 & 17

Aim:

Projection on Inclined Plane.

Horizontal projection

PROJECTION ON INCLINED PLANE.

A particle is projected from a point A on an inclined plane, which is

inclined at an angle

to the horizon with a velocity

at an

elevation. The direction of projection lines in the vertical plane

through AB, the line of the greatest slope of the plane.

Let the particle strike the plane at B so that AB is the range on the

inclined plane.

B

C

A

The initial velocity of projection u can be resolved into a component

u cos ( - ) along the plane and a component u sin ( - )

perpendicular to the plane. The acceleration due to gravity g which

acts vertically down can be resolved into components g sin up the

plane and g cos perpendicular to the plane. By the principle of

physical independence of forces the motion along the plane may be

considered independent of the motion perpendicular to the plane.

Let T be the time, which the particle takes to go from A to B. Then in

this time the distance traversed by the projectile perpendicular to

the plane is zero.

0 = u sin ( - ) T - g cos T2

T=

58

remains constant. Hence the horizontal distance described is given

(

by AC = u cos T =

(

R=

[sin (2 - ) - sin ]

i.e., (2 ) = 90

= (450 + /2)

)=1

Rm =

(1- sin );

Rm =

For a given velocity of projection, it can be shown that there are two

directions of projection which are equally inclined to the direction

of maximum range.

Now R =

[sin (2 - ) - sin ]

values of (2 ) each less than 1800 that can satisfy the above

equation.

Let (2+

) and (2 ) be the two values. Then

_ 0

2 - = 180 - (2 - ) ; - /2 = 900 - ( - /2)

- (450 + /2) = (450 + /2) Since (45 + /2) is the angle of projection giving the maximum

range, it follows that the direction giving maximum range bisects

59

the angle between the two angles of projection that can give a

particular range.

The initial component of velocity perpendicular to PQ is u sin

( ) and the acceleration in this direction is (-g cos ) .If T is the

time the particle takes to go from P to Q then in time T the

displacement described in a direction perpendicular to PQ is zero.

0 = u sin ( ). T- gcos .T2

If the direction of motion at the instant when the particle hits the

plane be perpendicular to the plane, then the velocity at that instant

parallel to the plane must be zero.

u cos ( ) - g sin T = 0

(

)

(

)

=T=

cot = 2 tan (

Horizontal projection:

Consider a body projected horizontally with a velocity

.

O

at a height

Vel=u

th

Pa

of

dy

bo

Ground

60

Components

Along x-axis

Initial Velocity

ux = u cos 0 = u

Acceleration

ax = 0

Displacement

x

Velocity at time

Vx = ux = u cos 0 = u

displacement after x = ux t + axt2

t seconds

x = ut

Velocity at time

V= u+2axx

Components

Along y - axis

uy = u sin 0 = O

ay = + g

y

Vy = uy + ayt

y = uyt +ayt2

y = gt2

V= u+ 2ay

after a

displacement

V = 2gy

Vx = ux

Resultant velocity = V =

=

=

+

=

+( +2 )

=

+2

Time of descent (td): As the body reaches ground (Point B) from

point of projection (Point O), the time taken is tA.The vertical

displacement is OA

y = uyt + ayt2 = g

td =

61

1]

to

90

P

a) Tv Sin

b) Tv Cos

c) Tv Sec

d) Tv Tan

2]

plane, inclined at an angle 45o to the horizontal, in the vertical

plane containing the line of greatest slope through the point. If

(>450) is the inclination to the horizontal of the initial

direction of projection, for what value of tan will the particle

strike the plane?

i) horizontally

ii) at right angle

3]

Two bodies are projected from the same point with equal

speeds in such directions that they both strike the same point

on a plane whose inclination is . If be the angle of projection

of the first body with the horizontal find the ratio of their times

of flight

62

1]

a bomb at a height of 78.4m from the ground, when will the

bomb strike the ground? [g = 10 m/s2]

a) 8 sec

b) 6 sec

c) 4 sec

d) 10 sec

2] A body thrown horizontally with velocity 10 m/s from certain

height of 10m

List I

A) Horizontal displacement covered by it when it reaches the

ground

B) Horizontal displacement covered by it when its velocity

components are equal

C) Vertical component of velocity when it reaches the ground

D) Horizontal component of velocity when its velocity

components are equal

List II

P) 5

Q) 10

R) 14.14

S) 20

a) A - Q, B - S; C - R, D- P

b) A- R, B-S; C - P, D-Q

c) A - R, B- Q; C - R, D- Q

d) A -Q, B - S; C - R, D - P

3] A ball is dropped from the top of a tower and another ball is

thrown horizontally at the same time. Then

a) first ball reaches the ground earlier

b) second ball reaches the ground earlier

c) both reach the ground simultaneously

d) we cannot decide

63

SESSION 18 & 19

AIM:

RELATIVE MOTION

RELATIVE MOTION

Motion is a combined property of the object under study and the

observer. Motion is always relative, there is no such term like

absolute motion or absolute rest. Motion is always defined with

respect to an observer or reference frame.

Reference frame:

Reference frame is an axis system from which motion is observed. A

clock is attached to measure time. Reference frame can be

stationary or moving. There are two types of reference frame:

i)

Newtons first law is valid is called as inertial reference frame.

ii) Non-inertial reference frame: A frame of reference in which

Newtons first law is not valid is called as non-inertial

reference frame.

Note: Earth is by definition a non-inertial reference frame because

of its centripetal acceleration towards sun. But, for small

practical applications earth is assumed stationary hence, it

behaves as an inertial reference frame.

64

RELATIVE VELOCITY

Definition: Relative velocity of a particle (object) A with respect to B

is defined as the velocity with which A appears to move is B if

considered to be at rest. In other words, it is the velocity with

which A appears to move as seen by the B considering itself to be

at rest.

vA =

, vB =

=

= = 0(

)

Note:

velocity of an object w.r.t. itself is always zero.

Velocity of Approach

It is the rate at which a separation between two moving particles

decreases.

If separation decreases velocity of approach is positive,

Velocity of approach = 22 m/s

Velocity of approach = 15 m/s

65

called velocity of separation.

It is the rate with which separation between two moving object

increases.

Velocity of separation = 2 m/s

Velocity of separation = 15 m/s

Illustration:

Two balls A and B are moving in the same direction with equal

velocities, find out their relative velocity.

=0

Illustration:

A and B are thrown vertically upward with velocity, 5 m/s and 10

m/s respectively (g = 10 m/s2. Find separation between them after

one second

Sol. SA = ut gt2

= 5t 10 t2

= 5 1 5 12

=55

=0

SB = ut gt2.

= 10 1 10 12

= 10 5

=5

SB SA = separation = 5m.

66

Alter:

By relative =

= (10) (10) = 0

Also = = 10 5

= 5 m/s

(in 1 sec) = t = 5 1 = 5 m

Distance between A and B after 1 sec = 5 m.

Illustration:

A ball is thrown downwards with a speed of 20 m/s from top of a

building 150 m high and simultaneously another ball is thrown

vertically upwards with a speed of 30 m/s from the foot of the

building. Find the time when both the balls will meet. (g = 10 m/s2)

Sol. (I) S1 = 20 t + 5 t2

+ S2 = 30 t 5 t2

____________________

150 = 50 t

t = 3 s.

(II) Relative acceleration of both is zero since both have

acceleration in downward

Direction

=

=g g = 0

67

== 30 (20) = 50

sBA = vBA t

t=

=3s

road with velocities 12 m/s and 10 m/s respectively. When the

separation between the two was 200 m C2 started accelerating

to avoid collision. What is the minimum acceleration of car C2

so that they dont collide.

Sol. By relative

= = 0 a = (a)

= = 12 10 = 2 m/s.

So by relativity we want the car to stop.

v2 u2 = 2as.

0 22 = 2 a 200 a =

m/s2

= 0.1 m/s2 = 1 cm/s2.

Minimum acceleration needed by car C2 = 1 cm/s2

RELATIVE MOTION IN LIFT:

Illustration:

A lift is moving up with acceleration a. A person inside the lift

throws the ball upwards with a velocity u relative to hand.

(a) What is the time of flight of the ball?

(b) What is the maximum height reached by the ball in the lift?

68

Sol. (a)

= = (g + a) downwards

= t + t2

T=(

0= uT (g + a)T2

(b) v2 u2 = 2 as

H=

0 u2 = 2(g + a) H

1) Initial velocity = u

2) Velocity at maximum height = u cos q

3) T =

4)

5)

Range =

69

= position of A with respect to O

= position of B with respect to O

= position of A with respect to B.

=

( )

( )

( )

( )

=

Note: These formulae are not applicable for light.

Illustration:

Object A and B has velocities 10 m/s. A is moving along East while B

is moving towards North from the same point as shown. Find

velocity of A relative to B ( )

Sol. =

= 102

70

Note:

Illustration:

Two particles A and B are projected in air. A is thrown horizontally,

B is thrown vertically up. What is the separation between them

after 1 sec?

Sol. = = 0

= 10 10 = 102

t = (102) t = 102 m

71

Ex:

1]

2]

3]

Sol:

Find out motion of tree, bird and old man as seen by boy.

Find out motion of tree, bird, boy as seen by old man

Find out motion of tree, boy and old man as seen by bird.

(1) With respect to boy:

vtree

= 16 m/s ()

vbird

= 12 m/s ()

vold man = 18 m/s ()

(2) With respect to old man:

vBoy

= 18 m/s ()

vTree

= 2 m/s ()

vBird

= 18 m/s () and 12 m/s ()

(3) With respect to Bird:

vTree

= 12 m/s () and 16 m/s ()

vold man = 18 m/s () and 12 m/s ().

vBoy

= 12 m/s ().

72

If a train is moving at equator on the earths surface with a velocity

vTE relative to earths surface and a point on the surface of earth

with velocity vE relative to its centre, then

= or = +

So, if the train moves from west to east and if the train moves from

east to west (the direction of motion of earth on its axis) (i.e.

opposite to the motion of earth)

If a boy is running with speed on a train moving with velocity

relative to ground, the speed of the boy relative to ground will be

given by:

=

or = +

so, if the boy is running in the direction of train

vB = u + v

and if the boy is running on the train in a direction opposite to the

motion of train

vB = u v

73

If a man can swim relative to water with velocity and water is

following relative to ground with velocity , velocity of man

relative to ground will be given by:

= or = +

So, if the swimming is in the direction of flow of water,

vm = vmR + vR

vm = vmR vR

Illustration:

A swimmer capable of swimming with velocity v relative to water

jumps in a flowing river having velocity u. The man swims a

distance d downstream and returns back to the original position.

Find out the time taken in complete motion.

Sol. t = tdown + tup

=

CROSSING RIVER:

A boat or man in a river always moves in the direction of resultant

velocity of velocity of boat (or man) and velocity of river flow.

74

1]

Shortest Time:

The person swims perpendicular to the river flow crossing a

river: consider a river having flow velocity and swimmer

jump into the river from a point A, from one bank of the river,

in a direction perpendicular to the direction of river current.

Due to the flow velocity of river the swimmer is drifted along

the river by a distance BC and the net velocity of the swimmer

will be along the direction AC.

If we find the components of velocity of swimmer along and

perpendicular to the flow these are.

y

B

drift = x

vr

vmR

vm

Velocity perpendicular to the river, vf = vmR

The net speed is given by vm =

at an angle of tan =

flow).

Velocity of vy is used only in crossing the river, time taken to

cross the river is

t= =

.

75

the river,

drift is along the river flow,

x = (vx) or

x=

Illustration:

A river 400 m wide is flowing at a rate of 2.0 m/s. A boat is sailing at

a velocity of 10 m/s with respect to the water, in a direction

perpendicular to the river.

(a) Find the time taken by the boat to reach the opposite bank.

(b) How far from the point directly opposite to the starting point

does the boat reach the opposite bank.

(c) In what direction does the boat actually move.

Sol:

t=

=

= 40 s Ans.

/

(b) drift (x) = (vx) = (2m/s) (40s) = 80 m

Ans.

(c) Actual direction of boat,

= tan1

= tan1 5, (downstream) with the river flow.

76

2] SHORTEST PATH:

When the person crosses the river perpendicularly (along the

shortest path). It should swim upstream making an angle

with AB such that the resultant velocity, of man must be

perpendicular to the flow of river along AB.

If we find the components of velocity of swimmer along and

perpendicular to the flow, these are, velocity along the river,

vx = 0 and velocity perpendicular to river vy =

with the river direction.

at an angle of 90

cross the river,

t= =

.

and velocity vx is zero, therefore, in this case the drift (x)

should be zero.

and velocity vx is zero, therefore, in this case the drift (x)

should be zero.

x=0

or vx = vR vmR sin = 0

or vR = vmR sin

77

or

= sin1

path) the man should swim at an angle of

+

upstream from the direction of river flow.

Further, since sin < 1,

Swimmer can cross the river perpendicularly only when vmR>

vR ie.,

Practically it is not possible to reach at B if the river velocity

(vR) is too high.

Illustration:

A man can swim at the rate of 5 km/h in still water. A river 1 km

wide flows at the rate of 3 km/h. The man wishes to swim across

the river directly opposite to the starting point.

(a) Along what direction must the man swim?

(b) What should be his resultant velocity?

(c) How much time he would take to cross?

Sol: The velocity of man with respect to river vmR= 5 km/hr, this is

greater than the river flow velocity, therefore, he can cross the

river directly (along the shortest path). The anlge of swim must

be

= + sin1

= 90 + sin-1

= 90 + sin1

(upstream)

Ans.

(b) Resultant velocity will be vm =

= 5 3

= 4 km/hr

78

(c) time taken to cross the

t=

= / = h = 15 min

Illustration:

A man wishes to cross a river flowing with velocity u jumps at an

anlge with the river flow. Find out the net velocity of the man with

respect to ground if he can swim with speed v. Also find How far

from the point directly opposite to the starting point does the boat

reach the opposite bank? In what direction does the boat actually

move? If the width of the river is d.

x

C'

C

d

u

+2

tan =

(v sin ) t = d

t=

x = (u + v cos ) t = (u + v cos )

A boat moves relative to water with a velocity which is n times less

than the river flow velocity. At what anlge to the stream direction

must the boat move to minimize drifting?

79

Sol: In this problem, one thing should be are fully meted that the

velocity of boat is less than the river flow velocity. In such a

case, boat cannot reach the point directly opposite to its

starting point. i.e. drift can never be zero. Thus, to minimize the

drift, boat starts at an angle from the normal direction up

stream as shown.

and perpendicular to the flow, these are, velocity along the

river, vx = u v sin .

and velocity perpendicular to the river, vy = v cos .

time taken to cross the river is t = =

.

In this time, drift x = (vx)t

= (u v sin )

or

x=

sec

d tan

or (sec . tan ) d sec2 = 0

or sin = 1

or sin = =

(as v = )

80

= sin1

from normal direction or an angle

+ sin1

from stream direction.

CLASS EXERCISE:

Ex.1 An object A is moving with 5 m/s and B is moving with 20 m/s

in the same direction. (Positive x-axis)

(i) Find velocity of B with respect to A.

Sol. vB = 20 m/s vA = 5 m/s vB vA = 15 m/s

(ii) Find velocity of A with respect to B

Sol. vB = 20 m/s, vA = 15 m/s vAB = vA vB = 15 m/s

Note: vBA = vAB

Ex.2 Two objects A and B are moving towards each other with

velocities 10 m/s and 12 m/s respectively a shown.

Sol. vAB = vA vB = (10) (12)= 22 m/s towards right.

(ii) Find out velocity of B with respect to A

vBA = vB vA = (12) (10)= 22 m/s towards left.

81

SESSION 20

AIM

To study Rain Problems

To find the Shortest Distance

To Solve problems related to relative velocity

RAIN PROBLEMS:

If rain is falling vertically with a velocity and on observer is moving

horizontally with velocity, the velocity of rain relative to observer

will be:

=

or =

+

and direction = tan1

with the vertical as shown in figure.

Illustration:

Rain is falling vertically and a man is moving with velocity 6 m/s.

Find the angle with which umbrella should be hold by man to avoid

getting wet.

Sol:

=6

= 10

Velocity of rain with respect to man = = 10 6

tan =

= tan1

Where

82

Illustration:

A man moving with 5m/s observes rain falling vertically at the rate

of 10 m/s. Find the speed and direction of the rain with respect to

ground.

=

=

= 55

tan = , = tan1

Illustration:

A man standing, observes rain falling with velocity of 20 m/s at an

angle of 30 with the vertical.

1] Find out velocity of man so that rain appears to fall vertically.

2] Find out velocity of man so that rain again appears to fall at 30

with the vertical.

Sol: (1) = v (let)

= 10 103

= (10 v) 103

(10 v) = 0 (for vertical fall, horizontal component

must be zero)

or v = 10 m/s

83

Ans.

(2) = 10 103

= vx

= (10 vx) 103

Angle with the vertical = 30

tan 30 =

vx = 20 m/s

WIND AIRPLANE:

This is very similar to boat river flow problems the only difference

is that boat is replaced by also plane and river is replaced by wind.

Thus, velocity of aeroplane with respect to wind

= or = +

Where, = absolute velocity of aeroplane

and, = velocity of wind.

84

Illustration:

An aeroplane flies along a straight path A to B and returns back

again. The distance between A and B is

and the aeroplane

maintains the constant speed v. There is a steady wind with a

speed u at an angle with line AB. Determine the expression for the

total time of the trip.

Sol: A to B:

Velocity of plane along AB = v cos ucos , and for no-drift

from line

AB: v sin = usin sin =

time taken from A to B :

tAB =

B to A:

velocity of plane along BA = v cos + u cos

and for no drift from line AB : v sin = usin

sin =

time taken from B to A:

tBA =

total time taken = tAB + tBA

=

85

When the relative velocity of one particle w.r.t. to other particle is

directed towards each other then they will collide. (If there is a zero

relative acceleration).

Illustration:

Three particles A, B and C are situated at the vertices of an

equilateral triangle ABC of side a at t = 0. Each of the particles

moves with constant speed v. A always has its velocity along AB, B

along BC and C along CA. At what time will the particle meet each

other?

Sol: The motion of the particles is roughly sketched in figure. By

symmetry they will meet at the centroid O of the triangle. At

any instant the particles will from an equilateral triangle ABC

with the same.

Concentrate on the motion of any one particle, say B. At any

instant its velocity makes angle 30 with BO.

The component of this velocity along BO is v cos 30. This

component is the rate of decrease of the distance BO. Initially.

/

BO =

= = displacement of each particle.

=

86

CA. Its component along BC is v cos 60 = v/2. Thus, the

separation BC decreases at the rate of approach velocity.

approach velocity = v + =

Since, the rate of approach is constant, the time taken in

reducing the separation BC from a to zero is t = =

Illustration:

Two cars A and B are moving west to east and south to north

respectively along crossroads. A moves with a speed of 72 kmh1

and is 500 m away from point of intersection of cross roads and B

moves with a speed of 54 kmh1 and is 400 m away from point of

intersection of cross roads. Find the shortest distance between

them?

Sol:

87

In this method we watch the velocity of A w.r.t. B. To do this we plot

the resultant velocity Vr. Since the accelerations of both the bodies

is zero, so the relative acceleration between them is also zero.

Hence the relative velocity will remain constant. So the path of A

with respect to B will be straight line and along the direction of

relative velocity of A with respect to B. The shortest distance

between A & B is when A is at point F (i.e. when we drop a

perpendicular from B on the line of motion of A with respect to B).

From figure

tan =

= =

........................(i)

This q is the angle made by the resultant velocity vector with the xaxis.

Also we know that from figure

OE =

=

.............................. (ii)

From equation (i) & (ii) we get

x = 375 m

EB = OB OE = 400 375 = 25 m

But the shortest distance is BF.

From magnified figure we see that BF = EB cos = 25

BF = 20 m

88

A & B be are the initial positions and A,B be the final positions after

time t.

B is moving with a speed of 15 m/sec so it will travel a distance of

BB = 15t during time t.

A is moving with a speed of 20 m/sec so it will travel a distance of

AA = 20t during time t.

So

OA =500 20 t

OB = 400 15 t

AB2 = OA2 + OB2 = (500 20t)2 + (400 15t)2 ........ (i)

For AB to be minimum AB2 should also be minimum

=

=0

= 2(400 15t) (15) + 2(500 20t) (20) = 0

= 1200 + 45t = 2000 80 t

125 t = 3200

89

t=

s.

(

s.

Now

comes out to be positive hence it is a minima.

On substituting the value of t in equation (i) we get

AB2 = 400 15

= 16 + (12) = 20 m

+ 500 20

Minimum distance AB = 20 m.

After time t let us plot the components of velocity of A & in the

direction along AB. When the distance between the two is

minimum; the relative velocity of approach is zero.

VA cos f + VB sin f = 0

(where af is the angle made by the line AB with the x-axis)

20 cos f = 15 sin f

tan f = =

Here do not confuse this angle with the angle in method (I)

because that is the angle made by the resultant with x-axis.

Here f is the angle made with x-axis when velocity of

approach in zero,

t=

AB = 16 + (12) = 20 m

90

CLASS EXERCISE:

Qus.Two ships are 10 km apart on a line running south to north.

The one farther north is steaming west at 20 km h1. The other

is steaming north at 20 km h1. What is their distance of

closest approach? How long do they take to reach it?

Ans. 52 km/h; 1/4 h = 15 min consider the situation shown in

figure for the two particle A and B.

(2) Find out shortest distance between two particles

Ans. (1) The particles will not collide

(2) 45m.

the gun i.e. it is Relative Velocity.

EXERCISE 1

1. A stone is thrown upwards with a velocity 50 ms1. Another

stone is simultaneously thrown downwards from the same

location with a velocity 50 ms1. When the first stone is at the

highest point, the relative velocity of the second stone w.r.t. the

first stone is:

(A) Zero

(B) 50 ms1 (C) 100 ms1 (D) 150 ms1

91

2.

3.

4.

5.

a speed of 9 m s1. A police man chases him on a motor cycle

moving at a speed of 10 m s1. If the instantaneous separation

of the jeep from the motorcycle is 100m, how long will it take

for the police man to catch the thief?

(A) 1s

(B) 19s

(C) 90s

(D) 100s

Two cars are moving in the same direction with a speed of 30

km h1. They are separated from each other by 5 km. Third car

moving in the opposite direction meets the two cars after an

interval of 4 minutes. What is the speed of the third car?

(A) 30 km h1

(B) 35 km h1

(C) 40 km h1

(D) 45 km h1

Shown in the figure is the displacement time graph for two

children going home from the school. Which of the following

statements about their relative motion is true?

Their relative velocity:

(A) first increases and then decreases

(B) first decreases and then increases

(C) is zero

(D) is non-zero constant.

A person standing on the escalator takes time t1 to reach the

top of a tower when the escalator is moving. He takes time t2

to reach the top of the tower when the escalator is standing.

How long will he take if he walks up a moving escalator?

(A) t2 t1

(B) t1 + t2

(C) t1 t2 /(t1 t2)

(D) t1 t2/(t1 + t2)

92

6.

7.

8.

9.

Shown in the figure are the velocity time graphs of the two

particles P1 and P2. Which of the following statements about

their relative motion is true?

Their relative velocity:

(A) is zero

(B) is non-zero but constant

(C) continuously decreases

(D) continuously increases

Two particles P1 and P2 are moving with velocities v1 and v2

respectively. Which of the statement about their relative

velocity vr 12 is true?

(A) vr 12> (v1 + v2)

(B) vr 12 cannot be greater than v1 v2

(C) vr 12 cannot be greater than v1 + v2

(D) vr 12< (v1 + v2)

Two identical trains take 3 sec to pass one another when going

in the opposite direction but only 2.5 sec if the speed of one is

increased by 50 %. The time one would take to pass the other

when going in the same direction at theiroriginal speed is:

(A) 10 sec (B) 12 sec

(C) 15 sec

(D) 18 sec

Two billiard balls are rolling on a flat table. One has velocity

components vx = 1m/s, vy =3 m/s and the other has

components vx = 2m/s and vy = 2 m/s. If both the balls start

moving from the same point, the angle between their path is (A) 60

(B) 45

(C) 22.5

(D) 15

93

wide. At what minimum rate should they swim perpendicular

to river flow in order to avoid being washed away by the

waterfall 300 ft downstream? The speed of current is 3 m.p.h.:

(A) 6 m.p.h.

(B) 5 m.p.h.

(C) 4 m.p.h.

(D) 2 m.p.h.

11. A boat, which has a speed of 5 km/hr in still water, crosses a

river of width 1 km along the shortest possible path in 15

minutes. The velocity of the river water in km/hr is (A) 1

(B) 3

(C) 4

(D) 41

12. A bucket is placed in the open where the rain is falling

vertically. If a wind begins to blow at double the velocity of the

rain, how will be rate of filling of the bucket change?

(A) Remain unchanged

(B) Doubled

(C) Halved

(D)Become four times

13. A car with a vertical wind shield moves along in a rain storm at

the speed of 40 km/hr. The rain drops fall vertically with a

terminal speed of 20 m/s. The angle with the vertical at which

the rain drop strike the wind shield is (A) tan1 (5/9)

(B) tan1(9/5)

(C) tan1 (3/2)

(D) tan1(3)

SUBJECTIVE PROBLEMS:

14. Men are running along a road at 15 km/h behind one

another at equal intervals of 20 m. Cyclist are riding in

the same direction at 25 km/h at equal intervals of 30 m.

At what speed an observer travel along the road in

opposite direction so that whenever he meets a runner he

also meets a cyclist?

94

respectively. Train A moves north with a speed of 54 km h1

and train B moves west with a speed of 72 km h1. Assume

that both trains starts from same point. Calculate the

(a) rate of separation of the two trains

(b) relative velocity of ground with respect to B

(c) relative velocity of A with respect to B.

16. A man is swimming in a lake in a direction of 30 East of

North with a speed of 5 km/hr and a cyclist is going on a

road along the lake shore towards East at a speed of 10

km/hr. In what direction and with what speed would the

man appear to swim to the cyclist.

17. A motor boat has 2 throttle position on its engine. The

high speed position propels the boat at 10 km hr -1 in still

water and the low position gives half the higher speed.

The boat travels from its dock downstream on a river

with the throttle at low position and returns to its dock

with throttle at high position. The return trip took 15%

longer time than it did for the downstream trip. Find the

velocity of the water current in the river.

18. (I) A man can swim with a speed of 4 km h1 in still water.

How long does he take to cross a river 1 km wide if the river

flows steadily at 3 km h1 and he makes his strokes normal to

the river current? How far down the river does he go when he

reaches the other bank?

(II) If he keeps himself always at an angle of 120C with the

river flow while swimming.

(a) Find the time he takes to cross the river.

(b) At what point on the opposite bank will he arrive?

95

man on the south bank of the river, capable of swimming at 10

m/min in still water, wants to swim across the river in shortest

distance. In what direction should he swim?

20. An airplane is flying with velocity 502km/hour in north-east

direction. Wind is blowing at 25 km/hr from north to south.

What is the resultant displacement of airplane in 2 hours?

21. When a train has a speed of 10 m s1 eastward, raindrops that

are falling vertically with respect to the earth make traces that

are inclined 30 to the vertical on the windows of the train.

(a) What is the horizontal component of a drop's velocity with

respect to the earth? With respect to the train?

(b) What is the velocity of the raindrop with respect to the

earth? With respect to the train?

22. To a man walking at 7 km/h due west, the wind appears to

blow from the north-west, but when he walks at 3 km/h due

west, the wind appears to blow from the north. What is the

actual direction of the wind and what is its velocity?

23. When a motorist is driving with velocity 6 + , the wind

appears to come from the direction . When he doubles his

velocity the wind appears to come from the direction + .

Then the true velocity of the wind expressed in the form of

+ is ______.

24. 'n' numbers of particles are located at the vertices of a regular

polygon of 'n' sides having the edge length 'a'. They all start

moving simultaneously with equal constant speed 'v' heading

towards each other all the time. How long will the particles

take to collide?

96

The one further north is streaming west at 40 km/hr. The

other is streaming north at 40 km/hr. What is their distance of

closest approach and how long do they take to reach it?

26. A ship is sailing towards north at a speed of2m/s. The current

is taking it towards East at the rate of 1 m/s and a sailor is

climbing a vertical pole on the ship at the rate of 1 m/s. Find

the velocity of the sailor in space.

27. A motorboat is observed to travel 10 km hr1 relative to the

earth in the direction 37 north of east. If the velocity of the

boat due to the wind only is 2 km hr1 westward and that due

to the current only is 4 km hr1 southward, what is the

magnitude and direction of the velocity of the boat due to its

own power?

28. A person P sitting on a wooden block (which does not move

relative to water) in a flowing river sees two swimmers A and

B. A and B both have constant speed vm relative to water. P

observes that A starts from one point of the river bank and

appears to move perpendicular to the river flow. P also

observes that B starts from some point on the other bank at the

same time and moves downstream. The width of the river is 'd'

and it flows with velocity vr. If A and B both reach a point at

the same time, than find the initial separation between A and B.

29. A motorboat going down stream overcome a float at a point

M.60 minutes later it turned back and after some time passed

the float at a distance of 6 km from the point M. Find the

velocity of the stream assuming a constant velocity for the

motorboat in still water.

97

point B on the other bank, lying directly opposite to point A.

One of them crosses the river along the straight line AB, while

the other swims at right angles to the stream and then walks

the distance which he has been carried away by the stream to

get to point B. What was the velocity (assumed uniform) of his

walking if both the swimmers reached point B simultaneously?

Velocity of each swimmer in still water is 2.5 km hr-1 and the

stream velocity is 2 km hr-1.

maintains an air speed of 240 km. hr1. After flying for hr, he

finds himself over a town that is 150 km west and 40 km south

of his starting point.

(a) Find the wind velocity, in magnitude and direction.

(b) If the wind velocity were 120 km. hr1 due south, in what

direction should the pilot set his course in order to travel

due west? Take the same air speed of 240 km. hr1.

32. Two straight AOB and COD meet each other right angles. A

person walking at a speed of 5 km/hr along AOB is at the

crossing O at noon. Another person walking at the same speed

along COD reaches the crossing O at 1:30 PM. Find at what time

the distance between them is least and what is its value?

*****

98

KEY

SESSION 1 & 2

CLASS EXERCISE

1. c

2.d

3. b

4.a

5. Ans: 33m

SESSION 3, 4 & 5

CLASS EXERCISE (A)

1. b

2. b

3.a

8.d

9.b

10.a

4.c

5.b

6.c

7.b

SESSION 6

CLASS EXERCISE

1. a

2.

3.Ans: i)

5.

6. Ans:

(V0) 3/2

ii)

4.d

SESSION 7, 8 & 9

CLASS EXERCISE

1. c

2.d

3.b

4.a

SESSION 10, 11 & 12

1.c

2.c

3.b

8.c

CLASS EXERCISE (B)

1.a

2.b

3.d

4.b

5.

6.b

7.c

4.c

5.d

6.d

7.c

99

2.a

3.Ans: i) zero

5.d

1.a

2.d

3.c

4.c

5.c

6.d

1.b

2. c

3.b

4.d

5.a

7.a

8.b

4.c

6.

9.Ans: 2

CLASS EXERCISE (A)

1.c

2.

3.a

8.c

9.b

10.b

CLASS EXERCISE (B)

1.b,c

2.d

3.b

10.b

11.b

CLASS EXERCISE (C)

1.d

2.c

3.b

8.c

9.c

10.b

4.a

11.c

5.c

12.c

6.d

7.d

5.b

6.d

7.b

9.a

4.c

11.d

5.a

12.c

6.b

13.b

7.c

100

SESSION 16

CLASS EXERCISE

1.d

2.Ans: i) 900

(

)

3.Ans:

OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS

1. C

2. D

3. D

8. C

9. D

10. B

4. D

11. B

5.D

12. A

6. D

13.A

7. C

SUBJECTIVE PROBLEMS

14. 5 km/h

15. (a) 25 m/s or 90 km/hr

(b) 20 m/s or 72 km/hr due east

(c) 25 m/s or 90 km/hr at 37N of E

16. 30 N of W at 53 km/hr. 17.3 km/hr.

18. (I) 0.75 km

(II) (a)

h

(b)

km.

20. 505 km

21. (a) 0, 10 m/s West

(b) 103 m/s, 20 m/s

22. Coming from 5 km/hr, 53 N of E

23. (4 + 8 )

25.

24.

, hr

101

and 60 with the vertical

27. 102km/hr, 45 N of E 28. 2d

29.3 km/hr

30. 3 km/hr towards B

31. (a) 100 km/hr, 37 W of S (b) 30 N of W

32. 12: 45 PM

EXERCISE # 2

1. a > 10 m/s2 2.3.6 minute

2. (b) 2 m/s

3. (a)

= 45 ;

*****

102

- free falling objectЗагружено:ume akbar
- Pre Rmo Sample QuestionsЗагружено:Abhishek Gupta
- doc (3)Загружено:Emad
- Rockets Projectile LabЗагружено:syed.imam
- Chapter 2Загружено:the_truth_94
- Dynamics Chapter 2. Kinetics of Particles ENGG1010 2014 2015Загружено:Anee Waelli
- 02 Accelerated Motion 02Загружено:Shah Saqib
- unit 1 quizzes 1 - 6Загружено:quizzuploadder
- Physic NotessssssЗагружено:Nor Hafizah
- Projectile MotionЗагружено:Angelo Sayson
- 05 - Projectile Motion.pptxЗагружено:Keith Smith
- 4 - ProjectileЗагружено:superultimateamazing
- solucionario de serwayЗагружено:Alejandra GS
- Physics Lect (5)Загружено:Janine Paliza
- Tugas Teknik PemrogramanЗагружено:benny pradana
- 1271334503_2010_Physics_NotesЗагружено:Kyle Alderman
- motion 1Загружено:KunalKumarSingh
- Physics WorkЗагружено:Tamoor Ali
- cpete0400.pdfЗагружено:amilcarsoares
- Ch2EWЗагружено:sarrrsvathy
- Linear Angular RelationshipsЗагружено:Clarence Pietersz
- PHYS1171_S1_2013_L8Загружено:Galex Yeve
- simple weatЗагружено:JustineEstrada
- 02-kinematics.pdfЗагружено:Himanshu Gupta
- FisDas1 Kinematika1d bЗагружено:Den Viruz
- 05 Atwoods MachineЗагружено:BamPanggat
- Wang 2018Загружено:H J
- test 2Загружено:Kishor Thapa
- MIT16_07F09_Lec02.pdfЗагружено:Christian Cabrera Campoverde
- lec17_3.pdfЗагружено:Dharmendra Jain

- Question Bank - Permutation and Combination - IIT JEE - Toppr2Загружено:AshutoshYelgulwar
- Fitjee solution to jee AdvancedЗагружено:Prashant Sharma
- Keep 208Загружено:AshutoshYelgulwar
- Keep 207Загружено:Akhilesh Kumar Mishra
- Dean Bstat Bmath 2014Загружено:AshutoshYelgulwar
- The d and f block elements NCERTЗагружено:Yash Sharma
- 7Загружено:AshutoshYelgulwar
- Question Bank - Permutation and Combination - IIT JEE - Toppr1Загружено:AshutoshYelgulwar
- GravitationЗагружено:AshutoshYelgulwar
- CollisionЗагружено:AshutoshYelgulwar
- properties_of_matter.pdfЗагружено:AshutoshYelgulwar
- electrostatics.pdfЗагружено:AshutoshYelgulwar
- CapacitorsЗагружено:AshutoshYelgulwar
- Chapter-wise Study Planner JEE.pdfЗагружено:Abir Das
- Exercise (ALL)Загружено:AshutoshYelgulwar
- board paperЗагружено:AshutoshYelgulwar
- Rao IIT AcademyЗагружено:AshutoshYelgulwar
- Solved Examples of Work Energy PowerЗагружено:AshutoshYelgulwar
- Objective ChemistryЗагружено:AshutoshYelgulwar

- Calc13.5Загружено:Jeoff Libo-on
- Goldman R., Curvature formulas for implicit curves and surfaces.pdfЗагружено:mehr1384
- 9-Richtmyer_principles of Advanced Mathematical Physics IIЗагружено:aleber1962
- Fundamentals of College Geometry 2nd Ed. - E. M. HemmerlingЗагружено:Petro Cnel
- Sap 2000Загружено:arif khan
- Art VocabularyЗагружено:Seth Schreiber
- Lesson PlanЗагружено:sai10111989
- SOLUTION OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF HYPERGEOMETRIC TYPEЗагружено:84105851
- IgaЗагружено:Heri
- Lines Plan Overview.Загружено:aizadhafiz
- 13 Inverse Trig Functions.pptЗагружено:Rob
- Casey Robert Hume- Generalized Quadrilateral Circle PatternsЗагружено:GremnDL
- Board Exam CoverageЗагружено:Joshua Hernandez
- Basic Highway Math ManualЗагружено:dpx
- Loci ExercisesЗагружено:littlegus
- Perspective Drawing EguideЗагружено:moniquelim
- Ejer Cici OsЗагружено:David Molano
- Principle StressЗагружено:preciouspearl99
- Linear VectorЗагружено:Nirajan Pandey
- 50 Fill-in Math Word Problems - Gr 2-3.pdfЗагружено:Abdou Ramzi
- Khovanov Homology - Osama GhaniЗагружено:Osama Ghani
- An example of Jordan basisЗагружено:bebs_988
- UntitledЗагружено:wildmentor_boy
- Tensor Cathegories NotesЗагружено:ritzo
- A SYNOPSIS ELEMENTAIIY RESULTS PURE MATHEMATICSЗагружено:SubashVenkataram
- I Maths EMЗагружено:Jeba Malar
- (Algebra and Applications 13) Cédric Bonnafé (Auth.)-Representations of SL2(Fq)-Springer-Verlag London (2011)Загружено:Daniél Cárdenas
- A Text-book of Geodetic Astronomy 1898Загружено:Ocean
- Common MisconceptionsЗагружено:farhaliza
- Basic Trigonometric Functions.docxЗагружено:shaankk

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.