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# KINEMATICS

SESSION 1& 2
AIM
Basic definitions and their explanations
BASIC DEFINITIONS AND THEIR EXPLANATIONS
Distance: The actual path length of the particle from initial to final
positions of journey.
Symbol: S SI unit: m The distance travelled by the particle is
independent of direction of motion and it is scalar quantity.
Displacement: The shortest distance between initial and final
positions of journey.
Displacement is a vector quantity and its magnitude is the shortest
distance between the initial and final positions of journey.
Displacement and distance can be evaluated not only between
initial and final positions but also between any two points of
journey.
Consider A and B are two positions of particle in its journey.
y

=
=
=

## Final position vector

Initial position vector
Displacement vector
Hence displacement is final position vector minus initial position
vector. Displacement can have zero magnitude, but distance
travelled can never be zero.
If r =a1 +b1 +c1 and r = a2 +b2 +c2 then r = r r =
(a2 +b2 +c2 ) (a1 +b1 +c1 )
= (a2a1) + (b2b1) + (c2c1)
Speed: The distance travelled per unit time
Symbol: v SI unit: ms-1
Speed is the scalar quantity
Velocity: The displacement of the particle per unit time.
Symbol: v: SI unit: ms-1
Velocity is a vector quantity; its direction is same as that of
displacement.
Let us consider an example to discuss their concepts:
2

B
3

## Let a particle move from point A to point B as shown:

Along path 1, distance travelled is 100m, time taken is 10s
Along path 2, distance is 200m, time taken is 15s
Along path 3, distance travelled is 150m, time taken is 12s

Velocity = =

ms1 = 10ms1;

## (displacement is same distance along path 1)

Along path 2: displacement = 100 m; time = 15 s speed =

ms1;
Velocity = =

ms1 (from A to B)

## Along path 3: displacement = 100 m; distance = 150m; time = 12s

Speed =
= ms1; velocity =
= ms1 (from A to B)
Note: The direction of displacement and velocity is same for all the
three paths i.e. imagine a vector drawn from A to B. The direction of
vector gives the direction of displacement and velocity.
Average Speed: - When any object travels with non-uniform speeds
during different time intervals or travelling different segments of
path, the ratio of total distance covered to the total time taken is
called 'Average Speed'.
e.g. Average Speed= (

## If an object travels with speeds v1, v2, v3........vN, during time

intervals t1, t2, t3 ...tN, travelling for distances s1, s2, s3..........sN, its
average speed can be discussed in following three ways.
When Distances & Speeds are When Distances & Time intervals are
When Speeds & Mentioned Time intervals are mentioned

Average Speed ( ) =
.

.
.

Average Speed ( ) =

Average Speed ( ) =

## If s1 = s2 = s3........ =sN= then

Average Speed ( ) =

If t1 = t2 = t3...........tn= then
Average Speed ( ) =

## i.e. Harmonic Mean of Velocities i.e. Arithmetic Mean of Velocities

These are Basic independent cases. In practice you may have
combination of two or more.
Average velocity: It is defined as the ratio of displacement to time
taken by the body
Average Speed ( ) =

Instantaneous velocity:
The term instantaneous is used to explain an event happening in a
very smallinterval of time. Usually instantaneous time is denoted as
dt. The numerical value of dt is nota definite constant, but we
can say that it less than one and close to zero i.e. about 0.01s or
0.001s. (Let us not assign a fixed value for it. Its depends on the
context of explanation).
Let us consider a situation of a particle moving along a straight line
from A to B. At a time t = 0 (usually called initial time) the particle is
at A and at a time t = 10s. Let AB = 100m. As the particle crosses the
point C, can we guess time taken to cross this point. The answer is
simple. Impossible. If we consider two nearest points, one point D
just before reaching C and another point E just after crossing C. The

## time interval from D to E is taken as instantaneous time i.e. dt. The

displacement/ distance between D and E are denoted as / i.e.
is called infinitesimal (very small) displacement ( ) DE is
called infinitesimal distance (ds)
Instantaneous speed: It is the infinitesimal distance travelled per
infinitesimal time.
Vinst =
Instantaneous velocity: It is the ratio of infinitesimal displacement
to infinitesimal time.
in st =

## Note: Always it is assumed that the particle is along a straight line

path in this infinitesimal time.
Uniform speed: Speed of the particle is said to be uniform, if it
covers equal distances in equal intervals of time taken, however
small the intervals are.
i.e. VAB = VAc = VCB = VDE
Non-uniform Speed: Speed of the particle is said to be non-uniform,
if it covers unequal distances in equal intervals of time, however
small the intervals are.
Non-uniform velocity: Velocity of the particle is said to be nonuniform, if it travels unequal displacements in equal intervals of
time, however small the intervals are.
Uniform speed is possible for any path of particle i.e. straight line,
curved paths. Uniform velocity is possible only for a straight line
path, because velocity is a vector quantity i.e. for velocity to be
constant, the direction of velocity should be same.
5

CLASS EXERCISE :
1] A circular park has a radius of 1 km. A man standing from the
center of park, walking towards East and going along the
circumference of the park reaches the North gate. What is his
displacement?
2]

a)2 km
b) 1.57 km c) 1 km
d) 2.57 km
If a cyclist takes one minute to complete half revolution on a
circular path 120m radius, what is the average velocity?
a) 1 m/s

3]

4]

5]

b) 2 m/s
c) 3 m/s
d) 4 m/s
A car covers the 1st half of the distance between two places at
a speed of 40 km/hr and the second half at 60 km/hr. The
average speed of the car is
a) 100 km/hr
b) 48 km/hr
c) 50 km/hr
d) 25 km/hr
An aeroplane moves 400m towards north, 300m towards west
and then 1200m vertically upwards. Then its displacement
from the initial position is
a) 1300m
b) 1400m
c) 1500m
d) 1600m
An ant starts from one corner of a cube of side length 3m and
reaches the diagonally opposite corner. The displacement is

SESSION-3, 4 & 5
AIM
Definition of acceleration, explanation of equations of motion.
Definition of acceleration, explanation of equations of motion.
Acceleration: The rate of change of velocity is acceleration.
The direction of acceleration is the direction of change in velocity
There is misconception that direction of acceleration is either along
the direction of motion or opposite to direction of motion. It need
not be parallel to direction of motion.
=
; 1 and 2 need not be in the same direction 2 1need
not be either in the direction of 1 or 2.
For a particle moving along a straight line, direction of acceleration
is either in the direction of motion (in case of increasing velocity) or
in the opposite to direction of motion (in case of decreasing
velocity)
Uniform acceleration: The body is said possess uniform
acceleration if it executes equal change in velocity in equal intervals
of time, however small the intervals are.
There are two possible paths for this type of motion (i) straight line
(ii) parabolic
Non-uniform acceleration: The body is said to possess nonuniform acceleration, if it executes unequal change in velocity in
equal intervals of time, however small the intervals are.

## Average Acceleration: - If Velocity of an object changes from to

during an interval of t=t1 to t=tz, the Average Acceleration is given
as
Average=< >=

Instantaneous = = lim

You know that the definitions might be boring but simple but
applications are always interesting. Therefore, let's come to
application
For Motion in One Dimension you have already learnt Equations of
Motion in One Dimension
v=u+at s = ut + at2 vz = uz + 2as
We can not only establish same set of equation without graphs but
we can derive any result if we use Calculus Technique.
Calculus Techniques:- The Equations of Motion in One Dimension
consider constant acceleration.
i.e. = constant t Therefore by definition For 2nd Equation we can
use =
d = dt = . [ ] = [ ]
= = ( 0) = +
Therefore you got your 1st Equation = + t or v = u + at because
for Motion in One Dimension only +ve & -ve sign are more than
sufficient to rep represent direction. "+ve" means away from Origin
i.e. towards Right or Upwards and "-ve" means towards the Origin
i.e. towards left or Downwards. = + t Sufficient for any type of
motion with Constant Acceleration.

## For 2nd Equation use =

d =

= ( + ).

[ ] = . +

.
= . + .

Where = (Displacement)

## Therefore you got your 1st Equation = + = v = u + at because

for Motion in One Dimension only "+ve" &" -ve "sign are more than
sufficient to represent direction. +ve" means away from Origin i.e.
towards Right or Upwards and "-ve" means towards the Origin i.e.
towards left or Downwards.
NOTE: = + is sufficient for any type of motion with Constant
Acceleration.
For 2nd Equation use =
d = .

= (+ )

[ ] = . + .
= . + .

Where = (Displacement)

## Therefore you got your 2nd Equation. = . + .

or s = u.t. +
a.t2 because for Motion in One Dimension only "+ve" &-ve" sign
are more than sufficient to represent direction. "+ve" means away
from Origin i.e. towards Right or Upwards and "- ve" means
towards the Origin i.e. towards left or Downwards.
Note: = . + .
Constant Accelection.

definition =
Therefore =

= =

= .

. .d

= . [ ]

## =2. ( ) Where = (Displacement)

Therefore you got your 3rd Equation. =
+ 2. . or
=
+ 2. . because for Motion in One Dimension only "+ve" &
"-ve" sign are more than sufficient to represent direction. "+ve"
means away from Origin i.e. towards Right or Upwards and " - ve"
means towards the Origin i.e. towards left or Downwards.
NOTE: =
+ 2. . is sufficient for any type of motion with
Constant Acceleration.
Instantaneous Acceleration: Instantaneous Acceleration is the
Acceleration of the object at a particular instant. Here we get to use
Calculus once more.
Sn = u + (2n - 1); Sn is displacement of the particle in the n-th
second
The term n-th second is to be understood with clarity. This instant
with duration of 1 second.
The instant with duration of t seconds can have duration less than
or greater than or equal to one second. But the n-th second always
has the interval one second.
The last equation should not be used to calculate displacement if
the interval of time not equal to 1 second.

10

Example:
(i) A car travels for six seconds. The last second of travel is 6th
second. (Interval of last second is one second)
(ii) A vertical travel for 6.1 seconds. The last second of travel has an
interval of one second. i.e. from 5.1 s to 6.1 s
(iii) A cyclist travels for 0.95 seconds. There is no last second,
because the travel time is less
than one second.
To calculate displacement from t1 to t2 seconds, use
s = ut + at2 i.e. s1 = ut1 + a and s2 = ut2+ a (s2-s1)
= u (t2 -t1) + a ( -

## To calculate displacement from 5.1s to 6.1s, also use s = ut + at2

along with Sn = u + (2n -1)
To calculate displacement from 5s to 6s.
Use Sn = u + (2n -1) with n= 6
For a body moving with uniform acceleration, average velocity is
given by
and by definition, average velocity =

11

EXERCISE (A)
1]

2]

3]

4]

5]

## Moving with uniform acceleration, a body covers 150m during

10sec so that it covers 24 m during the tenth second. Find the
initial velocity and acceleration of the body
a) 2 ms1; 5 ms2
b) 5ms1; 2 ms2
c) 3 ms1; 4 ms2
d) 4ms1;3ms2
A body moving with uniform acceleration covers 100m in the
first 10 seconds and 150m in the next 10 seconds. The initial
velocity of the body is
a) 15 ms1 b) 7.5 ms1 c) 5 ms1
d) 2.5 ms1
A particle moving with a constant acceleration describes in the
last second of its motion th of the whole distance. If it starts
from rest, how long is the particle in motion
a) 5s
b) 10s
c) 15s
d) none
A body starts with initial velocity u and moves with uniform
acceleration f. If when the velocity has increased to 5u, the
acceleration is reversed in direction, the magnitude remaining
constant; it turns to the starting point with velocity of
a) u
b) 6u
c) 7u
d) 9u
A body moving with uniform acceleration travels a distance
Sn = (0.4n + 9.8) m in nth sec. Find the initial velocity of the
body in ms1
a) 0.4
b) 10

c) 5

d) 4

12

6]

7]

8]

## The displacement of particle is zero at t = 0 and it is x at t = t. It

starts moving in the positive x direction with a velocity which
varies as V = K, where K is constant. The relation between V
and t is
a) Kt/2
b) Kt3/2
c) K2t/2
d) 2Kt2
A particle starts from rest with constant acceleration for 20sec.
If it travels a distance y1 in the first 10 sec and a distance y2 in
the next 10 sec then
a) y2 =2y1
b) y2 =3y1
c) y2 =4y1
d) y2 =5y1
The ends of a moving train with a constant acceleration pass a
certain point with velocities u and v. What is the velocity V
with which the midpoint of the train passes through the same
point?
a) v =
b) v = +
c) v =

d) V =

## The velocity of a body at an instant is 20 ms1. After 5s the

velocity is 30 ms1. How many seconds earlier from the
instant, it might have started? Assume acceleration is uniform
a) 8sec
b) 10sec
c) 6sec
d) 7sec
10] The engine of a train moving with uniform acceleration passes
an electric pole with a velocity u and the last compartment
with a velocity V, the length of train that has passed the pole
when the velocity is
, if the total length of the train is l
9]

a)

(
(

)
)

b)

c)

d)

13

SESSION - 6
AIM
Motion with Variable Acceleration
Motion with Variable Acceleration
(i) If acceleration is a function of time then a = f (t) then v = u
+ ( ) and s = ut +( ( ) )
(ii) If acceleration is a function of distance a = f(x) then
v2=u2+2 ( )
(iii) If acceleration is a function of velocity a = f (v) then t =
and x = x0 +

( )

( )

ILLUSTRATION:
Problem1. An electron starting from rest has a velocity that
increases linearly with the time that is v = kt where k = 2
m/sec2. The distance travelled in the first 3 seconds will be
a) 9 m
b) 16 m
c) 27 m
d) 36 m
Sol: (a) x =

= 2

=2

= 9m

14

## Problem2.The acceleration of a particle is increasing linearly with

time t as bt. The particle starts from the origin with an initial
velocity The distance travelled by the particle in time t will be
a) V0t + bt2 b) V0t + bt3 c) V0t + bt3 d) V0t + bt2
Sol: (c)

= ( )

v2 v1=

S=

## Problem3. The motion of a particle is described by the equation u =

at. The distance travelled by the particle in the first 4 seconds
a) 4
b)12
c)6
d) 8
Sol: d) u = at =at
S=

=a

=8a

## Problem4. A body A moves with a uniform acceleration and zero

initial velocity. Another body B starts from the same point
moves in the same direction with a constant velocity v. The two
bodies meet after a time t. The value of t is
a)

b)

c)

d)

Sol: (a) Let they meet after timet. Distance covered by body A
Distance covered by body B= vt and
=
=

15

## Problem5. A student is standing at a distance of 50metres from the

bus. As soon as the bus starts its motion with an acceleration of
1ms-2, the student starts running towards the bus with a
uniform velocity Assuming the motion to be along a straight
road, the minimum value of , so that the students is able to
catch the bus is
a) 5 ms-1
b)8 ms-1
c) 10 ms-1 d)12 ms-1
Sol: (c) Let student will catch the bus after sec. So it will cover
distance ut. Similarly distance travelled by the bus will be
for the given condition ut = 50 +
(As a = 1 m/s2)

=50 +

## Problem6. A particle is moving eastwards with velocity of 5 m/s. In

10 sec the velocity changes to 5 m/s northwards. The average
acceleration in this time is
a) Zero
b) toward north-west
c) m/s2toward north-east

## d) m/s2 toward north-west

Sol: b) =
=

90 =

5 + 5 = 52

v1

2 5m / s
90o

1 5 m / s

16

= 52 Average acceleration =

/ toward north-

## west (As clear from the figure).

Problem7. A body starts from the origin and moves along the xaxis such that velocity at any instant is given by where t is in
second and velocity is in m/s. What is the acceleration of the
particle, when it is 2m from the origin?
a) 28 m/s2 b) 22 m/s2 c) 12 m/s2
d) 10 m/s2
Sol: (b) Given that = 4 2
x=
at x = t4-t2+c at t =0, x=0 C=0
When particle is 2m away from the origin
2= t4t2 t4t22=0 (t22) (t2+1) = C t=2 sec
a=

(4

2 ) = 12

= 12

2for

## t = 2 sec a = 12(2)22 =22 m/s2

Problem 8. A body of mass 10 kg is moving with a constant velocity
of 10 m/s. When a constant force acts for 4 sec on it, it moves
with a velocity 2 m/sec in the opposite direction. The
acceleration produced in it is
a) 3 m/s2
b) 3 m/s2 c) 0.3 m/s2 d) 0.3 m/s2
Sol: (b) Let particle moves towards east and by the application of
constant force it moves towards west
= +10 /
dx
and
= 2 / Acceleration
=

(2) (10)
12
=
= 3 /
4
4

17

## Problem9. A car, moving with a speed of 50 km/hr, can be stopped

by brakes after at least 6m. If the same car is moving at a speed
of 100 km/hr, the minimum stopping distance is
a) 6m
b) 12m
c) 18m
d) 24m
Sol (d): v2 = u2 - 2as s = s u2 (As a = constant)
=

s2 = 4s1 = 4 x 12 = 24m

## Problem10. The velocity of a bullet is reduced from 200m/s to

100m/s while travelling through a wooden block of thickness
10cm. The retardation, assuming it to be uniform, will be
a) 10 x 104 m/s2
b) 12 x 104 m/s2
c) 13.5 x 104 m/s2
d) 15 x 104 m/s2
Sol: (d) u = 200 m/s, v = 100 m/s, s = 0.1 m;
(
) (
)
a=
=
= 15 x 104 m/s2
.

## Problem 11.A body A starts from rest with an acceleration. After 2

seconds, another body B starts from rest with an acceleration.
If they travel equal distances in the 5th second, after the start
of A, then the ratio is equal to
a) 5 : 9
b) 5 : 7
c) 9 : 5
d)9 : 7
Sol: (a) By using Sn = u+ (2n -1), Distance travelled by body A in
5th second= 0 +

(2 x 5 -1)

## Distance travelled by body B in 3rd second is = 0+

According to problem: 0+ (251) = 0+
5a2

(231)

(231) 9 a1 =

18

## Problem12. The average velocity of a body moving with uniform

acceleration travelling a distance of 3.06 m is 0.34 ms-1. If the
change in velocity of the body is 0.18ms-1 during this time, its
uniform acceleration is
a) 0.01 ms-2 b) 0.02 ms-2 c) 0.03 ms-2 d) 0.04 ms-2
.
Sol: (b) Time =
=
=9sec

.
and Acceleration =

=0.02 m/s2.

## Problem13. A particle travels 10m in first 5 sec and 10m in next 3

sec. Assuming constant acceleration what is the distance
travelled in next 2 sec
a) 8.3 m
b) 9.3 m
c) 10.3 m
d) None of above
Sol: a) Let initial (t = 0) velocity of particle = u for first 5sec of
motion s5 = 10 metre, so by using s= ut + at2
10 = 5u + a (5)2 2u + 5a = 4
for first 8 sec of motion s8 = 20 metre
20 = 8u + a (8)2 2u + 8a = 5

......... (i)
........ (ii)

## By solving (i) and (ii) u = m/s a = m/s2

Now distance travelled by particle in total 10 sec.
s10 = u10+ a(10)2
by substituting the value of u and a we will get s10 = 28.3 m
So the distance in last 2 sec = s10 - s8 = 28.3 - 20 = 8.3 m

19

## Problem14. A body travels for 15 sec starting from rest with

constant acceleration. If it travels distances S1, S2 and S3 in the
first five seconds, second five seconds and next five seconds
respectively the relation between S1, S2 and S3 is
a) S1 = S2 = S3
b) 5S1 = 3S2 = S3
c) S1 = S2 =
d) S1 = S2 = S3
Sol: (c) Since the body starts from rest. Therefore u = 0
S1 = a(5)2 =
S1 + S2 = a (10)2 =

S2 =

-S1 = 75

S1 + S2 + S3 = a (15)2 =
S3 =
-S2 - S1 =
Thus Clearly S1 = S2 = S3
Problem15. If a body having initial velocity zero is moving with
uniform acceleration the distance travelled by it in fifth second
will be
a) 36 metres b) 40 metres c) 100 metres d) Zero
Sol: (a) sn= u + a (2n - 1) = 0 + (8) [2 x 5 - 1] = 36 metres
Problem16. The engine of car produces acceleration 4m/sec2 in
the car, if this car pulls another car of same mass, what will be
the acceleration produced
a) 8 m/s2
b) 2 m/s2
c) 4 m/s2
d) m/s2
Sol: (b) F = ma a if F = constant. Since the force is same and the
effective mass of system becomes double

a2=

=2m/s2

20

## Problem17. A body starts from rest. What is the ratio of the

distance travelled by the body during the 4th and 3rd second?
a) 7/5
b) 5/7
c)7/3
d)3/7
Sol: (a) As Sn (2 1), =
CLASS EXERCISE :
1] If the relation between distance x and time t is of the from t =
x2+ x here and being appropriate constants, then the
retardation of the particle is
a) 2 v3
b) 2 v3
c) 2 v3
d)2 2v3
2] A particle moves along a straight line according to the law
= + 2 + . . The acceleration of the particle varies as
a) S3
b) S2/3
c) S3
d) S5/2
3] A point moves rectilinearly with deceleration whose modulus
depends on the velocity v of the particle as = , where k is
a positive constant. At the initial moment the velocity of the
point is equal to v0. What distance will it traverse before it
stops? What time will it take to cover that distance?
4] If the displacement of the particle varies with time as
x1/2=t+7, then
a) velocity of the particle is inversely proportional to t
b) velocity of the particle is proportional to t
c) velocity of the particle is inversely proportional t1/2.
d) the particle moves with a constant acceleration.
5] A point moves in a straight line under the retardation kv2. If
the initial velocity is u, the distance covered in t second is
a) kut
b) log (k ut)
c) log(1+ kut)

d) k log (k ut)

21

6]

7]

## A particle of mass 102 kg is moving along the positive x-axis

under the influence of a force F(x) = (k/2x2) where
k = 102 Nm2. At time t = 0 it is at x = 1 m and its velocity v = 0.
(i) Find its velocity when it reaches x = 0.5 m
A particle moving in a straight line has an acceleration of
(3t - 4) ms-2 at timet seconds. The particle is initially 1m from
O, a fixed point on the line, with a velocity of 2 ms-1. Find the
times when the velocity is zero. Find also the displacement of
the particle from O whent = 3.

22

SESSION 7, 8 & 9
AIM
Graphical Representation of motion
Motion of Body under Gravity (Free Fall).
The force of attraction of earth on bodies is called force of gravity.
Acceleration produced in the body by the force of gravity, is called
acceleration due to gravity. It is represented by the symbol g.
In the absence of air resistance, it is found that all bodies
(irrespective of the size, weight or composition) fall with the same
acceleration near the surface of the earth. This motion of a body
falling towards the earth from a small altitude (h << R) is called free
fall.
An ideal one-dimensional motion under gravity in which air
resistance and the small changes in acceleration with height are
neglected.
(1) If a body dropped from some height (initial velocity zero)
(i) Equation of motion: Taking initial position as origin and
direction of motion (i.e., downward direction) as a
positive, here we have
u=0
2h

v
g

2 gh

2g

23

u=0
a = +g

## [As body starts from rest]

[As acceleration is in the direction of motion]
v=gt
(i)
h=
.... (ii)
=2gh
.... (iii)
hn= (2n+1) .... (iv)
(ii) Graph of distance velocity and acceleration with respect to
time:
s

a
g
tan = g

## (iii) As h = (1/2)gt2, i.e., h t2, distance covered in time t, 2t,

3t, etc., will be in the ratio of 12 : 22 : 32, i.e., square of
integers.
(iv) The distance covered in the nth sec, hn = (2 1)So
distance covered in I, II, III sec, etc., will be in the ratio of
1: 3: 5, i.e., odd integers only.
(2) If a body is projected vertically downward with some initial
velocity
Equation of motion: h = ut + gt2
= u2+2gh
hn= u+ (2n 1)
(3) If a body is projected vertically upward
(i) Equation of motion: Taking initial position as origin and
direction of motion (i.e., vertically up) as positive
a =g [As acceleration is downwards while motion upwards]
24

## So, if the body is projected with velocity u and after time t it

reaches up to height h then
v=0

2h

u
g

u
u

2 gh

2g

h = ut gt2

= u22gh

hn= u (2n 1)

## (ii) For maximum height v = 0 So from above equation

u = gt, h = gt2 and
=2
(iii) Graph of distance, velocity and acceleration with respect to
time (for maximum height) :
s

(u2/2g)

v
+

O
(u/g)

(u/g)

(2u/g)

## It is clear that both quantities do not depend upon the mass of

the body or we can say that in absence of air resistance, all
bodies fall on the surface of the earth with the same rate.
(4) In case of motion under gravity for a given body, mass,
acceleration, and mechanical energy remain constant while
speed, velocity, momentum, kinetic energy and potential
energy change.
25

## (5) The motion is independent of the mass of the body, as in any

equation of motion, mass is not involved. That is why a heavy
and light body when released from the same height, reach the
ground simultaneously and with same velocity i.e., t =
(2/ )and v = 2
(6) In case of motion under gravity time taken to go up is equal to
the time taken to fall down through the same distance. Time of
descent (t1) = time of ascent (t2) = u/g
Total time of flight T = t1 + t2 =
(7) In case of motion under gravity, the speed with which a body is
projected up is equal to the speed with which it comes back to
the point of projection. As well as the magnitude of velocity at
any point on the path is same whether the body is moving in
upwards or downward direction.
(8) A ball is dropped from a building of height h and it reaches
after t seconds on earth. From the same building if two ball are
thrown (one upwards and other downwards) with the same
velocity u and they reach the earth surface after t1 and t2
seconds respectively then

t1

t2

u=0

t=
26

## (9) A body is thrown vertically upwards. If air resistance is to be

taken into account, then the time of ascent is less than the time
of descent. t2> t1
Let u is the initial velocity of body then time of ascent =
and h =

## retardation by air resistance and for upward motion both will

work vertically downward.
For downward motion a and g will work in opposite direction
because a always work in direction opposite to motion and g
always work vertically downward.
So h = (g-a)

= ( )

t2=

)(

## Comparing t1 and t2 we can say that t2> t1 since

(g + a) > (g - a)
(10) A particle is dropped vertically from rest from a height. The
time taken by it to fall through successive distance of 1m each
will then be in the ratio of the difference in the square roots of
the integers i.e.
u=0
1m

t1 1

1m

t2 2 1

1m

t3 3 2

1m

t4 4 3

1,(21),(11).(4 3),.
27

CLASS EXERCISE :
1]

## The variation of velocity with time of a particle moving along a

straight line is illustrated in the following figure. The distance
traveled by the particle in 4sec. is
m/s

30
A

20

B
C
D

10
1

3]

E
4

a) 60m
b) 45m
c) 55m
d) 50m
In the given v-t graph, the distance travelled by the body in 5
second will be

a) 20 m
b) 40 m
c) 80 m
d) 100 m
For the displacement- time graph shown in fig. the ratio of the
magnitudes of the speeds during the first two second and the
next four second is
displacement

2]

a) 1: 1

b) 2 : 1

20m

0s

2s
Time

6s

c) 1 : 2

d) 3 : 2

28

## The velocity- time graph of a particle moving along a straight

line is shown in fig. The displacement of the body in 5 second is
2

1.5 1
V (m /s -1 )

4]

1.5

a) 2.5m

b) 1m

0
1
1

4 5
t(ins)

c) 2m

d) 3m

29

## SESSION 10, 11 & 12

AIM
Motion of a body under gravity
Projectile -Motion in Two Dimensions
Motion in a plane is called as motion in two dimensions e.g.,
projectile motion, circular motion etc. For the analysis of such
motion our reference will be made of an origin and two co-ordinate
axes x and y. Position of particle is known by knowing its coordinate (x, y). Velocity of particle will be resultant of velocities in x
and y direction Vx and Vy. Similarly acceleration will be in the two
directions. For analysis of such motion we analyses the motion
along two axes independently i.e., while dealing motion in xdirection we need not to think what is going on in y-direction and
vice versa.
We have to study about projectile motion, circular motion and
relative velocity under the head of motion in two dimensions.
Projectile Motion
A projectile is a particle, which is given an initial velocity, and then
moves under the action of its weight alone. If the initial velocity is
vertical, the particle moves in a straight line and such motion we
gravity. Here we are going to discuss the motion of particle which
is projected obliquely near the earths surface. While discussing
such motion we shall suppose the motion to be within such a
moderate distance from the earths surface, that acceleration due to
gravity may be considered to remain sensibly constant. We shall
30

## also neglect the resistance of air and consider the motion to be in

vacuum.
Important Terms used in projectile motion
When a particle is projected into air, the angle that the direction of
projection makes with horizontal plane through the point of
projection is called the angle of projection; the path, which the
particle describes, is called the trajectory, the distance between the
point of projection and the point where the path meets any plane
draws through the point of projection is its range; the time that
elapses in air is called as time of flight and the maximum distance
above the plane during its motion is called as maximum height
attained by the projectile.
Analytical treatment of projectile motion
Consider a particle projected with a velocity u of an angle with the
horizontal from earths surface. If the earth did not attract a particle
to itself, the particle would describe a straight line; on account of
attraction of earth, however, the particle describes a curved path.
This curve will be proved later to be always a parabola.
Let us take origin at the point of projection and x-axis and y-axis
along the surface of earth and perpendicular to it respectively as
shown in figure.
y

O x

## By the principle of physical independence of forces, the weight of

the body only has effect on the motion in vertical direction. It,
31

## therefore, has no effect on the velocity of the body in the horizontal

direction, and horizontal velocity therefore remains unaltered.
Motion in x- direction:
Motion in x - direction is motion with uniform velocity.
At t = 0, x0 = 0 and ux = u cos
Position after time t, x = x0 + uxt
x = (u cos ) t
Velocity of any time t, vx = ux
vx= u cos
Motion in y-direction:
Motion in y-direction is motion with uniformly acceleration
When, t = 0, y0 = 0, uy = u sin and ay = -g
After timet, vy = uy + ay t
vy = u sin - gt
y = y0 + uyt + ayt2 y = uyt + ayt2
y = (u sin ) t Also,
=
+ 2ayy
= u2 sin2 - 2 gy
Time of Flight (T):
Time of flight is the time during which particle moves from O to O
i.e., when t = T, y = 0
From equation (iv)

32

O = u sin T- gT2

T=

## Range of projectile (R):

Range is horizontal distance travelled in time T.
i.e., R = x (in time T)
From equation (ii)
R = ucos .T
= ucos
R=
Maximum height reached (H):
At the time particle reaches its maximum height velocity of particle
becomes parallel to horizontal direction i.e., vy = 0 when y = H
From equation (v)
0 = u2 sin2 2 gH; H =
Equation of trajectory:
The path traced by a particle in motion is called trajectory and it
can be known by knowing the relation between x and y.
From equation (1) and (2) eliminating time t we get
y = x tan sec2
This is trajectory of path and is equation of parabola. So we can say
the path of particle is parabolic.
Velocity and direction of motion after a given time:
After timet vx = ucos and vy = usin -gt
Hence resultant velocity v =

+
33

=
+(
)
If direction of motion makes an angle
tan = =
=

with horizontal

## Velocity and direction of motion at a given height:

At a height h, Vx = ucos
And Vy =

Resultant velocity v =

;v =

Note that this is the velocity that a particle would have at height h if
it is projected vertically from ground with u.
SOME IMPORTATN POINTS REGARDING PROJECTILE MOTION
OVER A HORIZONTAL PLANE
i) For a given velocity of projection, the range of horizontal plane
will be maximum when angle of projection is 450.
We have range of projectile. R =
Therefore if we keep on increasing range will increase and then
decrease. Its value will be maximum when sin2 is maximum i.e.,
= 450
Also, maximum range Rmax =
ii) For a given range and given initial speed of projection, there are
two possible angle of projection which are complementary angle
i.e., if one is other will be (900- ).

34

## ClASS EXERCISE (A) :

1]

2]

3]

In the last second of free fall, a body covered 3/4 of its total
path. Then the height from which the body is released will be
a) 4.9m
b) 9.8m
c) 19.6m
d) 39.2m
A freely falling body travels a distance X in the nth second. In
the next second if it travels a distance, Y. Then
a) X+Y=g
b) X Y=g
c) Y X =g
d) X = Y/g
A body is released from height h above the ground which takes
t seconds to reach the ground. The position of the body after
t/2 seconds is
a) above the ground
b)

## c) above the ground

d) Depends upon the size of the body
4]

5]

6]

## The average velocity of freely falling body is 21 ms-1. Then it is

released from a height equal to
a) 5m
b) 90m
c) 30m
d) 60m
A window is 0.5m high. A stone is released from a height 0.4m
above the top of the window. The time taken by the stone to
cross the window is
a) 4 s
b) 3/7 s
c) 1/7 s
d) 2/7 s
A stone is dropped into a well and sound of the splash is heard
3 s later. If the depth of well is 44.1m find the velocity of
sound in air (g = 9.8ms-2)
a) 252.6ms-1 b) 352.8ms-1 c) 300ms-1

d) 350ms-1
35

7]

## A body slides down a smooth inclined plane of inclination 300

with horizontal and length 19.6m starting from rest at the top.
Find the speed and time to reach the bottom. (g = 9.8ms-2)
a) 2.5s, 15ms-1
b) 3.83s, 15.4ms-1
c) 2.83s, 13.87ms-1
d) None

8]

A stone falls from the top of a tower in 8s. How much time will
it take to cover the first quarter of distance starting from top?
a) 2s
b) 3s
c) 4s
d) 8s

## CLASS EXERCISE (B):

1]

2]

3]

Two bodies one held 10m vertically above the other are
released simultaneously. After falling freely for 3 seconds
under gravity, their relative separation is
a) 10m
b) 5m
c) 1m
d) none
After falling through the first h metres, a freely falling body
acquires velocity V. After falling through the next h metres,
velocity acquired by it would be
a) 2 V
b) 2
c) V/2
d) 4 V
A body is released from height h above the ground. Exactly at
the midway if g vanishes suddenly, its total time of fall is
a)

4]

b) 2

c)

d)

## A parachutist after bailing out (drops out) falls a distance of

19.6m after which the parachute opens and he decelerates
downwards at 1.1ms-2. He reaches the ground with a speed of
2ms-1. Find total time taken and the height from the ground
where parachutist bails out.
a) 20s, 200m b) 40s, 300m c) 18s, 192.4md) 16s, 172.8m
36

5]

6]

7]

## A ball is dropped from a height. Another ball is dropped from

the same height after 2s. Their separation after 2 more second
is
a) g
b) 2g
c) 4g
d) 6g
A stone is dropped into water from a bridge 44.1m above the
water. Another stone is thrown vertically downwards 1second
later. Both strike the water simultaneously. Then initial speed
of the second stone is
a) 24.5ms-1 b) 49 ms-1 c) 9.8 ms-1 d) 12.25ms-1
A stone is dropped from a multistored building. If it crosses 2
floors in the first second of its free fall, the numbers of floors it
can cross in the 3rd second of its fall is
a) 5
b) 7
c) 10
d) 9

## Body projected vertically upward

CLASS EXERCISE (C):
1] A body is projected upwards with a velocity 98 m/s. Find:
a) The maximum height reached
b) The time taken to reach the maximum height
c) Its velocity at a height 196 m from the point of projection
d) Velocity with which it will cross down the point of
projection
e) The time taken to reach back the point of projection
2] A boy throws a stone vertically up and catches it after time t
seconds. Then maximum height reached by the stone is
a)

b)

c)

d)

37

3]

4]

## A body is projected vertically up with a velocity 19.6ms-1. Find

the i) displacement after 4s ii) displacement in 2nd second.
iii) Velocity after 3 seconds iv) ratio of displacements in 1st
and 2nd second. iii) Velocity after 3 seconds iv) ratio of
displacements in 1st and 2nd seconds respectively.
A body projected vertically up reaches a maximum height h in
time t. The time taken to reach half of the maximum height is
a) t/2
b) t/4
c)
d) t 1

5]

6]

7]
8]
9]

## A stone projected up with a velocity U reaches two points A

and B at a distance h with velocities U/2 and U/3. The
maximum height reached by the stone is
a)
b)
c)
d)
A body is projected vertically upwards. If t1 and t2 be the times
at which it is at a height h above the point of projection while
ascending and descending respectivley then
a) h = t1t2
b) h = 2gt1t2 c) h=
d) h =
In above problem the velocity of projection is
a) g(t1+t2) b) g(t1+t2) c) 2g(t1 + t2) d) 4g(t1 + t2)
In above problem the maximum height reached by the body is
a) g
b) g
c) g( + )2 d) g(t1+t2)2
In above problem the velocity of the body at height is
a) gt1
b) gt2
c)
d)

38

1]

## Assume that there is tower of sufficient height H. A particle is

projected from bottom of tower with velocity u1 and another
particle is dropped from top of tower with velocity u2. The
time when the particles meet is T then
a) T = (
b) T = (
)
)
c) T = (

2]

3]

4]

5]

d) T = (

## If a particle occupies x seconds less and acquires a velocity y

ms----1 more at one place than at another in falling through the
same distance. If g1 and g2 are accelerations due to gravity at
those two places, then x: y is equal to
a) g1 / g2
b) g2 / g1
c)
d) 1/
A rocket is fired vertically from the ground with a resultant
vertical acceleration of 10 ms---2. The fuel is finished in one
minute and the rocket continues to move up. If g = 10 ms---2,
maximum height reached by the rocket is
a) 36 Km
b) 18 Km
c) 9 Km
d) none
A body is projected vertically up from ground. In the last 2
seconds of its ascent distance travelled by it will be
numerically
a)
b) g
c) 2g
d) 4g
A body is projected vertically up from ground. In the last of its
total journey distance travelled by it is h. Then its initial
velocity of projection is numerically
a) (h + g)
b) (h _ g)
c) (h + g / 2) c) (h - g / 2)

39

6]

## Water drops fall from a tap on the floor 5m below at regular

intervals of time. The first drop striking the floor when the
fifth drop begins to fall. The height at which the third drop will
be, from ground, at that instant when first strikes the ground,
will be (g=10 ms-2).
a) 1.25 m
b) 2.15 m
c) 2.75 m
d) 3.75 m

## Vertical projection from a height

CLASS EXERCISE (E):
1] A balloon is ascending up with a velocity of 4 ms--1. An object
is dropped from it when it is at a height of 100 m above the
ground. The distance between the object and balloon after 2
seconds is (g = 10 ms--2)
a) 10 m
b) 20 m
c) 30 m
d) 40 m
2] A balloon rises from rest with a constant acceleration. A stone
is released from it when it has risen to a height h. The time
taken by the stone to reach the ground is
a)
3]

b)

c)2

d) 4

## From the top of a tower a stone is projected vertically up with a

velocity 20 ms---1. After t seconds another3] from the top of a
tower a stone is projected vertically up with a velocity 20
ms---1. After t seconds another stone is projected vertically
down with a velocity 20 ms---1 so that both the stones reach
the ground simultaneously. The t = (g = 10 ms--2)
a) 2
b) 4
c) 5
d) 8

40

4]

## A body projected vertically up with velocity u from the top of a

tower reaches the foot of the tower with velocity 2u. Then
height of that tower is
a)

5]

6]
7]

8]

9]

b)

c)

d)

## A rocket fired vertically upwards with constant acceleration

has its engine exhausted in 10 second. What is the maximum
height reached by the rocket if its velocity at the end of 10th
second 600 ms-1? [g = 10 ms---2]
a) 600 x 5 m b) 600 x 25 m c) 600 x 35 m d) 600 x 40 m
A particle is projected vertically upwards. Prove that it will be
at of their greatest heights at times which are in the ratio 1: 3
A stone is released from a hydrogen balloon, going upwards
with velocity 12 m/s, when it is at height of 65m from the
ground. Time the stone will take to reach the ground is
a) 5 sec
b) 6 sec
c) 7 sec
d) 8 sec
From the top of a tower a stone is projected vertically upward.
When it reaches a distance h below that point, its velocity is
double that of its velocity when it was at a height h above the
top of the tower. Then greatest height attained by the stone
above the top of the tower is
a) 2h
b) h/3
c) 5h/3
d) 4h
A balloon rises from rest on the ground with a constant
acceleration . A stone is dropped when the balloon has rises to
a height of Hm. Find the time taken by the stone to reach the
ground

41

## SESSION 13, 14 & 15

Aim:
Projectile -Motion in Two Dimensions
PROJECTILE -MOTION IN TWO DIMENSIONS
Motion in a plane is called as motion in two dimensions e.g.,
projectile motion, circular motion etc. For the analysis of such
motion our reference will be made of an origin and two co-ordinate
axes x and y. Position of particle is known by knowing its coordinate (x, y). Velocity of particle will be resultant of velocities in x
and y direction Vx and Vy. Similarly acceleration will be in the two
directions. For analysis of such motion we analyses the motion
along two axes independently i.e., while dealing motion in xdirection we need not to think what is going on in y-direction and
vice versa.
We have to study about projectile motion, circular motion and
relative velocity under the head of motion in two dimensions.
Projectile Motion
A projectile is a particle, which is given an initial velocity, and then
moves under the action of its weight alone. If the initial velocity is
vertical, the particle moves in a straight line and such motion we
gravity. Here we are going to discuss the motion of particle which
is projected obliquely near the earths surface. While discussing
such motion we shall suppose the motion to be within such a
moderate distance from the earths surface, that acceleration due to
gravity may be considered to remain sensibly constant. We shall

42

## also neglect the resistance of air and consider the motion to be in

vacuum.
Important Terms used in projectile motion
When a particle is projected into air, the angle that the direction of
projection makes with horizontal plane through the point of
projection is called the angle of projection; the path, which the
particle describes, is called the trajectory, the distance between the
point of projection and the point where the path meets any plane
draws through the point of projection is its range; the time that
elapses in air is called as time of flight and the maximum distance
above the plane during its motion is called as maximum height
attained by the projectile.
Analytical treatment of projectile motion
Consider a particle projected with a velocity u of an angle with the
horizontal from earths surface. If the earth did not attract a particle
to itself, the particle would describe a straight line; on account of
attraction of earth, however, the particle describes a curved path.
This curve will be proved later to be always a parabola.
Let us take origin at the point of projection and x-axis and y-axis
along the surface of earth and perpendicular to it respectively as
shown in figure.
y

O x

## By the principle of physical independence of forces, the weight of

the body only has effect on the motion in vertical direction. It,
43

## therefore, has no effect on the velocity of the body in the horizontal

direction, and horizontal velocity therefore remains unaltered.

Motion in x- direction:
Motion in x - direction is motion with uniform velocity.
At t = 0, x0 = 0 and ux = u cos
Position after time t, x = x0 + uxt
x = (u cos ) t
Velocity of any time t, vx = ux
vx= u cos
Motion in y-direction:
Motion in y-direction is motion with uniformly acceleration
When, t = 0, y0 = 0, uy = u sin and ay = -g
After timet, vy = uy + ay t
vy = u sin - gt
y = y0 + uyt + ayt2 y = uyt + ayt2
y = (u sin ) t Also,
=
+ 2ayy
= u2 sin2 - 2 gy
Time of Flight :
Time of flight is the time during which particle moves from O to O
i.e., when t = T, y = 0
From equation (iv)
O = u sin T- gT2
T=
Range of projectile (R):
44

## Range is horizontal distance travelled in time T.

i.e., R = x (in time T)
From equation (ii)
R = ucos .T
= ucos
R=
Maximum height reached (H):
At the time particle reaches its maximum height velocity of particle
becomes parallel to horizontal direction i.e., vy = 0 when y = H
From equation (v)
0 = u2 sin2 2 gH; H =
Equation of trajectory:
The path traced by a particle in motion is called trajectory and it
can be known by knowing the relation between x and y.
From equation (1) and (2) eliminating time t we get
y = x tan sec2
This is trajectory of path and is equation of parabola. So we can say
the path of particle is parabolic.
Velocity and direction of motion after a given time:
After timet vx = ucos and vy = usin -gt
Hence resultant velocity v =

=
+(
)
If direction of motion makes an angle
tan = =
=

with horizontal

45

## Velocity and direction of motion at a given height:

At a height h, Vx = ucos
And Vy =

Resultant velocity v =

;v =

Note that this is the velocity that a particle would have at height h if
it is projected vertically from ground with u.
SOME IMPORTANT POINTS REGARDING PROJECTILE MOTION
OVER A HORIZONTAL PLANE
i]

## For a given velocity of projection, the range of horizontal plane

will be maximum when angle of projection is 45.
We have range of projectile. R =
Therefore if we keep on increasing range will increase and
then decrease. Its value will be maximum when sin2 is
maximum i.e., = 450
Also, maximum range Rmax =

ii]

## For a given range and given initial speed of projection, there

are two possible angle of projection which are complementary
angle i.e., if one is other will be (900- ).Class Exercise solved

## Problem 1: The trajectory of a projectile is represented by y

= 3
/2. The angle of projection is
a) 30o
b) 45o
c) 60o
d) None of these
Sol: (c) By comparing the coefficient of x in given equation with
standard equation
y = x tan

tan = 3 = 60
46

## Problem 2: The path followed by a body projected along y-axis is

given as by y = 3 (1/2)x2 if g = 10 m/s, then the initial
velocity of projectile will be - (x and y are in m)
a) 310 m/s b) 210 m/s c) 103 m/s d) 102 m/s
Sol: (b) By comparing the coefficient of x2 in given equation with
standard equation y = x tan

## Problem3: The equation of projectile is y = 16x

The horizontal
range is
a) 16 m
b) 8 m
c) 3.2 m
d) 12.8 m
Sol: (d) Standard equation of projectile motion y = x tan 1
Given equation: y = 16x

or y = 16x 1

## By comparing above equations R = =12.8 m.

Problem4: A body of mass 2 kg has an initial velocity of 3 m/s
along OE and it is subjected to a force of 4 Newton's in OF
direction perpendicular to OE. The distance of the body from O
after 4 seconds will be
a) 12 m
b) 28 m
c) 20 m
d) 48 m
Sol: (c) Body moves horizontally with constant initial velocity 3
m/s upto 4 seconds
=
= 3 4 = 12m and in perpendicular direction it
moves under the effect of constant force with zero initial
velocity upto 4 seconds. = +
=
4 =16m
So its distance from O is given by d =
+
= (12) + (16)
= 20

47

## Problem 5: A body starts from the origin with an acceleration of 6

m/s2 along the x-axis and 8 m/s2 along the y-axis. Its distance
from the origin after 4 seconds will be
a) 56 m
b) 64 m
c) 80 m
d) 128 m
Sol: (c) Displacement along X- axis x =
+
= 6
(4) = 48
Displacement along Y- axis: y =
+
= 8 (4)
= 48
Total distance from the origin =
+
= (48) + (64)
= 80
Problem 6: In a projectile motion, velocity at maximum height is
a)
b)
c)
d) None of these
Sol: (b) In a projectile motion at maximum height body possess
only horizontal component of velocity i.e. u cos.
Problem7: A body is thrown at angle 30o to the horizontal with the
velocity of 30 m/s. After 1 sec, its velocity will be (in m/s)
( = 10 / )
a) 107
b) 70010 c) 1007
d) 40
Sol: (a) From the formula of instantaneous velocity
=
+
2
= (30) + (10) 1 2 30 10 1
30
= 107 /
Problem 8: A projectile is fired at 30o to the horizontal. The
vertical component of its velocity is 80 ms-1. Its time of flight is
T. What will be the velocity of the projectile at t = T/2
a) 80 ms-1
b) 80/3ms-1
c)(80/3) ms-1
d)40 ms-1

48

Sol: (b) At half of the time of flight, the position of the projectile will
be at the highest point of the parabola and at that position
particle possess horizontal component of velocity only.
Given uvertical =usin = 80 =
= 160 /
horizontal= ucos = 160cos 30 = 803 /
Problem 9. A particle is projected from point O with velocity u in a
direction making an angle with the horizontal. At any instant
its position is at point P at right angles to the initial direction of
projection. Its velocity at point P is
90o

P
v

a) u tan
b) u cot
c) u cosec
d) u sec
Sol: (b) Horizontal velocity at point O = ucos

90o

v sin

90o

u sin

u cos

## Horizontal velocity at point P = v sin

In projectile motion horizontal component of velocity remains
constant throughout the motion
v sin =
=

49

## Problem 10: A particle P is projected with velocity u1 at an angle of

30o with the horizontal. Another particle Q is thrown vertically
upwards with velocity u2 from a point vertically below the
highest point of path of P. The necessary condition for the two
particles to collide at the highest point is
u1

u2

30o
Q

a)
=
b)
=2
c)
=
d)
=4
Sol: (b) Both particle collide at the highest point it means the
vertical distance travelled by both the particle will be equal, i.e.
the vertical component of velocity of both particle will be equal
30 = =
= 2

Problem 11.Two seconds after projection a projectile is travelling
in a direction inclined at 30o to the horizontal after one more
sec, it is travelling horizontally, and the magnitude and
direction of its velocity are
a) 220 / , 60
b) 203 / , 60
c) 640 / , 30
d) 406 / , 30
Sol: (b) Let in 2 sec body reaches upto point A and after one more
sec upto point B. Total time of ascent
v
A

30

u cos

50

## For a body is given 3 sec i.e. t =

=3

= 10 3 = 30 .. (i)
Horizontal component of velocity remains always constant
ucos =
30 ......... (ii)
For vertical upward motion between point O and A
30 =
2[
= ]
30 = 30 20[
= 30] = 20 /
Substituting this value in equation (ii)
ucos = 20 30 = 103.. (iii)
From equation (i) and (iii) and u =203 = 60
Problem12: A body is projected up a smooth inclined plane (length
=202m) with velocity u from the point M as shown in the
figure. The angle of inclination is 45o and the top is connected
to a well of diameter 40 m. If the body just manages to cross
the well, what is the value of .

45o
M
40 m

a) 40ms1
b) 402 ms1 c) 20 ms1
d) 202 ms1
Sol: (d) At point N angle of projection of the body will be 45. Let
velocity of projection at this point is v. If the body just manages
to cross the well then

51

v
N
R
45o
u
M

= 40 [as

40 m

= 45 ]

= 400 v = 20 m/s
But we have to calculate the velocity (u) of the body at point M.
For motion along the inclined plane (from M to N) Final
velocity (v) = 20 m/s, acceleration (a) = - g sin = - g sin 45o,
distance of inclined plane =
202(20)

. 202[Using v2 = u2 + 2as]

= 20 +

400 =
.
Problem 13: A projectile is fired with velocity u making angle with
the horizontal. What is the change in velocity when it is at the
highest point?
a) ucos
b) u
c) u sin
d) (u cos - u)
Sol: (c) Since horizontal component of velocity remain always
constant therefore only vertical component of velocity
changes. Initially vertical component usin .Finally it becomes
zero. So change in velocity = u sin
Problem14: A body of mass 0.5 kg is projected under gravity with
a speed of 98 m/s at an angle of 30o with the horizontal. The
change in momentum (in magnitude) of the body is
a) 24.5 N-s b) 49.0 N-s c) 98.0 N-s d) 50.0 N-s

52

## Sol: (b) Change in momentum between complete projectile motion

= 2musin =20.598sin300=49 N-s.
Problem15: A particle of mass 100 g is fired with a velocity 20 m
sec-1 making an angle of 30o with the horizontal. When it rises
to the highest point of its path then the change in its
momentum is
a) 3 kg m sec1
b) 1/2 kg m sec-1
c) 2 kg m sec1
d)1 kg m sec-1
Sol: (d) Horizontal momentum remains always constant
So change in vertical momentum ( ) = Final vertical
momentum - Initial vertical momentum
= 0 mu sin
|P| = 0.1 20
30 = 1 /
Problem 16: Two equal masses (m) are projected at the same angle
( ) from two points separated by their range with equal
velocities (v). The momentum at the point of their collision is
a) Zero
b) 2 mv cos c) - 2 mv cos
d) None
Sol: (a) Both masses will collide at the highest point of their
trajectory with equal and opposite momentum. So net
momentum of the system will be zero.
mv cos

mv cos

53

## Problem17: A particle of mass m is projected with velocity

making an angle of 45o with the horizontal. The magnitude of
the angular momentum of the particle about the point of
projection when the particle is at its maximum height is
(where g = acceleration due to gravity)
a) Zero
b) mv3/ (42 )
c) mv3/(2 )
d) mv2/2g
Sol: (b) = L =
=
[As = 45o]

## Problem18: A body is thrown with a velocity of 9.8 m/s making an

angle of 30o with the horizontal. It will hit the ground after a
time
a) 1.5 s
b) 1 s
c) 3 s
d) 2 s
Sol: (b) T =

.
.

= 1sec

## Problem 19: Two particles are separated at a horizontal distance

as shown in figure. They are projected at the same time as
shown in figure with different initial speed. The time after
which the horizontal distance between the particles become
zero is
a) u/2x
b) x/ u
c) 2u / x
d) u /x
Sol: (b) Let x1 and x2 are the horizontal distances travelled by
particle A and B respectively in time t.
x1 = .
30 .......... (i) and x2=
60 ......... (ii)

x1+x2=

30 +

60 =

= /

## Problem 20: A particle is projected from a point O with a velocity

in a direction making an angle upward with the horizontal.
After some time at point P it is moving at right angle with its
initial direction of projection. The time of flight from O to P is
a)
b)
c)
d)
54

Sol: (b) When body projected with initial velocity by making angle
with the horizontal. Then after time t, (at point P) its
direction is perpendicular to.

u sin

90

v cos

(90 )
v

u cos

## Magnitude of velocity at point P is given by =

(from
sample problem no. 9).For vertical motion: Initial velocity (at
point O) = usin
Final velocity (at point P) = v cos =

Time
of flight (from point O to P) = t
Applying first equation of motion =

= usin

[
=
=
+ cos ] =
Problem 21: A ball is projected upwards from the top of tower
with a velocity 50 ms-1 making angle 30o with the horizontal.
The height of the tower is 70 m. After how many seconds from
the instant of throwing will the ball reach the ground?
a) 2.33 sec b) 5.33 sec c) 6.33 sec
d) 9.33 sec
Sol: (c) Formula for calculation of time to reach the body on the
ground from the tower of height 'h' (If it is thrown vertically up
with velocity u) is given by t =

1+ 1+

So we can

## resolve the given velocity in vertical direction and can apply

the above formula. Initial vertical component of velocity

55

t=

1+ 1+

.
( )

=6.33 sec

## Problem 22: If for a given angle of projection, the horizontal range

is doubled, the time of flight becomes
a) 4 times
b) 2 times
c) 2 times d) 1/2times
Sol: (c) =

and T =

## and T (If and g are constant).

In the given condition to make range double, velocity must be
increased upto 2
times that of previous value. So
automatically time of flight will becomes 2 times.
Problem 23. A particle is thrown with velocity u at an angle from
the horizontal. Another particle is thrown with the same
velocity at an angle from the vertical. The ratio of times of
flight of two particles will be
a) tan 2 : 1 b) cot 2 : 1 c) tan : 1
d) cot : 1
Sol: (c) For first particles angle of projection from the horizontal is
So T1=
For second particle angle of projection from the vertical is . It
mean from the horizontal is (90- )
(
)
T1=
=
So ratio of time of flight

56

## Problem 24: The friction of the air causes vertical retardation

equal to one tenth of the acceleration due to gravity (Take g =
10 ms-2). The time of flight will be decreased by
a) 0%
b) 1%
c) 9%
d) 11%
Sol: (c) T =

## Fractional decrease in time of flight =

Percentage decrease = 9%
Problem25: A boy playing on the roof of a 10m high building
throws a ball with a speed of 10 m/s at an angle of 30o with
the horizontal. How far from the throwing point will the ball be
at the height of 10 m from the ground (g = 10 m/s2, sin 30o =

sin 30o = )
a) 8.66 m
b) 5.20 m
c) 4.33 m
d) 2.60 m
Sol: (a) Simply we have to calculate the range of projectile
u
30o

10 m

R=

10 m

R=5 3

57

SESSION 16 & 17
Aim:
Projection on Inclined Plane.
Horizontal projection
PROJECTION ON INCLINED PLANE.
A particle is projected from a point A on an inclined plane, which is
inclined at an angle
to the horizon with a velocity
at an
elevation. The direction of projection lines in the vertical plane
through AB, the line of the greatest slope of the plane.
Let the particle strike the plane at B so that AB is the range on the
inclined plane.

B
C

A
The initial velocity of projection u can be resolved into a component
u cos ( - ) along the plane and a component u sin ( - )
perpendicular to the plane. The acceleration due to gravity g which
acts vertically down can be resolved into components g sin up the
plane and g cos perpendicular to the plane. By the principle of
physical independence of forces the motion along the plane may be
considered independent of the motion perpendicular to the plane.
Let T be the time, which the particle takes to go from A to B. Then in
this time the distance traversed by the projectile perpendicular to
the plane is zero.
0 = u sin ( - ) T - g cos T2
T=

58

## During this time the horizontal velocity of the projectile (u cos )

remains constant. Hence the horizontal distance described is given
(

by AC = u cos T =

## Maximum range on the inclined plane

(

R=

[sin (2 - ) - sin ]

i.e., (2 ) = 90
= (450 + /2)

)=1

## If Rm represents the maximum range on the inclined plane.

Rm =

(1- sin );

Rm =

For a given velocity of projection, it can be shown that there are two
directions of projection which are equally inclined to the direction
of maximum range.
Now R =

[sin (2 - ) - sin ]

## For given values of u, and R, sin (2 ) is constant. There are two

values of (2 ) each less than 1800 that can satisfy the above
equation.
Let (2+
) and (2 ) be the two values. Then
_ 0
2 - = 180 - (2 - ) ; - /2 = 900 - ( - /2)
- (450 + /2) = (450 + /2) Since (45 + /2) is the angle of projection giving the maximum
range, it follows that the direction giving maximum range bisects
59

the angle between the two angles of projection that can give a
particular range.
The initial component of velocity perpendicular to PQ is u sin
( ) and the acceleration in this direction is (-g cos ) .If T is the
time the particle takes to go from P to Q then in time T the
displacement described in a direction perpendicular to PQ is zero.
0 = u sin ( ). T- gcos .T2
If the direction of motion at the instant when the particle hits the
plane be perpendicular to the plane, then the velocity at that instant
parallel to the plane must be zero.
u cos ( ) - g sin T = 0
(
)
(
)
=T=
cot = 2 tan (

Horizontal projection:
Consider a body projected horizontally with a velocity
.
O

at a height

Vel=u
th
Pa
of
dy
bo

Ground

60

Components
Along x-axis
Initial Velocity
ux = u cos 0 = u
Acceleration
ax = 0
Displacement
x
Velocity at time
Vx = ux = u cos 0 = u
displacement after x = ux t + axt2
t seconds
x = ut
Velocity at time
V= u+2axx

Components
Along y - axis
uy = u sin 0 = O
ay = + g
y
Vy = uy + ayt
y = uyt +ayt2
y = gt2
V= u+ 2ay

after a
displacement

V = 2gy

Vx = ux

Resultant velocity = V =
=

=
+
=
+( +2 )
=
+2
Time of descent (td): As the body reaches ground (Point B) from
point of projection (Point O), the time taken is tA.The vertical
displacement is OA
y = uyt + ayt2 = g

td =

61

1]

to

90
P

a) Tv Sin

b) Tv Cos

c) Tv Sec

d) Tv Tan

2]

## A heavy particle is projected from a point at the foot of a fixed

plane, inclined at an angle 45o to the horizontal, in the vertical
plane containing the line of greatest slope through the point. If
(>450) is the inclination to the horizontal of the initial
direction of projection, for what value of tan will the particle
strike the plane?
i) horizontally
ii) at right angle

3]

Two bodies are projected from the same point with equal
speeds in such directions that they both strike the same point
on a plane whose inclination is . If be the angle of projection
of the first body with the horizontal find the ratio of their times
of flight

62

1]

## An aeroplane flying horizontally with speed 90 km/hr releases

a bomb at a height of 78.4m from the ground, when will the
bomb strike the ground? [g = 10 m/s2]
a) 8 sec
b) 6 sec
c) 4 sec
d) 10 sec
2] A body thrown horizontally with velocity 10 m/s from certain
height of 10m
List I
A) Horizontal displacement covered by it when it reaches the
ground
B) Horizontal displacement covered by it when its velocity
components are equal
C) Vertical component of velocity when it reaches the ground
D) Horizontal component of velocity when its velocity
components are equal
List II
P) 5
Q) 10
R) 14.14
S) 20
a) A - Q, B - S; C - R, D- P
b) A- R, B-S; C - P, D-Q
c) A - R, B- Q; C - R, D- Q
d) A -Q, B - S; C - R, D - P
3] A ball is dropped from the top of a tower and another ball is
thrown horizontally at the same time. Then
a) first ball reaches the ground earlier
b) second ball reaches the ground earlier
c) both reach the ground simultaneously
d) we cannot decide

63

SESSION 18 & 19
AIM:
RELATIVE MOTION
RELATIVE MOTION
Motion is a combined property of the object under study and the
observer. Motion is always relative, there is no such term like
absolute motion or absolute rest. Motion is always defined with
respect to an observer or reference frame.
Reference frame:
Reference frame is an axis system from which motion is observed. A
clock is attached to measure time. Reference frame can be
stationary or moving. There are two types of reference frame:
i)

## Inertial reference frame: A frame of reference in which

Newtons first law is valid is called as inertial reference frame.
ii) Non-inertial reference frame: A frame of reference in which
Newtons first law is not valid is called as non-inertial
reference frame.
Note: Earth is by definition a non-inertial reference frame because
of its centripetal acceleration towards sun. But, for small
practical applications earth is assumed stationary hence, it
behaves as an inertial reference frame.

64

RELATIVE VELOCITY
Definition: Relative velocity of a particle (object) A with respect to B
is defined as the velocity with which A appears to move is B if
considered to be at rest. In other words, it is the velocity with
which A appears to move as seen by the B considering itself to be
at rest.

## RELATIVE MOTION ALONG STRAIGHT LINE

vA =
, vB =
=

= = 0(

)
Note:
velocity of an object w.r.t. itself is always zero.
Velocity of Approach
It is the rate at which a separation between two moving particles
decreases.
If separation decreases velocity of approach is positive,
Velocity of approach = 22 m/s
Velocity of approach = 15 m/s

65

## If separation increases, velocity of approach is negative. It is mainly

called velocity of separation.
It is the rate with which separation between two moving object
increases.
Velocity of separation = 2 m/s
Velocity of separation = 15 m/s
Illustration:
Two balls A and B are moving in the same direction with equal
velocities, find out their relative velocity.

## Velocity of A with respect to B

=0

Illustration:
A and B are thrown vertically upward with velocity, 5 m/s and 10
m/s respectively (g = 10 m/s2. Find separation between them after
one second
Sol. SA = ut gt2
= 5t 10 t2
= 5 1 5 12
=55
=0
SB = ut gt2.
= 10 1 10 12
= 10 5
=5
SB SA = separation = 5m.

66

Alter:
By relative =
= (10) (10) = 0
Also = = 10 5
= 5 m/s
(in 1 sec) = t = 5 1 = 5 m
Distance between A and B after 1 sec = 5 m.

Illustration:
A ball is thrown downwards with a speed of 20 m/s from top of a
building 150 m high and simultaneously another ball is thrown
vertically upwards with a speed of 30 m/s from the foot of the
building. Find the time when both the balls will meet. (g = 10 m/s2)

Sol. (I) S1 = 20 t + 5 t2
+ S2 = 30 t 5 t2
____________________
150 = 50 t
t = 3 s.
(II) Relative acceleration of both is zero since both have
acceleration in downward
Direction
=
=g g = 0
67

== 30 (20) = 50
sBA = vBA t
t=

=3s

## Ex: Two cars C1 and C2 moving in the same direction on a straight

road with velocities 12 m/s and 10 m/s respectively. When the
separation between the two was 200 m C2 started accelerating
to avoid collision. What is the minimum acceleration of car C2
so that they dont collide.

Sol. By relative

= = 0 a = (a)

= = 12 10 = 2 m/s.
So by relativity we want the car to stop.
v2 u2 = 2as.
0 22 = 2 a 200 a =
m/s2
= 0.1 m/s2 = 1 cm/s2.
Minimum acceleration needed by car C2 = 1 cm/s2
RELATIVE MOTION IN LIFT:
Illustration:
A lift is moving up with acceleration a. A person inside the lift
throws the ball upwards with a velocity u relative to hand.
(a) What is the time of flight of the ball?
(b) What is the maximum height reached by the ball in the lift?
68

Sol. (a)

= = (g + a) downwards

= t + t2
T=(

0= uT (g + a)T2

(b) v2 u2 = 2 as
H=

0 u2 = 2(g + a) H

## Lift moving with acceleration a upwards

1) Initial velocity = u
2) Velocity at maximum height = u cos q
3) T =
4)

5)

Range =

69

## RELATIVE MOTION IN TWO DIMENSIONS

= position of A with respect to O
= position of B with respect to O
= position of A with respect to B.
=

( )

( )

( )

( )

=
Note: These formulae are not applicable for light.
Illustration:
Object A and B has velocities 10 m/s. A is moving along East while B
is moving towards North from the same point as shown. Find
velocity of A relative to B ( )

Sol. =
= 102

70

Note:

Illustration:
Two particles A and B are projected in air. A is thrown horizontally,
B is thrown vertically up. What is the separation between them
after 1 sec?

Sol. = = 0
= 10 10 = 102

t = (102) t = 102 m

## Consider the situation, shown in figure

71

Ex:

1]
2]
3]
Sol:

Find out motion of tree, bird and old man as seen by boy.
Find out motion of tree, bird, boy as seen by old man
Find out motion of tree, boy and old man as seen by bird.
(1) With respect to boy:
vtree
= 16 m/s ()
vbird
= 12 m/s ()
vold man = 18 m/s ()
(2) With respect to old man:
vBoy
= 18 m/s ()
vTree
= 2 m/s ()
vBird
= 18 m/s () and 12 m/s ()
(3) With respect to Bird:
vTree
= 12 m/s () and 16 m/s ()
vold man = 18 m/s () and 12 m/s ().
vBoy
= 12 m/s ().

72

## MOTION OF A TRAIN MOVING ON EQUATOR:

If a train is moving at equator on the earths surface with a velocity
vTE relative to earths surface and a point on the surface of earth
with velocity vE relative to its centre, then
= or = +
So, if the train moves from west to east and if the train moves from
east to west (the direction of motion of earth on its axis) (i.e.
opposite to the motion of earth)

## Relative Motion on a moving training:

If a boy is running with speed on a train moving with velocity
relative to ground, the speed of the boy relative to ground will be
given by:
=
or = +
so, if the boy is running in the direction of train
vB = u + v
and if the boy is running on the train in a direction opposite to the
motion of train
vB = u v
73

## RELATIVE MOTION IN RIVER FLOW:

If a man can swim relative to water with velocity and water is
following relative to ground with velocity , velocity of man
relative to ground will be given by:
= or = +
So, if the swimming is in the direction of flow of water,
vm = vmR + vR

## and if the swimming is opposite to the flow of water,

vm = vmR vR

Illustration:
A swimmer capable of swimming with velocity v relative to water
jumps in a flowing river having velocity u. The man swims a
distance d downstream and returns back to the original position.
Find out the time taken in complete motion.
Sol. t = tdown + tup
=

CROSSING RIVER:
A boat or man in a river always moves in the direction of resultant
velocity of velocity of boat (or man) and velocity of river flow.

74

1]

Shortest Time:
The person swims perpendicular to the river flow crossing a
river: consider a river having flow velocity and swimmer
jump into the river from a point A, from one bank of the river,
in a direction perpendicular to the direction of river current.
Due to the flow velocity of river the swimmer is drifted along
the river by a distance BC and the net velocity of the swimmer
will be along the direction AC.
If we find the components of velocity of swimmer along and
perpendicular to the flow these are.
y
B

drift = x

vr
vmR

vm

## Velocity along the river, vx = vR.

Velocity perpendicular to the river, vf = vmR
The net speed is given by vm =
at an angle of tan =

## (downstream with the direction of

flow).
Velocity of vy is used only in crossing the river, time taken to
cross the river is
t= =
.

75

## Velocity vx is only used to drift the motion of the swimmer in

the river,
drift is along the river flow,
x = (vx) or

x=

Illustration:
A river 400 m wide is flowing at a rate of 2.0 m/s. A boat is sailing at
a velocity of 10 m/s with respect to the water, in a direction
perpendicular to the river.
(a) Find the time taken by the boat to reach the opposite bank.
(b) How far from the point directly opposite to the starting point
does the boat reach the opposite bank.
(c) In what direction does the boat actually move.
Sol:

## (a) time taken to cross the river

t=
=
= 40 s Ans.
/
(b) drift (x) = (vx) = (2m/s) (40s) = 80 m
Ans.
(c) Actual direction of boat,
= tan1
= tan1 5, (downstream) with the river flow.

76

2] SHORTEST PATH:
When the person crosses the river perpendicularly (along the
shortest path). It should swim upstream making an angle
with AB such that the resultant velocity, of man must be
perpendicular to the flow of river along AB.
If we find the components of velocity of swimmer along and
perpendicular to the flow, these are, velocity along the river,
vx = 0 and velocity perpendicular to river vy =

## The net speed is given by vm =

with the river direction.

at an angle of 90

## Velocity vy is used only to cross the river, therefore time to

cross the river,
t= =
.
and velocity vx is zero, therefore, in this case the drift (x)
should be zero.
and velocity vx is zero, therefore, in this case the drift (x)
should be zero.
x=0
or vx = vR vmR sin = 0
or vR = vmR sin
77

or

= sin1

## Hence, to cross the river perpendicular (along the shortest

path) the man should swim at an angle of
+
upstream from the direction of river flow.
Further, since sin < 1,
Swimmer can cross the river perpendicularly only when vmR>
vR ie.,
Practically it is not possible to reach at B if the river velocity
(vR) is too high.
Illustration:
A man can swim at the rate of 5 km/h in still water. A river 1 km
wide flows at the rate of 3 km/h. The man wishes to swim across
the river directly opposite to the starting point.
(a) Along what direction must the man swim?
(b) What should be his resultant velocity?
(c) How much time he would take to cross?
Sol: The velocity of man with respect to river vmR= 5 km/hr, this is
greater than the river flow velocity, therefore, he can cross the
river directly (along the shortest path). The anlge of swim must
be
= + sin1
= 90 + sin-1
= 90 + sin1
(upstream)

## = 90 + 37 = 127, with the river flow

Ans.
(b) Resultant velocity will be vm =
= 5 3
= 4 km/hr

78

## along the direction perpendicular to the river flow.

(c) time taken to cross the

t=
= / = h = 15 min
Illustration:
A man wishes to cross a river flowing with velocity u jumps at an
anlge with the river flow. Find out the net velocity of the man with
respect to ground if he can swim with speed v. Also find How far
from the point directly opposite to the starting point does the boat
reach the opposite bank? In what direction does the boat actually
move? If the width of the river is d.
x

C'
C

d
u

## Sol: Velocity of man = vM =

+2

tan =
(v sin ) t = d

t=

x = (u + v cos ) t = (u + v cos )

## Illustration: Shortest Drift (v<u)

A boat moves relative to water with a velocity which is n times less
than the river flow velocity. At what anlge to the stream direction
must the boat move to minimize drifting?

79

Sol: In this problem, one thing should be are fully meted that the
velocity of boat is less than the river flow velocity. In such a
case, boat cannot reach the point directly opposite to its
starting point. i.e. drift can never be zero. Thus, to minimize the
drift, boat starts at an angle from the normal direction up
stream as shown.

## Now, again if we find the components of velocity of boat along

and perpendicular to the flow, these are, velocity along the
river, vx = u v sin .
and velocity perpendicular to the river, vy = v cos .
time taken to cross the river is t = =
.
In this time, drift x = (vx)t
= (u v sin )
or

x=

sec

d tan

## The drift x is minimum, when = 0,

or (sec . tan ) d sec2 = 0
or sin = 1
or sin = =
(as v = )

80

## so, for minimum drift, the boat must move at an angle

= sin1
from normal direction or an angle
+ sin1
from stream direction.
CLASS EXERCISE:
Ex.1 An object A is moving with 5 m/s and B is moving with 20 m/s
in the same direction. (Positive x-axis)
(i) Find velocity of B with respect to A.
Sol. vB = 20 m/s vA = 5 m/s vB vA = 15 m/s
(ii) Find velocity of A with respect to B
Sol. vB = 20 m/s, vA = 15 m/s vAB = vA vB = 15 m/s
Note: vBA = vAB
Ex.2 Two objects A and B are moving towards each other with
velocities 10 m/s and 12 m/s respectively a shown.

## (i) Find out velocity of A with respect to B.

Sol. vAB = vA vB = (10) (12)= 22 m/s towards right.
(ii) Find out velocity of B with respect to A
vBA = vB vA = (12) (10)= 22 m/s towards left.

81

SESSION 20
AIM
To study Rain Problems
To find the Shortest Distance
To Solve problems related to relative velocity
RAIN PROBLEMS:
If rain is falling vertically with a velocity and on observer is moving
horizontally with velocity, the velocity of rain relative to observer
will be:
=
or =
+
and direction = tan1
with the vertical as shown in figure.

Illustration:
Rain is falling vertically and a man is moving with velocity 6 m/s.
Find the angle with which umbrella should be hold by man to avoid
getting wet.

Sol:

=6
= 10
Velocity of rain with respect to man = = 10 6
tan =
= tan1
Where

## is angle with vertical

82

Illustration:
A man moving with 5m/s observes rain falling vertically at the rate
of 10 m/s. Find the speed and direction of the rain with respect to
ground.

## VRM = 10 m/s, VM = 5 m/s

=
=

= 55

tan = , = tan1
Illustration:
A man standing, observes rain falling with velocity of 20 m/s at an
angle of 30 with the vertical.
1] Find out velocity of man so that rain appears to fall vertically.
2] Find out velocity of man so that rain again appears to fall at 30
with the vertical.
Sol: (1) = v (let)
= 10 103
= (10 v) 103
(10 v) = 0 (for vertical fall, horizontal component
must be zero)
or v = 10 m/s

83

Ans.

(2) = 10 103
= vx
= (10 vx) 103
Angle with the vertical = 30
tan 30 =

vx = 20 m/s

WIND AIRPLANE:
This is very similar to boat river flow problems the only difference
is that boat is replaced by also plane and river is replaced by wind.
Thus, velocity of aeroplane with respect to wind
= or = +
Where, = absolute velocity of aeroplane
and, = velocity of wind.

84

Illustration:
An aeroplane flies along a straight path A to B and returns back
again. The distance between A and B is
and the aeroplane
maintains the constant speed v. There is a steady wind with a
speed u at an angle with line AB. Determine the expression for the
total time of the trip.

Sol: A to B:
Velocity of plane along AB = v cos ucos , and for no-drift
from line
AB: v sin = usin sin =
time taken from A to B :
tAB =

B to A:
velocity of plane along BA = v cos + u cos
and for no drift from line AB : v sin = usin
sin =
time taken from B to A:
tBA =

total time taken = tAB + tBA
=

85

## Condition to collide or to reach at the same point

When the relative velocity of one particle w.r.t. to other particle is
directed towards each other then they will collide. (If there is a zero
relative acceleration).
Illustration:
Three particles A, B and C are situated at the vertices of an
equilateral triangle ABC of side a at t = 0. Each of the particles
moves with constant speed v. A always has its velocity along AB, B
along BC and C along CA. At what time will the particle meet each
other?
Sol: The motion of the particles is roughly sketched in figure. By
symmetry they will meet at the centroid O of the triangle. At
any instant the particles will from an equilateral triangle ABC
with the same.

## Centroid O. All the particles will meet at the centre.

Concentrate on the motion of any one particle, say B. At any
instant its velocity makes angle 30 with BO.
The component of this velocity along BO is v cos 30. This
component is the rate of decrease of the distance BO. Initially.
/
BO =
= = displacement of each particle.

=

86

## Alternative: Velocity of B is v along BC. The velocity of C is along

CA. Its component along BC is v cos 60 = v/2. Thus, the
separation BC decreases at the rate of approach velocity.

approach velocity = v + =
Since, the rate of approach is constant, the time taken in
reducing the separation BC from a to zero is t = =
Illustration:
Two cars A and B are moving west to east and south to north
respectively along crossroads. A moves with a speed of 72 kmh1
and is 500 m away from point of intersection of cross roads and B
moves with a speed of 54 kmh1 and is 400 m away from point of
intersection of cross roads. Find the shortest distance between
them?
Sol:

87

## Method I (Using the concept of relative velocity)

In this method we watch the velocity of A w.r.t. B. To do this we plot
the resultant velocity Vr. Since the accelerations of both the bodies
is zero, so the relative acceleration between them is also zero.
Hence the relative velocity will remain constant. So the path of A
with respect to B will be straight line and along the direction of
relative velocity of A with respect to B. The shortest distance
between A & B is when A is at point F (i.e. when we drop a
perpendicular from B on the line of motion of A with respect to B).
From figure
tan =
= =
........................(i)
This q is the angle made by the resultant velocity vector with the xaxis.
Also we know that from figure
OE =
=
.............................. (ii)
From equation (i) & (ii) we get
x = 375 m
EB = OB OE = 400 375 = 25 m
But the shortest distance is BF.
From magnified figure we see that BF = EB cos = 25
BF = 20 m

88

## Method II (Using the concept of maxima minima)

A & B be are the initial positions and A,B be the final positions after
time t.
B is moving with a speed of 15 m/sec so it will travel a distance of
BB = 15t during time t.
A is moving with a speed of 20 m/sec so it will travel a distance of
AA = 20t during time t.
So
OA =500 20 t
OB = 400 15 t
AB2 = OA2 + OB2 = (500 20t)2 + (400 15t)2 ........ (i)
For AB to be minimum AB2 should also be minimum

=
=0
= 2(400 15t) (15) + 2(500 20t) (20) = 0
= 1200 + 45t = 2000 80 t
125 t = 3200
89

t=

s.

## Hence A and B will be closest after

(

s.

Now
comes out to be positive hence it is a minima.
On substituting the value of t in equation (i) we get

AB2 = 400 15
= 16 + (12) = 20 m

+ 500 20
Minimum distance AB = 20 m.

## Method III (Using the concept of relative velocity of approach)

After time t let us plot the components of velocity of A & in the
direction along AB. When the distance between the two is
minimum; the relative velocity of approach is zero.
VA cos f + VB sin f = 0
(where af is the angle made by the line AB with the x-axis)
20 cos f = 15 sin f
tan f = =
Here do not confuse this angle with the angle in method (I)
because that is the angle made by the resultant with x-axis.
Here f is the angle made with x-axis when velocity of
approach in zero,

t=

## So, OB = 16 m and OA = 12m

AB = 16 + (12) = 20 m

90

CLASS EXERCISE:
Qus.Two ships are 10 km apart on a line running south to north.
The one farther north is steaming west at 20 km h1. The other
is steaming north at 20 km h1. What is their distance of
closest approach? How long do they take to reach it?
Ans. 52 km/h; 1/4 h = 15 min consider the situation shown in
figure for the two particle A and B.

## Qus.(1)Will the two particles will collide

(2) Find out shortest distance between two particles
Ans. (1) The particles will not collide
(2) 45m.

## Note: Muzzle Velocity is the velocity of bullet with respect to

the gun i.e. it is Relative Velocity.
EXERCISE 1
1. A stone is thrown upwards with a velocity 50 ms1. Another
stone is simultaneously thrown downwards from the same
location with a velocity 50 ms1. When the first stone is at the
highest point, the relative velocity of the second stone w.r.t. the
first stone is:
(A) Zero
(B) 50 ms1 (C) 100 ms1 (D) 150 ms1

91

2.

3.

4.

5.

## A thief is running away on a straight road in a jeep moving with

a speed of 9 m s1. A police man chases him on a motor cycle
moving at a speed of 10 m s1. If the instantaneous separation
of the jeep from the motorcycle is 100m, how long will it take
for the police man to catch the thief?
(A) 1s
(B) 19s
(C) 90s
(D) 100s
Two cars are moving in the same direction with a speed of 30
km h1. They are separated from each other by 5 km. Third car
moving in the opposite direction meets the two cars after an
interval of 4 minutes. What is the speed of the third car?
(A) 30 km h1
(B) 35 km h1
(C) 40 km h1
(D) 45 km h1
Shown in the figure is the displacement time graph for two
children going home from the school. Which of the following
statements about their relative motion is true?
Their relative velocity:
(A) first increases and then decreases
(B) first decreases and then increases
(C) is zero
(D) is non-zero constant.
A person standing on the escalator takes time t1 to reach the
top of a tower when the escalator is moving. He takes time t2
to reach the top of the tower when the escalator is standing.
How long will he take if he walks up a moving escalator?
(A) t2 t1
(B) t1 + t2
(C) t1 t2 /(t1 t2)
(D) t1 t2/(t1 + t2)

92

6.

7.

8.

9.

Shown in the figure are the velocity time graphs of the two
particles P1 and P2. Which of the following statements about
their relative motion is true?
Their relative velocity:
(A) is zero
(B) is non-zero but constant
(C) continuously decreases
(D) continuously increases
Two particles P1 and P2 are moving with velocities v1 and v2
respectively. Which of the statement about their relative
velocity vr 12 is true?
(A) vr 12> (v1 + v2)
(B) vr 12 cannot be greater than v1 v2
(C) vr 12 cannot be greater than v1 + v2
(D) vr 12< (v1 + v2)
Two identical trains take 3 sec to pass one another when going
in the opposite direction but only 2.5 sec if the speed of one is
increased by 50 %. The time one would take to pass the other
when going in the same direction at theiroriginal speed is:
(A) 10 sec (B) 12 sec
(C) 15 sec
(D) 18 sec
Two billiard balls are rolling on a flat table. One has velocity
components vx = 1m/s, vy =3 m/s and the other has
components vx = 2m/s and vy = 2 m/s. If both the balls start
moving from the same point, the angle between their path is (A) 60
(B) 45
(C) 22.5
(D) 15

93

## 10. A battalion of soldiers is ordered to swim across a river 500 ft

wide. At what minimum rate should they swim perpendicular
to river flow in order to avoid being washed away by the
waterfall 300 ft downstream? The speed of current is 3 m.p.h.:
(A) 6 m.p.h.
(B) 5 m.p.h.
(C) 4 m.p.h.
(D) 2 m.p.h.
11. A boat, which has a speed of 5 km/hr in still water, crosses a
river of width 1 km along the shortest possible path in 15
minutes. The velocity of the river water in km/hr is (A) 1
(B) 3
(C) 4
(D) 41
12. A bucket is placed in the open where the rain is falling
vertically. If a wind begins to blow at double the velocity of the
rain, how will be rate of filling of the bucket change?
(A) Remain unchanged
(B) Doubled
(C) Halved
(D)Become four times
13. A car with a vertical wind shield moves along in a rain storm at
the speed of 40 km/hr. The rain drops fall vertically with a
terminal speed of 20 m/s. The angle with the vertical at which
the rain drop strike the wind shield is (A) tan1 (5/9)
(B) tan1(9/5)
(C) tan1 (3/2)
(D) tan1(3)
SUBJECTIVE PROBLEMS:
14. Men are running along a road at 15 km/h behind one
another at equal intervals of 20 m. Cyclist are riding in
the same direction at 25 km/h at equal intervals of 30 m.
At what speed an observer travel along the road in
opposite direction so that whenever he meets a runner he
also meets a cyclist?
94

## 15. Two perpendicular rail tracks have two trains A & B

respectively. Train A moves north with a speed of 54 km h1
and train B moves west with a speed of 72 km h1. Assume
that both trains starts from same point. Calculate the
(a) rate of separation of the two trains
(b) relative velocity of ground with respect to B
(c) relative velocity of A with respect to B.
16. A man is swimming in a lake in a direction of 30 East of
North with a speed of 5 km/hr and a cyclist is going on a
road along the lake shore towards East at a speed of 10
km/hr. In what direction and with what speed would the
man appear to swim to the cyclist.
17. A motor boat has 2 throttle position on its engine. The
high speed position propels the boat at 10 km hr -1 in still
water and the low position gives half the higher speed.
The boat travels from its dock downstream on a river
with the throttle at low position and returns to its dock
with throttle at high position. The return trip took 15%
longer time than it did for the downstream trip. Find the
velocity of the water current in the river.
18. (I) A man can swim with a speed of 4 km h1 in still water.
How long does he take to cross a river 1 km wide if the river
flows steadily at 3 km h1 and he makes his strokes normal to
the river current? How far down the river does he go when he
reaches the other bank?
(II) If he keeps himself always at an angle of 120C with the
river flow while swimming.
(a) Find the time he takes to cross the river.
(b) At what point on the opposite bank will he arrive?

95

## 19. A river is flowing from west to east at a speed of 5 m/min. A

man on the south bank of the river, capable of swimming at 10
m/min in still water, wants to swim across the river in shortest
distance. In what direction should he swim?
20. An airplane is flying with velocity 502km/hour in north-east
direction. Wind is blowing at 25 km/hr from north to south.
What is the resultant displacement of airplane in 2 hours?
21. When a train has a speed of 10 m s1 eastward, raindrops that
are falling vertically with respect to the earth make traces that
are inclined 30 to the vertical on the windows of the train.
(a) What is the horizontal component of a drop's velocity with
respect to the earth? With respect to the train?
(b) What is the velocity of the raindrop with respect to the
earth? With respect to the train?
22. To a man walking at 7 km/h due west, the wind appears to
blow from the north-west, but when he walks at 3 km/h due
west, the wind appears to blow from the north. What is the
actual direction of the wind and what is its velocity?
23. When a motorist is driving with velocity 6 + , the wind
appears to come from the direction . When he doubles his
velocity the wind appears to come from the direction + .
Then the true velocity of the wind expressed in the form of
+ is ______.
24. 'n' numbers of particles are located at the vertices of a regular
polygon of 'n' sides having the edge length 'a'. They all start
moving simultaneously with equal constant speed 'v' heading
towards each other all the time. How long will the particles
take to collide?

96

## 25. Two ships are 10 km apart on a line running south to north.

The one further north is streaming west at 40 km/hr. The
other is streaming north at 40 km/hr. What is their distance of
closest approach and how long do they take to reach it?
26. A ship is sailing towards north at a speed of2m/s. The current
is taking it towards East at the rate of 1 m/s and a sailor is
climbing a vertical pole on the ship at the rate of 1 m/s. Find
the velocity of the sailor in space.
27. A motorboat is observed to travel 10 km hr1 relative to the
earth in the direction 37 north of east. If the velocity of the
boat due to the wind only is 2 km hr1 westward and that due
to the current only is 4 km hr1 southward, what is the
magnitude and direction of the velocity of the boat due to its
own power?
28. A person P sitting on a wooden block (which does not move
relative to water) in a flowing river sees two swimmers A and
B. A and B both have constant speed vm relative to water. P
observes that A starts from one point of the river bank and
appears to move perpendicular to the river flow. P also
observes that B starts from some point on the other bank at the
same time and moves downstream. The width of the river is 'd'
and it flows with velocity vr. If A and B both reach a point at
the same time, than find the initial separation between A and B.
29. A motorboat going down stream overcome a float at a point
M.60 minutes later it turned back and after some time passed
the float at a distance of 6 km from the point M. Find the
velocity of the stream assuming a constant velocity for the
motorboat in still water.

97

## 30. 2 swimmers start from point A on one bank of a river to reach

point B on the other bank, lying directly opposite to point A.
One of them crosses the river along the straight line AB, while
the other swims at right angles to the stream and then walks
the distance which he has been carried away by the stream to
get to point B. What was the velocity (assumed uniform) of his
walking if both the swimmers reached point B simultaneously?
Velocity of each swimmer in still water is 2.5 km hr-1 and the
stream velocity is 2 km hr-1.

## 31. An airplane pilot sets a compass course due west and

maintains an air speed of 240 km. hr1. After flying for hr, he
finds himself over a town that is 150 km west and 40 km south
of his starting point.
(a) Find the wind velocity, in magnitude and direction.
(b) If the wind velocity were 120 km. hr1 due south, in what
direction should the pilot set his course in order to travel
due west? Take the same air speed of 240 km. hr1.
32. Two straight AOB and COD meet each other right angles. A
person walking at a speed of 5 km/hr along AOB is at the
crossing O at noon. Another person walking at the same speed
along COD reaches the crossing O at 1:30 PM. Find at what time
the distance between them is least and what is its value?
*****
98

KEY
SESSION 1 & 2
CLASS EXERCISE
1. c
2.d
3. b

4.a

5. Ans: 33m

SESSION 3, 4 & 5
CLASS EXERCISE (A)
1. b
2. b
3.a
8.d
9.b
10.a

4.c

5.b

6.c

7.b

SESSION 6
CLASS EXERCISE
1. a
2.
3.Ans: i)
5.

6. Ans:

(V0) 3/2

ii)

4.d

## 7. Ans: O, (8/3) s; -7/2

SESSION 7, 8 & 9
CLASS EXERCISE
1. c
2.d
3.b

4.a
SESSION 10, 11 & 12

## CLASS EXERCISE (A)

1.c
2.c
3.b
8.c
CLASS EXERCISE (B)
1.a
2.b
3.d

4.b

5.

6.b

7.c

4.c

5.d

6.d

7.c
99

2.a
3.Ans: i) zero
5.d

1.a
2.d
3.c

4.c

5.c

6.d

1.b
2. c

3.b

4.d

5.a

7.a

8.b

4.c

6.

9.Ans: 2

## SESSION 13, 14 & 15

CLASS EXERCISE (A)
1.c
2.
3.a
8.c
9.b
10.b
CLASS EXERCISE (B)
1.b,c
2.d
3.b
10.b
11.b
CLASS EXERCISE (C)
1.d
2.c
3.b
8.c
9.c
10.b

4.a
11.c

5.c
12.c

6.d

7.d

5.b

6.d

7.b

9.a

4.c
11.d

5.a
12.c

6.b
13.b

7.c

100

SESSION 16
CLASS EXERCISE
1.d
2.Ans: i) 900
(
)
3.Ans:

## SESSION 18, 19 & 20

OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS
1. C
2. D
3. D
8. C
9. D
10. B

4. D
11. B

5.D
12. A

6. D
13.A

7. C

SUBJECTIVE PROBLEMS
14. 5 km/h
15. (a) 25 m/s or 90 km/hr
(b) 20 m/s or 72 km/hr due east
(c) 25 m/s or 90 km/hr at 37N of E
16. 30 N of W at 53 km/hr. 17.3 km/hr.
18. (I) 0.75 km
(II) (a)
h
(b)
km.

## 19. At an angle 30 west of north.

20. 505 km
21. (a) 0, 10 m/s West
(b) 103 m/s, 20 m/s
22. Coming from 5 km/hr, 53 N of E
23. (4 + 8 )
25.

24.

, hr

101

## 26. 2m/s in a direction making an angle of 60 with E, 45 with N

and 60 with the vertical
27. 102km/hr, 45 N of E 28. 2d
29.3 km/hr
30. 3 km/hr towards B
31. (a) 100 km/hr, 37 W of S (b) 30 N of W
32. 12: 45 PM
EXERCISE # 2
1. a > 10 m/s2 2.3.6 minute
2. (b) 2 m/s

3. (a)

= 45 ;

*****

102