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INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT

ON

MAINTENANCE OF COMPONENTS OF
AIRBUS A-320 AT Avionics Overhaul Shop
REPORT
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE
OF

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS


GURU GOBIND SINGH INDRAPRASTHA UNIVERSITY

Submitted by:
KANISHKA MALHOTRA (19915604912)
ANJALI ARYA (01315607813)
To the department
1

Of
Electrical and Electronics

NORTHERN INDIA ENGINEERING COLLEGE

Shastri Park, Delhi 110053

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It gives us great pleasure to present our industrial training report on Maintenance of


Components of Airbus-A320. No work, however big or small, has ever been done without
the contributions of others.
It would be a great pleasure to write a few words, which would although not suffice as the
acknowledgement of this long cherished effort, but in the absence of which this report would
necessarily be incomplete. So these words of acknowledgement come as a small gesture of
gratitude towards all those people, without whom the successful completion of this project
would not have been possible.
We would like to express our sincere gratitude to Mr. Anil Kumar, [Sr. Asst. General Manager
Engg. (Training school), Air-India Engineering Services Limited.] for helping us successfully
complete our work as a trainee in the AIR INDIA LTD., ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT, NORTHERN REGION.
We would also like to thank all the other personnel, directly or indirectly involved in assisting
with our training during the course of these 6 weeks and help us gain knowledge about the
functionalities and machineries in the Instrument/Radio/Electrical Overhaul Shops at the AIR
INDIA Airbus A-320 workshop facility. We have tried our level best to make this industrial
training report error free, but we regret for errors, if any.

KANISHKA MALHOTRA
ANJALI ARYA

COMPANY PROFILE

Air India is the flag carrier airline of India owned by Air India Limited (AIL), a Government
of India enterprise. It is the third largest airline in India (after IndiGo and Jet Airways) in
domestic market share, and operates a fleet of Airbus and Boeing aircraft serving various
domestic and international airports. It is headquartered at the Indian Airlines House in New
Delhi. Air India has two major domestic hubs at Indira Gandhi International Airport and
Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, and secondary hubs at Netaji Subhas Chandra
Bose International Airport, Kolkata and Chennai International Airport. The airline formerly
operated a hub at Frankfurt Airport which was terminated on account of high costs. However,
another international hub is being planned at the Dubai International Airport.
The airline was invited to be a part of the Star Alliance in 2007. Air India completed the
merger with Indian Airlines and some part of the agreed upgrades in its service and
membership systems by 2011. In August 2011, Air India's invitation to join Star Alliance was
suspended as a result of its failure to meet the minimum standards for the membership.
However, in October 2011, talks between the airline and Star Alliance resumed. On 13
December 2013, Star Alliance announced that Air India and the alliance have resumed the
integration process and the airline became the 27th member of Star Alliance on 11 July 2014.

CONTENTS

CERTIFICATES

ii

ACKOWLEDGEMENT

iv

COMPANY PROFILE

CONTENTS

vi

LIST OF TABLES

viii

LIST OF FIGURES

ix

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Infrastructure

1.2 Fleet Information

1.3 Engineering Facilities Keeping the Aircraft Flying

CHAPTER 2: MAINTENANCE AND TESTING FACILITIES

CHAPTER3: AIRCRAFT COMPONENTS AND OVERHAUL SHOPS

3.1 Aircraft Components

3.2 Overhaul Shops

10

3.2.1 List of Components Maintained by Radio Overhaul Shop

10

3.2.2 List of Components Maintained by Instrument Overhaul Shop

10

3.2.3 List of Components Maintained by Electrical Overhaul Shop

11

9
CHAPTER 4: AIRBUS A-320

12

CHAPTER 5: INSTRUMENT OVERHAUL SHOP

14

5.1 Gyroscopic System

15

5.2 Air Speed Indicator

17

5.3 Primary flight display

18

5.4 Autopilot

20

CHAPTER 6: RADIO OVERHAUL SHOP

21

6.1 Instrument Landing System

21

6.2 Emergency Locator Transmitter

26

6.3 Altimeter

27

6.4 Global Positioning System

29

CHAPTER 7: ELECTRICAL OVERHAUL SHOP

31

7.1 A P U

32

7.2 SMOKE DETECTORS

34

7.3 AVIONICS VENTILATION

37

7.4 LANDING LIGHTS

39

CHAPTER 8: OVERVIEW

40

REFRENCES

42

LIST OF TABLES

FIGURE

TITLE

NO.

PAGE
NO.

Air India Fleet

Aircraft operated by Air India

ICAO VISIBILITY CATEGORIES.

23

FIG

TITLE

URE
NO.

PAGE

LIST OF

NO.

FIGURES

Air India aircraft

Airbus A-320

12

Instrument Overhaul shop

14

Gyroscope

15

Gyroscope labeled

16

Airspeed Indicator

17

PFD

18

Instrument landing system

23

Localizer array and approach lighting

23

10

Marker Beakons

25

11

Emergency Locator Transmitter

26

12

Cockpit Display Of GPS

27

13

NAVSTAR GPS SYSTEM

28

14

Radio altimeter

29

15

APU for Airbus

32

16

Smoke detectors

34

17

Ionization smoke detectors

34

18

An Americium container from a smoke detector

35

19

Optical smoke detector

36
9

20

Avionics ventilation

37

21

Avionics ventilation controls

38

22

Landing light

39

23

Aircraft with landing light

40

10

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Air India is the flag carrier airline of India owned by Air India Limited (AIL), a Government
of India enterprise. It is the third largest airline in India (after IndiGo and Jet Airways) in
domestic market share, and operates a fleet of Airbus and Boeing aircraft serving various
domestic and international airports. It is headquartered at the Indian Airlines House in New
Delhi. Air India has two major domestic hubs at Indira Gandhi International Airport and
Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, and secondary hubs at Netaji Subhas Chandra
Bose International Airport, Kolkata and Chennai International Airport. The airline formerly
operated a hub at Frankfurt Airport which was terminated on account of high costs. However,
another international hub is being planned at the Dubai International Airport.
The airline was invited to be a part of the Star Alliance in 2007. Air India completed the
merger with Indian Airlines and some part of the agreed upgrades in its service and
membership systems by 2011. In August 2011, Air India's invitation to join Star Alliance was
suspended as a result of its failure to meet the minimum standards for the membership.
However, in October 2011, talks between the airline and Star Alliance resumed. On 13
December 2013, Star Alliance announced that Air India and the alliance have resumed the
integration process and the airline became the 27th member of Star Alliance on 11 July 2014.

Figure 1: Air India aircraft

1.1 Infrastructure

The Airlines aircraft maintenance


1 facilities are of the highest international standards. Air
India has developed state-of-the-art facilities for all aspects of maintenance, including engine
overhaul. These facilities are used not only by Air India but also by other airlines from time
to time. Our training facilities for Pilots are integrated at Hyderabad where Commanders and
Captains are trained in all types of aircraft in the Indian Airlines fleet. State-of-the-art full

flight simulators are available for A300, A320 and B737. Several international airlines also
avail of these training facilities. Air Indias continuous technology up gradation also extends
to other areas such as Reservations, Passenger Handling Systems and Customer Service.

1.2 Fleet Information

On 4 August 1993, Air India took the delivery of its first Boeing 747-400, registered VT-ESM
and named Konark. The aircraft was officially withdrawn from use and scrapped at Mumbai
in May 2011. The airline's first Boeing 777-200LR aircraft was delivered on 26 July 2007.
The aircraft was named after the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Air India received its first
Boeing 777-300ER aircraft on 9 October, the same year. The aircraft was named Bihar. Air
India received its first Boeing 787 dreamliner aircraft on 6 September 2012 and commenced
flights on 19 September 2012.

Apart from the Boeing aircraft, Air India also operates a wide range of Airbus aircraft. In
1989, Indian Airlines introduced the Airbus A320-200 aircraft, which Air India now uses to
operate both domestic and international short haul flights. In 2005, Indian Airlines introduced
the smaller, A319, which are now used mainly on domestic and regional routes. After the
merger in 2007, Air India inducted the biggest member of the A320 family, the A321, to
operate mainly on international short haul and medium haul routes. At the same time, Air
India leased the Airbus A330s to operate on medium-long haul international routes. As of
February 2013, Air India operates 62 A320 family aircraft.

New aircraft orders :


On 11 January 2006, Air India announced an order for 68 jets 8 Boeing 777-200LR
Worldliners, 15 Boeing 777-300ER, 18 Boeing 737-800 and 27 Boeing 787-8 Dreamliners.
The 18 737s ordered were later transferred to Air India Express. Air India has taken the
delivery of 20 Boeing 787-8 Dreamliners so far. All remaining dreamliners are expected to be
delivered by 2016.

Fleet restructuring :
As a part of the financial restructuring, Air India sold five of its eight Boeing 777-200LR to
Etihad Airways in December 2013. According to the airline, plans for introducing ultra-long
flights with service to Seattle, San Francisco and Los Angeles were cancelled due to factors
like high fuel prices and weak demand. In April 2014, the airline decided to sell its remaining
three Boeing 777-200LR as well, citing higher operating costs. On 24 April 2014, Air India
issued a tender for leasing 14 Airbus A320 aircraft for up to six years, to strengthen its
2
domestic network.

Current :
As of August 2015, the Air India fleet consists of the following aircraft (including leased
aircraft, excluding subsidiaries)

Air India Fleet


Aircraft

Airbus A319-100

In
Service

22

Orders

Passengers
F

Total

114

122

144

144

168

168

20 125

146

Notes

10 aircraft sold and


leased back, 5 are
on dry lease, 6 older
ones to be phased
out
6 aircraft sold and
leased back
VT-ESF in Star
Alliance livery

Airbus A320-200

24

Airbus A320neo

14

168

168

To be dry-leased
from Kuwaiti leasing
Co.

Airbus A321-200

20

12 172

184

12 aircraft sold and


leased back

Boeing 747-400

12 26 385

423

2 aircraft sold and


leased back

Boeing 777-200LR

238

VT-ALG Stored.

342

VT-ALJ in Star
Alliance livery. 3
orders converted to
equivalent number of
Boeing 737 MAX for
Air India Express.

256

7 aircraft sold and


leased back. 20th
aircraft VT-ANU
delivered in Star
Alliance livery
becoming the world's
first 787 in any
alliance livery.

Boeing 777-300ER

Boeing 787-8

12

21

6
3

Total

107

24

35 195

35 303

18 238

Table 1 : Air India Fleet

Aircraft operated by Air India (19701999)


Aircr
aft

Total
Operat
ed

Introdu
ced

Retir
ed

Aircraft operated by Air India (2000


present)
Aircr
aft

Total
Operat
ed

Introdu
ced

Retir
ed

Airbus
A300100

1994

1994

Airbus
A319100

24

2005

Active

Airbus
A300200

1982

2002

Airbus
A321200

20

2007

Active

Airbus
A310300

29

1986

2012

Airbus
A330200

2007

2014

Airbus
A320200

32

1989

Active

Boeing
737-200

2007

2011

Boeing
747-200

2007

2007

14

Boeing
757-200
Boeing
767-300

2006

2008

Boeing
777-200

2006

2010

2005

2011

1986

Boeing
777200ER

3 (5 sold)

2007

Active

1995

Boeing
777200LR
Boeing
777300ER

12

2007

Active

Boeing
787-8

20

2012

Active

Boeing
747-300

Boeing
747-400

14

Douglas
DC-860F

11

1971
1988
1993

1977

2003
2008
Active

Douglas
DC-870F

Ilyushin
Il-62M

1989

Lockhee
d L-1011
TriStar

1995

1996

Boeing

1960

1990s

1983

1990

Aircraft operated by Air India (19701999)


Aircr
aft

Total
Operat
ed

Introdu
ced

Retir
ed

707-436
Table 2 : Aircraft operated by Air India

1.3 ENGINEERING FACILITIES KEEPING THE AIRCRAFT FLYING

As proud owners of a large fleet, Air India Limiteds operations cover extensive domestic as
well as international networks. Major Service support is provided by its Engineering
department to keep the aircraft in perfect flying condition. By suitably overhauling, repairing
and modifying the Air India fleet, this department prepares them to meet specified
airworthiness standards.
As dedicated team of trained engineers and technicians work hard to carry out stringent
maintenance procedures. Whats more, with critical jobs now being undertaken in-house Air
Indias turnaround time has reduced greatly, making it self-reliant.
Air India Limiteds engineering structure matches the best in international standards. The
entire activity is divided into four regions-Western at Mumbai, Northern at Delhi, Eastern at
Calcutta and Southern at Hyderabad, and they ably handle all major Air Indias fleet types.
A new Avionics Complex at Delhi caters to the avionics and airframe accessories of A-320
aircraft. Equipped with modern Test benches, this fully air-conditioned complex boasts 0.5
micron particle cleanliness!
Indian Airlines Limited A forward looking company, as much for actual flight performance,
as for endless possibilities in aircraft maintenance. Guided by unique, new generation
technology, and forever endorsing latest breakthroughs in related fields, Air india executives
difficult maintenance tasks with a rare show of expertise its growing list of satisfied domestic
and foreign clients, and as the company prepares to take off into the future, exciting
challenges dot the runway. Challenges, it is more than prepared to meet, because for Air India
Limited, as its unparalleled track record has shown, success goes well beyond the skies!

CHAPTER 2

MAINTENANCE AND TESTING FACILITIES:

Air India Limited provides its fleet of A-300, A-320 and B-737 aircraft with contemporary,
state-of-the-art engineering facilities. Hundred percent component servicing of B-737s, 90%
of A-300s and 60% of A-320s are already being done by Air India Limited. It also maintains a
number of HS-748 aircraft, belonging to agencies like BSF, AAI and NRSA.
A sound infrastructure takes care of all engineering activities. Each Hangar complex
functions as a self-sufficient unit with various shops like machine, sheet metal, fitting,
carpentry, tailoring and composite material stores for tools and spares, as also sections on
quality control, production planning and spares provisioning. Significant tasks undertaken
include:

Modification of ageing fleet.


Repair of high cost structural components.
Building and refurbishing of aircraft cabin.
Heavy maintenance of aircraft.

Major modifications carried out independently by Air India Limited include Fire Blocking of
Seat Cushion and Installation of Emergency Locator Transmitter, Global Positioning System
and others. Modification of Boeing-737 now enables it to carry V-2500 aircraft engines,
thereby reducing transportation costs substantially.
6

Maintenance Sections

Each of the bases has dedicated Line and Major maintenance sections as well as Overhaul
shops.The Hangar at Mumbai, built on Pile Foundation is the largest in the country. The roof
is of the Cantilever type which means that it rests on cable suspension. Its height at entry
point is 55 feet and the Hangar can accommodate 6 A-300 aircraft at a time.

Production Planning

There is a Production Planning and Control section at every base which handles the total
tasks of production monitoring and control. Its range of activities includes loading of
overhaul shops, planning of major maintenance checks, aircraft routing, provision of
material, warranty and insurance claims, spares, modification kits, special tooling drawings,
technical literature and so on.

Quality Control

The Quality Control section at every base is responsible for the total quality control of the
aircraft. This section maintains the current modification status of the aircraft / engine and
investigates delays and defects. It undertakes condition monitoring of engines and aircraft
components besides ensuring that all approved maintenance schedules are carried out on
time.
The section, in addition, maintains technical documents, monitor trends and repetitive defects
of aircraft and carries out liaison with manufacturers and the DGCA.

Industrial Engineering

In order to achieve productivity in the Engineering department, the Industrial Engineering


Section sets up norms (both time standards and Turnaround Time/ Grounding Period) for
major checks of different aircraft and servicing of various components and ensures control on
manpower deployment, shift pattern, overtime, etc., through job costing and suitable
Management Information Systems.

In-House Testing Facilities :

Automatic Test Equipment Computer


(ATEC)
7

Automatic Test Equipment Complex at Delhi, houses two very hi-tech computerised Test
equipment, ATEC 5000 and STS 1000, capable of testing 31 LRUs of A-320 aircraft. The
shop enjoys DGCA approval.

Automatic Test Equipment Computer 5000 is a versatile microprocessor based computer that
tests Avionics components of modern aircraft like B-747, B-757, B-767, A-300/310/320/321,
DC-9710, ATR42/72, etc. with appropriate interfaces and software.

Not just capable of simulating all kinds of electrical, environmental and pneumatic signals
generated during aircraft operation, ATEC also records all outputs generated by the units, on a
16.6 MHz computer.

STS 1000 from Honeywell is being used to test and service three LRUs of Inertial Reference
System, viz. ADIRU, ADM and CDU.
Both Test equipment are backed by high quality UPS, stringent environmental conditions,
continuous monitoring and timely corrective action. Being handled by qualified personnel
trained at vendor facilities, this complex has the expertise to test and repair LRUs up to Card
level (level 2) apart from vendor modifications. The maintenance, repair and upgradation of
ATEC 5000 and STS 1000 are being carried out in-house by trained personnel.

These Test equipment have been very busy since their installation in 1991, catering to the
needs of our fleet of A-320 aircraft and simulators, and can truly be called the Heart-Centre
of about 2000 LRUs spread all over the country.

DFDR Read-out Facility

A PC-AT 386-DX system with 260 MB hard disk is being used for DFDR data retrieval
activities at Mumbai. With this facility, one flights data from DFDR can be decoded and
printed in three hours and flight data from a cassette can be made available for analysis in just
two hours.

DFDR decoding and analysis help in monitoring the health of the aircraft and in maintaining
the required safety standards
8

CHAPTER 3

AIRCRAFT COMPONENTS & OVERHAUL SHOPS

3.1 AIRCRAFT COMPONENTS :

The components used in different systems of aircraft are broadly classified as given below:

1. Airframe & Accessories


2. Engines
3. Power Supply
4. Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)
5. Electrical System
6. Instrument System
7. Radio System

Called Avionics System in


A320 Aircraft

The list of components of different aircraft which the overhaul shops can handle is approved
by Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA). A very well documented and certified
Maintenance Manual acts as a 9Bible for component overhaul. Extent to which individual
component can be maintained is also very clearly divided into 4 categories:

Category A : INSPECTION & TESTING

Category B : REPAIRING
Category C : OVERHAULING
Category D : MODIFICATION

DGCA gives approvals for conducting above maintenance operation/ Testing to individual
Engineers and Technicians for each components. This ensure that the person doing
maintenance possess the required skill and competence in component Inspection, Testing,
Maintenance and Certification.
As per airworthiness rules and regulations, all the components fixed on any system in aircraft
needs to be regularly monitored. Each component has a fixed life in terms of flying hours.
After completing each flying hour cycle, the component should be removed from the aircraft
and should go to the overhaul shop for necessary action. All components have the Monitoring
Cards which records the complete information regarding its usage and maintenance (History
Card).

3.2 OVERHAUL SHOPS

There are 5 overhaul shops for maintaining the components of aircraft.


1.

Airframe & Accessories Overhaul Shop

2.

Engine Overhaul Complex (Jet Engine Overhaul Complex)

3.

Electrical Overhaul Shop

4.

Radio Overhaul Shop

5.

Instrument Overhaul Shop

{Discussed}

3.2.1 LIST OF COMPONENTS MAINTAINED BY RADIO OVERHAUL SHOP

1. Instrument Landing System (ILS)


2. Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)
3. Radio Altimeter (RA)
4. Global Positioning System10(GPS)

3.2.2 LIST OF COMPONENTS MAINTAINED BY INSTRUMENT OVERHAUL


SHOP

1. Gyroscopic system
2. Airspeed indicator
3. Primary flight display
4. Autopilot
3.2.3 LIST OF COMPONENTS MAINTAINED BY ELECTRICAL OVERHAUL
SHOP

1. Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)


2. Smoke detectors
3. Avionics Ventilation
4. Landing lights

11

CHAPTER 4

AIRBUS A-320

Figure 2: Airbus A-320


Specifications:

GENERAL
Crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Passengers . . . . . . . Up to 180 (dense)
Typical Two-class . . . . . . 150
ENGINES
2 CFMI CFM56-5 or
2 IAE V2500 with up to 26,500lb thrust each
AVIONICS

12

Two crew member design


Two primary flight displays (PFD)
Two navigation displays (ND)

Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitor (ECAM)


Two Multipurpose Control and Display Units (MCDU)
DIMENSIONS
Span
Length
Height

111ft 10in
123ft 23in
38ft 7in

Fuselage width 12ft 11in


wing sweepback 24.96 deg. @ quarter chord
wing area 1,317.5sq ft
Range 2,700 - 2,900nm
WEIGHTS
MTOW
MLW
MZFW
operating weight empty
max fuel capacity.
Engine thrust 2x 25,000lb

162,000lb
142,200lb
134,500lb
92,100lb
6,300USg
26,500lb

PERFORMANCE
RANGE
Range (with 150 passengers):
2,900nm
SPEEDS
Max operating speed 350kts 0.82mach
Max cruise speed 487kts @
28,000ft 454kts @37,000ft
FIELD PERFORMANCE
TO field length 5,630ft
Landing field length 4

13

CHAPTER 5

INSTRUMENT OVERHAUL SHOP

Figure 3: Instrument Overhaul shop

TOPICS
1) Gyroscopic System
2) Air Speed Indicator
3) Primary flight display
4) Autopilot

14

5.1 GYROSCOPE:

Figure 4: Gyroscope

In addition to the air speed indicator, the altimeter then vertical speed indicator, a basic group
of flight instruments also comprise of instruments which provide direct indication of an
aircraft altitude. There are three such instruments namely: - a Gyro Horizon (sometimes
called an artificial horizon), a direction indicator and a turn and a bank indicator that
1completes group is termed as the basis six arrangement.

THE GYROSCOPE & ITS PROPERTIES

15 may be defined as a system containing a heavy metal or


As a mechanical device a gyroscope
rotor universally mounted so that it has 3 degrees of freedom:

1. Spinning Freedom:
its centre.

about an axis perpendicular through

2. Tilting Freedom:

about a horizontal axis at right angles to

the spin axis.


3. Veering Freedom:

about a vertical axis perpendicular to

both the other axis.


The 3 degrees of freedom are obtained by mounting the rotor in two co-centrically pivoted
rings called inner and outer rings. The whole assembly is known as gimbal system of a free or
spare Gyroscope. The gimbal system is mounted in a frame so that in its normal positioning
all the axes are mutually at right angles to one another and intersect at the center of gravity of
the rotor.
When the rotor is made to spin speed however, the device then becomes a true gyroscope
possessing two important fundamental properties:

Gyroscopic Inertia or Rigidity

Precision

Both these properties depend upon the principle of conservation of angular momentum which
means that the angular momentum of a body about a given point remains constant unless
some force is applied to change its angular momentum which is the product of the moment of
inertia and the angular velocity of a body referred to a given point the center of gravity in
case of a Gyroscope.

Figure
16

RIGIDITY

5: Gyroscope labeled

The property which resist any force tending to change the plane of the rotor rotation. It is
dependent on three factors, firstly the mass of the rotor, secondly the speed of rotation and
lastly the distance at which the mass acts at the center i.e. radius of gyration.

PRECISION
The angular change in direction of plane of rotation under the influence of an applied force.
The change in direction takes place not in line with the force but always at a point 90 degrees
away in the direction of rotation. The rate of precision depends upon 3 factors :

The strength a direction of the applied force.

The moment of inertia of the rotor

The angular velocity of the rotor.

The greater the force, the greater is the rate of precision which the greater the moment of
inertia and the greater the angular velocity, the smaller the rate of precision.
Precision of a rotor will continue while force is applied until the plane of rotation becomes
co-incident with that of the force.
At this point, there will be no further resistance to the force and so precision will cease. The
axis about a force is applied is termed the input axis and the one which precision takes place
is termed output axis.
1 .Space Gyro- It has freedom in three planes of axis at right angles to each other. This is a
perfectly balanced gyro and has no friction drift. It is difficult to construct
2.Free Gyro

- It has freedom in 3 planes of axis .

3.Earth Gyro - Controlled by earth gravity and hence used in artificial horizons
4.Tide Gyro - It is controlled by some external force . 5.Rate Gyro
plane on axis .

5.2 AIRSPEED INDICATOR:

17

- Freedom in only one

Figure 6 : Airspeed Indicator


DESCRIPTION
This instrument contains a capsule operated mechanism which measures the pitot / static
pressure differential and provides airspeed indication in terms of knots, up to altitudes of
50,000 feet. Internal lighting is provided to illuminate the presentation.

OPERATION
The pressure-sensitive capsule expands and contracts in response to change in the pilot /
static differential pressure. The capsule deflection is transmitted via the rocking shaft, to the
sector which converts the linear motion to rotary movement of the pointer shaft and,
therefore, the pointer.
The gear ratio between the sector and the pointer shaft pinion is such that the capsule
deflection is suitably magnified. The rocking shaft hair spring removes backlash from the
mechanism.
Its absolutely necessary during testing operations, to maintain the pressure in the pilot
pressure system "P" constantly greater than or equal to that prevailing in the static pressure
system "S".

5.3 PRIMARY FLIGHT DISPLAY

18

Figure 7 : PFD

A primary flight display or PFD is a modern aircraft instrument dedicated to flight


information. Much like multi-function displays, primary flight displays are built around
an Liquid-crystal display or CRT display device. Representations of older six pack or "steam
gauge" instruments are combined on one compact display, simplifying pilot workflow and
streamlining cockpitlayouts.
Most airliners built since the 1980s as well as many business jets and an increasing
number of newer general aviation aircraft have glass cockpits equipped with primary
flight and multi-function displays.
Mechanical gauges have not been completely eliminated from the cockpit with the onset of
the PFD; they are retained for backup purposes in the event of total electrical failure.

Components:
While the PFD does not directly use the pitot-static system to physically display flight data, it
still uses the system to make altitude, airspeed, vertical speed, and other measurements
precisely using air pressure and barometric readings. An air data computer analyzes the
information and displays it to the pilot in a readable format. A number of manufacturers
produce PFDs, varying slightly in appearance and functionality, but the information is
displayed to the pilot in a similar fashion.

Layout:

19

The details of the display layout on a primary flight display can vary enormously, depending
on the aircraft, the aircraft's manufacturer, the specific model of PFD, certain settings chosen

by the pilot, and various internal options that are selected by the aircraft's owner (i.e., an
airline, in the case of a large airliner). However, the great majority of PFDs follow a similar
layout convention.
The center of the PFD usually contains an attitude indicator (AI), which gives the pilot
information about the aircraft's pitch and roll characteristics, and the orientation of the
aircraft with respect to the horizon. Unlike a traditional attitude indicator, however, the
mechanical gyroscope is not contained within the panel itself, but is rather a separate device
whose information is simply displayed on the PFD. The attitude indicator is designed to look
very much like traditional mechanical AIs. Other information that may or may not appear on
or about the attitude indicator can include the stall angle, a runway diagram, ILS localizer and
glide-path needles, and so on. Unlike mechanical instruments, this information can be
dynamically updated as required; the stall angle, for example, can be adjusted in real time to
reflect the calculated critical angle of attack of the aircraft in its current configuration
(airspeed, etc.). The PFD may also show an indicator of the aircraft's future path (over the
next few seconds), as calculated by onboard computers, making it easier for pilots to
anticipate aircraft movements and reactions.
To the left and right of the attitude indicator are usually the airspeed and altitude indicators,
respectively. The airspeed indicator displays the speed of the aircraft in knots, while the
altitude indicator displays the aircraft's altitude above mean sea level (AMSL). These
measurements are conducted through the aircraft's pitot system, which tracks air pressure
measurements. As in the PFD's attitude indicator, these systems are merely displayed data
from the underlying mechanical systems, and do not contain any mechanical parts (unlike an
aircraft's airspeed indicator and altimeter). Both of these indicators are usually presented as
vertical tapes, which scroll up and down as altitude and airspeed change. Both indicators
may often have bugs, that is, indicators that show various important speeds and altitudes,
such as V speeds calculated by a flight management system, do-not-exceed speeds for the
current configuration, stall speeds, selected altitudes and airspeeds for the autopilot, and so
on.

Drawbacks:
The great variability in the precise details of PFD layout makes it necessary for pilots to study
the specific PFD of the specific aircraft they will be flying in advance, so that they know
exactly how certain data is presented. While the basics of flight parameters tend to be much
the same in all PFDs (speed, attitude, altitude), much of the other useful information
presented on the display is shown in different formats on different PFDs. For example, one
PFD may show the current angle of attack as a tiny dial near the attitude indicator, while
another may actually superimpose this information on the attitude indicator itself. Since the
various graphic features of the PFD are not labeled, the pilot must learn what they all mean in
advance.
A failure of a PFD deprives the 20
pilot of an extremely important source of information. While
backup instruments will still provide the most essential information, they may be spread over
several locations in the cockpit, which must be scanned by the pilot, whereas the PFD
presents all this information on one display. Additionally, some of the less important

information, such as speed and altitude bugs, stall angles, and the like, will simply disappear
if the PFD malfunctions; this may not endanger the flight, but it does increase pilot workload
and diminish situational awareness.

5.4 AUTOPILOT
An autopilot is a system used to control the trajectory of a vehicle without constant 'handson' control by a human operator being required. Autopilots do not replace a human operator,
but assist them in controlling the vehicle, allowing them to focus on broader aspects of
operation, such as monitoring the trajectory, weather and systems. Autopilots are used
in aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and others. Autopilots have evolved significantly over time,
from early autopilots that merely held an attitude to modern autopilots capable of performing
automated landings under the supervision of a pilot. The autopilot system on airplanes
sometimes colloquially referred as"George"

CHAPTER 6

RADIO OVERHAUL SHOP

TOPICS:
1) Instrument Landing System
2) Emergency Locator Transmitter
3) Altimeter
4) Global Positioning System

6.1 INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM

The Instrument Landing System (ILS) is an instrument approach system which provides
precise guidance to an aircraft 21
approaching a runway and in some cases along the runway
surface.
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has defined three categories of visibility,
the Third of which is subdivided. All are defined in terms of Runway Visual Range (RVR)

and, except category III, Decision Height (DH). Due to some problems, category III has not
been installed in India. The various categories are defined in Table

CATEGORY

DECISION HEIGHT (DH)

RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE


(RVR)

60m (200 ft)

800m (2600 ft)

II

30m (100 ft)

400m (1300 ft)

IIIA

---------------

200m (650 ft)

IIIB

---------------

30m (100 ft)

IIIC

---------------

ZERO

Table 3 : ICAO VISIBILITY CATEGORIES.

Principle of Operation

An ILS consists of two independent sub-systems, one providing lateral guidance, the other
vertical guidance to aircraft approaching a runway.
The emission patterns of the localizer and glideslope signals. Note that the glideslope beams
are partly formed by the reflection of the glideslope aerial in the ground plane.
A localizer (LOC) antenna array is normally located beyond the departure end of the runway
and generally consists of several pairs of directional antennas. Two signals are transmitted on
a carrier frequency between 108 MHz and 111.975 MHz. One is modulated at 90 Hz, the
other at 150 Hz and these are transmitted from separate but co-located aerials. Each aerial
transmits a fairly narrow beam, one slightly to the left of the runway centerline, the other to
the right. The localizer receiver on the aircraft measures the difference in the depth of
modulation of the 90 Hz and 150 Hz signals, when this difference is zero the receiver aerial is
on the centerline of the localizer which normally coincides with the runway centerline.
A glideslope (GS) antenna array is sited to one side of the runway touchdown zone. The GS
signal is transmitted on a carrier frequency between 328.6 MHz and 335.4 MHz using a
technique similar to that of the localizer, the centreline of the glideslope signal being arranged
to define a glideslope at approximately 3 above the horizontal.
Localizer and glideslope carrier22
frequencies are paired so that only one selection is required
to tune both receivers.
Localizer and glideslope signals are displayed on a cockpit instrument, called a Course
deviation indicator (CDI), as vertical and horizontal needles (or an electronic display

simulating needles). The pilot controls the aircraft so that the needles remain centered on the
display, the aircraft then follows the ILS centerline. The signals are also fed into autopilot
systems to allow approaches to be flown on autopilot.

Figure 8 : Instrument landing system

(localizer and glideslope approach for aircrafts)


Components
A complete instrument landing system includes additional sub-systems in addition to the
localizer and glideslope systems described above.

23

Fig 9: Localizer array and approach lighting

Modern localizer antennas are highly directional. However, usage of older, less directional
antennas allows a runway to have a non-precision approach called a localizer backcourse.
This lets aircraft land using the signal transmitted from the back of the localizer array. This
signal is reverse sensing so a pilot would have to fly opposite the needle indication. Highly
directional antennas do not provide a sufficient signal to support a backcourse. In the United
States, backcourse approaches are commonly associated with Category I systems at smaller
airports, that do not have an ILS on both ends of the primary runway.

Marker Beacons:
On some installations marker beacons operating at a carrier frequency of 75 MHz are
provided. When the transmission from a marker beacon is received it activates an indicator on
the pilot's instrument panel and the modulating tone of the beacon is audible to the pilot. The
height at which these signals will be received in an aircraft on the correct glideslope is
promulgated. Although the following three types of beacon are specified, in practice it is rare
to find middle or inner markers and outer markers are no longer universal.

Outer Marker
The outer marker should be located 7.2 km (3.9 NM) from the threshold except that, where
this distance is not practicable, the outer marker may be located between 6.5 and 11.1 km (3.5
and 6 NM) from the threshold. The modulation is two dashes per second of a 400 Hz tone,
the indicator is blue. The purpose
24of this beacon is to provide height, distance and equipment
functioning checks to aircraft on intermediate and final approach. In the United States, an
NDB is often combined with the outer marker beacon in the ILS approach (called a Locator
Outer Marker, or LOM); in Canada, low-powered NDBs have replaced marker beacons
entirely.

Middle Marker
The middle marker should be located so as to indicate, in low visibility conditions, that visual
contact with the runway is imminent, Ideally at a distance of 1050m from the threshold. It is
modulated with a 1300 Hz tone as alternate dots and dashes.

Inner Marker
The inner marker, when installed, shall be located so as to indicate in low visibility conditions
the imminence of arrival at the runway threshold. This is typically the position of an aircraft
on the ILS as it reaches Category II minima. The modulation is 3000 Hz dots at 6 per second.

25

Figure 10 : Marker Beakons

6.2 EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER

Fig 11 : Emergency Locator Transmitter

DESCRIPTION:
ARTEX ELT 110-406 is an automatic activated Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT). It
is a device to detect the aircraft after it has been crashed. It can be manually activated via
the MANU-OF-AUTO switch on the unit, or via the optional remote AUTO/MANU
switch on the front of the aircraft. It gets activated automatically with the longitudinal
thrust of 5g for 55 milliseconds.
It is an Oran7ge plastic box of (216*82*60) mm dimension, fixed on a mounting tray and
locked by a metallic strap with Quick Operatinglatch.

OPERATION:
The ELT is equipped with an impact g switch that will automatically activate the
transmitter when a g forces of at least 5g is applied to the longitudinal axis of the
aircraft, from nose to tail for 55 milliseconds. Due to this it transmits the standard swept
tone on 121.5MHz and 243.0MHz.
The 406.025MHz transmitter turns on every 50
26
seconds for 440 milliseconds (standard short message) or 520 milliseconds (optional long
message).

During this time an encoded message is sent to the satellite. The information contained in
this message is shown below:

Serial number of the Transmitter.


Country code.
I.D. code.
Position coordinates (optional).
The 406MHz Transmitter will operate for 24 Hours and then shuts down automatically.
The 121.5/243.0MHz Transmitter will continue to operate until the unit has exhausted the
battery power, which typically is at least 72 Hours.
One of the advantages of the 406MHz transmitter is that it will produce a much more
accurate position, typically 1 to 2 Km as compared to 15 to 20 Km for 121.5/243.0MHz
Transmitters. It also transmits a digital message which allows the search and rescue
authorities to contact the owner/operator of the aircraft through a database. Information
contained in the database that may be useful in the event of crash is shown below:

Type of the aircraft.


Address of the owner.
Telephone Number of the owner.
Aircraft registration number.
Alternate emergency contact.
Once the ELT is activated and the 406MHz signal is detected from the satellite and a
position is calculated, the 121.5/243.0MHz transmissions are used to home in on the crash
site.

6.3 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

Fig 12 : Cockpit Display Of GPS


27

GPS or Global Positioning System is a system that works with navigation, tracking, and
positioning. It is worldwide, using radio-navigational systems that are stemmed from
satellites. A grouping of 24 satellites and ground stations are used to calculate positions for a
GPS. The accuracy of these satellites for a GPS can be measured up even to a centimeter.
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system made up of a
network of 24 satellites placed into orbit by the U.S. Department of Defense. GPS was
originally intended for military applications, but in the 1980s, the government made the
system available for civilian use. GPS works in any weather conditions, anywhere in the
world, 24 hours a day. There are no subscription fees or setup charges to use GPS.
The GPS was initially used for military operations. Providing the military with precise
locations and navigations, the GPS is a wonderful asset. Standard Positioning Service and
Precise Positioning Service are the two levels of service that are provided by GPS. The first
(SPS) is for consumer use of the GPS and is available worldwide. It gives accuracy of
approximately 100 meters longitude and latitude. The second (PPS) give military positioning
of approximately 25 meters.
GPS, is the only fully-functional satellite navigation system. A constellation of more than two
dozen GPS satellites broadcasts precise timing signals by radio to GPS receivers, allowing
them to accurately determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude) in any weather,
day or night, anywhere on Earth.
GPS has become a vital global utility, indispensable for modern navigation on land, sea, and
air around the world, as well as an important tool for map-making, and land surveying. GPS
also provides an extremely precise time reference, required for telecommunications and some
scientific research, including the study of earthquakes.
GPS usage by aircraft passengers
Most airlines allow passenger use of GPS units on their flights, except during landing and
take-off when other electronic devices are also restricted. Even though inexpensive consumer
GPS units have a minimal risk of interference, there is still a potential for interference.
Because of this possibility, a few airlines disallow use of hand-held receivers for safety
reasons. However, other airlines integrate aircraft tracking into the seat-back television
entertainment system, available to all passengers even during takeoff and landing.

28

Fig 13 : NAVSTAR GPS SYSTEM

Precise time reference:


Many systems that must be accurately synchronized use GPS as a source of accurate time.
For instance, the GPS can be used as a reference clock for time code generators or NTP
clocks. Also, when deploying sensors (for seismology or other monitoring application), GPS
may be used to provide each recording apparatus with a precise time source, so that the time
of events may be recorded accurately. Communications networks often rely on this precise
timing to synchronize RF generating equipment, network equipment and multiplexers.
The atomic clocks on the satellites are set to "GPS time". GPS time is counted in days, hours,
minutes, and seconds, in the manner that is conventional for most time standards. However,
GPS time is not corrected to the rotation of the Earth, ignoring leap seconds and other
corrections. GPS time was set to read the same as Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) in
1980, but has since diverged as leap seconds were added.
The GPS day is identified in the GPS signals using a week number along with a day-of-week
number. GPS week zero started at 00:00:00 UTC (00:00:19 TAI) on January 6, 1980. The
week number is transmitted in a ten-bit field, and so wraps round every 1024 weeks (7168
days). The transmitted week number returned to zero at 00:00:19 TAI on August 22, 1999
(23:59:47 UTC on August 21, 1999). GPS receivers thus need to know the time to within
3584 days in order to correctly interpret the GPS time signal. A new field is being added to
the GPS navigation message that supplies the calendar year number in a sixteen-bit field, thus
performing this disambiguation for any receivers that know about the new field.
The GPS navigation message also includes the difference between GPS time and UTC, which
is 14 seconds as of 2006. Receivers subtract this offset from GPS time in order to display
UTC time. They may further adjust the UTC time adjust for a local time zone. New GPS
units will initially show the incorrect UTC time, or not attempt to show UTC time at all, after
achieving a GPS lock for the first time. However, this is usually corrected within 15 minutes,
once the UTC offset message is received for the first time. The GPS-UTC offset field is only
eight bits, and so wraps round every 256 leap seconds. There is also a leap second warning
bit, to help GPS receivers tick UTC correctly through a leap second, but its use is
troublesome due to misunderstandings about its semantics.

6.4 RADIO ALTIMETER

29

Fig 14 : Radio altimeter

DESCRIPTION:
It is the air borne Frequency-Modulated Continuous Wave instrument used to determine
the altitude above the terrain in the range from 0 to 2500 feet. It provides accurate reading
to the pilot about the aircraft altitude.
It consists of a receiver-transmitter, an indicator and a transmit and receive antenna. It also
consists of an optimized circuit for displaying altitude in the range from 0 to 2500 feet.

RECEIVER-TRANSMITTER (RT): The RT produces the transmit signal to processes the


return signal to produce Altitude information. It contains:
A circuit required to produce, Modulate and Transmit an FM CW signal.
The receiver section contains the circuit necessary for the reception of the returned FM
CW signal.
The receiver sections also contain the circuit to filter, amplify and determine the
frequency of the returned signal.
It contains a monitor circuit to determine the validity and reliability of the altitude.
ANTENNA: There are two antennas. One used for transmitting and other used for
receiving. The antenna is a cone type antenna mounted underneath the aircraft so there
will be no obstruction of the transmitted signal.

OPERATION:
The aircraft approaches the runway along the desired glide path.
The pilot set the DH index to the desired altitude.
The received FM CW signal continuously updates the indicator.
The indicator displays the altitude continuously through the descent.
Altitude trip no 8 is annunciated and fasten seat belt sign is lit.
The aircraft continues to descent. The DH annunciated light and the pilot
begins the landing procedure.
The landing gear touches the runway and the indicator reads 0 feet.
As the weight of the aircraft is placed on the landing gear, the indicator reads
less than 0 foot.

30

CHAPTER 7

ELECTRICAL OVERHAUL SHOP

TOPICS

1) A P U
2) SMOKE DETECTORS
3) AVIONICS VENTILATION
4) LANDING LIGHTS

Aircraft Electrical Systems:

The function of the aircraft electrical system is to generate, regulate and distribute
electrical power throughout the aircraft
New-generation aircraft rely heavily on electrical power because of the wide use of
electronic flight instrument systems

Electrical Power Uses

Aircraft electrical power is used to operate:


Aircraft Flight Instruments
Essential Systems
Passenger Services
Essential power is power that the aircraft needs to be able to continue safe operation
Passenger services power is the power that used for:
Cabin lighting
Operation of entertainment systems
Preparation of food

Power Used:

31

Aircraft electrical components operate on many different voltages both AC and DC


However, most of the systems use:

115 VAC @ 400 Hz


28 VDC
26 VAC is also used in some aircraft for lighting

Power Sources:

There are server different power sources on large aircraft to be able to handle
excessive loads, for redundancy, and for emergency situations.
These power sources include:
Engine driven AC generators
Auxiliary Power Units
External power
Ram Air Turbines
Engine Driven AC Generators
Each of the engines on an aircraft drives an AC generator
The power produced by these generators is used in normal flight to supply the entire
aircraft with power

7.1 Auxiliary Power Unit

32

Fig 15 : APU for Airbus

An Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is a relatively small self-contained generator used in


aircraft to start the main engines, usually with compressed air, and to provide electrical
power, hydraulic pressure and air conditioning while the aircraft is on the ground. In many
aircraft, the APU can also provide electrical power in the air.
APU's are also fitted to some tanks to provide electrical power when stationary, without the
high fuel consumption caused by running the main engine.
A gasoline piston engine APU was first used on the Pemberton-Billing P.B.31 Night Hawk
Scout aircraft in 1916. The Boeing 727 in 1963 was the first jetliner to feature a gas turbine
APU, allowing it to operate at smaller, regional airports, independent from ground facilities.
Although APUs have been installed in many locations on various military and commercial
aircraft, they are usually mounted at the rear of modern jet airliners. The APU exhaust can be
seen on most modern airliners as a small pipe exiting at the aircraft tail.
In most cases the APU is powered by a small gas turbine engine that provides Compressed air
from within or drives an air compressor (load compressor). Recent designs have started to
explore the use of the Wankel engine in this role. The Wankel offers power-to-weight ratios
better than normal piston engines and better fuel economy than a turbine.
APUs fitted to ETOPS airplanes are more critical than others, as they supply backup
electrical and compressed air in place of the dead engine during emergencies. While most
APUs may or may not be startable while the aircraft is in flight, ETOPS compliant APUs
must be flight-startable at all altitudes. Recent applications have specified starting up to
43,000ft from a complete cold-soak condition. If the APU or its electrical generator is not
available, the airplane cannot be released for ETOPS flight and is forced to take a longer
route.
APUs are even more critical for space shuttle flight operations. Unlike aircraft APU's, they
provide hydraulic pressure, not electrical power. The space shuttle has three redundant APUs,
powered by hydrazine fuel. They only function during powered ascent and during re-entry
and landing. During powered ascent, the APUs provides hydraulic power for gimballing of
shuttle's engines and control surfaces. During landing, they power the control surfaces and
brakes. Landing can be accomplished with only one APU working.
A typical gas turbine APU for commercial transport aircraft comprises three main sections:

Power section

Load compressor

Gearbox

33

The power section is the gas generator portion of the engine and produces all the power for
the APU. The load compressor is generally a shaftmounted compressor that provides all
pneumatic power for the aircraft. There are two actuated devices, the inlet guide vanes that
regulate airflow to the load compressor and the surge control valve that maintains stable or

surge free operation of the turbo machine. The third section of the engine is the gearbox. The
gearbox transfers power from the main shaft of the engine to an oil cooled generator for
electrical power. Within the gearbox, power is also transferred to engine accessories such as
the fuel control unit, the lube module, and cooling fan. In addition, there is also a starter
motor connected through the gear train to perform the starting function of the APU.
With the Airbus A320 all electric airplane, the APU delivers only electricity to the aircraft.
The absence of pneumatic system simplifies the design, but the demand for hundreds of kW
of electricity requires heavier generators and unique system requirements.

7.2 Smoke detectors

Fig 16 : Smoke detectors

Smoke detectors are the devices that sense smoke,typically as an indicator of fire. Smoke
detectors are typically housed in disk-shaped plastic enclosure about 150mm in diameter and
25mm thick.
Most smoke detectors works either by optical detection or by physical
process(ionization),while other use both detection methods to increase sensitivity of smoke.

Design
Ionization
34

Fig 17 : Ionization smoke detector

Inside a basic ionization smoke detector. The black, round structure at the right is the
ionization chamber. The white, round structure at the upper left is the piezoelectric buzzer
that produces the alarm sound.

Fig 18 : An Americium container from a smoke detector

An ionization smoke detector uses a radioisotope such as americium-241 to produce


ionization in air; a difference due to smoke is detected and an alarm is generated. Ionization
detectors are more sensitive to the flaming stage of fires than optical detectors, while optical
detectors are more sensitive to fires in the early smouldering stage.
The radioactive isotope americium-241 in the smoke detector emits ionizing radiation in the
form of alpha particles into an ionization chamber (which is open to the air) and a sealed
reference chamber. The air molecules in the chamber become ionized and these ions allow the
passage of a small electric current between charged electrodes placed in the chamber. If any
smoke particles pass into the chamber the ions will attach to the particles and so will be less
able to carry the current. An electronic circuit detects the current drop, and sounds the alarm.
The reference chamber cancels effects due to air pressure, temperature, or the ageing of the
source. Other parts of the circuitry monitor the battery (where used) and sound an intermittent
warning when the battery nears exhaustion. A self-test circuit simulates an imbalance in the
ionization chamber and verifies the function of power supply, electronics, and alarm device.
The standby power draw of an ionization smoke detector is so low that a small battery can
provide power for months or years, making the unit independent of AC power supply or
35
external wiring; however, batteries require regular test and replacement.
An ionization type smoke detector is generally cheaper to manufacture than an optical smoke
detector; however, it is sometimes rejected because it is more prone to false (nuisance) alarms
than photoelectric smoke detectors.

The americium-241 in ionizing smoke detectors poses a potential environmental hazard.


Disposal regulations and recommendations for smoke detectors vary from region to region.
Some European countries have banned the use of domestic ionic smoke alarms.

Photoelectric:

Fig 19 : Optical smoke detector


1: Optical chamber
2: Cover
3: Case moulding
4: Photodiode (detector)
5: Infrared LED

A photoelectric smoke detector (also known as an optical smoke detector) contains a light
source (typically an incandescent light bulb or light-emitting diode), a lens, and a
photoelectric receiver (typically a photodiode). In spot-type detectors, all of these
components are arranged inside a smoke chamber where smoke from a nearby fire will flow.
In large open areas such as atria and auditoriums, optical beam smoke detectors are used. A
wall-mounted unit emits a beam of infrared or ultraviolet light which is either received and
processed by a separate device or reflected back to the receiver by a reflector.
According to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), "photoelectric smoke
detection is generally more responsive to fires that begin with a long period of smoldering
(called smoldering fires)." Also, studies by Texas A&M and the NFPA cited by the City of
Palo Alto California state, "Photoelectric alarms react slower to rapidly growing fires than
ionization alarms, but laboratory and field tests have shown that photoelectric smoke alarms
provide adequate warning for all36types of fires and have been shown to be far less likely to be
deactivated by occupants."
Although photoelectric alarms are highly effective at detecting smoldering fires and do
provide adequate protection from flaming fires, fire safety experts and the National Fire

Protection Agency recommend installing what are called combination alarms, which are
alarms that either detect both heat and smoke, or use both the ionization and photoelectric
processes. Also some combination alarms may include a carbon monoxide detection
capability.
Not all photo detection methods are the same. The type and sensitivity of light source and
photoelectric sensor, and type of smoke chamber differ between manufacturers.

Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide detection


Some smoke alarms use a carbon monoxide sensor or carbon dioxide sensor to detect
characteristic products of combustion. However, some gas sensors react on levels that are
dangerous for humans but not typical for a fire; these are therefore not generally sensitive or
fast enough to be used as fire detectors. Other gas sensors are even able to warn about
particulate-free fires (e. g. certain alcohol fires).

Performance differences:
Photoelectric smoke detectors respond faster (typically 30 minutes or more) to fire in its
early, smouldering stage (before it breaks into flame). The smoke from the smouldering stage
of a fire is typically made up of large combustion particlesbetween 0.3 and 10.0 m.
Ionization smoke detectors respond faster (typically 3060 seconds) in the flaming stage of a
fire. The smoke from the flaming stage of a fire is typically made up of microscopic
combustion particlesbetween 0.01 and 0.3 m. Also, ionization detectors are weaker in
high air-flow environments, and because of this, the photoelectric smoke detector is more
reliable for detecting smoke in both the smoldering and flaming stages of a fire.

7.3 Avionics ventilation

37

Fig 20 : Avionics ventilation


Ventilation of the avionics is primarily provided by two fans, one acting as a blower, the other
as an extractor. Control is provided by the Avionics Equipment Ventilation Computer
(AEVC). The system's normal modes are:
Close-circuit
Used when skin temperature is low. The skin exchange outlet bypass, inlet
bypass and isolation valves (shown in blue in Simplified avionics cooling
schematic) are open and all other valves are closed. This leads to air being
drawn from the avionics bay and exhausted into the underfloor of the cargo bay,
with a return loop via the skin heat exchanger.

Intermediate
Used in flight when skin temperature is high. This is similar to close-circuit
except the skin air extract valve is partially opened to allow some air to exhaust
overboard.
Open-circuit
Used for ground operations (oleo compressed, thrust below TO) with a high skin
38
temperature. In this mode only the skin air inlet and extract valves (shown in red
in Simplified avionics cooling schematic) are open, meaning air from outside
the aircraft is moved across the avionics equipment and then exhausted
externally.

The skin temperature thresholds are different for flight and ground cases and incorporate a
dead band to prevent rapid mode switching. The bands are 9C to 12C on the ground and
32C to 35C in flight.
Cooling of the cockpit panels is provided by drawing air conditioned air from the cockpit
over the panels in all modes.
Avionics ventilation controls

Fig 21 : Avionics ventilation controls


If a fault occurs with one of the fans, a FAULT light will illuminate on the associated button
(Avionics ventilation controls ). The BLOWER FAULT light is also used to indicate a duct
overheat. Selecting OVRD puts the system in closed-circuit configuration and opens the air
conditioning inlet valve so that air conditioned air assists with the cooling. If the BLOWER
button is in OVRD, the blower fan is stopped. If the EXTRACT button is in OVRD, the
extract fan is controlled directly from the pushbutton and both fans continue to run. {TODO:
There appears to be a conflict between the text and the diagram with regards to the action of
the skin exchange inlet bypass valve when EXTRACT is in OVRD. The diagram essentially
indicates air con as sole intake and no exhaust!}
A smoke detector is situated immediately upstream of the extract fan. If smoke is detected
both FAULT lights come on. Selecting OVRD on both buttons puts the system in smoke
removal mode. This is similar to open-circuit except the intake air is provided by the airconditioning rather than from outside the aircraft and the blower fan is stopped.

7.4 Landing lights

Landing lights are lights, mounted on aircraft, that illuminate the terrain and runway ahead
during takeoff and landing.

39

Fig 22 : Landing light


CHAPTER 8

Overview

Almost all modern aircraft are equipped with landing lights if approved for nighttime
operations. Landing lights are usually of very high intensity, because of the considerable
distance that may separate an aircraft from terrain or obstacles. The landing lights of large
aircraft can easily be seen by other aircraft over 100 miles away.
Key considerations of landing light design include intensity, reliability, weight, and power
consumption. Ideal landing lights are extremely intense, require little electrical power, are
lightweight, and have long and predictable service lives. Past and present technologies
include ordinary incandescent lamps, halogen lamps, various forms of arc lamps and
discharge lamps, and LED lamps.

40

Fig 23 : Aircraft with landing light

Landing lights on Indigo Airways airbus a320, two on the nose undercarriage leg and two on
the wings. Landing lights are typically only useful as visibility aids to the pilots when the
aircraft is very low and close to terrain, as during take-off and landing. Landing lights are
usually extinguished in cruise flight, especially if atmospheric conditions are likely to make
the lights reflect or glare back into the eyes of the pilots. However, the brightness of landing
lights makes them useful for increasing the visibility of an aircraft to other pilots, and so
pilots are often encouraged to keep their landing lights on while below certain altitudes or in
crowded airspace. Some aircraft (especially business jets) have lights that when not needed
to directly illuminate the groundcan operate in a flashing mode to enhance visibility to
other aircraft. One convention is for commercial aircraft to turn on their landing lights when
changing flight levels. Landing lights are sometimes used in emergencies to communicate
with ground personnel or other aircraft, especially if other means of communication are not
available (radio failures and the like). Additionally, landing lights have at times been installed
as a vehicle high beam in the hot rod scene, although this is not DOT-approved.

41

REFERENCES

Aircraft Manuals

www.air-india.nic.in

Smartcocpit.com

42