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This Revision Booklet covers:

Unit 1a Introduction to Business Organisations: ...........3

Organisation of Departments........................................3

Unit 1b Introduction to Business Organisations: ..........5

Key Functions of Departments within an Organisation. 5

Unit 2a The Working Environment: Office Layout..........9

Unit 2b The Working Environment: ...........................11

Unit 2c The Working Environment: Reception Services


Unit 2d The Working Environment: Mail Handling.......13

Unit 3 Storage and Retrieval of Information................14

Unit 4 Reprographics...................................................16

Unit 5 Sources of Information......................................17

Unit 6 Preparation and Presentation of Information....18

Unit 7 Travel................................................................19

ICT Unit.......................................................................21
Unit 1a Introduction to Business Organisations:
Organisation of Departments

Key Word Definition

Organisation shows the overall structure of an
chart organisation

Learn: benefits of an Organisation

Chart to both employees and

Accountability an employee has to justify or

explain actions or decisions

Authority the power that an employee has to

instruct others and take decisions

Responsibility the obligation an employee has to

carry out a range of tasks or duties

Span of the number of staff reporting

control directly to a manager – can be wide
or narrow

Delegate pass on to selected employees the

authority and responsibility to carry
out a task or activity

Tall management 2
a structure which has many levels
structure of management posts

Flat management a structure which has few levels of

structure 1
management posts

Learn: advantages and

disadvantages of both tall and flat

Chain of Command the way in which instructions

(commands) are passed down from
one level of post to another within
an organisation
Line relationship these exist between line managers
(use diagram to illustrate) and the staff immediately below

Sales Manager

Home Sales Assistant

Lateral Relationship (use diagram these exist between employees who

to illustrate) are on the same level and who
report to the same line manager
Sales Manager

Overseas Sales
Home Sales Assistant Marketing Assistant


Growth the organisation increases the

amount and/or range of
products/services sold

Downsizing the organisation reduces the

number of staff employed
without aiming to reduce output

Delayering the organisation removes

certain levels or layers of
management posts

the organisation buys in
services eg security, office
cleaning, from another firm on a
contract basis instead of
getting its own staff to carry
out the work

Learn: the effects of each of the

above on the organisation.

Unit 1b Introduction to Business Organisations:
Key Functions of Departments within an Organisation

Key Word Definition

Functional Area a key area of activity within an
organisation eg Human Resources,
Finance, Sales, Purchasing

Human Resources responsible for dealing with the

people within the organisation
• recruitment/dismissal
• training and development
• appraisal
• staff welfare
• trade unions

Recruitment Job Description – basic information

about the job, ie job title, salary, to
whom the employee is accountable
and description of duties and
Person specification – information
on the type of person required, eg
qualifications, experience, skills and
qualities, and any special
requirements, eg must have a
driving licence

Application Forms
Contract of Employment

Training Induction training – for new

On-the-job training – within the
Off-the-job training – external
training eg college

Human Resources Manager • reports to Board of Directors
• monitoring employees in
• interviews job applicants

Administrative Assistant • word processes letters to

successful applicants
• files application forms

IT in Human Resources • maintain employee records –


• key-in letters to job applicants –
word processing
• transfer applicants details on to
computer - scanner

Finance responsible for all money going in

and coming out of the organisation
– wages and salaries, paying
suppliers, receiving payments from
customers, petty cash

Invoice the bill for goods bought on credit

(informs the buyer of the amount

Credit Note provides information about the cost

and reason for goods which have
been returned by the buyer

Statement informs the buyer of the total

amount owing at the end of a

buying all raw materials, stationery

and equipment for the company
Finance Manager
• reports to Board of Directors
• monitoring employees in
• prepares budgets and final
Administrative Assistant
• word process letters to
customers for non-payment
• prepares cheques for suppliers
• updates financial information on
a spreadsheet
IT in Finance
• calculate employees’ wages –
• prepare budgets – spreadsheet
• prepare letters to customers –
word processing
responsible for dealing with all
purchases – raw materials,
stationery or office equipment
Purchasing procedure
• sends Letter of Enquiry

• receives Quotation
• sends Order Form
• Delivery Note
• Goods Received Note is received
with goods
• Invoice is received for payment
of goods
• Credit Note is received for any
goods returned
• Statement is received at end of
Duties month
Purchases Manager
• reports to Board of Directors
• monitoring employees in
• negotiates contracts
• agrees purchase price
Administrative Assistant
• word processes letters of
• completes and sends order
IT in Purchasing forms
• files information from suppliers

• store supplier records -

• key in letters of enquiry – word
Sales/Marketing processing
• record issuing and receipt of
stock - spreadsheet

Selling all products manufactured

by the company. Carry out market
Duties research and advertise products
Sales Manager

Sales Representative
• reports to Board of Directors
Marketing Manager • set sales targets

• visits potential customers

Administrative Assistant
• identifies potential new
customers and products

• word processes quotations/price

IT in Sales/Marketing lists
• files order forms
• updates customer records

• store customer records -

Centralised Administrative Advantages
support • employees are specialists
• higher standard of work
• noisy equipment in one area

• inconvenient if centralised
location is far from your
• equipment failure will cause

Unit 2a The Working Environment: Office Layout

Key Word Definition

Cellular consists of rooms in which an
employee works on her/his own or
with a few other employees

Learn: advantages and

disadvantages of Cellular Layout

Open consists of a large area where many

Plan employees work together

Learn: advantages and

disadvantages of Open Plan Layout

Factors which affect layout • no of employees

• type of work/activities
• money available
• will organisation grow or
reduce in size?

Desks Size and shape should suit the work

being carried out

Chairs minimum standards are laid down

in the Health & Safety
Regulations 1992 (Display Screen
Equipment) - LEARN THESE

Workstation usually L-shaped; advances in ICT

have meant that these have had to
be redesigned to allow for monitors,
keyboards, FAX machines and
videoconferencing equipment

Ergonomics how the working environment

affects the work of employees

Organisation of office furniture • make best use of space

• flexible
ICT in the workplace see ICT unit

Homeworking employees work at home some or

all of the time

Teleworking work undertaken away from the

office and transmitted to the
employer using ICT equipment and
phone links

Learn: advantages and

disadvantages of

Hot desk a desk or workstation, equipped

with standard equipment, which
may be used by employees who
need to visit the organisation to
undertake some work; must be
booked in advance
Touchdown area
for employees who require to make
a brief visit to the office eg to send
an e-mail or fax; does not need to
be booked in advance
a small booth where an employee
works on her/his own; privacy
Working hours
Employees are given some
flexibility in organising their working
hours. Must work ‘core time’.
Job share
One full-time job is split between 2
people eg 3 days/2 days
Shift work
Employees work at different times
of the day/night eg day, night, back

Implications of changes to • health and safety (see Unit

working conditions 2b)
• staff welfare
• managing change
• cost

Unit 2b The Working Environment:
Safe Working Practice and Procedures

Key Word Definition

Potential hazard something about the working
environment, equipment or working
practices which may cause harm

employees and employers have

responsibilities to ensure that they
maintain a safe working
Reporting of accidents
First aid
• must be an ‘appointed’ person
to take charge of first aid
• suitably stocked first aid box
• a record of all incidents

Accident Report Form

A form used to give details of an
accident or injury to a person on the
organisation’s premises. Should

• name
• position
• description of incident, etc
Hazard/Fault report
Details faults with an individual
piece of equipment.
Health and Safety Executive
the HSE are an organisation
responsible for the H&S of all
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
- responsibilities of employer
- responsibilities of employee
Health and Safety (First-Aid)
Regulations 1981

Health and Safety (Display Screen

Equipment) Regulations 1992 learn solutions to problems caused
by eye strain, backache, stress
Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and
Dangerous Occurrences (RIDDOR)
1995 (see ICT Unit)

Unit 2c The Working Environment: Reception Services

Key Word Definition

Reception area Must create a good first impression
of the organisation

Layout of the reception are Near entrance. Learn features of a

well organised reception area
eg reading material, plants, etc

Qualities and duties of a Qualities – friendly, patient, polite

receptionist Duties – greeting visitors, taking
messages, operating switchboard

Record keeping provide information on

Staff In/Out Book appointments and records of
Appointments Book visitors and staff entering and
Visitors’ Book leaving the premises

Dealing with visitors

- with an appointment learn procedures
- without an appointment

Security procedures
CCTV • images sent from cameras,
placed in key viewing points, to
monitors viewed by security
• recordings may be made on
Locked doors videotape
Keypad/Combination locks
Entry phone Learn: features
Swipe card
Security/ID badges

Incident/Security Breach Report

Form a record to be completed and
signed after such an incident
forms must be available for
inspection by the H & S Officer
Electronic diary (see ICT unit)
a computer application which allows
users to check, enter and store
information on future appointments
Cellular mobile phone
Pager used to contact people who often
work away from their office or who
may have to be contacted outwith
the normal working day

Unit 2d The Working Environment: Mail Handling

Key Word Definition

Internal mail Communication sent and received within an

External mail Communications sent and received outwith

an organisation

Incoming mail Post, courier, private box, e-mail, fax,


Electronic mail (e-mail) messages are sent from one computer to


Learn: features and advantages of e-mail

Equipment Date stamp, photocopier, fax, scanner

Scanning inputting source material (printed text,

drawings, photographs, etc) on to computer
file for storage, manipulation or insertion
into other documents

Voicemail a pre-recorded message invites the caller to

leave a message

FAX an exact copy of a document sent from one

fax machine to another

Learn: advantages and disadvantages of

FAX and voicemail

Outgoing mail should be collected from departments at

regular intervals throughout the day

Electronic Postal Scales weighs a package and automatically

calculates postal charge

Franking Machine prints postal impression onto envelopes and


Date Stamp stamps the date of receipt on incoming mail

Methods of Sending Mail Royal Mail (First/Second Class), Parcel Force,

Courier, Fax, Email, Memo, Voicemail,
Depends on: urgency, size, value of
information, methods available, cost, need for
original to be retained

Unit 3 Storage and Retrieval of Information

Key Word Definition

Filing procedures used so that documents can be
found quickly and easily

Features of a good filing system secure, convenient, safe, flexible,


File management the way in which computer data is

stored and organised; should use
appropriate filenames and sub-
folders where necessary

Manual Filing original documents are stored in

concertina files, box files or filing
Methods of Filing

- Alphabetical learn features and

- Numerical advantages/disadvantages
- Chronological

Electronic Filing documents processed on individual

computers are sent, via the
network, for central storage on
documents received by the
organisation, are scanned into the
computerised filing system, using a
document scanner

Database used for creating information before
Spreadsheet being stored electronically
Word processing
Desktop publishing (see ICT unit)

Storage of computer files • Hard drive

• Floppy disk (low memory)
• Zip disk
• CD-rom
• Memory stick

Managing user access Use a lockable room, password

protect files and/or computers,
read-only documents, security ID

cards/keys, anti-virus software

Passwords Restrict access to computers, files,

e-mail facilities

Care of data storage media

Back-up procedures Regular back-ups – computers

crashes, fire/flood, theft, damage to

Data Protection Acts 1984, 1998 This protects the data subject (the
person about whom information is
held). Applies to information stored
on computer.

All organisations must be registered

as a data user with the Data
Protection Register and follow the
principles of the Act:

Data must be:

• Fairly and lawfully processed

• Adequate, relevant and not
• Accurate
• Kept for no longer than is
• Kept securely

The Privacy and Electronic

Communications Regulations 2003
(see ICT Unit)

Unit 4 Reprographics

Key Word Definition

Equipment and software
Photocopier this gives an exact copy of the
the copy may be re-sized and colour
copiers are available

Laminator coats paper on thin card with a

clear plastic seal
it is a form of protection

Binder fastens multi-page documents

several types including a spiral
comb binder and a flat comb binder

Scanner scans source material, (drawings ,

photographs, printed text etc and
saves it as a computer file for
storage, manipulation or insertion
into other documents

Digital camera allows photographs to be taken

DTP/Graphics/Word Processing for professional looking pages


Inkjet/laser printer (can be colour) for printing text and graphics

Staff training To use equipment, be efficient

In-house copying when staff within the

organisation carry out the
reprographic tasks
staff need to be trained to use
the equipment safely and be
aware of the procedural
guidelines which include
requests, fault reporting and
External agency copying legal copyright requirements

when an external agency is paid

to complete the reprographics

Learn: advantages and

disadvantages when choosing
between in-house and external
agency copying

Unit 5 Sources of Information

Key Word Definition

Paper-based sources hard copy eg Dictionary, Atlas,
Phone Book etc

ICT sources • teletext

• computer files
• e-mail
• internal databases and external
databases such as the Internet

CD-ROM information is often sent to users in

this way because it is both cost
effective and environmentally
eg the Census Report, road maps
and route plans and Encyclopaedia
used on a LAN which makes
information available within the
organisation eg in school teachers
are sent the list of absentees via
the school Intranet system

The Internet
organisations use this as a source of
desk research and e-commerce
(see ICT Unit)

Unit 6 Preparation and Presentation of Information

Key Word Definition

Line Graph a single or multi-line to show results
and comparisons

Pictogram use of pictures or symbols to

represent statistical information
used when detailed figures are not

Bar Chart/Column Chart bars vertically or horizontally

showing contrasting results – show
more detail than a pie-chart which
Pie Chart is a circle represents total 100%
and segments used to show broad
comparisons with segments usually
in different colours

Flow Chart starting and finishing points are

shown in rounded boxes, each step
or action is shown in a rectangular
box and arrows between the boxes
show the direction of flow
eg useful to show the steps in the
procedures for recruitment of staff

Itinerary a working document which provides

key information on travel,
accommodation and appointments
in order of date and time

Memorandum a form of hard copy, internal


Informal Reports may be in the form of a

memorandum, is usually short and
written in the first person
eg you might use this when
reporting to your line manager

Formal Reports written in a formal tone and usually

according to a formalised in-house
tables of facts and figures would be
included as appendices

Presentation software (see ICT unit)

Unit 7 Travel

Key Word Definition

Travel/Accommodation Request This must be completed with all the
Form necessary information for all trips

Method of transport • Road

• Rail
• Sea
• Air

Sources of information See Unit 5

Itinerary See Unit 6

Travel/Accommodation Booking Should be completed and sent


Possible requirements
Passport an official document certifying the
identity and nationality of a citizen
it permits the person to travel: we
now need our passport for internal
and external air flights

EHIC (European Health Insurance entitles travellers from the UK to

Card) free or reduced-cost emergency
medical treatment in the EU and
some other countries

Visa this official document is sometimes

needed when travelling eg this
would apply if you were visiting any
country in a war-zone

Immunisation Form/Vaccination this may be a requirement if you

Certificate visit a particular area eg you
require a certificate for typhoid and
hepatitis if you visit India

Methods of Payment
Cash e-dollars or foreign currency may be
needed if travelling aboard
all requirements must be arranged
in advance and must be accounted
for with receipts

Account the organisation may pay direct to

the travel agent for travel,
accommodation etc

Credit/Debit Card this is the most popular method
today and its usage demands a pin

Learn the benefits of using

credit/debit cards

Traveller’s cheques Can be obtained in advance of

travelling to a foreign country

Expenses Claim Form needed to claim and verify


ICT Unit

Keyword Definition
Databases An organised collection of information


Formatting eg text, number, date/time,


• Records found quickly using search
• Records can be sorted into required
• A query can be used to create a
• Mail merge can be used to
personalise letters

• Staff records
• Customer records
• Supplier records
Spreadsheets Used to enter text and numbers into a
table with rows and columns. Formulae
can be entered into the required cells
which allow calculations to be made

Addition =B2+B3 or =SUM(B2:B8)
Average =AVERAGE(B2:B8)
Subtraction =B2-B3
Division by 2 =B2/2
Multiplication =B2*C2
Absolute formula =$B$2*C2

Formula can be replicated by copying it

down or across

• Formulae can be entered for
• Formulae can be replicated – saves
• Changes can be made easily
• Charts and graphs can be produced

Uses – see Unit 1b

Word processing Used to produce letters, memos,
reports, forms. It allows on screen

editing by inserting, deleting, moving
words, and checking spelling before

Desk Top Publishing Prior to their use, businesses had to use

specialist design companies to produce
brochures and advertisements. DTP
allows users to design layout of text and
graphics for letter-headed paper,
menus, catalogues etc
Integrated software package Combines several applications in
the one computer programme,
typically word processing, database,
spreadsheet, graphics and
communications eg Microsoft Office.

• On-screen layouts are similar,
making it easier to learn
• Data is easily transferred
between applications
• Mail merge can be carried out
• Dynamic linkage is possible
• Integrated package may be
The Internet This is a WAN spanning the globe. It
requires a modem, telephone socket,
Internet Browser software and an ISP -
Internet Service Provider.

• Advertising the organisation
• E-commerce – customers find a
product, order it and pay for it using
credit/debit card
• Keeping up-to-date with information
about competitors
• Using e-mail to contact customers
• Researching travel etc

Internet Service Provider (ISP) A company that provides access to the

Download The process of copying a document from

the Internet to a personal computer

Search engine A facility that lets the user type in a key

word and creates a list of relevant
websites eg Google, Yahoo

Hyperlink A connection from one web page or
website to another web page or site

Favourites A facility of web browsers that lets the

user store the addresses of web pages
which are visited frequently
Features of a good website • Up-to-date information
• Easy to navigate (hyperlinks)
• E-commerce facility available
• Frequently asked questions section
• Colour, graphics
• Contact details
Advantages of the Internet • Information usually up-to-date
• Access to a wide range of
• Available 24/7
• More detailed information on a
• Information available instantly
Disadvantages of the Internet • No guarantee of accuracy
• Needs to be updated regularly
• Connections unavailable
Intranet An internal network used to share
information within an organisation.

• Up-to-date company information
• Up-to-date product information
• Daily or weekly bulletins
• Internal e-mail
• Electronic diaries
• Sharing software/peripherals eg

• Same information available to all
• Updates only done once
• Standardised documents can be
Presentation software eg Microsoft Why?
PowerPoint • Each slide contains relevant
information, graphics and can be
• Sound, video clips can be
• Can set up timings for the show

Security Methods of making sure that data is
private or that only authorised people
can see the data.
Passwords – a secret code that you use
to gain access to private information on
a computer system or to log onto a
Encryption – processing a message so
that personnel cannot understand it
unless they have authorised access to
the software needed to unscramble the
Physical – this includes locked doors,
swipe cards for keyboards etc
Biometric – this includes iris scans and
palm prints to gain access to computer
Legislation A law which allows computer criminals
Computer Misuse Act 1990 like hackers and creator of viruses, to be
It makes it a criminal offence to gain
unauthorised access to a computer
system, to hack, or to write and
distribute viruses, which can change
data on a computer.
The Health and Safety Regulations Employers are required to:
(Display Screen Equipment) 1992 analyse workstations, assess and reduce
provide users with training on how to
use VDU’s and workstations safely,
organise the daily work of VDU users so
that they have regular breaks and
changes of activity,
arrange and pay for regular eye tests for
VDU users.
The Copyright, Designs and Patent Act This makes unauthorised copying and
downloading of music and films a
criminal offence. This Act does not
completely defend the rites of the artists
because these same materials may be
freely downloaded from file servers in
other countries.
The Privacy and Electronic Companies must get permission from an
Communications Regulations 2003 individual before they can send them an
e-mail or a text message. This law
makes SPAM a criminal offence and
senders of unsolicited e-mails may face
unlimited fines. This law does NOT cover
business e-mail addresses.