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2. Surface Water is one of our most important resources is surface water, the
freshwater that flows across the earths land surface and into rivers, streams,
lakes, reservoirs, ponds, wetlands, and estuaries. The land from which
surface water drains into a river, lake, wetland, or other body of water is
called its watershed or drainage basin.
Groundwater is one of our most important sources of freshwater. The spaces
in soil, gravel, and rock close to the earths surface hold little moisture, but
below a certain depth in the zone of saturation, these spaces are completely
filled with water. The top of this zone is the water table. It falls in dry weather
or when we remove groundwater faster than it is replenished, and it rises in
wet weather. Deeper down are geological layers called aquifers: underground
caverns and porous, layers of sand, gravel, or bedrock through which
groundwater flows.
3. Irrigation is the biggest use of water (70%). This large use of water for
irrigation is not surprising because it takes about 1,000 metric tons of water
to produce 1 metric ton of grain. About 85% of the water withdrawn for
irrigation is consumed and not returned to its water basin, mostly because of
evaporation and seepage into the ground.
4. A flood happens when water in a stream overflows its normal channel and
spills into the adjacent area, called a floodplain. Draining and building on
wetlands and living on floodplains exacerbates flood damage.
6. Reclaimed water or recycled water, is former wastewater (sewage) that is treated to remove solids and
impurities, and used in sustainable landscaping irrigation, to recharge groundwater aquifers, to meet
commercial and industrial water needs, and for drinking.
7. Stable runoff is the amount of surface runoff that we can generally count on as a stable source of
freshwater from year to year.
8. Climate change is having a profound effect on the environment, especially on the quality and
availability of water resources. The consequences are significant. Water-related natural disasters,
such as flooding, drought, and landslides, are more frequent and more severe. Rising
temperatures, causing increased evaporation and glacial melt, are reducing the reliability and
quality of water supplies.
9. Sustainability is the ability of the earths various systems, including human cultural systems and
economies, to survive and adapt to changing environmental conditions indefinitely.
10. Distillation: heating saltwater until it evaporates, leaves behind salts in solid form, and condenses
as freshwaters. Reverse osmosis (microfiltration) uses high pressure to force saltwater through a
membrane filter with pores small enough to remove the salt.
11. Agriculture: Use drip irrigation
Industry: Recycle used water
Individual Homes: Fix leaks
13. Saltwater intrusion is the movement of saline water into freshwater aquifers, which can lead to
contamination of drinking water sources and other consequences. Saltwater intrusion occurs
naturally to some degree in most coastal aquifers, owing to the hydraulic connection between
groundwater and seawater.
14. Competition for water between countries could lead to war as may occur in the near future
between middle eastern countries and African countries. In terms of economic instability, the poor

tend to get poorer and the rich tend to get richer. The poor, unable to pay for more efficient water
management services and higher quality tools, tend to experience more failure than those who can
pay for more expensive hardware.
15.Greywater is any household wastewater with the exception of wastewater from toilets, which is
known as blackwater. Typically, 50-80% of household wastewater is greywater from kitchen
sinks, dishwashers, bathroom sinks, tubs and showers.