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# Advo Education Group Pte Ltd

Practice Paper 7

## Suggested Solution to Foundation

Physical Chemistry
Stoichiometry
(a)

Mole Calculation

1.

Element
mass/g

C
54.54
54.54

amount/mol

12.0
4.545

H
9.09

= 4.545

Simplest mole
=2
2.273
ratio
Empirical formula of W is C2H4O.

9.09

(a)

36.37

= 9.09

1.0
9.09

2.273

= 2.273

16.0
2.273

=4

2.273

=1

should NOT be
should NOT be
(C2H4O)2.

## Let the molecular formula be C2nH4nOn.

Mr = 2n(12.0) + 4n(1.0) + n(16.0) = 88.0
44 n = 88
n= 2
Molecular formula of nicotine is C4H8O2.
2.

O
36.37

Ratio of the average mass of one atom of an element to 12 of the mass of a 12C atom.
OR
1

## Ratio of the average mass of 1 mole of atoms of an element to 12 of the mass of

12

mole of C atoms.
1.37
26.3
20.8
51.53
Ar of Pb = (
204.0072) + (
206.0612) + (
207.0552) + (
208.0602)
100
100
100
100
= 207.3
Note: A - no units & to 1 d.p. as required by the qn

(b)

3.

35.5
2(35.5)

= 0.500 mol

## B () : Amount of H2 molecules in 3.011023 hydrogen molecules =

3.01 10 23

= 0.500 mol
6.02 1023
H2 2e (since each H2 molecule contains 2 electrons, i.e. HH),
Amount of electrons in 3.011023 hydrogen molecules = 2 0.500= 1.00 mol

## C () : Amount of H2SO4 in 1 dm3 of 1 mol dm3 H2SO4(aq) = 1 1 = 1.00 mol

H2SO4 2H+
Amount of H+ ions in 1 dm3 of 1 mol dm3 H2SO4(aq) = 2 1.00 = 2.00 mol
D () : Amount of O2 gas molecules in 22.4 dm3 =

22.4
=1.00 mol
Note:
22.4

4.

(a)

Mass of water present in 2.44 g of hydrated BaCl2. xH2O = 2.44 2.08 = 0.36 g

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## 1 mol of any gas occupies

O2 2O
22.4 dm3 at s.t.p.
Amount of oxygen atoms (i.e. O) = 2 1.00 = 2.00 mol

Practice Paper 7

## Reg. No. 200710217Z

% of water of hydration =
(b)

0.36
100% = 14.8%
2.44

[1m]

Amount of H2O =

2.08
= 0.0100 mol
208.0

0.36
= 0.0200 mol
18.0
Amount / mol
Ratio

Anhydrous BaCl2
0.0100
[1m]1

H2O
0.0200
2

## Since BaCl2. xH2O BaCl2 2H2O

correct formula
Correct formula of hydrated barium chloride: [1m]
BaCl2for
.2Hwriting
2O
OR
Amount of anhydrous BaCl2 =

2.08
= 0.0100 mol
208.0

## Since BaCl2. xH2O BaCl2,

Amount of hydrated BaCl2. xH2O = 0.0100
Mr of BaCl2. xH2O =

2.44
0.0100

= 244

## 137.0 + 2(35.5) + x (2.0 + 16.0) = 244

x = 2 [1m]
[1m] for writing correct formula
Correct formula of hydrated barium chloride: BaCl2.2H2O

5.

(a)
(b)

O2(g) + 2H2(g)
Initial volume / cm3

15.0

## Final volume 55.0

/ cm3 2(15.0)

= 25.0
(i)

Water is a liquid at
2H2O(l)
[1m]
r.t.p.

55.0
O2 is the limiting
reagent

For gases,
mole ratio = vol. ratio

= 25.0 cm3

(ii)

[1m]

## Max. decrease in volume = Total initial volume Total final volume

= (15.0 + 55.0) 25.0
Volume of H2O(l) is
= 45.0 cm3
[1m]
negligible.

1. C
(b)

2. D

3. A

4. A

5. D

6. C

7. D

8. C

9. C

Volumetric Analysis
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MCQ

Practice Paper 7

## (NH4)2SO4 + 2NaOH 2NH3 + Na2SO4 + 2H2O

NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O

(a)

250
0.800
1000

(b)

(c)

## Since NaOH HCl, amount of NaOH that reacted with HCl =

(d)
(e)

Amount of NaOH that reacted with (NH4)2SO4 = 0.200 0.0425 = 0.158 mol
Since (NH4)2SO4 2 NaOH,
Mass of (NH4)2SO4 =

(c)

= 0.200 mol
85.0
0.500
1000

= 0.0425 mol

0.158
[2(14.0+4.0) + 32.1 + 4(16.0)] = 10.4 g
2

Redox

1.

(a)
(b)

## Cr2O72 + 6Fe2+ + 14H+ 2Cr3+ + 6Fe3+ + 7H2O

Since 6Fe2+ Cr2O72,
Amount of Fe2+ = 6 1.50 x 10-4 = 9.00 x 104 mol
Since Fe2+ FeSO4.7H2O,
Mass of FeSO4.7H2O = 9.00 x 104 (55.8 + 32.1+ 4 x 16.0 + 7 x 18.0)
= 0.250 g

2.

(a)

(b)

9.85
= 0.0251 mol
392.0

## Since FeSO4(NH4)2SO4.6H2O Fe2+,

Amount of Fe2+ in 250 cm3 = 0.0251 mol
Amount of Fe2+ in 25.0 cm3 = 0.0251
(c)

25.0
250

## Since 5Fe2+ MnO4 KMnO4

Amount of KMnO4 reacted = 2.51 103
24.75

1
5

(d)

(e)

## [KMnO4] = 0.0203 (39.1 + 54.9 + 4(16.0)) = 3.21 g dm3

Amount of KMnO4 in 1.8 dm3 = 0.0203 x 1.8 = 0.0365 mol
Volume of the solution to make 0.0200 mol dm3 = 0.0365 0.0200= 1.84 dm3
Volume of water required = 1.84 1.8 = 0.0400 dm3

3.

1000

50.0
= 5.00 103 mol
1000

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1.

Practice Paper 7

Amount / mol
Mole Ratio

Metallic salt
5.00 103
2

25.0
= 2.50 103 mol
1000
SO32
2.50 103
1

Since SO32 2e

Metallic

salt e

## 1 mole of metallic salt is reduced by gaining 1 mole of electrons.

Therefore, oxidation number of metal in metallic salt will decrease from +3 to +2.
The new oxidation number of metal is +2.
4.

25.0
= 2.50 103 mol
1000

X2O5 2X5+

## Amount of X5+ reacted = 2 2.50 103 = 5.00 x 103 mol

Let Xn+ be the reduced form of X.

Amount of Xn+ formed (after reduction of X2O5 by SO2) = amount of X5+ reacted
= 5.00 x 103 mol
Amount of KMnO4 reacted with Xn+= 0.0200

Amount / mol
Mole Ratio

Xn+
5.00 103
5

5Xn+

50.0
= 1.00 103 mol
1000

KMnO4
1.00 103
1

(+2)

MnO4 5e 5Xn+
Xn+ e

5.

## Oxidation no. of X decreases from +5 to +4.

(a) Total amount of NaOH in 25.0 cm3 of solution H
22.50
= 0.100
= 2.25 103 mol
1000
Total amount of NaOH in 100 cm3 of solution H
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During oxidation of Xn+, 1 mole of Xn+ will lose 1 mole of e to form X5+.

Practice Paper 7

= 2.25 10
(b)

100
25.0

Since 2MnO4

10.0
= 2.00 x 104 mol
1000

5H2O2 ,

## Amount of H2O2 in 25.0 cm3 of solution H

5
= 2.00 10 4 = 5.00 x 104 mol
2
Amount of H2O2 in 100 cm3 of solution H
100
4
=
5.00 10 = 2.00 x 103 mol
25.0
(c)

Since Na2O2

[1m]

[1m]

H2O2,

## Amount of Na2O2 in the original sample= 2.00 x 103 mol

[1m]

Amount of NaOH formed from reaction of Na2O2 = 2 2.00 10 3 = 4.00 x 103 mol
Amount of NaOH formed by burning of Na2O
= Total amount of NaOH formed Amount of NaOH formed fromn reaction of Na2O2
= 9.00 103 4.00 x 103 = 5.00 x 103 mol
Since Na2O

[1m]

2NaOH,

Amount of Na2O =

1
5.00 10 3 = 2.50 x 103 mol
2

[1m]

MCQ
1. D

2. A

3. A

4. D

5. C

6. C

1.

31
15

V 3 : 15 p, 16 n, 18 e

32
15

32
16

X 2 : 16 p, 16 n, 18 e

31
15

W 2 : 15 p, 17 n, 17 e

Y : 15 p, 16 n, 16 e

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Page28

Atomic Structure

Practice Paper 7

## Reg. No. 200710217Z

Z : 17 p, 18 n, 18 e

(a)

(b)
(c)
2.

Ion

(i)

31
15

V 3 ,

32
16

X 2 and

35
17

(ii)

31
15

V 3 ,

32
16

X 2 and

31
15

(iii)

31
15

V 3 and

Y are isotonic.

W 2 or

Y are isotopic.
Recall: Isotopes are atoms
31 3
31
[Note: 15V and 15Y are not isotopes as they
of the same element with
have the same no. of protons and neutrons. They
thecharges.]
same no. of protons but
are ions of the same isotope with different
31 3
no. of neutrons.
(due to its highest charge and smallest different
mass)
15V
Recall: Extent of deflection
35
17 Z (due to its lowest charge and highest mass)
charge
32
15

## P 2 has (a) 15 protons

31
15

Electronic configuration

3.

Z are isoelectronic.
W 2 and

32
15

31
15

(b) 16 neutrons

mass

(c) 17 electrons

## P2 of is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5

31
15

(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)

3p
3 energy levels (shells) containing electrons (n = 1, n = 2, n = 3)
5 energy sub-levels (subshells) containing electrons (1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p)
9 orbitals containing electrons
(one 1s, one 2s, three 2p, one 3s, three 3p)
8 completely filled orbitals
(one 1s, one 2s, three 2p, one 3s, two 3p)
1 partially filled orbital (one 3p)
1 unpaired electron (the one unpaired electron in the 3p orbital)
7 valence electrons (total no.of e from outermost quantum shell = 2 + 5)

(a)

(b)

1s
2s

## Write elect. config. of

outermost 4s orb.)
20

## Ca atom: 1s2 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s first, then remove two e from

20

2s

2p

3s

3p

Note: Boxes
must be

Write elect. config. of 16S atom: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4 first, then add 2 e to outermost shell.
16

1s

(d)

pairing)
2
6
2
6
2

1s

(c)

2p

22

2s

2p

3s

1s

2s

2p

3p

3s

3p

3d

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4s

Page28

35
17

Practice Paper 7

29

1s

4.

(f)

2s

24

27

1s

32

(a)
(b)

5.

(a)
(b)

6.

(a)

2s

2s

3d

4s

2p

3s

3p

3d

2p

3s

3p

3d

2s

4.

3p

1s

(h)

3s

## Cr2+ ion: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d4

1s

(g)

2p

2p

3s

3p

3d

4s

4p

Na has a larger (atomic) radius than Li. This is because the effects of one more principal
quantum shell and greater shielding effect by greater number of inner shell electrons
outweighs the effect of a larger nuclear charge in Na as compared to Li.
Mg2+ has a larger (ionic) radius than Al3+. This is because Mg2+ has a larger nuclear charge
than Al3+ while both have the same number of principal quantum shell and the shielding
effect by inner shell electrons are relatively constant.
Group IV
Si/Silicon
1s22s22p63s23p2

(i)
(ii)

## Note: Group number must be stated in roman numeral.

Relative atomic mass is the weighted average of the mass of the isotopes, taking
into account the relative abundances of the isotopes.
The value given in the Periodic Table describes the naturally-occurring Cu which
contains more than 2 isotopes. [1m]
[1m]
Or naturally-occurring Cu has greater abundance of 63Cu than that
in the sample.

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(e)

Practice Paper 7

## Reg. No. 200710217Z

(b)

(i)neutron
I

Note:
Deflection should begin after the charged
particles enter the electric field, and
particles should continue on a straight line path
after leaving the field.

Cu2+

## Extent of deflectn: smaller than that for Cu2+

source
(ii)

Charge species

63
29

charge
mass

(a)

127
53

2
63

1
127

7.0o

Angle of deflection
[1m]

7.

Cu2

(7.0o

The first ionisation energy of an element is the energy required to remove one mole of
electrons from one mole of gaseous atoms. [1m]

(b)
1st ionisation
energy/
kJ mol1

Note:
General increase across period

## (Across period: 2,3,3 pattern)

2 6

sp
Note: First IE of Period 2
same pattern of 2,3,3.
Suggestion: For students
can get them to sketch 2nd
IE of Period 2 elements.

11
(c)

(i)

2
1
)
1.7o
63 127

12

sp

s2

s2p4

s2p2

s1

[1m]

## 1st IE (S) < 1st IE (P) and

1st IE (Cl) > 1st IE (P)

2 5

s2p3

## 1st IE (Al) < 1st IE (Mg) and

1st IE (Si) > 1st IE (Mg)

s2p1
s1

proton no.
13

14

15

## Na: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1

16

17

18

19
K: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1

Na has (one) less number of principal quantum shell of electrons than K, resulting in
a smaller atomic radius/distance from its nucleus to the outermost electron [1m]
and smaller shielding effect by fewer inner shell electrons [1m].
Hence 1st IE of Na (despite its smaller nuclear charge) is higher than that of K.
(ii)

## Compared to the 3s electron of Mg, the 3p electron to be removed from Al is less

able to penetrate through the inner shells to approach the nucleus closely. Thus,
the 3p electron of Al has higher energy than the 3s electron of Mg [1m].
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Page28

7.(c)

Practice Paper 7

## Reg. No. 200710217Z

Less energy is required to remove the 3p electron from Al and hence, 1st IE of Mg is
higher than that of Al.
Si: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2
P: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3

(iii)

P has a larger nuclear charge [1m] than Si and the atomic radius/distance from its
nucleus to the outermost electron is smaller [1m] than that for Si. Shielding effect
by inner shell electrons for both Si and P are relatively constant since they have the
same number of inner shells.
Hence 1st IE of P is higher than that of Si.
P: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3

(iv)

## S: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4

Mutual repulsion between the paired 3p electrons in S makes the removal of one
of the paired electrons easier compared to removing the unpaired 3p electron of P
[1m] which does not experience such repulsion.

8.

(a)

Sharp increase from 5th to 6th IE, implying 5 valence electrons. [1m]
Group no. is in Roman numeral while
Q is in group V. [1m]

(i)

## Period no. is in Arabic numeral.

(b)

(ii)

No. [1m] Group V element in Period 2 can only have 7 electrons but element Q has
more than 7 electrons. [1m]

(i)

[1m]

nd

(ii)

2+

## As successive electrons are removed, more energy is required to remove an electron

from an increasingly more positive ion. [1m]

(c)

Both the 4th and 5th electrons are removed from the same principal quantum shell [1m]
while the 6th electron removed is from an inner quantum shell which is much closer to the
nucleus. [1m]
Hence more energy is required to remove an electron from the inner shell.

(d)

## Q could be phosphorus [1m] ;

9.

(a)

Compared to Fe atom, Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions have one less principal quantum shell
[1m]
of electrons after removing 4s electrons from Fe atom.
Therefore their ionic radii are smaller than the atomic radius of Fe.
Compared to S atom, S2 ion has two more electrons in its outer shell. Due to greater
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1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3 (or any Group V element other than nitrogen) [1m]

Practice Paper 7

## Reg. No. 200710217Z

electron-electron repulsion, the electron cloud expands to give a larger S2 ion. [1m]
While both Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions have the same number of principal quantum shells,
Fe3+
2+
has one less electron than Fe . Thus, there is reduced electron-electron repulsion in
Fe3+ to give a smaller electron cloud. [1m]

(b
)
MCQ
1.

## GaN is an ionic compound. Since Ga is in the

form of Ga3+ in GaN, then N must be in the form
of N3

2.

244
94

charge
they have different
nos. of p.q.s.
mass

O and Xe
Aof deflection
extent

5.

114 94 = 20

4.

## Electron affinity refers to the energy

required when one mole of gaseous
atoms gain one mole of electrons.
Electron affinity does not apply in the
context here as both O2 and Xe lose e
to form cations, NOT gain e.
O has 8 protons, Xe has 54 protons
different electron configurations.

## q: must have a lower charge-to-mass ratio than

Na+ (to give smaller deflection)
For Na+ , charge/mass ratio = 1/23 = 0.0435
For Ba2+, charge/mass ratio = 2/137 = 0.0146
For Be2+, charge/mass ratio = 2/9.0 = 0.222
Thus, options (A) and (D) are eliminated.
Given angle of deflection for Na+ = 4o
Angle of deflection of Ba2+
1
2
= ( 4 .0 o )
= 1.3o
23 137

## Both O2 and Xe lose an electron to

form cations, O2+ and Xe+ respectively.
Thus, in order to react in a similar
fashion, they must have similar first IE.
Ans: D

2nd IE: M +

## The element with atomic number 20 is Ca.

Ans: B

Ans: D

289
114

No. of protons in X

Pu + X

n)

3.

## Identity of element is determined by atomic no.

Ans: B

M 2+ + e
ns1 for Group II element

2 6

sp

s2p3
2

s
s1

2 2

s2p1

sp

6.

## Charge = (proton no.) (e no.)

Element
G

Proton
n

e
n-1

7.

Element
X2
Rb+

charge
+1

Proton
36 2 = 34
37

e
36
37 1 = 36

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Ans: B

Practice Paper 7

n+1

n-1

Sr2+

+2

38

38 2 = 36

## 2. G has lower nuclear charge (1 less proton)

than H. As G is isoelectronic with H, valence
e of G are less strongly attracted to
nucleus, giving a larger ionic radius of G.

## 2. X2 has a smaller nuclear charge due to

lesser no .of protons than Sr2+.

## 3. G requires lesser energy than H for the

removal of the further electron as G has a
larger ionic radius and lower nuclear charge.

## 3. Less energy is required to remove an

electron from an increasingly negative ion
due to repulsion of the same charge (ie
repulsion between e and the resulting X).

Ans: A

Ans: A

Chemical Bonding
1. (a)
(b)

(c)

Na(s) is a good electrical conductor due to the presence of mobile electrons to carry
charges through the lattice. NaCl(s) does not conduct electricity because of absence of
mobile charge carriers since its ions, Na+ and Cl , are fixed at their lattice points).
Aluminium is malleable because the layers in the lattice can slide over each other without
breaking the strong metallic bond. Aluminium fluoride is brittle because when a force is
applied along a particular plane, layers of ions slide such that ions of the same charge
meet and repel one another, shattering the crystal along the fault line.
Magnesium chloride is soluble in water because its IONS can form ion-dipole
interactions with water molecules while ethene cannot form ion-dipole interactions nor
hydrogen bonds with water molecules.

2.

Page28

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Practice Paper 7

## Reg. No. 200710217Z

3.

4.

(a)

Trigonal planar
3 bond pairs & no lone pair
X has 3 valence electrons

Group III

## (b) Trigonal pyramidal

3 bond pairs & 1 lone
pair
Y has 5 valence electrons

## T-shape 3 bond pairs & 2 lone pairs

Z has 7 valence electrons

5.

(a)

Group VII

NaCl has a giant ionic structure and HCl has a simple molecular/covalent structure.
More energy is required to overcome the strong electrostatic attractions/ ionic bonds
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Group V

Practice Paper 7

## Advo Education Group Pte Ltd

Reg. No. 200710217Z

between Na+ and Cl than the weak intermolecular forces (OR permanent dipolepermanent dipole attraction) between HCl molecules.
Hence, NaCl has higher melting point than HCl.
(b) SiO2 has a giant covalent structure while SO2 has a simple molecular/covalent structure.
More energy is required to overcome the strong covalent bonds between Si and O
atoms in SiO2 than the weak intermolecular forces (OR permanent dipole-permanent
dipole attraction) between SO2 molecules.
Hence, SiO2 has higher melting point than SO2.
(c) Both have giant ionic structures with strong electrostatic attractions/ ionic bonds
between oppositely charged ions. Since Mg2+ and O2 have higher charge and smaller
radius than Na+ and Cl respectively, more energy is needed to overcome stronger ionic
bonds in MgO than that in NaCl.
Hence, MgO has higher melting point than NaCl.
(d) Both have giant metallic structures with strong electrostatic attractions/ metallic bonds
between cations and mobile valence electrons. Since Al has more valence electrons
than Na and Al3+ has higher charge density than Na+, more energy is needed to overcome
the stronger metallic bonds in Al than that in Na.
Hence, Al has a higher melting point than Na.

(e)

## C has a giant covalent structure and Ar has a monoatomic structure.

More energy is required to overcome the strong covalent bonds between C atoms than
the weak intermolecular forces (OR van der Waals forces) between Ar atoms.
Hence, C has a higher boiling point than Ar.
(f) Both have simple molecular structures. More energy is required to overcome the
stronger hydrogen bonding between H2O molecules than the weaker van der Waals
forces between H2S molecules.
Hence, H2O has higher boiling point than H2S.
(g) Both have monoatomic structures. Since Ne has a larger number of electrons per atom
than He, more energy is required to overcome the stronger van der Waals forces
between Ne atoms than that between He atoms. Hence Ne has higher boiling point than
He.
(h) Both have simple molecular/covalent structures. Since CCl4 has a larger number of
electrons per molecule than CF4, more energy is required to overcome the stronger van
der Waals forces between CCl4 molecules than that between CF4 molecules.
Hence, CCl4 has higher boiling point than CF4.
(i) Both have simple molecular/covalent structures. Due to branching of carbon chains,
(CH3)3CH molecules have smaller surface area of contact than CH3CH2CH2CH3 molecules.
Thus, less energy is required to overcome the weaker van der Waals forces between
(CH3)3CH molecules compared to that between CH3CH2CH2CH3 molecules.
Hence, CH3CH2CH2CH3 has higher boiling point than (CH3)3CH.
(j) Both have simple molecular/covalent structures. More energy is required is overcome
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5.

Practice Paper 7

## Reg. No. 200710217Z

(l)

6. (a)
Cl
Al

Cl

Cl
(b)
(c)

7.

Al in AlCl3 is electron-deficient (only 6 electrons around Al). N in NH3 has one lone pair of
electrons. Thus, a dative covalent bond is formed between one AlCl3 molecule and one
NH3 molecule to give H3NAlCl3 so that Al can achieve a stable octet configuration.
Cl
Al

(a)

(b)

120
Cl

Cl

H
H

107

## S is a Period 3 element which has energetically accessible vacant 3d orbitals to expand

its octet so it can accommodate more than 8 electrons in the outermost shell during the
formation of SF4 and SF6. However, O is a Period 2 element which cannot expand its octet
to form OF4 and OF6 because it does not have energetically accessible vacant 3d
orbitals.
(i) CsF has strong electrostatic attractions/ ionic bonds between Cs + and F ions which
are formed through the transfer of valence electrons from Cs to F.
SF6 has strong covalent bonds between S and F atoms which share their valence
electrons in forming SF covalent bond. There exist weak van der Waals' forces or
intermolecular forces between SF6 molecules.
Reason: The difference in electronegativity between Cs and F is large while that
between S and F is small.
(ii)
Caesium flouride (CsF)
SF6
giant ionic structure
simple molecular structure
1. It has a high melting point (and/or 1. It has a low melting point (and/or
boiling point/ low volatility) due to
boiling point/ high volatility) due to
large amount of energy needed to
small amount of energy needed to
overcome the strong electrostatic
overcome the weak van der Waals'
attractions/ ionic bonds between Cs+
forces between (SF6) molecules.
and F ions.
2. It is a good electrical conductor in 2. It is a poor electrical conductor in all
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Page28

(k)

the stronger hydrogen bonding between CH3CH(OH)CH3 molecules than the weaker
permanent dipole-permanent dipole attraction between CH3COCH3 molecules.
Hence, CH3CH(OH)CH3 has higher boiling point than CH3COCH3.
Both have simple molecular/covalent structures. More energy is required to overcome
the stronger permanent dipole-permanent dipole attraction between CHF 3 molecules
than the weaker van der Waals forces between CF4 molecules.
Hence, CHF3 has higher boiling point than CF4.
Both have giant covalent structures. Since C atom is smaller than Si atom and thus CC
bond is shorter than SiSi bond, more energy is required to overcome the stronger
covalent bonds between C atoms than that between Si atoms.
Hence, C has a higher melting point than Si.

Practice Paper 7

## Advo Education Group Pte Ltd

Reg. No. 200710217Z

## molten and aqueous states due to

presence of mobile ions.

## states due to absence of mobile

charge carriers (OR no mobile ions
nor mobile electrons)
3. It is soluble in water due to the 3. It is insoluble in water as SF6 is not
formation of ion-dipole interaction with
capable of forming hydrogen bonding
water molecules (the hydration energy
nor ion-dipole interaction with water
released from the ion-dipole interaction
molecules.
with water molecules is sufficient to
overcome the strong ionic bonds in
CsF).

(a)

(b)
(c)

(i)
(ii)

## sp3 hybrid orbitals around C1

sp2 hybrid orbitals around C2
(tetrahedral arrangement)
(trigonal planar arrangement)
A -bond is formed by the head-on overlap of orbitals.
A -bond is formed by the sideway overlap of orbitals.
In the vapour state (just above its boiling point), CH3COOH dimerises (or forms a dimer)
through the formation of hydrogen bonds between two CH3COOH molecules. Thus, its Mr
was found to be 120.

## Check! Must include

2 pairs of dipole (+, -) per
hydrogen bond
lone pair on O
dotted lines btw lone pair on
O and H
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Page28

8.

Practice Paper 7

## Reg. No. 200710217Z

When it is dissolved in water, CH3COOH molecules form hydrogen bonds with water molecules.
Thus, its Mr was 60.
MCQ
1. A

2. A

3. C

4. C

5. D

6. C

7. C

## The Gaseous State

1. (a)

Volume of the gas molecules is negligible compared with volume of the container.
Gas molecules exert NO forces of attraction on one another.

## (b) Conditions: Low pressure and high temperature.

At low pressure, the gas occupies a larger volume and gas molecules are spaced out.
Thus, the volume of the gas molecules becomes insignificant/negligible compared to the
volume of the container.
Also, the molecules are far apart such that intermolecular forces of attraction that operate
between them become insignificant/negligible.
At high temperature, the molecules have higher kinetic energy, and hence have sufficient
energy to overcome intermolecular forces. Thus, the intermolecular forces of attraction
between the gas molecules are negligible.

2.

m
RT ,
Mr

Using pV nRT
Mr

## 0.100 8.31 305

m RT

pV
2.00 104 104 10 6

Note :
Mr calculated by summation of Ar of all atoms
in the species is given to 1 decimal place.
122
Otherwise, calculated Mr is given to 3sf.

## The formula of A is KrF2.

After the flasks are connected, total volume of vessel 1 2 3 dm3
Volume of He Volume of Ne 3 dm3
For He,
p1V1 p2V2

For Ne,
p1V1 p2V2

p2 3 2 1

p2 3 1 2

p2

2
kPa
3

p2

2
kPa
3

pT pHe pNe

4
kPa = 1.33 kPa
3

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Page28

3.

Practice Paper 7

## Reg. No. 200710217Z

4. (a)

Under constant T,
nRT
1
p
k
V
V

(b)

Under constant V,
nRT
p
k T
V
p

(c)

Under constant V,
nRT
p
k T/ C+273
V
p

p
T/K

273

T/C

V
(d) Under constant T,
nRT
1
p
k
V
V
p

(e)

Under constant T,
pV nRT k

(f)

pV

Under constant T,
pV
n
RT
pV

nRT

1/V

(a)

H fO MgO s

## : Mg(s) + O2(g) MgO(s)

(b)

Check! Must
: Mg(s) + O2(g) + H2(g) Mg(OH)2(aq)

(c)

HcO C2H6 g

O
f

Mg OH aq
2

include state

## : C2H6(g) + 7 2 O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 3H

2O(l)
symbols.
: 2Li+(g) + O2(g) Li2O(s)

(d)

HLE Li2O

2.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

## enthalpy change of formation of solid sodium chloride

enthalpy change of atomisation of bromine
bond energy of BrBr bond
enthalpy change of solution of calcium chloride
enthalpy change of hydration of potassium ion

3.

(a)
(b)

endothermic
exothermic

(d)
(e)

exothermic
exothermic

(g)

endothermic

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Page28

1.

Practice Paper 7

4.

(c)

exothermic

(f)

endothermic

(a)

## 2C(graphite) + H2(g) C2H2(g)

O
HfO C2 H2 g Hrxn
HcO rxtants HcO pdts

## 2 394 286 1300 +226 kJ mol

(b) 3C(graphite) + 4H2(g) + O2(g) C3H7OH(l)
O
H fO C3 H7 OH l Hrxn
HcO rxtants HcO pdts
(c)

2010
316 kJ mol
3 394 4 286 0
C6H12(l) + 9O2(g) 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l)
O
HcO C6 H12 l Hrxn
HfO pdts H fO rxtants

6 394 6 286

(a)

(b
)

6.

(a)

(b)

(c)

7.

(a)

3928 kJ mol

## CH3CH3(g) + Cl2(g) CH3CH2Cl(g) + HCl(g)

Bonds broken
kJ mol1
Bonds formed
kJ mol1
1 CC bond
350
1 CC bond
350
6 CH
6 (+410) = +2460
5 CH
5(+410) = +2050
1 ClCl
+244
1 CCl
+340
1 HCl
+431
Total
+3054
Total
+3171
Hrxn = (bonds broken) (bonds formed) = (+3054) (+3171) = 117 kJ mol1
This is because the bond energies in the Data Booklet represent average/mean bond
energies derived from a range of molecules that contain the particular bond.

Standard enthalpy change of combustion of liquid ethanol is the enthalpy change that
occurs when 1 mole of ethanol is completely burned in oxygen under standard
conditions.
Heat required to raise the temperature = 400 4.2 (22-12) = 16800 J = 16.8 kJ (No sign!)
16.8
Hc(ethanol(l)) =
= 840 kJ
(0.92 46.0)
1. Some heat is absorbed by the metal calorimeter.
2. Heat loss from the calorimeter to the surroundings (no lagging /insulation).
3. Not all the heat from the flame is transferred to the calorimeter and water.
4. Loss of ethanol (which vaporised) from the hot wick before the spirit lamp was
reweighed (at the end of the experiment). This would result in "higher" mass of
ethanol than actual being used in the calculation.
NaOH(aq) + CH3COOH(aq) CH3COONa(aq) + H2O(l)

Page28

5.

152 0

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Practice Paper 7

## Reg. No. 200710217Z

30.0
1.0 0.0300mol
1000
29.0 29.4
average initial temperature of solution
29.2 C
2
amount of heat evolved v c T 30.0 30.0 3.2 35.8 29.2
amount of water produced

1660 J 1.66 kJ

## amount of heat evolved

1.66
1

55.4 kJ mol
amount
of
water
produced
0.0300

HCl, a strong acid ionises completely in aqueous solution while CH3COOH is a weak acid
that ionises partially in aqueous solution.
Since ionisation of CH3COOH is an endothermic process, some heat released from the
neutralisation is absorbed to further dissociate the weak acid completely.
Therefore, the enthalpy change of neutralisation of CH3COOH with NaOH is less
exothermic than that of HCl with NaOH.
Hneutralisation

8.

(a)

Ca(s)

F2(g)

+178

CaF2(s)

2(+79)
Ca(g)

2F(g)

(+590)+
(+1150)
Ca2+(g)

2(328)
+

2F(g)

OR
Energy /kJ mol1

Check!
For each process,
- equation is balanced
- state symbol of
reactants and products
are stated correctly
LE(CaF2(s)) - process is labelled
with correct H symbol
or value
- arrow is pointing in the
correct direction

Ca 2+(g) + 2F(g) + 2e
(+590)+
(+1150)

2(328)
Ca 2+(g) + 2F(g)

Ca (g) + 2F(g)
2(+79)
Ca (g) +F2(g)
+178
0

LE (CaF2(s))

Ca(s) + F2(g)
1220
CaF2(s)

Page28

(b)

By Hesss Law,
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Practice Paper 7

## Reg. No. 200710217Z

LE CaF2 s
1220 178 590 1150 2 79 2 328
2640 kJ mol1
8.

(b)

LE

q q
r r

Since Cl has the same ionic charge and larger ionic radius/size than F, the magnitude of
lattice energy of CaCl2 is smaller than that of CaF2 (OR lattice energy of CaCl2 is less
exothermic).
O2 has a larger ionic charge and larger ionic radius/size than F. Since the effect of (q+q)
is greater than the effect of (r+ + r), the magnitude of lattice energy of CaO is larger than
that of CaF2 (OR lattice energy of CaO is more exothermic).

(a)
(b)

## SiCl4(g) Si(g) + Cl(g)

(i)
Energy / kJ mol1

H = Average E(SiCl)

Check!
For each process,
- equation is balanced
Si(g) + 4Cl(g)
- state symbol of
reactants and
products are stated
= +488
correctly
- process is labelled
Si(g) + 2Cl2(g)
with correct H
symbol or value
4 x average E(Si-Cl)
arrow is pointing in
Si(s) + 2Cl2(g)
+338

4(+122)

610
SiCl4(g)

(ii)

## average E(Si-Cl) = [(+338)+(+488)+(+610)] = +359 kJ mol1

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Page28

9.

Practice Paper 7

10.

(a)

Hsoln(MgCl2)
MgCl2(s)

Mg2+(aq)
Hhyd(Mg2+)
= 1890

LE(MgCl2)
= ( 2526)

Mg2+(g)

2Cl (aq)

2Hhyd(Cl)
= 2(384)
2Cl (g)

## Hsoln(MgCl2) = LE(MgCl2) + Hhyd(Mg2+) + 2Hhyd(Cl )

= (2526) + (1890) + 2(384)
= 132 kJ mol1

10.

(a)
OR By energy level diagram:
Hsoln(MgCl2)
= (1890 + 768 2526)
= 132 kJ mol 1

2 Cl (g)

1890
2526
Mg2+(aq) + 2 Cl (g)

Note:
Do NOT mark 0
on the y-axis!

MgCl2(s)
Hsoln(MgCl2)

2(384)
= 768

Check!
For each process,
- equation is balanced
- state symbol of reactants
and products are stated
correctly
- process is labelled with
correct H symbol or
value

Mg2+(aq) + 2 Cl (aq)

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Page28

Energy / kJ mol 1
Mg2+(g) +

Practice Paper 7

## Reg. No. 200710217Z

Ca2+ has the same ionic charge but larger ionic radius/size than Mg2+ and thus Ca2+ has a
lower charge density than that of Mg2+. Therefore, the numerical value of Hhyd of Ca2+ is
smaller than that of Mg2+ since Ca2+ ions form weaker ion-dipole interactions with water
molecules.

(b)

Multiple-Choice Questions
11.

Hr
CO(g) + 2 H2(g)

(B)

CH3OH(l)

Hr = Hc (reactants) Hc (products)
Hr = Hc(CO) + 2Hc(H2) Hc(CH3OH)
= (283) + 2(286) (715)
= 140 kJ mol1
Hr
OR, CO(g)
+
2 H2(g)
(283)

2(286)

CO2(g)

CH3OH(l)
(715)

2 H2O(l)

## By Hess' Law, Hr = (283) + 2(286) (715)

= 140 kJ mol1
12
.

(C)

The standard enthalpy change of neutralisation of an acid with an alkali is the enthalpy
change when one mole of water is formed from the reaction of the acid and alkali
under standard conditions.
Both reactions involve mixing of a strong base and a strong acid and each gives two
moles of water. Therefore, the heat liberated for both reactions is the same.

(A)

H = 114 kJ mol1

H = 114 kJ mol1

## The enthalpy change of the following processes/reactions is always negative

(exothermic).
Combustion
Neutralisation
Formation of solid ionic compound from its gaseous ions (Lattice Energy)
Hydration of gaseous ions
The enthalpy change of the following processes/reactions is always positive
(endothermic).
Atomisation
Ionisation
Breaking of covalent bonds (Bond energy)
(A)

## burning an element in oxygen combustion (always exothermic)

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Page28

13
.

Practice Paper 7

## Reg. No. 200710217Z

(B)
(C)
(D)

(C)

[J96/P3/Q7, N01/P3/Q9]

Page28

14.

## dissolving a compound in water solution (H can be ve or +ve)

forming an ion from an atom IE always endothermic (to form cation from atom)
but EA can be ve or +ve (to form anion from atom)
synthesising a compound from its elements formation (H can be ve or +ve)

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Practice Paper 7

## Reg. No. 200710217Z

Look out for statement that indicates CaCl2 being more stable than CaCl.
A. False Ca(g) Ca+(g) + eCa(g) Ca2+(g) + 2e-

## 1st IE = + 590 kJ mol1

1st IE + 2nd IE = + 590 + 1145 = +1735 kJ mol1

B. Statement is true BUT does not explain why CaCl2 is formed rather than CaCl.
For CaCl(s): Cl2(g) Cl(g) Cl(g)
H1
st
H1 = E(ClCl) + 1 EA (Cl) = (+244) + (364) = 242 kJ mol1
For CaCl2(s): Cl2(g) 2Cl(g) 2Cl(g) H2
H2= E(ClCl) + 2 x 1st EA (Cl) = +244 + 2(364) = 484 kJ mol1
more energy is released in forming 2 Cl from Cl2 in the formation of CaCl2
C. Lattice energy of CaCl is less exothermic than that of CaCl2
weaker ionic bonds in CaCl
CaCl is less stable.
D. False
energy

## If more energy is released when CaCl is formed

energy level of CaCl is lower than that of CaCl2
CaCl is energetically more stable than CaCl2 (False)

CaCl2(s)
CaCl(s)

15.

(C)

[N98/P3/Q8]
Since

LE

q q
r r

M2+Z2

>

>

L+Y

## singly-charged cations and anions,

JX has a smaller interionic distance (r+ + r- )
than LY

Page28

doubly-charged
cation and anion

J+X

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Practice Paper 7

## Reg. No. 200710217Z

16.

(D)

[N05/P1/7]
A. Since enthalpy change of solution for BaF 2 is a small positive value, BaF2 might still
be soluble/sparingly soluble in water. (Statement is inconclusive)
B. Both Ba2+ and Mg2+ ions have the same ionic charge but Ba 2+ has a larger ionic
radius than Mg2+. Hence, the hydration energy for Ba2+ should be numerically smaller
(less exothermic) than that of Mg2+. (False)
q q
C. LE
r r
Since Ba2+ has a larger ionic radius (& both compounds have the same product of
ionic charges), lattice energy for BaF2 should be numerically smaller (less
exothermic) than that of MgF2. (False)
D.

H soln(BaF2)=

## LE(BaF2) + Hhyd(Ba2+) + 2 Hhyd(F )

For Hsoln to be positive, this term must be more positive than the negative term due to
hydration processes. Therefore, the numerical value of lattice energy must be greater
than the sum of hydration energies. (True)

17.

(A)

[N2006 P1 Q33]

C(g)
Energy
/ kJ mol 1
Hat(diamond)
Hat(graphite)
C(diamond)
C(graphite)

+3

Hc(graphite)

Hc(diamond)

## Since it requires more energy to atomise graphite, the E(CC) in graphite is

greater than that in diamond. (True)
The Hc(diamond) is numerically greater than Hc(graphite). (True)

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Page28

CO2(g)

Practice Paper 7

## Advo Education Group Pte Ltd

Reg. No. 200710217Z

## Chemical Energetics Part 2 : Entropy

18. (a)
(b
)

19. (a)

Entropy is a measure of the disorder in a system. The more disordered a system, the larger
its entropy.
(i) Na(s) Na(g)
S> 0 increase in disorder from a more ordered solid state to a more disordered
gaseous state.
(ii) 2Pb(NO3)2(s) 2PbO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g)
S> 0 increase in disorder because the reaction proceeds with an increase in the
number of gas molecules.
(iii) Cl2(g) + 1 I2(s) 2 ICl3(l)
3
3
S < 0 decrease in disorder because the reaction proceeds with a decrease in the
number of gas molecules.
(iv) 1 mol of Cl2(g) is added to 1 mol of N2(g)
S > 0 increase in disorder because mixing of two different gas molecules will
result in a more disordered arrangement of the molecules.
(v) 1 mol of Cl2(g) at 298 K is heated to 373 K
S > 0 increase in disorder because an increase in temperature increases the
kinetic energy of the molecules.This causes a broadening of the Boltzmann energy
distribution which will result in more ways of arranging energy quanta in the hotter
gas.
Al2O3(s) + 6 HF(g) 2 AlF3(s) + 3 H2O(g)
H
= H fO (products) H fO (reactants)

## = 2 H fO (AlF3) + 3 H fO (H2O) H fO (Al2O3) 6 H fO (HF)

= 2(1504) + 3(242) (1676) 6(271)
= 432 kJ mol1
(b A negative S fO indicates that the reaction proceeds with a decrease in disorder as the
)
reaction proceeds with a decrease in the number of gas molecules.
(c) G = H TS
390
= (432) 298 (
) = 316 kJ mol1
1000
(d) G = H T S

ve
+ve
Since S< 0, TS > 0.
When temperature increases, TS becomes more positive.
At high temperature, G > 0 since H < TS .
Therefore, the reaction is not spontaneous at high temperature.
At low temperature, G < 0 since H > TS .
Therefore, the reaction is spontaneous at low temperature.
However, the reaction will be too slow at low temperature. Hence, the reaction should be
carried out at moderate temperature and not at very high temperature to prevent the reaction
from being non-spontaneous.
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Page28

ve

Practice Paper 7

20. (a)

(i)

## Goppt = 2.303 RT log Ksp

Goppt = 2.303 8.31 298
= 55300 J mol1
= 55.3 kJ mol1

(ii)

log(2.0 x 1010)

## Goppt = Hoppt TSoppt

55.3 = 66.0 298(So )
Soppt = 0.0358 kJ mol1 K1
= 35.8 J mol1 K1

(iii)

(b)

## Soppt is negative, indicating there is a decrease in disorder in the system

during precipitation. This is because the free aqueous ions combine
together to give a more ordered solid AgCl.
o
G ppt = 2.303 8.31 298 log(1.006)
= +14.8 J mol1
Since Goppt is positive, precipitation of AgF will not occur at 298K.
Therefore, AgF is soluble in water at 298 K.
AgF is soluble in water because the hydration energy released by the formation of the
ion-dipole interaction between Ag+ and the water molecules, and that between F and
water molecules, is sufficient to overcome the hydrogen bonds between water
molecules and the electrostatic attraction (or ionic bond) between Ag+ and F
ions in AgF.

Chemical Equilibrium
CO2(g) + H2(g) CO(g) + H2O(g)
Equilibrium partial pressure/ atm
20
9
15
20
PCO PH2O (15)(20)
=
1.67
(a) Kp =
PCO2 PH2
(20)(9)
(b
)
2.

(a)

B since the equilibrium position shifts right to remove SOME of the H2.

Kc =
Kc ' =

[X 2 Y]2
= 5 mol1 dm3
[X 2 ]2 [Y]
[X2 Y]2
[X2 Y]4
2
=

= 5 = 25
2
[X2 ]4 [Y]2
[X
]
[Y]

[X2 Y]2
[X ][Y] 2
K c '' = 2
=

2
[X2 Y]
[X2 ] [Y]
1

(b)

3.

(a)

12

= (5)

1
2

= 0.447

## Le Chateliers Principle states that if a system is subjected to a change which disturbs

the equilibrium, the system responds in such a way to counteract some of the effect
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Page28

1.

Practice Paper 7

## Reg. No. 200710217Z

(b)

of the change.
(i)
N2(g) + 3H2(g)
2NH3(g) ---(*) H = 92.6 kJmol1
When volume decreases, pressure of the system increases.
The equilibrium position of (*) shifts to the right to reduce the pressure by reducing
the amount of gas molecules.
Equilibrium constant remains unchanged as the temperature is constant.
(ii) When temperature increases, the equilibrium position of (*) shifts to the left to
favour endothermic reaction so as to remove some heat energy.
The equilibrium constant decreases since the backward reaction is favoured.
(iii When iron catalyst is added, the equilibrium position remains the same since the
)
rate of backward reaction and forward reaction are increased by the same extent.
and equilibrium constant remain the same since temperature remains constant.

4.

## Temperature increases Kc increases.

When Kc increases with increasing temperature, it implies that the equilibrium position of
reaction shifts right to favour endothermic reaction by removing/absorbing some heat
energy. Thus the forward reaction is endothermic.

5.

(a)

(i)

P P
2

Kp

SO3

O2

unit : atm1

SO2

(ii)

2SO2(g)
2p

O2(g)
p

2SO3(g)
4.7

## Total pressure at eqm 5 atm

2p p 4.7 5 atm p 0.1 atm
PSO2 at eqm 0.2 atm
PO2 at eqm 0.1 atm

P P
2

Kp

O2

(b)

(i)

4.7
2
0.1 0.2
2

SO3

SO2

5520 atm1

## Total initial pressure 3 atm

n
PA A Ptotal
ntotal

2
initial PSO2 3 2 atm
3

1
initial PO2 3 1 atm
3
2SO2(g)
+ O2(g)
Initial partial pressure /atm
2
1 0

## Eqm partial pressure /atm

PSO2 at eqm 0.100 atm
(ii)

0.10
0.05
PO2 at eqm 0.0500 atm

2SO3(g)
1.9

## new total pressure 0.10 0.05 1.9 2.05 atm

Since SO3 SO2, theoretical pressure of SO3 produced = 2.00 atm
1.90
% conversion of SO2 into SO3
100% 95.0 %
2.00

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Page28

(20.95)
0.95
+2(0.95)

Practice Paper 7

(iii
)

6.

(c)

P P
O2

SO2

1.9

2
0.05 0.1

7720 atm1

## 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) 2 SO3(g) --(*)

Kp at 500 C = 5520 atm1
Kp at 430 C = 7720 atm1
When Kp increases withd decreasing temperature, this implies that the equilibrium
position of (*) shifts to the right to favour exothermic reaction by releasing some heat
energy. Hence, the forward reaction is exothermic.

(a)

## (): Both axes correctly labelled

(): decreasing curve that level off
for forward reaction.
(): increasing curve that level off
for backward reaction.
(): Both graphs level off at the same
cooridinates
(): correctly label the two graphs as
forward and backward reactions.
5() 3m
3-4() 2m
1-2() 1m

(b)

(i)
(ii)

(c)

Kp =

Kp =

(PN2 O3 ) 2
(PN 2O4 )(PNO ) 2
(0.25) 2
(0.75)(1.50) 2

Unit = atm1

[1m] Kp expression;

[1m] units

## (i) When temperature is increased,

Equilibrium position shifts to the left [1m] to favour the endothermic reaction
so as to remove some heat [1m] to decrease temperature.
(ii) When pressure is increased,
Equilibrium position shifts to the right [1m] to decrease the number of gaseous
molecules [1m] to reduce the system pressure.

Page28

5.

Kp

PSO

## A is Easy with ADVO!

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