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lateral force calculation by portal method

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Portal Frame

Portal frames, used in several Civil Engineering structures like buildings, factories, bridges have the primary

purpose of transferring horizontal loads applied at their tops to their foundations. Structural requirements

usually necessitate the use of statically indeterminate layout for portal frames, and approximate solutions are

often used in their analyses.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

In order to analyze a structure using the equations of statics only, the number of independent force

components must be equal to the number of independent equations of statics.

If there are n more independent force components in the structure than there are independent equations of

statics, the structure is statically indeterminate to the nth degree. Therefore to obtain an approximate solution

of the structure based on statics only, it will be necessary to make n additional independent assumptions. A

solution based on statics will not be possible by making fewer than n assumptions, while more than n

assumptions will not in general be consistent.

Thus, the first step in the approximate analysis of structures is to find its degree of statical indeterminacy

(dosi) and then to make appropriate number of assumptions.

For example, the dosi of portal frames shown in (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) are 1, 3, 2 and 1 respectively. Based on

the type of frame, the following assumptions can be made for portal structures with a vertical axis of

symmetry that are loaded horizontally at the top

1. The horizontal support reactions are equal

2. There is a point of inflection at the center of the unsupported height of each fixed based column

Assumption 1 is used if dosi is an odd number (i.e., = 1 or 3) and Assumption 2 is used if dosi

1.

Some additional assumptions can be made in order to solve the structure approximately for different loading

and support conditions.

3. Horizontal body forces not applied at the top of a column can be divided into two forces (i.e.,

applied at the top and bottom of the column) based on simple supports

4. For hinged and fixed supports, the horizontal reactions for fixed supports can be assumed to be four

times the horizontal reactions for hinged supports

Example

Draw the axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams of the frames loaded as shown below.

B

10 k

10 k

10

F

5

15

15

(i)

(ii)

Solution

(i) For this frame, dosi = 3 3 + 4 3 4 = 1; i.e., Assumption 1

MA = 0 10 10 VD 15 = 0 VD = 6.67 k

Fy = 0 VA + VD = 0 VA = 6.67 k

HA = HD = 10/2 = 5 k

10 k

50

50

5

6.67

6.67

5k

6.67

5k

6.67 k

6.67 k

Reactions

AFD (k)

SFD (k)

BMD (k-ft)

(ii) dosi = 3 3 + 6 3 4 = 3

Assumption 1 HA = HD = 10/2 = 5 k, Assumption 2 BME = BMF = 0

BMF = 0 HA 5 + MA = 0 MA = 25 k-ft; Similarly BME = 0 MD = 25 k-ft

MA = 0

25 25 + 10 10 VD 15 = 0 VD = 3.33 k

Fy = 0 VA + VD = 0 VA = 3.33 k

10 k

25

3.33

5

3.33

5k

3.33

5k

25 k-ft

3.33 k

Reactions

25

25

25 k-ft

3.33 k

AFD (k)

SFD (k)

BMD (k-ft)

25

(iii)

10 k

5

HA

MA

A

7.5

HD

VA

MD

7.5

VA

HA

HD

10

10 k

F

VD

7.5

7.5

VD

BME = 0 (bottom)

HA 5 + MA = 0 MA = 5HA; Similarly BMF = 0

Also BME = 0 (free body of EBCF) 10 5 VD 15 = 0 VD = 3.33 k

Fy = 0 VA + VD = 0 VA = VD = 3.33 k

BMG = 0 (between E and G) VA 7.5 HA 5 = 0 HA = 5 k

Fx = 0 (entire structure) HA + HD + 10 = 0

5 + HD + 10 = 0

MD = 5HD

MA = 5HA = 25 k-ft

HD = 5 k MD = 5HD = 25 k-ft

25

10 k

3.33

5

3.33

5k

25

3.33

5k

25 k-ft

25

25

25 k-ft

3.33 k

3.33 k

Reactions

AFD (k)

SFD (k)

BMD (k-ft)

Assumption 1 and 2 HA: HB: HC = 1: 2: 1 HA = 10/4 = 2.5 k, HB = 5 k, HC = 2.5 k

MA = MC = 2.5 5 = 12.5 k-ft, MB = 5 5 = 25 k-ft

The other 4 assumptions are the assumed internal hinge locations at midpoints of columns and one beam

12.5

12.5

10 k

12.5

25

2.5 k

5k

2.5 k

25 k-ft

12.5 k-ft

YB

YA

50

12.5 k-ft

12.5

YC

Reactions

1.67

12.5

25

BMD (k-ft)

1.67

2.5

7.5

2.5

2.5

1.67

SFD (k)

1.67

AFD (k)

Approximate methods of analyzing multi-storied structures are important because such structures are

statically highly indeterminate. The number of assumptions that must be made to permit an analysis by

statics alone is equal to the degree of statical indeterminacy of the structure.

Assumptions

The assumptions used in the approximate analysis of portal frames can be extended for the lateral load

analysis of multi-storied structures. The Portal Method thus formulated is based on three assumptions

1. The shear force in an interior column is twice the shear force in an exterior column.

2. There is a point of inflection at the center of each column.

3. There is a point of inflection at the center of each beam.

Assumption 1 is based on assuming the interior columns to be formed by columns of two adjacent bays or

portals. Assumption 2 and 3 are based on observing the deflected shape of the structure.

12

2@10 =20

Example

Use the Portal Method to draw the axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams of the three-storied

frame structure loaded as shown below.

Column shear forces are at the ratio of 1:2:2:1.

18k

M

N

O

P

Shear force in (V) columns IM, JN, KO, LP are

[18 1/(1 + 2 + 2 + 1) =] 3k, [18 2/(1 + 2 + 2 + 1) =] 6k,

12k

I

J

K

L

6k, 3k respectively. Similarly,

VEI = 30 1/(6) = 5k, VFJ = 10k, VGK = 10k, VHL = 5k; and

6k

VAE = 36 1/(6) = 6k, VBF = 12k, VCG = 12k, VDH = 6k

E

F

G

H

Bending moments are

A

B

C

D

MIM = 3 10/2 = 15k , MJN = 30k , MKO = 30k , MLP = 15k

10

15

15

MEI = 5 10/2 = 25k , MFJ = 50k , MGK = 50k , MHL = 25k

MAE = 6 10/2 = 30k , MFJ = 60k , MGK = 60k , MHL = 30k

The rest of the calculations follow from the free-body diagrams

3

10

10

12

12

15

30

30

15

-15

25

50

50

25

-10

36

72

72

36

-5

15

15

61

40

-6

-2

-3

-1

-3

-2

7.33

3.67

-3.67

-7.33

7.75

-7.75

-15.5

40

-5.33

61

-3

15

-2

40

-9

-8

-5.33

61

-8.13

-12.2

-2

-8.13

-1

15.5

1. The figure below shows the shear forces (kips) in the interior columns of a two-storied frame. Use the

Portal Method to calculate the corresponding

(i) applied loads P1 and P2, (ii) column bending moments, (iii) beam axial forces.

P2

3

10

P1

5

12

20

20

2. The figure below shows the applied loads (F1, F2) and shear force (VEF) in column EF of a two-storied

frame. If F2 = 10 k, and VEF = 5 k, use the Portal Method to calculate the

(i) applied load F1, (ii) maximum column bending moments.

A

F1

D

10

F2

E

12

VEF

C

F

20

15

15

3. For the structure shown in Question 2, use the Portal Method to calculate the lateral loads F 1, F2 if the

axial forces in beams AD and BE are 10 kips and 15 kips respectively.

4. For the structure shown below, use the Portal Method to

(i) draw the bending moment diagrams of the top floor beams AB and BC

(i) calculate the applied load F1 if the maximum bending moment in column EH is 30 k-ft.

B

F2 = 10 k

C

10

F1

F

14

H

15

15

5. The figure below shows the exterior column shear forces (kips) in a four-storied fame.

Calculate (i) the applied loads, (ii) beam shear forces.

4 @ 10 = 40

5

10

15

20

20

10

Although the results using the Portal Method are reasonable in most cases, the method suffers due to the

lack of consideration given to the variation of structural response due to the difference between sectional

properties of various members. The Cantilever Method attempts to rectify this limitation by considering the

cross-sectional areas of columns in distributing the axial forces in various columns of a story.

Assumptions

The Cantilever Method is based on three assumptions

1. The axial force in each column of a storey is proportional to its horizontal distance from the

centroidal axis of all the columns of the storey.

2. There is a point of inflection at the center of each column.

3. There is a point of inflection at the center of each beam.

Assumption 1 is based on assuming that the axial stresses can be obtained by a method analogous to that

used for determining the distribution of normal stresses on a transverse section of a cantilever beam.

Assumption 2 and 3 are based on observing the deflected shape of the structure.

12

2@10 =20

Example

Use the Cantilever Method to draw the axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams of the three storied frame structure loaded as shown below.

The dotted line is the column centerline (at all floors)

18k

O

M

N

P

Column axial forces are at the ratio of 20: 5: 5: 20.

k

Axial force in (P) columns IM, JN, KO, LP are

12

I

K

J

L

[18 5 20/{202 + 52 + ( 5)2 + ( 20)2} = ] 2.12k, [18 5

5/(202 + 52 + ( 5)2 + ( 20)2} = ] 0.53k, 0.53k, 2.12k

6k

respectively.

F

G

E

H

Similarly, PEI = 330 20/(850) = 7.76k, PFJ = 1.94k, PGK =

A

B

C

D

1.94k, PHL = 7.76k; and

15

15

5 5

PAE = 696 20/(850) = 16.38k, PBF = 4.09k, PCG = 4.09k,

PDH = 16.38k

The rest of the calculations follow from the free-body diagrams

2.12

7.76

0.53

1.94

-0.53

-1.94

-2.12

-2.12

-7.76

-5.65

-8.61

16.38

4.09

-4.09

-16.38

15.9

29.1

15.9

3.18

5.82

26.5

48.5

48.5

26.5

5.30

9.70

38.1

69.9

1

69.9

38.1

6.35

11.65

-7.06

-5.64

-10.76

-8.61

5.82

13.2

15.9

42.4

35.3

42.4

64.6

53.8

3.18

5.30

11.65

6.35

64.6

9.70

15.9

-2.12

29.1

-2.65

-14.82

-9.88

-4.95

-8.98

-3.04

-6.00

-2.12

-3.00

-1.05

12

6k

12

2@10 =20

18

15

10

D

15

19.4 -16.3 18.4

2.38

1.30

7.19

5.13

13.07

-9.41

-1.32

-5.18

-2.38

-2.36

-7.14

-4.80

-5.89

-9.48

-13.00

34.7

34.6

19.3

-9.5

28.6

-26.5

50.5

-26.4

50.5

-9.4

28.5

-51.5

-48.1

43.6

-48.1

43.5

-60.9

-60.7

Column BMD (k-ft)

-8.63

-4.78

-10.17

-5.86

19.4

-22.9

24.5

-4.68

-22.8

24.3

2.90

6.13

5.15

9.87

7.59

10.45

16.2 -19.3

-2.36

38.1 -33.9 43.2

33.8 -37.9

40.8 -47.1

6.11

2.87

9.85

5.13

10.41

7.53

-15.10

-9.75

-3.55

-8.98

-2.87

-6.01

-2.27

-2.97

-2.40

-51.0

Column SFD (k)

-5.73

12.26

12.26

-12.95

-11.57

18.5

43.3

42.4

-80.4

-79.8

Column BMD (k-ft)

-5.15

18.4

5.73

-38.8

-12.37

12.37

38.2 -39.1

12.21

5.69

-4.66

-2.65

-38.4

Column SFD (k)

-1.31

1. The figure below shows the axial forces (kips) in the exterior columns of a two-storied frame.

If the cross-sectional area of column ABC is twice the area of the other columns, use the Cantilever

Method to calculate the corresponding applied loads P1 and P2.

A

P2

10

12

12

P1

C

20

20

2. For the structure shown below, use the Cantilever Method to calculate the lateral loads F1, F2 if the shear

forces in beams AB and DE are 10 kips and 15 kips respectively. Assume all the columns have the same

cross-sectional area.

A

F2

C

8

F1

G

15

I

20

J

10

20

12k

12

6k

2@10 =20

18k

3. Use the Cantilever Method to draw the axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams of the

three-storied structure loaded as shown below.

15

D

15

10

3 @ 10 = 30

3 @ 10 = 30

4. Figure (a) below shows the exterior column axial forces (kips) in a three-storied fame.

Use the Cantilever Method to calculate (i) the applied loads, (ii) beam bending moments, (iii) column

bending moments. Assume all the columns to have equal cross-sectional areas.

5

10

15

20

7

20

10

Fig. (a)

2

10

Fig. (b)

5. Figure (b) above shows the column shear forces (kips) in a three-storied fame.

Calculate the column BM, beam BM, beam SF and column AF.

Also check if they satisfy the conditions for Cantilever Method (for equal column areas).

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