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Natural Science
Register No.18114364010

The term vaccination and vaccine derive from the work of Edward Jenner who
200 years ago, showing that inculcating people with material from skin lesson caused
by cowpox, protect them from the highly contagious and frequently fatal dease small
One of the most vaccine in the recombinant vaccines. In recently years
recombinant DNA technology is increasing being used in vaccine development. A
number of genus encoding surface antigens from, viral bacterial and protozone
pathogen are cloned in suitable vectors which may be bacteria, yeast, insect or
mammalian expansion system. Cloned vectors are used in vaccine development in
two ways.
The expensed antigens are purified by conventional biochemical technique and
used as a vaccine recombinant human hepatitis B vaccine which has show to induce
the production of protective antibodies in patient.
Other possible vectors used is vaccine development are canary virus,
Salmonella typhimurium attenuated polio virus, adenovirus, BCG shain of my bacteria
hovis and some strain of shepto coccus.

In recombinant vaccine the degree of expansion of inserted foxgen pathogenic
gene is quite high in vaccine virus which serve as a potent immunogen in a inoculated
host. At present gene for hepatitis B surface antigen, Herpes simplex and influence
have been success inserted into vaccine genone. Laboratory toils of this vector vaccine
have shown that it induce the production of antibodies and cell mediated immune
response against the enginued products.
Vaccines produced from other attenuated vectors may prove safer than the
vaccine a vaccines, because vaccines may become virulent in individuals suffering
from sever immune suppression. Therefore, canary poxvirus has been recently fixed
as a vector for vaccines. Since u- does not appear to be virulent in individuals with
sever immune suppression. It is similar to vaccine and has the ability tyo carry
multiple genes.
Another possible a Henuated bacterial vector, which has been generically
enginured to carry genes from cholera bacterium is Salmonells typhimurium. The
main advantage is that Salmonella is capable of infecting muscle cell linging of
intestine. Hence is capable of inducing secretary IgA production. It has been possible
to induced increased production of secretary IgA at mucosal lining of intestine, which
enabled to achieve effective immunity against cholera, gonorrhea. One of the
poliovirus strain from sabin vaccine is an effective candidate for safe vector vaccine.
In these acse out side cap aside protein of the polio virus replaced by genes encoding

the epilope of choice resulting chemira vector is capable of expensing the desired
epilope in a highly accensibel manner on the poliovirus nuclear capsid.
The expensed antigens are purified by conventional biochemical techniques
and used as a vaccine. Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine which has shown to induce
the production of protective antibodies in patients.
By cloning the desired genes encoding for a surface antigen is put some vector
which is then injected into the patient allowed to replicate express the gene and large
amount of antigen is produce on sited. For e.g vaccine a virus which is the attenuated
vaccine to eraduate small pox widely used as a vector vaccine because there complex
virus has a large genome, can carry several foreign genes and to capacity to infect host
cells and replication cannot be impaired.

In recombinant vaccine. The recombinant DIVA technology is increasing the
vine of vaccine development. Numerous vectors are used is vaccine development are
Canary virus
Salmonella typhimurium
Attenuated poliovirus
BCG shains of bacterius bovis
Some attenuated salmoneua
A number of gene encoding surface antigens from viral, bacterial pathogen are
cloned for suitable vectors. The degree of expansion of inserted foreign gene in quiet
high in vaccine virus. The pathogen may be weekend induced into the body.
Stimulates the production of protective antibodies. This is the goal vaccinisation in an
achieve immunization because the immune system is stimulate to develop its own
immunity against the pathogen.

Text book. Immunology concept and mechanism
By Asha Sharma
Rajendra Kaushik
By C.Vaman Rao