Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 12

# I nte. J. Ma.

{1978)1-12
Vo1.

Math.

## BEHAVIOR OF SECOND ORDER NONLINEAR

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
RINA LING
Department of Mathematics
California State University
Los Angeles, California 90032
(Received November 29, 1977 and in revised form March 31, 1978)

ABSTRACT.

## number of zeroes, oscillatory behavior, boundedness and monotoniclty of the

solutions.

i.

INTRODUCTION.
Second order nonlinear differential equations of the form

y(t) + p(t)y(t) +
where n is an integer

>_ 2,

q(t)yn(t)

[4, 5]).

studied.

RINA LING

are obtained.

The work is

## are continuous real-valued functions on the interval of interest.

divided into four parts; the first part deals with the case of p(t) < 0 and

q(t) < 0, the second part with the case of p(t) < 0 and q(t) > O, the third
part with p(t) > 0 and q(t) < 0 and the fourth part with p(t) > 0 and q(t) > O.

Papers in the past, Skldmore [6], Abramovlch [7], Rankln [8], and Grimmer and
Patula [9] have studied behavior of second order linear differential equations.
Nonllnear differential equations have been investigated in Chen [i0] and Chen,

Yeh and Yu

[11],

2.

THEOREM 2.1.

If (i)

O, t

> 0 or

(2)

y(t) < 0, t

> 0.

and

(3)

PROOF.

+ (p(t) +

q(t)yn-l)y

(2.1)

O.

+ p(t)z

(2.2)

0.

Since n

i is

n-1
< p(t)
p(t) + q(t)y

(0,=), if y

## has a zero on (0,), a contradiction.

The concavity of the graph follows from (I.i) written in the form

-p(t)y- q(t)y n

THEOREM 2.2.
is even, then

PROOF.

If (I)

(2)

and

(3)

and

(3)

## Since q(t) < 0 and n is even, we have

+ p(t)y + q(t)yn

+ p(t)y,

<

therefore

0 <
and by Bellman and Kalaba

+ p(t)y

THEOREM 3.1.

If (I)

PROOF.

METHOD i.

(2)

## 0, for all t > 0.

If in (I.i), we let y(t)

comes

since n is even,

+ p(t)z

METHOD 2.

q(t)z n

## Since q(t) > 0 and n is even, we have

+ p(t)y

< y

+ p(t)y + q(t)y

therefore

+ p(t)y
and by Bellman and Kalaba

< 0

RINA LING

4
4.

## If n is odd, the following two theorems on the number of zeroes of the

solution can be obtained.

THEOREM 4.1.

(3)

(2)

If (i)

that
b

p(t)dt >
a

PROOF.

+ (p(t) +

q(t)yn-l)y

0.

+ p(t)z

0.

and by Hrtman

[12], z(t)

[a, b]

is that

p(t)dt >

THEOREM 4.2.

(3)

n is odd,

If (i)

(4)

(2)

T

N <

p(t)dt)

(T
0

i.

<

T,

PROOF.

<_ M. But

## by Hartman [12, p. 346-347 ],

M <

(T

p(t)dt

0
and the conclusion follows.

THEOREM 4.3.
is

If (I)

(2)

q(t) < 0, t

>_

and

(3)

PROOF.

## Since q(t) < 0 and n is even,

+ p(t)y + q(t)yn

+ p(t)y,

<

therefore,
0 <
and by Bellman and Kalaba

;+

p(t)y

t > 0.

(0)

THEOREM 4.4.
t > 0 and

PROOF.

(4)

If (i)

(0)

> 0, (2)

(3)

q(t) < 0,

(t)

(0)+

p(s)yds +

q(s)yn

ds

0.

(t)

(0) +

p(s)yds +

q(s)yn

ds,

> 0,

RINA LING

therefore,

(t)

(t)

>

(0)

>

O,

(o)

>

5.

## CASZ 0 p(=) > 0 AD q(t) > 0.

For p(t) > 0, q(t) > 0 and n odd, the following theorems on the oscillatory

THEOREM 5.1.
odd and

(4)

(i)

If

z(t), for

(3)

+ p(t)

PROOF.

(2)

n is

0, then y(t)

t > 0.

+ (p(t) +

q(t)yn-1)y

O.

## Let z(t) be a real-valued solution to

E + p(t)z
which has been widely discussed.

and

(n

i) is even,

## p(t) < p(t) + q(t)y n-1

and the conclusion follows from comparison theorems in Hartman and Sanchez

[12,

14].
THEOREM 5.2.
t > 0,

then

(3)

lY(t2)
PROOF.

If

n is odd and
<

p(t) > 0,

(i)

lY(tl)I.

(4)

(t)

> 0, t

>_ 0,

(2)

q(t) > 0,

## y has successive extrema at

tl, t2,

I
(The amplitudes of oscillations do not grow.)

## The proof is by contradiction, so assume that

Multiplication of (i.i) by

+ p(t) + q(t)yn

0.

lY(tl)

<

(t)
<

> 0,

t2,

[Y(t2)

## NONLINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Integrating (5.1) from t
t

I to t
t

I P(t) I
dt

we get

t2,

q(t)Yn

dt

0.

Since
t

p(t)
t

at

;g (p(t2)y2(t2)

(t)y 2

P(ti)y2(ti)
t

dt)

and
t

q(t)yn
t

(q(t2) yn+ 1 (t 2)

dt

q(t I)

yn+

[ (t) yn+

(t I)

dr),

(5.2) becomes

P(t2)Y2(t2) P(tl)Y2(tl)
t

I
t

<

(t)y2

dt

12 I (t)yn+1
t

+ I

## q(tl )yn+l (tl)

dt

2
n

y2(t2)(P(t2 ) P(tl))

n+l

(t2)(q(t2)

q(tl))

therefore

P(tl)(y2(t2)

y2(tl))

<

2
n

< 0, since

q(tl)

yn+l (t)
2

> 0 and (n

+ i)

is even,

THEOREM 5.3.
and

(3)

If (i)

p(t) > i,

(t)

<

0, t > 0,

## n is odd, then y(t) is bounded for all t.

(2)

q(t) > 0,

(t)

< 0

RINA LING

PROOF.

Multiplication of (1.1) by

## #2(t) + p(t) y2(t)

(s)y2

2
n+l

+ n+ q() yn+l ()

ds

(s)yn+lds

C,

where C is a constant,
therefore

y2(t)(p(t) +

q(t)

yn-

(t))

(s)y 2

ds

0
Since p > i, q > 0, n is odd,

< 0 and

y2(t)

<

<

0, it follows that

C, for all t

and so y is bounded.

THEOREM 5.4.

(t)

<

0, t > 0,

PROOF.

If

(I)
(3)

and

p(t) > 0,

(t)

(2)

> 0, t > 0,

q(t) > 0,

and the

q(t )

yn+

(t)

2
n+l

0
Since q > 0, (n

+ i)

is even and

<_ 0,

p(t)y2(t)

< C

(s)y2

ds

so

(s)y 2

ds =C+

P(s)Y2

(S)p(s)

ds

ds.

[12, p. 24

p(t)y2(t) _<

ICI

exp

I p(s)(s)

ds

p(t)
p(0)

IC
therefore

y2(t)

<

for all

t.

## In the next theorem, (i.i) is assumed to have constant coefficients

and

P0

q0"
THEOREM 5.5.

If

(i)

P0

> 0,

(2)

q0

> 0 and

(3)

n is odd, then y is

oscillatory.

PROOF.

The equation is

9 + pOy +

q0 yn

0.

## By linearization in McLachlan [12, p. 106],

9+ay=0,
where

2
a

I (P0

A sin

e + q0

An

n
sin e) sine de,

0
where A is a constant.
Since

P0

> 0,

q0

## > 0 and n is odd, the integrand in

--w (P0
0

is positive, so a > 0.

sin2 e + q0 An-

inn+!

e)de

i0

RINA LING
By Theorem 5.4, y is bounded.

## The fact that

ldt=m

0
and y is bounded imply that y is oscillatory, see Hartman

[12, p. 354].

THEOREM 5.6.

PROOF.

and

(3)

0, for t > 0.

The equation is

+ p(t)y + q(t)yn
Let y(t)

(2)

## p(t) > 0, t > 0,

If (i)

0.

-z(t), then

-.

(-l)nq(t)

p(t)z +

0.

Since n is even,

q(t)z n

+ p(t)z
and by Theorem 4.3, z < 0.

for

t > 0.

(0)

< 0,

THEORE .7.
and

PROOF.

(4)

Tf

()

(0) ! 0,

(2)

p() > 0,

(3)

t

(t)- (0)+

0
Since p > 0

>_ 0,

and

p(s)y ds +

q(s)tn

ds

0"

q() > 0,

(t)
(t)

so

<

(0)

<

O,

;(o)

<

11

REFERENCES

## Nonlinear. Ordln.ary Differential Equatl.o.ns in Tra.nsp.ort

Processes., Academic Press, New York and London, 1968.

i.

Ames, W. F.

2.

## McLachlan, N. W. Ordinary Non-Linear Differential Equation.s. in Engin.ee.ring

and Physlcal Sciences, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, London and New
York, 1958.

3.

## Struble, R. A. Nonlinear Differential Equations, McGraw-Hill Company, New

York and London, 1962.

4.

Canosa, J. and J. Cole. Asymptotic Behavior of Certain Nonlinear BoundaryValue Problems, J. Math. Phys. 9 (1968) 1915-1921.

5.

Canosa, J.

6.

## Skidmore, A. On the Differentlal Equation y"

App1. 43 (1973) 46-55.

7.

## Abramovich, S. On the Behavior of the Solutions of y"

Math. Anal. Appl. 52 (1975) 465-470.

8.

Rankin, S. M.

9.

Grimmer, R. C. and W. T. Patula. Nonoscillatory Solutions of Forced SecondOrder Linear Equations, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 56 (1976) 452-459.

## Expansion Method for Nonlinear Boundary-Value Problems, J. Math.

Phys. 8 (1967) 2180-2183.

+ p(x)y

+ p(x)y

f(xi,

J.

## Oscillation Theorems for Second-Order Nonhomogeneous Linear

Differential Equations, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 53 (1976) 550-553.

i0.

Chen, L. S.

ii.

12.

Hartman, P.

## Some Oscillation Theorem for Differential Equations with

Functional Arguments, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 58 (1977) 83-87.

## Asymptotic Behavior of Nonoscillatory

Solutions of Nonlinear Differential Equations with Retarded Arguments,
J. Math. Anal. Appl. 59 (1977) 211-215.

## and London, 1964.

RINA LING

12
13.

Bellman, R. E. and R. E. Kalaba. uasilinearizatlon and Nonlinear BoundaryValue Problems, American Elsevler Publishing Company, New York, 1965.

14.

## Sanchez, D. A. Ordinary Differential Equations and Stability Theory,

W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco and London, 1968.

## Nonlin differential equation, osry and

of solons, boundedn and onotonity of olons.

## KEF WORDS AND PHRASES.

ymptotie behavior