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RESULTS

Experiment A
Propionic
acid

Titration

of Titration

of Propionic

added M/10 NaOH M/10 NaOH acid

(mL)

5
3
1

Propionic
acid

(organic)

(aqueous)

concentration concentration

(mL)

(mL)

in

25.5
12.3
7.9

46.9
30.5
20.0

layer, Y
0.938
0.610
0.400

aqueous in

organic

layer, X
0.510
0.246
0.158

Experiment B
Flow

rate

of

aqueous

phase (L/min)
Flow rate of organic phase
(L/min)
Sodium

0.20
0.20

hydroxide

0.1 M
concentration (M)
Feed (mL)
0.40
Raffinate (mL)
0.30
Extract (mL)
0.5
Propionic acid extracted
from the organic phase 0.008
(mol/min)
Propionic

acid

extracted

from the aqueous phase 0.0011


(mol/min)
Mass transfer coefficient
(kg/min)

3.1253 x 10-4

Water flow rate

: 0.20 L/min

Organic flow rate

: 0.20 L/min

Packing dimension

: Length

= 1.2 m

K=Y/X

0.025M
0.20
1.40
3.30

1.8392
2.480
2.532

Diameter = 50 mm

CALCULATIONS

Formula for finding distribution coefficient (Experiment A):


K = Y/X
Where Y: Concentration of solute in extract phase.
X: Concentration of solute in raffinate phase.

For 0.1M of NaOH

5.0mL of propionic acid

Upper (Y)
M1V1 = M2V2
(0.1M) (46.9mL) = (M2) (5mL)
M2 = 0.938 M

Bottom (X)
M1V1 = M2V2
(0.1M) (25.5mL) = (M2) (5mL)
M2 = 0.510 M

= Y/X
= 0.938 M / 0.510 M
= 1.8392

3.0mL of propionic acid

Upper (Y)
M1V1 = M2V2
(0.1M) (30.5mL) = (M2) (5mL)

Bottom (X)
M1V1 = M2V2
(0.1M) (12.3mL) = (M2) (5mL)

M2 = 0.610 M

M2 = 0.246 M

= Y/X
= 0.610 M / 0.246 M
= 2.480

1.0mL of propionic acid

Upper (Y)
M1V1 = M2V2
(0.1M) (20.0mL) = (M2) (5mL)
M2 = 0.400 M

Bottom (X)
M1V1 = M2V2
(0.1M) (7.90mL) = (M2) (5mL)
M2 = 0.158 M

= Y/X
= 0.400 M / 0.158 M
= 2.532

Formula for finding mass transfer coefficient (Experiment B):

M1V1 = M2V2
Where:
M1 = concentration of NaOH
M2 = concentration of propionic acid

V1 = volume of NaOH
V2 = volume of propionic acid

Rate of acid transfer = Vw (Y1 0)


Vo (X1 X2) = Vw (Y1 0)
K = Y1/X*
Log mean driving force = (X1-X2) / ln (X1/X2)
Where:
X1 : Driving force at the top of the column = (X2 0)
X2 : Driving force at the bottom of the column = (X1 - X1*)

Packing dimension : Length = 1.2m


Diameter = 50mm
Radius =

= 0.025m

Therefore, packing volume, V = r2L


= ( 0.025m)2(1.2m)
= 2.36 10-3 m3
= 2.36 L

For 0.1M of NaOH


Raffinate:
M1V1

= M2V2

(0.1)(0.30mL) = M2 (15mL)
M2

= 0.00200 M of propionic acid X1

Feed:
M1V1

= M2V2

(0.1)(0.40mL) = M2 (15mL)
M2

= 0.00267 M of propionic acid

M1V1

= M2V2

Extract:

(0.1)(0.50mL) = M2 (15mL)
M2

= 0.00333 M of propionic acid Y1

Rate of acid transfer = Vw (Y1- 0)


= (0.20 L/min) (0.00333 mol/L)
= 0.00067 mol/min

Finding the value of X2:

Vo (X1-X2)

= Vw (Y1 -0)

(0.20 L/min)(0.00200 mol/L - X2)


X2

= 0.00067 mol/min
= -0.00027 mol/L @ M

Finding the log mean driving force:


X1 = (X2-0)
= -0.00027 M

K = Y1 / X*
X* = Y1 / K
= 0.00333 / 0.9273

At equilibrium, assume K = 0.9273 (from experiment A)

= 3.5911 x 10-3 M
X2 = (X1-X1*)
= -0.00027 M 3.5911 x 10-3 M
= -3.8611 x 10-3 M
Log mean driving force = (X1-X2) / ln (X1/X2)
= (-0.00027 + 3.8611 x 10-3) M / ln (-0.00027 / -3.8611 x 10-3)
= -1.350 x10-3

Finding the mass transfer coefficient:


Mass transfer coefficient =

=
= 3.1253 x 10-4 mol/L.min
= 3.1253 x 10-4 M/min
= 3.1253 x 10-4 kg/min

For 0.025M of NaOH


Raffinate:

M1V1

= M2V2

(0.025)(1.40mL)

= M2 (15mL)

M2

= 0.00233 M of propionic acid X1

M1V1

= M2V2

Feed:

(0.025)(0.20mL)

= M2 (15mL)

M2

= 0.00033 M of propoinic acid

M1V1

= M2V2

Extract:

(0.025)(3.30mL)
M2

= M2 (15mL)
= 0.0055 M of propoinic acid Y1

Rate of acid transfer = Vw (Y1- 0)


= (0.20 L/min) ( 0.0055 mol/L)
= 0.0011 mol/min

Finding the value of X2:

Vo (X1-X2)
(0.20 L/min)(0.00233 mol/L - X2)
X2

= Vw (Y1 -0)
= 0.0011 mol/min
= - 0.00063 mol/L @ M

Finding the log mean driving force:


X1 = (X2-0)
= - 0.00063 M

K = Y1 / X*
X* = Y1 / K

At equilibrium, assume K = 0.9273 (from experiment B)

= 0.0055 / 0.9273
= 0.0059 M
X2 = (X1-X1*)
= - 0.00063 M 0.0059 M
= -0.0065 M
Log mean driving force = (X1-X2) / ln (X1/X2)
= (-0.00063 + 0.0065) M / ln (-0.00063 / -0.0065)
= -0.0025

Finding the mass transfer coefficient:


Mass transfer coefficient =

=
= -0.0086 mol/L.min
= -0.0086 M/min
= -0.0086 kg/min

DISCUSSION

From the experiment that we conducted, the objectives that we want to achieve are to
find the distribution of coefficient and to identify the mass transfer coefficient. The solubility
which is the solvent is also soluble with a specific solute contained in the container are being
referred. Also the separation of a substance is referred in a suitable solvent. In this experiment,
there are two parts which the first one is where we want to identify the distribution coefficient.
The titration method is used, from the upper (y) and bottom (x) layer sample. Firstly 0.1M, the
values are 2.532 in 1.0ml of propionic acid, 2.480 in 3.0ml of propionic acid and 1.8392 in 5.0ml
of propionic acid. The result that we obtained, it is shows if titrated with 0.1M NaOH the value of
distribution coefficient decreases as the volume of propioinc acid increased. This experiment is
successful conducted due to those results are followed the statement which is the value of
distribution coefficient must be decrease when the volume of propionic acid is increase.
Meanwhile for second part of the experiment, we want to determine the mass transfer
coefficient. From the liquid liquid extraction column that being used in this experiment, we took
the feed, raffinate and extract as the samples. The titration method is used again, in this part
where we used two different concentrate which are 0.1M NaOH and 0.025M NaOH. The value
of mass transfer coefficient when titrated with 0.1 M NaOH is 3.1253 x 10 -4 kg/min while titrated
with 0.025 M, the value of mass transfer coefficient is -0.0086 kg/min. From the result we
obtained it is a failure. This is because we got the values of mass transfer coefficient in negative
value, supposedly it is positive value. From the result that occurred we cannot porve and show
the increment of mass transfer rate when the concentration of NaOH are increase.
There are several errors that affected the result of the experiment which is experiment in
part 2 that to determine the mass transfer coefficient. First error that we assumed that most
affected to the experimental is the eyes of the observer. The eyes of observer are not
perpendicular to the meniscus of the scale while taking the reading of burette. Second error is
when it is related to the apparatus, we assumed that the apparatus may not clean well. That
may still contained impurities or any liquid that may affected the samples and solution we used.
We supposedly make sure all the apparatus we used which beaker, conical flask, measuring
cylinder and burette are cleaned upby using distilled water.