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OPEN PIT DESIGN AND SCHEDULING -

INTRODUCTION
Information Technology has changed the way we live. Mining is no exception. Mining
information systems have emerged encompassing all aspects of mine planning. Real time
analysis of data is now possible that helps the mine administration to function effectively.
Software is now available that covers the entire gamut of mine functions.
The Singareni Collieries is now ahead in utilizing the computerized mine planning and
completed design & scheduling of an opencast project on long term planning module
Apollo of Minex software.
FEATURES:
Minex is an integrated modular software including Survey, deposit evaluation, mine
planning and design, production scheduling and equipment simulation. The user has the
flexibility to select modules as per requirement.
Generation of Borehole database
Generation of reliable Geomodel
3D visualization of seam horizons/faults
Generation of Reserves Database
Pit Optimisation
Open Pit Design and Scheduling
Design of Haul roads, Earth works and Spoil dumps
Underground mine planning and scheduling
Generation of Mine Reserves Database
Production Scheduling by target or equipment
Generation of Plans, Sections and reports

Singareni Collieries

Page 1 of 18

OPENPIT DESIGN
PIT BOUNDARY
Quarry surface limit is defined on the basis of quarry floor limits by considering the
final slope of 45 degrees from incrop and 150m depth of Bottom seam at highwall side.
By considering the geological model of Pit-A, the bottom seam and middle seam
model grids are merged with BOW (Base Of Weathering) surface at incrop side to generate
benches upto the pit boundary/surface quarry limit.
BENCH DESIGN
The bench design is followed as per bench elevation at 10m interval with 70 slope
and 6.4m berm. To generate the bench crest and toe at every 10m elevation, SQL
(Structured Query Language) programme is used. The bench grids formed in the pit are
restricted upto topography / floor of the bottom seam as per the requirement.

FIG.1

FIG.2

Final pit benches are restricted to the Bottom Seam floor and topography as shown
below:

FIG.3
STRIP DESIGN
13 no. of strips with crest and toe in strike direction at 40m interval with 70 degrees
of slope and strip berm of 6.4 mtrs are projected on each bench grid.

FIG.4

BLOCKS FORMATION
The pit is divided into number of blocks using layout lines across the strips at 40m
interval. Each block is assigned a number to report the reserves.

FIG.5 BLOCK DESIGN

FIG.6

FIG.7 SECTION SHOWING THE BENCHES, STRIPS AND BLOCKS

MINE RESERVES
Mine Reserves database is created with Codes and Layers validated and loaded.
Merge model is created for the Pit - A for the selected layers. Layer wise mine reserves of
the pit can be obtained as desired.

FIG.8

FIG.9 TYPICAL MERGED MODEL

FIG.10
Detailed Pit Reserves generated for Pit/Bench/Strip/Block is given at Annexure-1.
Also generated the status report along with stripping ratios is shown at Annexure-2. By
studying the detailed report of Pit reserves block wise, it is easy to identify the blocks in the
designed pit for scheduling.

PRODUCTION SCHEDULING
Scheduling is primarily aimed at sequencing mining operations in a pit/ multi strip/multi
bench for coal or other layers. Target scheduling option is selected for the purpose.
TARGET SCHEDULING: This is the suitable method of scheduling to obtain a particular
coal target over a time period and to generate stage plans. This macro scheduler finds
applications in feasibility studies and production of long-range mine plans.
Details of Target Scheduling:
The project is proposed to extract coal with 0.60M.T per annum as installed capacity.
Accordingly a suitable calendar is prepared for the project. For each scheduled block,
reserves are reported and extraction of the quarry is planned for each coal seam/waste at
every stage.
st

rd

th

Exposed blocks at the end of 1 year, 3 year, 5 and final years of Pit-A are
converted
as exposed grids. In a grid format the pit status can be used for dump design and/or back fill
planning.

FIG.11 STAGE - AT THE END OF 1 YEAR

Reports are generated for the quantity of coal extracted and waste removed at each
st

rd

th

th

stage {at the end of 1 year, 3 year, 5 year and 6 (final) year}.

HAUL ROAD DESIGN


Haul roads are designed at 6.25% gradient with a width of 20m on exposed
grids/triangles keeping batter slopes at 57 degrees cut and 36 degrees fill.

FIG.12 HAUL ROAD


DESIGN

Singareni Collieries

Page 10 of 18

SPOIL DUMP DESIGN


Proposed area of overburden dumping is digitized. Dump design is made for every
stage of the project keeping the dump deck height as 30m, dump slopes at 28 degrees
and berm width as 30 mtrs for allowing safe transport.

FIG.13 FINAL EXTERNAL DUMP OF PIT-A


TRUCK SIMULATION
Truck and Shovel simulation system simulates the movements of a vehicle through
a network of roads and ramps and estimates traveling time and truck fleet requirement. It
can calculate the truck productivity (bank volume per truck hour).
The input to the program is divided into data sets that define the characteristics of
segments of routes, vehicle acceleration and deceleration potential at various velocities,
and shovel operating parameters
The following parameters are considered for truck simulation at a particular stage
of excavation.
Shovel bucket cubic capacity
Truck load by weight

2.80
25.00

Swell factor

1.20

Insitu density

2.20

Results are: i) Truck cycle time (minutes)


ii) Est. Min truck fleet required
iii) Bank volume per truck hour

Singareni Collieries

14.98
3.94 (say 4)
46

Page 11 of 18

FIG.14
2D PLANS OUTPUT
The scheduling output of a stage on 2D plan is visible as blocks as shown below.

FIG.15

It is felt very difficult to get the 2D plans output as desired in the form of crest and toe
lines shown below.

FIG.16 STAGE PLAN END THE END OF 1st YEAR

DE-COALED AREA

FIG.17 STAGE PLAN END THE END OF 3rd YEAR

However, to overcome the problem, the scheduling output at a particular stage is


digitized using Vista functions.

CONCLUSION
Mine planning, designing and scheduling of an open pit are now made the mining
system easy.
Saves time in preparing number of alternative pit designs and production schedules
with different design and schedule parameters. A best suitable pit design and production
schedule can be selected.
Quick reporting of reserves of each layer / bench / strip / block is possible.
Year/month/day wise reports can be generated for the extracted volume of OB and Coal at
the end of each schedule.
The authors felt the necessity of 2D plans output to be customized rather than the
tedious process of digitizing the position of quarry at every end of the schedule.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The Authors are thankful to the Singareni Collieries management for providing the
necessary software, hardware and encouragement in achieving the desired outputs through
Minex Software at SCCL.
REFERENCES
Getting Started with Apollo Mine Design & Reserves, ECS International Pty Ltd,
Surpac Minex Group, Australia.
Mark Kelly, Peter Alexander, Surpac Minex Group, Australia, Training programmes on
Apollo and Orion modules of Minex Software at Singareni Collieries.

ANNEXURE - 1
DETAILED REPORT OF MINE RESERVES
DATABASE (PIT/BENCH/STRIP/BLOCK/LAYER
WISE)
Seam

Bench

Volume
Volume
Tonnes
Waste
Coal
Coal
--------------------------------(Cu.m)----(Cu.m)----------------Pit
------WEATH
2
32343
WEATH
3
339153
WEATH
4
1281332
WEATH
5
2889683
MS
5
38842
4199
6508
BS
5
10154
1479
2293
WEATH
6
3316494
MS
6
464363
21350
33093
BS
6
54944
11827
18331
WEATH
7
1917337
MS
7
1418174
58957
91383
BS
7
168046
32860
50933
WEATH
8
278993
MS
8
2574173
98257
152299
BS
8
281292
54761
84880
MS
9
2480027
110828
171783
BS
9
295613
70419
109149
MS
10
2124540
132633
205581
BS
10
281074
69416
107595
MS
11
1787487
147243
228227
BS
11
277216
63373
98229
MS
12
1464424
160777
249205
BS
12
283244
61701
95637
MS
13
1156298
155777
241454
BS
13
294825
64532
100025
MS
14
877736
141768
219740
BS
14
282969
68224
105747
MS
15
614988
137683
213408
BS
15
261715
63863
98987
MS
16
369829
134534
208527
BS
16
243592
58933
91346
MS
17
160637
110064
170600
BS
17
226981
62352
96645
MS
18
40438
43235
67014
BS
18
190281
57734
89488
MS
19
8387
1972
3056
BS
19
77560
43474
67385
BS
20
6878
11825
18329
--------- --------- --------TOTAL
28872068
2256047
3496877
----------------------------SUMMARY
Volume
Volume
Tonnes Waste
Coal
Coal
Pit A
------WEATH
10055337
MS
15580355
1459275
2261877
BS
3236385
796773
1234999
--------- --------- --------28872068
2256047
3496877

ANNEXURE - 2
STATUS REPORT OF MINE RESERVES DATABASE
(PIT/BENCH/STRIP/BLOCK/LAYER WISE)
Pit Ben Str Blk Layer %
%
%
%
%UWed%LWed
%Reh Volume
No. No. No. No. ID. Expo Surf Prem Mine*%R.D.*%Ash*EffS/R* Tonnage*Thick
--- --- --- --- ----- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----- ---- ------ ----100 2
1
1 WEATH
100
0
0
0
439
4.4
100 2
1
2 WEATH
100
0
0
0
5765
3.0
100 2
1
3 WEATH
100
0
0
0
3830
1.8
100 2
1
4 WEATH
100
0
0
0
19
0.1
100 2
2
1 WEATH
100
0
0
0
8598
3.4
CONTD
-----------------------------------------------------------------------INTENTIONALLY LEFT THE BLANK SPACE
-----------------------------------------------------------------------100 19
12 10*MSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.4*
667* 1.1
100 19
12 10 BSIB
0
0
0
0
2184
3.6
100 19
12 10*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.4* 2291* 1.6
100 19
13
3*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.4*
118* 0.4
100 19
13
4 BSIB
0
0
0
0
663
1.7
100 19
13
4*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.3* 6097* 2.8
100 19
13
5 BSIB
0
0
0
0
988
2.0
100 19
13
5*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.3* 6311* 3.7
100 19
13
6 BSIB
0
0
0
0
2353
3.3
100 19
13
6*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.3* 5978* 3.6
100 19
13
7 BSIB
0
0
0
0
6651
6.5
100 19
13
7*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.3* 4127* 2.3
100 19
13
8 BSIB
0
0
0
0
3559
6.9
100 19
13
8*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.3* 1904* 2.5
100 19
13
9 MSOB
0
0
0
0
1626
9.4
100 19
13
9*MSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.3*
866* 2.1
100 19
13
9 BSIB
0
0
0
0
1498
4.6
100 19
13
9*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.3* 1582* 3.0
100 20
9 14 BSIB
0
0
0
0
180
1.8
100 20
9 14*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.3* 1949* 2.1
100 20
9 15 BSIB
0
0
0
0
2175
4.4
100 20
9 15*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.3* 3455* 1.7
100 20
10 12 BSIB
0
0
0
0
1745
3.0
100 20
10 12*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.3* 2734* 1.3
100 20
10 13 BSIB
0
0
0
0
408
1.4
100 20
10 13*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.3* 3693* 2.3
100 20
10 14 BSIB
0
0
0
0
1432
3.6
100 20
10 14*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.3* 2543* 3.6
100 20
10 15 BSIB
0
0
0
0
359
8.2
100 20
10 15*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.3*
69* 1.1
100 20
11 11 BSIB
0
0
0
0
223
2.2
100 20
11 11*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.3*
750* 1.0
100 20
12
9*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.3*
50* 0.3
100 20
12 10 BSIB
0
0
0
0
343
3.1
100 20
12 10*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.3* 1510* 1.4
100 20
13
4*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.3*
8* 0.1
100 20
13
6*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.3*
31* 0.1
100 20
13
7*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.3*
252* 0.4
100 20
13
8*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.3*
448* 1.4
100 20
13
9 BSIB
0
0
0
0
11
0.1
100 20
13
9*BSC
0
0
0
0* 1.55* *
8.3*
835* 2.7
Total WASTE Volume(Cu.m)
28872066 Tonnage
63518572
Total COAL
Volume(Cu.m)
2256046
Tonnage
3496875

Annexure - 3
SCHEDULE REPORT OF OPENPIT-100 AT THE END OF 1st YEAR
Schedule
20 runs to SAT 31-DEC-05 18:03
==============================================================
Schedule
20
Accumulation values.
Waste Coal/Ore
Waste Coal/Ore
Volume+
Tonnage
Volume+
Tonnage
(Rehandle)
(ROM)(Rehandle)
(ROM)
==============================================================
SAT 01-JAN-05 WEATH
546200
546200
TOTALS
546200
546200
TUE 01-FEB-05 WEATH
493336
1039536
TOTALS
493336
1039536
TUE 01-MAR-05 WEATH
539663
1579199
MSOB
98
98
MSC
717
717
BSIB
4623
4623
BSC
2097
2097
TOTALS
544383
2815
1583920
2815
FRI 01-APR-05 WEATH
528578
2107777
TOTALS
528578
2112497
2815
SUN 01-MAY-05 WEATH
533340
2641117
MSC
186
903
BSIB
8716
13339
BSC
6249
8346
TOTALS
542056
6435
2654553
9250
WED 01-JUN-05 WEATH
488812
3129929
MSOB
20260
20358
MSC
8419
9322
BSIB
11986
25325
BSC
3232
11578
TOTALS
521058
11651
3175611
20901
FRI 01-JUL-05 WEATH
504615
3634543
MSOB
27851
48209
BSIB
7470
32795
BSC
9709
21287
TOTALS
539937
9709
3715547
30610
MON 01-AUG-05 WEATH
179353
3813896
MSOB
252589
300798
MSC
32176
41499
BSIB
80009
112804
BSC
20905
42192
TOTALS
511951
53081
4227498
83691
THU 01-SEP-05 WEATH
158188
3972084
MSOB
177557
478356
MSC
41519
83017
BSIB
137889
250693
BSC
43639
85831
TOTALS
473634
85157
4701133
168849
SAT 01-OCT-05 WEATH
510335
4482420
MSOB
7549
485905
MSC
10134
93152
BSIB
19993
270687
BSC
2772
88604
TOTALS
537878
12907
5239011
181755
TUE 01-NOV-05 WEATH
295805
4778225
MSOB
131534
617439
MSC
33785
126936
BSIB
64581
335268
BSC
23038
111642
TOTALS
491921
56823
5730931
238578
THU 01-DEC-05 WEATH
352281
5130505
MSOB
60312
677751
MSC
25924
152860
BSIB
89739
425007
BSC
35294
146936
TOTALS
502332
61218
6233263
299796

Annexure - 4
TRUCK FLEET
REQUIREMENT
------------------------------------------MATERIAL PARAMETERS
------------------SWELL FACTOR
1.20
INSITU DENSITY
2.200
SHOVEL PARAMETERS
----------------BUCKET CUBIC
CAPACITY
BUCKET FILL FACTOR
BUCKET LOADS PER TRUCK
SAY
SPOT TIME
SHOVEL CYCLE TIME
TRUCK LOAD TIME
SHOVEL AVAILABILITY %
SHOVEL HOURS PER DAY

2.80
1.00
4.87
5.0
0.50
0.67
3.80
100.0
24.0

TRUCK PARAMETERS
---------------TRUCK LOAD BY
25.0
WEIGHTCUBIC LOAD
TRUCK
13.64
TRUCK LOAD TIME
3.80
TRUCK DUMP TIME
0.50
TRUCK HAUL AND RETURN TIME
10.68
TRUCK CYCLE TIME (MINUTES)
14.98
TRUCK AVAILABILITY %
100.0
EST. MIN TRUCK FLEET REQUIRED
3.94
SAY
4
BANK VOLUME PER TRUCK HOUR
46
-------------------------------------------

TRUCK PRODUCTIVITY
------------------------------------------TRUCKS
PRODUCTION
PRODUCTION
(BANK VOL/HR)
(BANK
------------------------------------------1
46
1093
2
91
2185
3
137
3278
4
179
4306
-------------------------------------------

*****