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Process Heat Group

Major Challenges

Lecture 2

22.033/22.33 Nuclear Engineering Design Project

September 14, 2011

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 1

The Three Challenge Problems

Heat exchanger (Hx) design


Heat transport
Heat storage (if necessary)

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 2

First, Some Nomenclature

Sensible heating temperature change


.

Q = mcp T
Latent heating phase change
.
Q = m hfg
Bond energy storage enthalpy of chemical
reactions

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 3

Where Do We Find Them?

Courtesy of the Generation IV International Forum. Used with permission.

Source: http://www.gen-4.org/Technology/systems/gfr.htm

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 4

Heat Exchangers Fundamental


Parameters
Hx effectiveness ()
Measures how
much heat is
transferred
compared to how
much is possible

=1 is ideal, but
practically
Source: Dean Bartlett. The Fundamentals of Heat
impossible (big Hx)
Exchangers The Industrial Physicist, AIP, p. 20 (1996)

American Institute of Physics. All rights reserved. This content is excluded from our
Creative Commons license. For more information, see http://ocw.mit.edu/fairuse.

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 5

Heat Exchangers Fundamental


Parameters

Diagram of heat exchanger removed due to copyright restrictions. See lecture video for details.

***Source: Ramesh K. Shah, Dusan P. Sekulic. Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design. John Wiley &
Sons, Inc. p. 102 (2003).

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 6

Heat Exchangers Fundamental


Parameters

Q = UAFTlm
Q = Heat transfer rate (W)

U = Thermal conductance (W/m2K)

A = Heat transfer area (m2)

Tlm = Log mean temperature difference (K)

F = Factor (for flow configuration)


MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering
22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 7

Heat Exchangers Log Mean


Temperature Difference (LMTD)
Tlm =

( TH

TC )

TH
ln

TC

LMTD is a good measure of the effectiveness of simlar heat

exchangers of different designs

Often, LMTD (counter flow) > LMTD (parallel flow)

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 8

Heat Exchangers Finding Key


Parameters
Figure 1 A big,
complicated heat

exchanger chart

Source: Wolverine Tube Heat Transfer


Data Book, p. 93 (2001), accessed at
http://www.wlv.com/products/databook
/ch2_5.pdf
Courtesy of Wolverine Tube, Inc. Used with permission.

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 9

Heat Exchangers Fundamental


Parameters
For all flow configurations

Hx is balanced when C* = 1
NTU = Number of Transfer Units
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. This content is excluded from our Creative
Commons license. For more information, see http://ocw.mit.edu/fairuse.

***Source: Ramesh K. Shah, Dusan P. Sekulic. Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design. John Wiley &
Sons, Inc. p. 116, 118-119 (2003).

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 10

Hx Flow Types

Heat Exchanger Classification by


Flow Arrangement

Multi-pass

Single-pass

Counter-flow

Parallel-flow

Cross-flow

Split-flow

Extended surface

Divided-flow

Shell-and-tube

Plate

Fluid 1 m passes
Crosscounter-flow

Crossparallel-flow

Compound
flow

Parallel
counter-flow
m-shell passes
n-tube passes

Split-flow

Divided-flow

Fluid 2 n passes

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

***After Ramesh K. Shah & Dusan P. Sekulic. Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design. John Wiley &
Sons, Inc. (2003).

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 11

Parallel Flow vs. Counterflow

Counter-flow
Temperature

Temperature

Parallel-flow

tpi

tpi
ti

tpo

ti

to

tso

tpo

tso
tsi

to
tsi

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

See http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/arithmetic-logarithmic-mean-temperature-d_436.html

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 12

Hx Flow Configurations

Heat Exchanger Classification by Construction

Plate-type

Tubular
PHE
Gasketed

Spiral

Welded

Plate coil

Extended surface

Printed
circuit

Brazed
Plate-fin

Double-pipe

Shell-and-tube

Cross flow
to tubes

Spiral tube

Regenerative

Tube-fin

Rotary
Fixed-matrix

Pipe coils

Parallel flow
to tubes

Rotating
hoods

Ordinary
separating
wall

Heat-pipe
wall

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

After Ramesh K. Shah, Dusan P. Sekulic. Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design. John Wiley &
Sons, Inc. (2003).

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 13

Hx Flow Configurations - Tubular

Courtesy of Wikipedia User:H Padleckas. Used with permission.

Courtesy of Harlan Bengtson. Used with permission.

Source: Wikimedia Commons

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 14

Hx Flow Configurations Plate


Plate (brazed) type

Alfa Biz Limited. All rights reserved. This content is excluded from our Creative
Commons license. For more information, see http://ocw.mit.edu/fairuse.

Source: http://www.alfa-biz.com/Gasketed-Plate-Heat-Exchanger.asp

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Spiral type

Jooshgostar Equipments Manufacturing Company (JEMCO). All rights


reserved. This content is excluded from our Creative Commons license.
For more information, see http://ocw.mit.edu/fairuse.

Source: http://www.hiwtc.com/photo/products/16/02/14/21470.jpg

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 15

Hx Heat Transfer Mechanisms

Other design parameters should largely


determine this choice
Heat Exchanger Classification by
Heat Transfer Mechanism

Single-phase convection
on both sides

Single-phase convection
on one side, two-phase
convection on other side

Two-phase convection
on both sides

Combined convection and


radiative heat transfer

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.

After Ramesh K. Shah, Dusan P. Sekulic. Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design. John Wiley &
Sons, Inc. (2003).

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 16

Heat Exchangers - Questions

What type to use?

What working fluids?

What geometry? Flow considerations? Laminar or

turbulent?
Where is the tradeoff between cost & performance?
Materials concerns?
See also: T. Kuppan. Heat exchanger design handbook.
and Som, Introduction To Heat Transfer.
MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering
22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 17

Heat Transport

Main problem: Get process heat from the


reactor to the hydrogen & biofuels plants
How? Must consider:

Temperatures
Losses
Flow rates
Flow transients

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 18

Heat Transport Long Distance

How to model it?


Thermal resistances
FEM
Loop analysis

How to pump it? Forced? Gravity?


Distance from Rx to H2, biofuel plant is one
of the most important parameters
MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering
22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 19

Heat Transport - Questions

What are the constraints? (TH-Rx, TC-H2, TC-bio)


How far does the heat have to go?
Where to take the heat from?
How to transport it?
How to model it? What/where are losses?
Should some of it be stored...
MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering
22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 20

Heat Storage

Heat storage is a way to balance out load


instabilities (capacitive effect)
Store some heat to run turbines and/or
product factories during transients
Can help avoid or delay plants loaddumping or load-following

Must balance benefits gained vs. heat lost by


storage
MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering
22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 21

Heat Storage Electrical Analogy

Source
switch

Load, losses
(transport,
dissipative,
hydraulic)

I
Reactor

Heat storage
system

Power (current)
Courtesy of Prof. Eric C. Toolson. Used with permission.

Image source: http://www.unm.edu/~toolson/rc_circuit.html

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 22

Heat Storage Technologies

Sensible heat storage


Simply apply hot fluid to a material, reverse
flow when required

Latent heat storage


Uses phase change materials (PCMs)

Dependent on melting point, heat of fusion

Bond energy storage


Dependent on reaction temperature, enthalpy
MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering
22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 23

Heat Storage Sensible Heat


Example: Hot gas on alumina fluidized bed

Prof. Reuel Shinnar. All rights reserved. This content is excluded from our Creative
Commons license. For more information, see http://ocw.mit.edu/fairuse.

Source: R. Shinnar et al. A novel storage method for


concentrating solar power plants allowing operation at high temperature. DoE Presentation, Boulder, CO (2011).

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 24

Heat Storage Sensible Heat

Other proposed & demonstrated storage

media: Molten salt, concrete

Thermocline test at Sandia National Laboratories

NREL. All rights reserved. This content is excluded from our Creative
Commons license. For more information, see http://ocw.mit.edu/fairuse.

Sandia National Labs. All rights reserved. This content is excluded from our
Creative Commons license. For more information, see http://ocw.mit.edu/fairuse.

Concrete TES at U. Stuttgart

See http://www.nrel.gov/csp/troughnet/thermal_energy_storage.html

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 25

Heat Storage Phase Change


Materials

Source: M. Demirbas.
Thermal Energy Storage
and Phase Change
Materials: An Overview.
Energy Sources, Part B,
1:8595, 2006.

More compact
Layout can be more
complicated
Salts can be corrosive
Graphite foils have
been used to
improve heat
spreading

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Creative Commons license. For more information, see http://ocw.mit.edu/fairuse.

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 26

Heat Storage Bond Energy

Absorb/Release chemical energy by shifting


chemical equilibrium reactions
Change temperature, pressure
Examples: hydration, hydriding,
ammonia/salt reactions
Chemical reaction should be reversible

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 27

Heat Storage Questions

What temperature(s) is/are required?

What materials to use?

What capacity to use? (kWh, MWh, Gwh)

How does cost scale with size?

What are loss rates & pathways?

When would it be used, if at all?

Where would it be located?

MIT Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering


22.033/22.33 Nuclear Design Course

Dr. Michael P. Short, 2011


Page 28

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22.033 / 22.33 Nuclear Systems Design Project


Fall 2011

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