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MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Muralla St. Intramuros, Manila


School of Mechanical Engineering and Manufacturing Engineering

Experiment Number 9
AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT

8 JEREMIAS, John Karlo B.


ME139L / A3
Group 1

Date of Performance: September 10, 2015


Date of Submission: September 17, 2015

GRADE

Engr. Teodulo A. Valle


Instructor

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
OBJECTIVES

THEORIES AND HYPOTHESIS

LIST OF APPARATUS

PROCEDURES

SET-UP OF APPARATUS

FINAL DATA SHEET

SAMPLE COMPUTATION

TEST DATA ANALYSIS

DISCUSSION

QUESTION AND ANSWERS

13

CONCLUSION

14

RECOMMENDATION

15

REFERENCES

16

PRELIMINARY DATA SHEET

17

EXP 9: AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT

EXPERIMENT NO. 9
Air Flow Measurement
OBJECTIVES
To understand the theory behind volumetric air flow
To learn the operation of anemometer
To measure of the air flow of ventilation shafts
To quantify the difference of result between analog and digital anemometer
THEORY AND HYPOTHESIS
Generally, the measurement of fluid flow is of great importance in many industrial
processes, some examples including air flow in the ventilating ducts of a coal mine, the
flow rate of water in a condenser at a power station, the flow rate of liquids in chemical
processes, the control and monitoring of the fuel, lubricating and cooling fluids of ships
and aircraft engines, and so on. Fluid flow is one of the most difficult industrial
measurements to carry out, since flow behavior depends on many variables concerning
the physical properties of a fluid. There are many fluid flow measuring instruments
generally flow meters, which can measure the flow rate of fluids in terms of mass (kg/s),
volume (m3/s) and velocity (m/s). To measure the air velocity and pressure, Anemometers
are used.
Anemometer is an instrument used for measuring wind speed. This is used in
meteorology, mines, tunnels, and ventilation systems; in aircraft testing and other
experimental work. There are three types of anemometer: The cup anemometer, propeller
type and hot wire.
Flow velocity is a vector quantity used to
describe the motion of a fluid. It can be easily
determined for laminar flow but complex to determine
for

turbulent

flow.

In

case

of

anemometer

measurement, it is desirable to measure air at laminar


flow.

Laminar and Turbulent flow

EXP 9: AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT

In addition to flow velocity, volumetric flow rate is an important quantity in fluid


dynamics analysis. Volumetric flow is defined as the volume of fluid that passes through
a given surface per unit time. Mathematically, volumetric flow rate is the derivative of the
volume of fluid that passes through a given surface with respect to time; in SI units this is
expressed as meters cubed per second. Volumetric flow rate is related to the flow velocity
vector as the surface integral with respect to the surface in question. If the surface area

Mathematical Expression of Volumetric Flowrate Q

in question is a flat, plane cross-section, the surface integral reduces as shown in


Equation 2, where A is the surface area of the surface in question and v is the flow velocity
of the fluid.
LIST OF APPARATUS
1. Digital Anemometer An
electronic air flow measuring tool
used to directly gauge the air flow
velocity.

EXP 9: AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT

2. Analog Anemometer Used to


measure the linear distance travel
by a constant air flow velocity. To
get the velocity, one must use time
measuring

devices

such

as

stopwatch.

3. Stopwatch Used to measure the


range of time from when the device is
activated and stopped.

4. Steel rule/steel tape - A steel


rule is a simple measuring
instrument that is used for
measuring distances and ruling
straight lines.

PROCEDURE
A. Digital Anemometer
1. Measure the area where air flow is.
2. Place the propeller of the anemometer where the air flow is maximum.
Generally, on a laminar air flow, this occurs at the center.
3. Record the output shown by the anemometer.
B. Analog Anemometer
1. Measure the area where air flow is.

EXP 9: AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT

2. Place the propeller of the anemometer where the air flow is maximum.
Generally, on a laminar flow, this occurs at the center.
3. Turn the anemometer on. At the same time, start the stop watch.
4. Measure air flow for at least one minute.
5. To get air velocity, divide the recorded data by the anemometer by the time
elapsed by the measurement.
SET-UP OF APPARATUS
A. Analog Anemometer
The propeller of the anemometer will be placed
perpendicular to the area where the air flow moves.
After that, the device is turned on and the dial
rotates. For one minute, the distance travelled by
Measurement of Air flow Velocity
through analog anemometer

the wind will be measured and to get the average


velocity, the time it took to get the measured value
will the divisor for the total distance travelled.

B. Digital Anemometer
Unlike the analog anemometer, the measurement of the
air flow velocity using the digital anemometer happens
simultaneously. One does not require the use of
stopwatch for this part of the experiment. When using this
device, the anemometer must be placed perpendicularly
to the cross sectional area of the shaft for accurate
reading.

Measurement of Air flow


Velocity through digital
anemometer

EXP 9: AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT

FINAL DATA SHEET


ANEMOMETER
ANALOG
PLACE

AREA
(m2)

HVAC
ROOM
LOWER

Vave

(m/s)

(m/s)

Vol.
Flow

V (m/s)

(m3/s)

Vol. Flow
(m3/s)

DIFFERENCE

2.9
0.033

2.75

AIRCON

2.83

HVAC

1.66

ROOM

DIGITAL

0.1

OVERHEAD

1.5

2.83

0.093

2.7

0.089

4.4

1.53

0.153

1.4

0.14

8.87

6.57

0.26

6.4

0.253

2.73

1.42
6.7

FACULTY

0.0396

6.5
6.5

EXP 9: AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT

SAMPLE COMPUTATION
HVAC ROOM LOWER AIRCON
o Area
= = (0.15)(0.22) = 0.033 2

o Vave
=

(2.9 + 2.75 + 2.83)


=
= 2.83 /

o Volumetric Flow Rate


= = (0.0332 )(2.83

) = 0.093 3 /

o % Difference
% =

1 2
0.093 0.089
100% =
100% = 4.4%
1 + 2
0.093 + 0.089
2
2

EXP 9: AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT

TEST DATA ANALYSIS


PLACE

ANALOG
V
Vol

DIGITAL
V
Vol

% Diff

2.83

0.093

2.7

0.089

4.4

OVERHEAD
FACULTY

experiment,

velocity, it was made sure


that when using the analog

AIRCON
HVAC ROOM

the

when measuring the air flow

HVAC ROOM
LOWER

During

1.53

0.153

1.4

0.14

8.87

anemometer, there would be


three trials since the values

6.57

0.26

6.4

0.253

Results Summary

2.73

one can obtain using the


said device can be affected

by human error such as misplacement of the device and misreading of the dial. After that,
the average of the velocities will be the one to be compared to the results yielded from
using the digital anemometer. It was noticed that on all the places, the results given by
the analog anemometer is higher compared to the digital one. Though this has no
conclusive reason, this yielded to a much higher volumetric flow rate of air.

EXP 9: AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT

DISCUSSION
AIR AS FLUID
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an
applied shear stress. Fluids are a subset of the phases of matter and include
liquids, gases, plasmas and, to some extent, plastic solids. Fluids can be defined
as substances that have zero shear modulus or in simpler terms a fluid is a
substance which cannot resist any shear force applied to it.
Although the term "fluid" includes both the liquid and gas phases, in
common usage, "fluid" is often used as a synonym for "liquid", with no implication
that gas could also be present. For example, "brake fluid" is hydraulic oil and will
not perform its required incompressible function if there is gas in it. This colloquial
usage of the term is also common in medicine and in nutrition ("take plenty of
fluids").
Liquids form a free surface (that is, a surface not created by the container)
while gases do not. The distinction between solids and fluid is not entirely obvious.
The distinction is made by evaluating the viscosity of the substance. Silly Putty can
be considered to behave like a solid or a fluid, depending on the time period over
which it is observed. It is best described as a viscoelastic fluid. There are many
examples of substances proving difficult to classify. A particularly interesting one
is pitch, as demonstrated in the pitch drop experiment currently running at the
University of Queensland.
FLUID FLOW
A conduit is any pipe, tube, or duct that is completely filled with a flowing
fluid. Examples include a pipeline transporting liquefied natural gas, a
microchannel transporting hydrogen in a fuel cell, and a duct transporting air for
heating of a building. A pipe that is partially filled with a flowing fluid, for example
a drainage pipe, is classified as an open-channel flow.
CLASSIFYING FLUID FLOW
Laminar Flow and Turbulent Flow
Flow in a conduit is classified as being either laminar or turbulent,
depending on the magnitude of the Reynolds number. The original research
involved visualizing flow in a glass tube as shown in Fig. 10.2a. Reynolds
(1) in the 1880s injected dye into the center of the tube and observed the
following:

EXP 9: AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT

When the velocity was low, the streak of dye flowed down the tube with
little expansion, as shown in Fig. 10.2b. However, if the water in the tank
was disturbed, the streak would shift about in the tube.

If velocity was increased, at some point in the tube, the dye would all at
once mix with the water as shown in Fig. 10.2c.

When the dye exhibited rapid mixing (Fig. 10.2c), illumination with an
electric spark revealed eddies in the mixed fluid as shown in Fig. 10.2d.
The flow regimes shown in Fig. 10.2 are laminar flow (Fig. 10.2b) and

turbulent flow (Figs. I 0.2c and 10.2d). Reynolds showed that the onset of
turbulence was related to a 'TT-group that is now called the Reynolds
number (Re = p VD/JJ.) in honor of Reynolds' pioneering work. The
Reynolds number is often written as Re0 , where the subscript "D" denotes
that diameter is used in the formula. This subscript is called a length sea/e.
indicating the length scale for Reynolds number is good practice because
muliple values are used.

Reynolds discovered that if


the fluid in the upstream
reservoir was not completely
still or if the pipe had some
vibrations, then the change
from laminar to turbulent flow
occurred at Ren - 2100.
However, if conditions were
ideal, it was possible to reach a much higher Reynolds number before the
flow became turbulent. Reynolds also found that, when going from high
velocity to low velocity, the change back to laminar flow occurred at Ren 2000. Based on Reynolds' experiments, engineers use guidelines to
establish whether or not flow in a conduit will be laminar or turbulent. The
guidelines are as follows:

EXP 9: AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT

Reynolds number guidelines

Volumetric Flow Rate


In physics and engineering, in particular fluid dynamics and hydrometry, the
volumetric flow rate, (also known as volume flow rate, rate of fluid flow or volume
velocity) is the volume of fluid which passes per unit time; usually represented by
the symbol Q. The SI unit is m3/s (cubic metres per second). Another unit used is
sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute).
In US Customary Units and British Imperial Units, volumetric flow rate is
often expressed as ft3/s (cubic feet per second) or gallons per minute (either U.S.
or imperial definitions).
Volumetric flow rate should not be confused with volumetric flux, as defined
by Darcy's law and represented by the symbol q, with units of m3/(m2s), that is,
ms1. The integration of a flux over an area gives the volumetric flow rate.
Fundamental Definition
Volumetric flow rate is defined by the limit:
i.e., the flow of volume of fluid V
through a surface per unit time t.

Since this is only the time derivative of volume, a scalar quantity, the
volumetric flow rate is also a scalar quantity. The change in volume is the
amount that flows after crossing the boundary for some time duration, not
simply the initial amount of volume at the boundary minus the final amount
at the boundary, since the change in volume flowing through the area would
be zero for steady flow.
Volumetric flow rate can also be defined by:

10

EXP 9: AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT

where:

= flow velocity
= cross-sectional vector area/surface

MEASURING AIR FLOW VELOCITY


Anemometers are meteorological devices sed to measure wind speeds and can
commonly be found in weather stations. They get their name from the Greek word for
wind; anemos. Not only instruments used in meteorology but also in aerodynamics
instruments that take airspeed measurements are described as anemometers. The first
known description of an anemometer is said to be around 1450. Measurements of wind
can be taken in two different forms, the speed of the wind and the pressure. However,
there is a connection between these two. Anemometers can be divided into two different
classes, measuring the speed of the wind or the pressure. As there is a connection
between wind speed and pressure, an anemometer measuring the speed for example
would still be able to provide information on the pressure of the wind. There are several
different designs of anemometers that exist in the industry today, each using different
methods to measure the speed or pressure of the wind.
Types of Anemometers
1. Cup Anemometers
Also known as rotational anemometers, cup anemometers are the simplest
types of anemometers and have been around for a very long time. The
make up of these meters consists of a vertical central pole and four
horizontal arms at the top that have a cup attached to each of them. As wind
presses against these cups, the arms at the top rotate around the central
pole. The speed of the rotation would determine the speed of the wind. The
speed of the wind is usually observed through digital readouts in these
anemometers. Researchers,

meteorologists and many educational

institutions worldwide make use of these anemometers for commercial or


research activities. Not only for commercial, but one can make their own

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EXP 9: AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT

anemometer for their own personal use. For these meters, the speed of the
wind can be calculated by multiplying the revolutions the cups make in a
minute with the circumference that the cups create. This method would
provide a rough estimate of the speed of the wind. A disadvantage of these
meters is that they are prone to friction. As the cups rotate around their axis,
they encounter friction which could affect the accuracy of the readings.
2. Windmill Anemometers
These anemometers, just like the cup anemometers, measure the velocity
of the wind. They are also able to determine the direction of the wind as
they have a propeller that is attached to the front of the device with a tail
section behind, on the same axis as the propeller on a central pole. As wind
presses against the propeller, it spins it and the faster the propeller spins,
the faster is the velocity of the windmill anemometer. The windmill
anemometer adopts that shape of a windmill, hence its name. The windmill
anemometer has to be parallel to the direction of the wind in order for it to
function properly and provide accurate results. The turning effect of the
propeller causes the mechanism in the anemometer to be able to calculate
the speed of the wind.
3. Ultrasonic
Ultrasonic, as its name would suggest, involves sonic pulses to measure
the velocity of the wind. The device sends sonic pulses across a path to
sensors located across which are able to sense the incoming pulses. As the
movement of wind is able to disrupt sonic pulses, the disruption is used to
determine the speed of the wind. These anemometers are able to provide
very accurate measurements of wind data. They also do not involve any
moving parts and thus are able to detect very minimal changes in the speed
of the wind. They usually make use of four sensors that are arranged in a
square pattern to be able to get accurate results.

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EXP 9: AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT

QUESTION AND ANSWERS:


1. Define Volumetric Flow.
In physics and engineering, in particular fluid dynamics and hydrometry, the
volumetric flow rate, (also known as volume flow rate, rate of fluid flow or volume
velocity) is the volume of fluid which passes per unit time; usually represented by
the symbol Q. The SI unit is m3/s (cubic metres per second). Another unit used is
sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute).
2. Why is it much harder to record air velocity at turbulent flow as compared to
laminar flow?
In theory, laminar flow of fluid indicates that the mass of fluid moving on as
stream flows in a uniform velocity. The turbulent flow on the other hand, is much
more complex, that is, each fluid particle has its own path function and varies in
velocity. Therefore, constant air flow velocity does not apply for turbulent flow.
3. Why does one must consider the normal velocity of flow at a surface area when
measuring volumetric flow rate?
The formula for volumetric flow is the dot product of the Area and velocity
function of the fluid. In general, when using the dot product operator, both vectors
being multiplied must be perpendicular with one another, if not, the cosine function
will be used. Due to this, when measuring the volumetric flow rate, the component
of the velocity that is perpendicular to the stream area is used.
4. Give some applications of anemometers.
Anemometers are commonly used on weather stations for predicting
weather patterns. In engineering, this apparatus can be used to predict air motion
for ventilation. Aside from that, on systems that use propellers such as wind
turbine, anemometers can be used to determine whether the place where such
system will be placed is feasible enough.

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EXP 9: AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT

CONCLUSION
On the experiment, the group is given 4 specific objectives and these are: 1. To
understand the theory behind volumetric air flow; 2. To learn the operation of
anemometer; 3. To measure of the air flow of ventilation shafts; 4. To quantify the
difference of result between analog and digital anemometer.
During the course of the activity, each members of the group were able to
understand the theory behind the experiment. The air flow velocity component to be used
on the calculation must be perpendicular to the area due to the nature of the equation for
volumetric flow. Also, they were able to use each type of anemometer with small
percentage difference between each values obtained.
It was noticed that on all shafts where air flow velocity is measured, the results
found using the analog anemometer is higher compared to the ones generated from the
digital one. Due to this, the volumetric flow is also higher.

14

EXP 9: AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT

RECOMMENDATION
The experiment used two types of anemometer. These are the analog
anemometer and digital anemometer. Both types have the same operation, that is, to
measure the air flow through a propeller, which makes use of the direct air flow of the
shaft. To further understand the concept behind flow rate, more types of anemometer can
be found useful. Some example include the hot-wire anemometer which makes use of
the temperature difference due to convection to measure air flow.

15

EXP 9: AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT

REFERENCES
http://www.princeton.edu/~asmits/Bicycle_web/transition.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate
https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Fluid_Mechanics_Applications/A13:_Anemometers_
and_their_Applications
http://www.britannica.com/technology/anemometer

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EXP 9: AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT

PRELIMINARY DATA SHEET

17