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Math 122, Midterm CheatSheet

Peter Chang
October 16, 2015



Laws of Composition

Law of Composition is a map:

Associative law is more fundamental because function compositions are associative.
Identity for a law of composition: e S such that
ea = ae = a
An element a S is invertible if b S such that:
ab = ba = 1


Groups and Subgroups

(ab)c = a(bc)
a G a1 G
Abelian group is a group whose law of composition is commutative.
The order of a group G:
|G| = number of elements of G
Cancellation Law:
ab = ac or ba = ca b = c
General Linear Group:
GLn = {n n invertible matrices A}
Permutation: if M is a map from T to T , the invertible map f : T T is called a permutation of T
Symmetric Group: finite group of order n!:
Sn is the group of permutations of the indices 1, 2, . . . , n
Subgroup: A subset H of group G such that:
a H, b H ab H
a H a1 H

Circle group: set of complex number of absolute value 1 (C )

Special linear Group: subgroup of GLn (R)
SLn (R) : set of real n n matrices A with determinant 1
Every group has trivial subgroup (identity) and the subgroup G itself


Subgroups of the Additive Group of Integers

Subgroup of Z+ : (integers divisible by a)

Za = {n Z|n = ka for some k Z}
Theorem: If S is a subgroup of Z+ , then S is either the trivial subgroup {0} or has the form Za with
a the smallest positive integer in S.
Greatest Common Divisor: if ints a and b generate the subgroup S = Za + Zb, then S = Zd for the
greatest common divisor d of a and b.
Relatively Prime: two nonzero ints a, b are relatively prime if their gcd: 1: iff there are integers r and
s such that ra + sb = 1.
Least Common Multiple: integer m such that Za Zb = Zm
Theorem: if d = gcd(a, b) and m = lcm(a, b), then ab = dm.


Cyclic Groups

Cyclic Subgroup, H =< x > generated by x G:

H = {. . . , x2 , x1 , 1, x, x2 , . . . }
Theorem: S: set of integers k such that xk = 1 for < x >; then:
S Z+
xr = xs iff xrs = 1 r s S
if S 6= {1}, then S = Zn (n = | < x > |)
Order of cyclic group is smallest positive integer n such that xn = 1



Homomorphism : G G0 : for all a, b G:

(ab) = (a)(b)
Important examples:
det : GLn (R) R
: Sn {1}
(n) = an
Trivial homomorphism: : G G0 that maps all elts of G to idG0
Inclusion map i : H G defines i(x) = x if H G

(1G ) = 1G0 , (a1 ) = ((a))1

Image, Kernel (each subgroups of G0 , G, kernel is a normal subgroup):
im = {x G0 |x = (a) for some a G}
ker = {a G|(a) = 1}
Important examples:
ker(det) = SLn (R)
ker() = An
Left Coset: if H G, a G:
aH = {g G|g = ah for some h H}
Theorem: If : G G0 is a homomorphism, and a, b G, K = ker, then the following are equivalent:
(a) = (b)
a1 b K
b aK
aK = bK
A homomorphism is injective iff K = {1}.
Normal Subgroup: a subgroup N of G is a normal subgroup, if for a N , g G, gag 1 N
Center is always a normal subgroup of G:
Z = {z G|zx = xz x G}
Example: center of SL2 (R) is I, I;
Center of symmetric group of n 3 is trivial.



Isomorphism : G G0 is a bijective group homomorphism

If is an isomorphism, so is 1
The groups isomorphic to a given group G form the isomorphism class of G
Authomorphism: an isomorphism from a set to itself
Examples of Aut:
Conjugation by g:
(x) = gxg 1
Conjugacy: gxg 1 is the conjugate of x by g; x and x0 are conjugate if x0 = gxg 1 for some g G


Equivalence Relations and Partitions

Partition: a partition of set S is a subdivision into disjoint, nonempty subsets

Equivalence Relation:
a b, b c a c (transitive)
a b b a (symmetric)
a, a a (reflexive)
Theorem: An equivalence relation on set S determines a partition of S, and conversely
Equivalence Class:
Ca = {b S|a b}
For any equivalence relation, there is a natural surjective map:
Fibre: any map f : S T gives equivalence relation: a b if f (a) = f (b); the fibres of the map f is:
f 1 (t) = {s S|f (s) = t}
Equivalence Relation defined by a Homomorphism: two elements are congruent iff their cosets are
a b if (a) = (b)
K = ker, then fibre of that contains a G is aK, which partition G, corresponds to image of



Left Coset of H:
aH = {ah|h H}
Cosets are equivalence classes for the congruence relation, and partition the group G
a b if b = ah for some h H
Theorem: the three are equivalent:
b = ah for some h H
b aH
aH = bH
Index: number of left cosets of a subgroup:
[G : H]
Theorem: All left cosets have the same order: because multiplication by a is a bijective map
Counting Formula:
|G| = |H|[G : H]
Lagranges Theorem: if H G, then |H| divides |G|
Theorem: If |G| = p, a prime order, then if a G, G =< a > therefore forming just one isomorphism

Since left cosets of kernel are fibres, which have bijectvie correspondence with the image:
[G : ker] = |im|
If : G G0 is a homomorphism of finite groups:
|G| = |ker| [G : ker] = |ker| |im|
|ker| divides |G|
|im| divides |G|, |G0 |
Right Coset: If a subgroup is normal, the left and right cosets are equal:
H is a normal subgroup
g G, gHg 1 = H
g G, gH = Hg
Theorem: If H G, g G, then gHg 1 G
Theorem: If G has just one subgroup H of order r, that is normal
If G is finite, indices of left/right cosets are the same.


Modular Arithmetic

If n divides, b a, (b = a + nk)
a b modulo n
The congruence classes are the cosets of the subgroup Zn
a + H = {a + kn|k Z}
The set of congruence classes modulo n = Z/Zn


Correspondence Theorem

Correspondence Theorem: Let : G G be a surjectvie homomorphism with kernel K; there is a

bijective correspondence between subgroups of G and subgroups of G that contain K:
{subgroups of G that contain K} {subgroups of G}


Product Groups

Product Set: set of pairs of elements (a, a0 ), with:

(a, a0 ) (b, b0 ) = (ab, a0 b0 )
Product Group: product of G and G0 : G G0
If r and s are relatively prime, a cyclic group of order rs is isomorphic to the product of a cyclic group
of order r and a cyclic group of order s


Quotient Groups

Quotient Group: the set of cosets of a normal subgroup:

G/N is the set of cosets of N G
Theorem: Let N be the normal subgroup of G, G the set of cosets of N , then there is a law of
composition on G that makes this set into a (quotient) group, such that : G G defined by
(a) = a is a surjective homomorphism whose kernel is N
Theorem: N is a normal subgroup of G; then, (aN )(bN ) is also a coset: abN (Normality is crucial!)
First Isomorphism Theorem: if : G G0 is a surjective group homomorphism with kernel N , the
quotient group G = G/N is isomorphic to the image G0 . To be precise, let : G G be the canonical
map, then there is a unique isomorphism : G G0 such that =
Corollary: if : G G0 is a homomorphism with kernel N and image H 0 , then the quotient group G
is isomorphic to H 0

Vector Spaces



Field: A field F is a set together with two laws of composition:

F F (+)F
F F ()F
called addition and multiplication, such that:
1. Addition makes F into an abelian group F + , with identity = 0
2. Multiplication is commutative, so it makes the set of nonzero elements of F into abelian group
F with identity = 1
3. Distributive law: a, b, c F , a(b + c) = ab + ac
Finite Field: ex. prime field: Z/pZ is a field
Fp = {0, 1, . . . , p 1} = Z/pZ
Cancellation Law: for a, b, c Fp ,
1. ab = 0 a = 0 or b = 0
2. a 6= 0 and ab = ac then b = c
Theorem: if p is a prime integer, Fp is a field of order p (multiplicative inverse exists)
Equivalently, if a is not divisible by p, there is an integer b such that ab 1 modulo p
General Linear Group over Finite Fields:
GLn (Fp ) = {n n invertible matrices with entries in Fp }
SLn (Fp ) = {n n invertible matrices with entries in Fp with det = 1}
Theorem: The characteristic of any field F is either zero or a prime number (characteristic: how many
times you have to add 1 to get back to 0)
Theorem: For p a prime integer, F
p is a cyclic group of order p 1


Vector Spaces

Vector Space: A vector space V over a field F is a set together with two laws of composition:
1. Addition: V V V : (v, w) v + w
2. Scalar Multiplication: F V V : (c, v) cv
with the following rules:
1. Addition makes V into an abelian group V + with identity 0
2. 1v = v v V
3. (ab)v = a(bv) a, b F, v V j
4. (a + b)v = av + bv, a(v + w), a, b F , v, w V
Examples: if V = C, F = R; the set of real polynomials p(x) = an xn + + a0 ; the set of continuous
real-valued functions on the real line; the set of solutions to the differential equation ddt2y = y

Subspace: W V is a subspace if it is a nonempty subset closed under addition and scalar multiplication, and includes a zero vector. It is a proper subspace if it is neither trivial nor V . (Kernel is a
If W is a proper subspace of R2 , and w a nonzero vector in W , then W consists only of the scalar
multiples cw. Distinct proper subspaces have only the zero vector in common.
Isomorphism from V to V 0
(v + w) = (v) + (w) and (cv) = c(v)


Bases and Dimension

Linear Combination: for S = (v1 , . . . vn ) (a hypervector), the linear combination of S is:

w = c1 v1 + + cn vn (ci F )
Span: the set of all vectors that are linear combinations of S = (v1 , . . . , vn ) forms a subspace of V ,
called the span of the set (smallest subspace that contains S)
Column Space: the column space of an m n matrix wwith entries in F is the supspace of F m spanned
by the columns of the matrix
Theorem: If A is m n matrix, B is a column vector, then AX = B has a solution iff B is in the
column space of A
Linear Independence: an ordered set of vectors S = (v1 , . . . , vn ) is linearly independent if there is no
linear relation SX = 0 except for the trivial case X = 0
Basis: A basis of a vector space is a set of vectors that is linearly independent and also spans V
A vector space is finite dimensional if some finite set of vector spans it
Theorem: If V is a finite-dimensional vector space, S is a subspace spanning V , L is an independent
subset of V , then we can obtain a basis by adding elements of S to L, or by deleting elements from S
The empty set is independent; the span of the empty set is the zero space {0}
Dimension: The dimension of a finite-dimensional vector space is the number of vectors in a basis


Computing With Bases

Theorem: Every vector space V of dimension n over a field F is isomorphic to the space F n of column
Change of Basis: If B, B 0 are the old basis, new basis, respectively, P is the basechange matrix:
B 0 = BP


Direct Sums

Sum: If W1 , . . . Wk are subspaces of V , the set of vectors v that can be written as a sum: (where
wi W )
v = w1 + . . . wk
Then the sum of the subspaces (or the span) is denoted as:
W1 + . . . Wk = {v V |v = w1 + + wk , with wi W }

Independence: the subspaces W1 , . . . Wk are independent if no sum is zero, except the trivial sum:
w1 + . . . wk = 0 implies wi = 0 i
Direct Sum: If Wi sums to V and independent:
V = W1 Wk
If W1 + + Wk = V and W1 , . . . , Wk are independent
If V is the direct sum, every vector in V can be written only in a unique way

Linear Operators


Dimension Formula

Linear Transformation: (analogous to a homomorphism) T : V W is a map that is compatible with:

T (c1 v1 + c2 v2 ) = c1 T (v1 ) + c2 T (v2 )
Nullspace: The kernel of a linear transformation
Dimension Formula: (rank-nullity Theorem) for T : V W
dim(kerT ) + dim(imT ) = dimV
The image of T is the column space if T is left multiplication by a matrix
If determinant is nonzero, the nullspace is {0} and rank = n; if determinant is zero, rank < n


Matrix of Linear Transformation

Theorem: T : F n F m is a linear transformation between spaces of column vectors, and let the
coordinate vector of T (ej ) be Aj = (a1j , . . . , amj )t . Let A be the m n matrix whose columns are
A1 , . . . , An . Then T acts on vectors in F n as multiplication by A.


Linear Operators

Linear Operators: Linear transformations T : V V that map a vector space to itself

Example: Left multiplication by a square n n matrix with entries in F defines a linear operator on
the space F n of column vectors
Rotation Matrix: Defines a counterclockwise rotation of the plane through angle

cos sin
sin cos
Theorem: Let K, W denote the kernel and image of a linear operator T on V :
The following conditions are equivalent:
1. T is bijective
2. K = {0}
3. W = V
The following conditions are equivalent:
1. V = K W
2. K W = {0}
3. K + W = V
Chenge of Basis: Let A be the matrix of linear operator T wrt basis B; let B 0 be a new basis such that
B 0 = BP , then:
A0 = P 1 AP




T-Invariance: A subspace W of V is T invariant if it is carried to itself by the operator:

Eigenvector: an eigenvector v of a linear operator T is a nonzero vector:
T (v) = v
where is the eigenvalue
If v is an eigenvector of T , with eigenvalue , the subspace W spanned by v will be T -invariant, because
T (cv) = cv
Eigenvector is a basis of a one-dimensional invariant subspace
The matrix of T wrt a basis B = {v1 , . . . , vn } is diagnoal iff each basis vector vj is an eigenvector
Positive matric: Matrix whose entries are all positive; they always have a positive eigenvector


Characteristic Polynomial

Singular Operator: a lienar operator that is not invertible

The following are equivalent:
1. T is a singular operator
2. T has a zero eigenvalue
3. If A is the matrix of T , then detA = 0
Characteristic Polynomial: of a linear operator T is the polynomial
p(t) = det(tI A)
The eigenvalues of a linear operator are the roots of its characteristic polynomial
Theorem: the characteristic polynomial of an n n matrix A has the form:
p(t) = tn (trace A)tn1 + + (1)n (detA)
The characteristic polynomial, the trace, and the determinant are independent of the basis
Theorem: If 1 , . . . n are the eigenvalues of n n complex matrix A, then:
detA = 1 . . . n
trace(A) = 1 + + n


Applications of Linear Operators


Orthogonal Matrices and Rotations

Dot Product: If X = (x1 , . . . , xn )t , Y = (y1 , . . . yn )t , then

(X Y ) = x1 y1 + . . . xn yn


Lecture Notes Confusing Concepts



Pivot: first non-zero element in each row

Row-Echelon Form:
1. Pivot has entry 1
2. Pivot of each row is right of previous row
3. Pivot has 0s above

1 0 3
Example: 0 1 2
0 0 0
Elementary Row Operations (Ei )
1. Row Addition
2. Row Swap
3. Row Scale
If M 0 is the REF of M , then M 0 = I or M 0 has bottom row of all 0s



Sn is non-Abelian for n 3
On (R) GLn (R) Aut(Rn )
Euclidean Theorem: The only subgroups H Z are those of the form nZ
Group Action: G acts on a set S, if g G, we have a bijection f (g) : S S and f (gh) = f (g)f (h)
Alternate definition: a map G X X: (g, x) (g)x such that (e)x = x and (g1 g2 )x =
(g1 )[(g2 )x]
Example: if S = {1, . . . , n}, then Aut(S) = Sn , and f : G Sn is called the permutation representation of G
GLn (R) acts on the set S = Rn , G acts on itself by left translation or conjugation
Orbit: orbit of s is everything that can be reached from s by an action of something in G
Orbit of s = {s0 = g(s) for some g G}
S = Orbit s (disjoint union)
Center: If f : G Aut(G) such that g h ghg 1 , then
ker(f ) = Z(G) = {g G : gh = hg g G}
Gx = {g G|g(x) = x}
For the group action by conjugation, f (g) : G G is a group isomorphism
If H G is stable under conjugation, it is a normal subgroup of G
Simple: If the only normal subgroups of G are G and {e}, we say G is simple
An is simple for n 5
H is a normal subgroup of G iff H is a union of conjugacy classes
The kernel of a homomorphism f : G G0 is a normal subgroup of G; in fact, every normal subgroup
is the kernel of some group homomorphism



Equivalence Relation

Examples of Equivalence Relation:

1. Orbits of a group action
2. Fibres of a map of sets (S S 0 ): if image = T S 0 then f ibre(t) = St
3. Homomorphism of groups (f (s) = f (s0 ))
For f : G G0 , fibres give equivalence relation, s s0 iff s0 sH
Or equivalently, s s0 iff s1 s0 H and the cosets sH are all isomorphic as sets to H
Lagranges Theorem: |G| = |H|[G : H]
If |G| is prime, then the only subgroups of G are {e} and G



If H is a normal subgroup of G, gH = Hg
Group Law on G/H:
aH bH = (ab)H
Then, the surjective homomorphism f : G G/H with ker(f ) = H is defined
If G is abelian, then every H G is normal, and G/H is an abelian group
Theorem: Any cyclic group G is isomorphic to either (Z+ ) if it is infinte, or (Z/Zn, (+)) if it is finite
of order n
The only simple abelian groups are Z/Zp for prime p
(Burnside) For every nonabelian finite simple group G, |G| is divisible by at least 3 primes
(Feit-Thompson) For every nonabelian finite simple group G, |G| is even
Example: GL3 (Z/Z2) is simple of order 168 = 23 3 7
Define: the classes with multiplicative inverses ( modulo n):
(Z/Zn) = {classes relatively prime to n}
Eulers Theorem: if p is prime, (Z/pZ) = Z/pZ {0} is the cyclic group of order p 1



For any field, F , there is a group homomorphism f :

n = 1 + + 1 1F + + 1F
ker(f ) = dZ, such that either d = 0 and f is an injection, or d is a prime number


S V is a basis for V if it satisfies one of :

1. S spans V , but no smaller subset of V spans V
2. S is linearly independent, but no larger subset of V is linearly independent
3. S spans V and is linearly independent
Quotient Space: V /W :
1. Quotient group on cosets v + W of W in V :
(v + W ) + (v 0 + W ) = (v + v 0 ) + W
2. Scalar multiplication on cosets:
c(v + W ) = cv + W
dim(V ) = dim(W ) + dim(V /W )
T : V W is a linear isomorphism and {v1 , . . . , vn } is a basis of V iff {T v1 , . . . T vn } is a basis of W
Theorem: A linear map T : V W is completely determined by the vector T v1 , . . . , T vn in W for
{v1 , . . . , vn } a basis of V
If dimV = n, there is a linear isomorphism V F n
Hom(V, W ) = {all linear maps T : V W } is isomorphic to F mn
T + S(v) (in )Hom(V, W ) = T v + Sv (in )W
If V = W , we call Hom(V, V ) = End(V ), and Aut(V ) End(V )
V 6= W V /W as V /W is not a subspace
There may be cases where there are no eigenvectors at all


Change of Basis

B = P 1 AP
det(A) = det(B) even if basis changed
T : V V is a linear isomorphism iff det(T ) 6= 0 in F
G = GL(V ) is a group of all invertible T : V V under composition
For det : GL(V ) F , this is a surjective group homomorphism