167 views

Uploaded by Pyotr Gyuyoung Chang

Artin Algebra CheatSheet

- Algebraic Geometry (Hartshorne)
- Artin Algebra
- Dummit and Foote Soln
- What is Calculus About W W Sawyer
- Chapter 5 Solutions
- Tom Apostol - Calculus Vol 2
- All-Soviet Union Math Competition
- - Differential Geometry With Applications To Mechanics And Physics
- Frankel_T_The Geometry of Physics.pdf
- GeometricAlgebraForPhysicists.pdf
- Koerner T.W.-Calculus for the Ambitious-CUP (2014).pdf
- Herstein Abstract Algebra Student's Solution Manual
- Abstract Algebra I. N. Herstein p265
- AQA-MAP6-W-QP-JUN05
- aafmt.pdf
- 316-1586-1-PB
- The William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition
- MATH 3013 Course Schedule.pdf
- Basics of Solid Mechanics
- Problems From the Book

You are on page 1of 15

Peter Chang

October 16, 2015

Groups

1.1

Laws of Composition

SS S

Associative law is more fundamental because function compositions are associative.

Identity for a law of composition: e S such that

ea = ae = a

An element a S is invertible if b S such that:

ab = ba = 1

1.2

Group:

(ab)c = a(bc)

1G

a G a1 G

Abelian group is a group whose law of composition is commutative.

The order of a group G:

|G| = number of elements of G

Cancellation Law:

ab = ac or ba = ca b = c

General Linear Group:

GLn = {n n invertible matrices A}

Permutation: if M is a map from T to T , the invertible map f : T T is called a permutation of T

Symmetric Group: finite group of order n!:

Sn is the group of permutations of the indices 1, 2, . . . , n

Subgroup: A subset H of group G such that:

a H, b H ab H

1H

a H a1 H

1

Special linear Group: subgroup of GLn (R)

SLn (R) : set of real n n matrices A with determinant 1

Every group has trivial subgroup (identity) and the subgroup G itself

1.3

Za = {n Z|n = ka for some k Z}

Theorem: If S is a subgroup of Z+ , then S is either the trivial subgroup {0} or has the form Za with

a the smallest positive integer in S.

Greatest Common Divisor: if ints a and b generate the subgroup S = Za + Zb, then S = Zd for the

greatest common divisor d of a and b.

Relatively Prime: two nonzero ints a, b are relatively prime if their gcd: 1: iff there are integers r and

s such that ra + sb = 1.

Least Common Multiple: integer m such that Za Zb = Zm

Theorem: if d = gcd(a, b) and m = lcm(a, b), then ab = dm.

1.4

Cyclic Groups

H = {. . . , x2 , x1 , 1, x, x2 , . . . }

Theorem: S: set of integers k such that xk = 1 for < x >; then:

S Z+

xr = xs iff xrs = 1 r s S

if S 6= {1}, then S = Zn (n = | < x > |)

Order of cyclic group is smallest positive integer n such that xn = 1

1.5

Homomorphisms

(ab) = (a)(b)

Important examples:

det : GLn (R) R

: Sn {1}

(n) = an

Trivial homomorphism: : G G0 that maps all elts of G to idG0

Inclusion map i : H G defines i(x) = x if H G

2

Image, Kernel (each subgroups of G0 , G, kernel is a normal subgroup):

im = {x G0 |x = (a) for some a G}

ker = {a G|(a) = 1}

Important examples:

ker(det) = SLn (R)

ker() = An

Left Coset: if H G, a G:

aH = {g G|g = ah for some h H}

Theorem: If : G G0 is a homomorphism, and a, b G, K = ker, then the following are equivalent:

(a) = (b)

a1 b K

b aK

aK = bK

A homomorphism is injective iff K = {1}.

Normal Subgroup: a subgroup N of G is a normal subgroup, if for a N , g G, gag 1 N

Center is always a normal subgroup of G:

Z = {z G|zx = xz x G}

Example: center of SL2 (R) is I, I;

Center of symmetric group of n 3 is trivial.

1.6

Isomorphisms

If is an isomorphism, so is 1

The groups isomorphic to a given group G form the isomorphism class of G

Authomorphism: an isomorphism from a set to itself

Examples of Aut:

Conjugation by g:

(x) = gxg 1

Conjugacy: gxg 1 is the conjugate of x by g; x and x0 are conjugate if x0 = gxg 1 for some g G

1.7

Equivalence Relation:

a b, b c a c (transitive)

a b b a (symmetric)

a, a a (reflexive)

Theorem: An equivalence relation on set S determines a partition of S, and conversely

Equivalence Class:

Ca = {b S|a b}

For any equivalence relation, there is a natural surjective map:

:SS

Fibre: any map f : S T gives equivalence relation: a b if f (a) = f (b); the fibres of the map f is:

f 1 (t) = {s S|f (s) = t}

Equivalence Relation defined by a Homomorphism: two elements are congruent iff their cosets are

equal.

a b if (a) = (b)

K = ker, then fibre of that contains a G is aK, which partition G, corresponds to image of

1.8

Coset

Left Coset of H:

aH = {ah|h H}

Cosets are equivalence classes for the congruence relation, and partition the group G

a b if b = ah for some h H

Theorem: the three are equivalent:

b = ah for some h H

b aH

aH = bH

Index: number of left cosets of a subgroup:

[G : H]

Theorem: All left cosets have the same order: because multiplication by a is a bijective map

Counting Formula:

|G| = |H|[G : H]

Lagranges Theorem: if H G, then |H| divides |G|

Theorem: If |G| = p, a prime order, then if a G, G =< a > therefore forming just one isomorphism

class

4

Since left cosets of kernel are fibres, which have bijectvie correspondence with the image:

[G : ker] = |im|

If : G G0 is a homomorphism of finite groups:

|G| = |ker| [G : ker] = |ker| |im|

|ker| divides |G|

|im| divides |G|, |G0 |

Right Coset: If a subgroup is normal, the left and right cosets are equal:

H is a normal subgroup

g G, gHg 1 = H

g G, gH = Hg

Theorem: If H G, g G, then gHg 1 G

Theorem: If G has just one subgroup H of order r, that is normal

If G is finite, indices of left/right cosets are the same.

1.9

Modular Arithmetic

If n divides, b a, (b = a + nk)

a b modulo n

The congruence classes are the cosets of the subgroup Zn

a + H = {a + kn|k Z}

The set of congruence classes modulo n = Z/Zn

1.10

Correspondence Theorem

bijective correspondence between subgroups of G and subgroups of G that contain K:

{subgroups of G that contain K} {subgroups of G}

1.11

Product Groups

(a, a0 ) (b, b0 ) = (ab, a0 b0 )

Product Group: product of G and G0 : G G0

If r and s are relatively prime, a cyclic group of order rs is isomorphic to the product of a cyclic group

of order r and a cyclic group of order s

1.12

Quotient Groups

G/N is the set of cosets of N G

Theorem: Let N be the normal subgroup of G, G the set of cosets of N , then there is a law of

composition on G that makes this set into a (quotient) group, such that : G G defined by

(a) = a is a surjective homomorphism whose kernel is N

Theorem: N is a normal subgroup of G; then, (aN )(bN ) is also a coset: abN (Normality is crucial!)

First Isomorphism Theorem: if : G G0 is a surjective group homomorphism with kernel N , the

quotient group G = G/N is isomorphic to the image G0 . To be precise, let : G G be the canonical

map, then there is a unique isomorphism : G G0 such that =

Corollary: if : G G0 is a homomorphism with kernel N and image H 0 , then the quotient group G

is isomorphic to H 0

Vector Spaces

2.1

Fields

F F (+)F

F F ()F

called addition and multiplication, such that:

1. Addition makes F into an abelian group F + , with identity = 0

2. Multiplication is commutative, so it makes the set of nonzero elements of F into abelian group

F with identity = 1

3. Distributive law: a, b, c F , a(b + c) = ab + ac

Finite Field: ex. prime field: Z/pZ is a field

Fp = {0, 1, . . . , p 1} = Z/pZ

Cancellation Law: for a, b, c Fp ,

1. ab = 0 a = 0 or b = 0

2. a 6= 0 and ab = ac then b = c

Theorem: if p is a prime integer, Fp is a field of order p (multiplicative inverse exists)

Equivalently, if a is not divisible by p, there is an integer b such that ab 1 modulo p

General Linear Group over Finite Fields:

GLn (Fp ) = {n n invertible matrices with entries in Fp }

SLn (Fp ) = {n n invertible matrices with entries in Fp with det = 1}

Theorem: The characteristic of any field F is either zero or a prime number (characteristic: how many

times you have to add 1 to get back to 0)

Theorem: For p a prime integer, F

p is a cyclic group of order p 1

2.2

Vector Spaces

Vector Space: A vector space V over a field F is a set together with two laws of composition:

1. Addition: V V V : (v, w) v + w

2. Scalar Multiplication: F V V : (c, v) cv

with the following rules:

1. Addition makes V into an abelian group V + with identity 0

2. 1v = v v V

3. (ab)v = a(bv) a, b F, v V j

4. (a + b)v = av + bv, a(v + w), a, b F , v, w V

Examples: if V = C, F = R; the set of real polynomials p(x) = an xn + + a0 ; the set of continuous

2

real-valued functions on the real line; the set of solutions to the differential equation ddt2y = y

Subspace: W V is a subspace if it is a nonempty subset closed under addition and scalar multiplication, and includes a zero vector. It is a proper subspace if it is neither trivial nor V . (Kernel is a

subspace!)

If W is a proper subspace of R2 , and w a nonzero vector in W , then W consists only of the scalar

multiples cw. Distinct proper subspaces have only the zero vector in common.

Isomorphism from V to V 0

(v + w) = (v) + (w) and (cv) = c(v)

2.3

w = c1 v1 + + cn vn (ci F )

Span: the set of all vectors that are linear combinations of S = (v1 , . . . , vn ) forms a subspace of V ,

called the span of the set (smallest subspace that contains S)

Column Space: the column space of an m n matrix wwith entries in F is the supspace of F m spanned

by the columns of the matrix

Theorem: If A is m n matrix, B is a column vector, then AX = B has a solution iff B is in the

column space of A

Linear Independence: an ordered set of vectors S = (v1 , . . . , vn ) is linearly independent if there is no

linear relation SX = 0 except for the trivial case X = 0

Basis: A basis of a vector space is a set of vectors that is linearly independent and also spans V

A vector space is finite dimensional if some finite set of vector spans it

Theorem: If V is a finite-dimensional vector space, S is a subspace spanning V , L is an independent

subset of V , then we can obtain a basis by adding elements of S to L, or by deleting elements from S

The empty set is independent; the span of the empty set is the zero space {0}

Dimension: The dimension of a finite-dimensional vector space is the number of vectors in a basis

2.4

Theorem: Every vector space V of dimension n over a field F is isomorphic to the space F n of column

vectors

Change of Basis: If B, B 0 are the old basis, new basis, respectively, P is the basechange matrix:

B 0 = BP

2.5

Direct Sums

Sum: If W1 , . . . Wk are subspaces of V , the set of vectors v that can be written as a sum: (where

wi W )

v = w1 + . . . wk

Then the sum of the subspaces (or the span) is denoted as:

W1 + . . . Wk = {v V |v = w1 + + wk , with wi W }

Independence: the subspaces W1 , . . . Wk are independent if no sum is zero, except the trivial sum:

w1 + . . . wk = 0 implies wi = 0 i

Direct Sum: If Wi sums to V and independent:

V = W1 Wk

If W1 + + Wk = V and W1 , . . . , Wk are independent

If V is the direct sum, every vector in V can be written only in a unique way

Linear Operators

3.1

Dimension Formula

T (c1 v1 + c2 v2 ) = c1 T (v1 ) + c2 T (v2 )

Nullspace: The kernel of a linear transformation

Dimension Formula: (rank-nullity Theorem) for T : V W

dim(kerT ) + dim(imT ) = dimV

The image of T is the column space if T is left multiplication by a matrix

If determinant is nonzero, the nullspace is {0} and rank = n; if determinant is zero, rank < n

3.2

Theorem: T : F n F m is a linear transformation between spaces of column vectors, and let the

coordinate vector of T (ej ) be Aj = (a1j , . . . , amj )t . Let A be the m n matrix whose columns are

A1 , . . . , An . Then T acts on vectors in F n as multiplication by A.

3.3

Linear Operators

Example: Left multiplication by a square n n matrix with entries in F defines a linear operator on

the space F n of column vectors

Rotation Matrix: Defines a counterclockwise rotation of the plane through angle

cos sin

R=

sin cos

Theorem: Let K, W denote the kernel and image of a linear operator T on V :

The following conditions are equivalent:

1. T is bijective

2. K = {0}

3. W = V

The following conditions are equivalent:

1. V = K W

2. K W = {0}

3. K + W = V

Chenge of Basis: Let A be the matrix of linear operator T wrt basis B; let B 0 be a new basis such that

B 0 = BP , then:

A0 = P 1 AP

10

3.4

Eigenvectors

TW W

Eigenvector: an eigenvector v of a linear operator T is a nonzero vector:

T (v) = v

where is the eigenvalue

If v is an eigenvector of T , with eigenvalue , the subspace W spanned by v will be T -invariant, because

T (cv) = cv

Eigenvector is a basis of a one-dimensional invariant subspace

The matrix of T wrt a basis B = {v1 , . . . , vn } is diagnoal iff each basis vector vj is an eigenvector

Positive matric: Matrix whose entries are all positive; they always have a positive eigenvector

3.5

Characteristic Polynomial

The following are equivalent:

1. T is a singular operator

2. T has a zero eigenvalue

3. If A is the matrix of T , then detA = 0

Characteristic Polynomial: of a linear operator T is the polynomial

p(t) = det(tI A)

The eigenvalues of a linear operator are the roots of its characteristic polynomial

Theorem: the characteristic polynomial of an n n matrix A has the form:

p(t) = tn (trace A)tn1 + + (1)n (detA)

The characteristic polynomial, the trace, and the determinant are independent of the basis

Theorem: If 1 , . . . n are the eigenvalues of n n complex matrix A, then:

detA = 1 . . . n

trace(A) = 1 + + n

11

4.1

(X Y ) = x1 y1 + . . . xn yn

12

5.1

Matrices

Row-Echelon Form:

1. Pivot has entry 1

2. Pivot of each row is right of previous row

3. Pivot has 0s above

1 0 3

Example: 0 1 2

0 0 0

Elementary Row Operations (Ei )

1. Row Addition

2. Row Swap

3. Row Scale

If M 0 is the REF of M , then M 0 = I or M 0 has bottom row of all 0s

5.2

Groups

Sn is non-Abelian for n 3

On (R) GLn (R) Aut(Rn )

Euclidean Theorem: The only subgroups H Z are those of the form nZ

Group Action: G acts on a set S, if g G, we have a bijection f (g) : S S and f (gh) = f (g)f (h)

Alternate definition: a map G X X: (g, x) (g)x such that (e)x = x and (g1 g2 )x =

(g1 )[(g2 )x]

Example: if S = {1, . . . , n}, then Aut(S) = Sn , and f : G Sn is called the permutation representation of G

GLn (R) acts on the set S = Rn , G acts on itself by left translation or conjugation

Orbit: orbit of s is everything that can be reached from s by an action of something in G

Orbit of s = {s0 = g(s) for some g G}

S = Orbit s (disjoint union)

Center: If f : G Aut(G) such that g h ghg 1 , then

ker(f ) = Z(G) = {g G : gh = hg g G}

Stabilizer:

Gx = {g G|g(x) = x}

For the group action by conjugation, f (g) : G G is a group isomorphism

If H G is stable under conjugation, it is a normal subgroup of G

Simple: If the only normal subgroups of G are G and {e}, we say G is simple

An is simple for n 5

H is a normal subgroup of G iff H is a union of conjugacy classes

The kernel of a homomorphism f : G G0 is a normal subgroup of G; in fact, every normal subgroup

is the kernel of some group homomorphism

13

5.3

Equivalence Relation

1. Orbits of a group action

2. Fibres of a map of sets (S S 0 ): if image = T S 0 then f ibre(t) = St

[

G=

Gt

3. Homomorphism of groups (f (s) = f (s0 ))

For f : G G0 , fibres give equivalence relation, s s0 iff s0 sH

Or equivalently, s s0 iff s1 s0 H and the cosets sH are all isomorphic as sets to H

Lagranges Theorem: |G| = |H|[G : H]

If |G| is prime, then the only subgroups of G are {e} and G

5.4

Cosets

If H is a normal subgroup of G, gH = Hg

Group Law on G/H:

aH bH = (ab)H

Then, the surjective homomorphism f : G G/H with ker(f ) = H is defined

If G is abelian, then every H G is normal, and G/H is an abelian group

Theorem: Any cyclic group G is isomorphic to either (Z+ ) if it is infinte, or (Z/Zn, (+)) if it is finite

of order n

The only simple abelian groups are Z/Zp for prime p

(Burnside) For every nonabelian finite simple group G, |G| is divisible by at least 3 primes

(Feit-Thompson) For every nonabelian finite simple group G, |G| is even

Example: GL3 (Z/Z2) is simple of order 168 = 23 3 7

Define: the classes with multiplicative inverses ( modulo n):

(Z/Zn) = {classes relatively prime to n}

Eulers Theorem: if p is prime, (Z/pZ) = Z/pZ {0} is the cyclic group of order p 1

5.5

Fields

ZF

00

11

n = 1 + + 1 1F + + 1F

ker(f ) = dZ, such that either d = 0 and f is an injection, or d is a prime number

14

1. S spans V , but no smaller subset of V spans V

2. S is linearly independent, but no larger subset of V is linearly independent

3. S spans V and is linearly independent

Quotient Space: V /W :

1. Quotient group on cosets v + W of W in V :

(v + W ) + (v 0 + W ) = (v + v 0 ) + W

2. Scalar multiplication on cosets:

c(v + W ) = cv + W

dim(V ) = dim(W ) + dim(V /W )

T : V W is a linear isomorphism and {v1 , . . . , vn } is a basis of V iff {T v1 , . . . T vn } is a basis of W

Theorem: A linear map T : V W is completely determined by the vector T v1 , . . . , T vn in W for

{v1 , . . . , vn } a basis of V

If dimV = n, there is a linear isomorphism V F n

Hom(V, W ) = {all linear maps T : V W } is isomorphic to F mn

T + S(v) (in )Hom(V, W ) = T v + Sv (in )W

If V = W , we call Hom(V, V ) = End(V ), and Aut(V ) End(V )

V 6= W V /W as V /W is not a subspace

There may be cases where there are no eigenvectors at all

5.6

Change of Basis

B = P 1 AP

det(A) = det(B) even if basis changed

T : V V is a linear isomorphism iff det(T ) 6= 0 in F

G = GL(V ) is a group of all invertible T : V V under composition

For det : GL(V ) F , this is a surjective group homomorphism

15

- Algebraic Geometry (Hartshorne)Uploaded byTomas Smith
- Artin AlgebraUploaded bykrlwnsr
- Dummit and Foote SolnUploaded byUSD
- What is Calculus About W W SawyerUploaded byGraecus1
- Chapter 5 SolutionsUploaded byShawn Waltz
- Tom Apostol - Calculus Vol 2Uploaded byRanjan Prasad
- All-Soviet Union Math CompetitionUploaded byKitti Wongtuntakorn
- - Differential Geometry With Applications To Mechanics And PhysicsUploaded byalvaro562003
- Frankel_T_The Geometry of Physics.pdfUploaded byঅনন্ত নির্বাণ
- GeometricAlgebraForPhysicists.pdfUploaded byWYOM_WAVE
- Koerner T.W.-Calculus for the Ambitious-CUP (2014).pdfUploaded bytitan100
- Herstein Abstract Algebra Student's Solution ManualUploaded byPaul Benedict
- Abstract Algebra I. N. Herstein p265Uploaded byOkan Yaman
- AQA-MAP6-W-QP-JUN05Uploaded bywill bell
- aafmt.pdfUploaded byAnthony Benson
- 316-1586-1-PBUploaded byShafeeq Shabaz
- The William Lowell Putnam Mathematical CompetitionUploaded byBest Radu
- MATH 3013 Course Schedule.pdfUploaded byVanz
- Basics of Solid MechanicsUploaded byKrm Chari
- Problems From the BookUploaded byGeovane Junior
- Image Segmentation using clustering (Texture with PCA)Uploaded byP Prakash Prakash
- Stabilty AssignmentUploaded byHasan Fahad
- Kausel - Stiffness MatrixUploaded bykozlo
- The Me SpotlightUploaded byTara Shankar Chakraborty

- Diff Topolo LecNotesUploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- General Relativity - R. WaldUploaded bydesi
- An Introduction to Thermal Physics Daniel SchroederUploaded byChelseaRae
- Weekly ReportUploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- Undergrad Complex Analysis (Lectures 1 + 2)Uploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- PnpUploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- intro to AdS_CFT.pdfUploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- hi allUploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- 1Uploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- CC F17 BookletUploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- qm2-notesUploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- Bill Evans-waltz for DebbyUploaded bypianobravoh
- Bill Evans-waltz for DebbyUploaded bypianobravoh
- AdS_CFT_LecNotes.pdfUploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- GTDandOmniFocus.pdfUploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- Eugen Merzbacher - Quantum mechanicsUploaded byMilan Milovanovic
- Spivak Diff Top Vol 1Uploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- On Time Versus Space 1977Uploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- Physics Concentration InfoUploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- Physics Concentration InfoUploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- True (Martin Taylor)Uploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- Sakurai SolutionsUploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- Vol8 - Electrodynamics of Continuous MediaUploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- 04_14_2016Uploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- True (Martin Taylor)Uploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- Griffiths.pdfUploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- Tommy Emmanuel Its Never Too LateUploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- 수학경시대회 체크 간단 개념들Uploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- Spivak Vol1Uploaded byPyotr Gyuyoung Chang
- MIT8_05F13_Chap_07Uploaded byLuisfel Gualco

- An Introduction to Linear Algebra by Marwaha, AlkaUploaded byPHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
- Vectorial Equations Solving for Mechanical Geometry Theorem ProvingUploaded byAnonymous Tph9x741
- Banabic_NUMISHEET 2011Uploaded byKhalil Alhatab
- 3 (3)Uploaded byElakkiyaSelvaraj
- 205C Homework 3Uploaded byinfiniti786
- Paper 3aUploaded byCynthia Amboy
- Mueller GargnanoUploaded byEndimion Simmons
- Linalg21solUploaded byshaghor
- chap2.pdfUploaded byRavi Teja
- Mathematics_1_oneside.pdfUploaded byYuxdar Contell
- Triconch - Its Origin and Place - Članak o TrikonhosuUploaded bysaxilir
- Char_VecUploaded byDaniel Lee Eisenberg Jacobs
- 2010.Mlss.webers1Uploaded bySaksham Singhal
- Approximation Methods PhysicsUploaded byPazcat
- Fingeom NotesUploaded bytbrackman99
- Vectors and TensorsUploaded byAndrei Cioroianu
- basis.pdfUploaded byMohammed Ahmad Osama
- Chapter 5Uploaded byJimBob
- ch4Uploaded byRainingGirl
- design-of-dipole-antenna-using-mom - Copy.pdfUploaded bybal krishna dubey
- 0912 ch01Uploaded byvest62
- Real Vector SpacesUploaded byFelix Jonathan
- Mixed Mimetic Spectral Element Method for Stokes Flow- A Pointwise Divergence-free SolutionUploaded byammar_harb
- 3. Tensor Calculus Jan 2013Uploaded byEmmanuel Olowosulu
- itc Lecture3Uploaded byShahana Ibrahim
- Programa analitica materii Cibernetica in englezaUploaded byIoana Roxana Bob
- rowcolspaces.pdfUploaded bySceptic Granny
- Jordan Canonical Form Theory and Practice - Steven H. WeintraubUploaded byzmtrnxgb
- Inner Product SpacesUploaded byShandy Nugraha
- Radial Basis Function Process Neural Network Training Based on Generalized FRECHET Distance and GA-SA Hybrid StrategyUploaded bycseij