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IIT Gandhinagar, Dept.

of Mechanical Engineering

M313: Fluid Mechanics Laboratory

Version No. 1/VN/July 2010


1. AIM
The aim of the experiment is to determine velocity of fluid at various points across the cross
section of pipe.
The apparatus consists of a Pitot tube made of copper and fixed below a pointer gauge. The pointer
gauge is capable to measure the position of Pitot tube in transparent test section. The pipe has a
flow control valve to regulate the flow. An U-tube manometer is provided to determine the velocity
head. A pump is provided to circulate the water. The discharge is measured using a measuring tank
and a stopwatch. Relevant data pertaining to the experimental apparatus are given below:
Cross sectional area of pipe
= 0.0006157 m2
Density of manometric fluid ( CCl4 )=1590 kg / m
It is a device used for measuring the velocity of flow at any point in a pipe. It is based on the
principle that if the velocity of flow at a point becomes zero, there is increase in pressure due to the
conversion of the kinetic energy into pressure energy. Pitot tube measures the stagnation pressure
head (or the total head) at its dipped end. The pressure head may be determined directly by
connecting a suitable differential manometer between the Pitot tube and pressure taping at the
pipe surface.
(a) Starting Procedure:
1. Clean the apparatus and make tank free from Dust.
2. Close the drain valves provided.
3. Fill Sump tank with clean water and ensure that no foreign particles are there.
4. Close all Flow control valves given on the water line and open by-pass valve.
5. Check the level of CCl4 in all the manometer tube. It should be up to half. If it is less, then fill it.
6. Close all pressure taps of Manometer connected to manometers.
7. Ensure that On/Off switch given on the panel is at OFF position.
8. Now switch on the main power supply (220 Volts AC, 50 Hz).
9. Switch on the pump.
10. Operate the flow control valve to regulate the flow of water.
11. Open the tressure taps of the manometer of related test section very slowly to avoid the rush
of water on manometer fluidand remove the air bubbles (if any) from the manometer tube

IIT Gandhinagar, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

M313: Fluid Mechanics Laboratory

Version No. 1/VN/July 2010

12. Record the manometer readings and measure the discharge with the help of measuring tank
and stop watch.
13. Now move the Pitot tube up and down tube for the same flow rate and note the manometer
readings to estimate the velocity at different points in pipe.
14. Take readings at sufficient number of points to plot the velocity profile across the cross
section. Repeat the same procedure for different flow rates of water by operating the control
valve, and by-pass valve.

(b) Closing Procedure:

1. When the experiment is over, close all manometer pressure taps first and switch off the pump.
2. Switch off the power supply to panel.
3. Drain the water from all the tanks using the the drain valves

1. Derive the theoretical expression for the velocity profile across a pipe cross section.
2. Determine the actual (average) velocity of fluid at different points across the cross section.
3. Plot the theoretical and experimental velocity profiles for different flow rates.
4. Calculate the Reynolds number in each case.
5. Calculate the coefficient of pitot tube from actual and theoretical velocities .
6. Comment on possible sources of error in the experiment or your derivation that would change
your measurements or theoretical estimates. Indicate how these sources would affect the
results and make recommendations for improving the experiment.


1. Class notes, ME 204 Fluid Mechanics, Spring semester , 2009-2010

2. Fox R.W. and McDonald A.T., Fluid Mechanics, John Wiley International, 2005.