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# Math 240: Homogeneous Linear Systems of D.E.

s
Ryan Blair
University of Pennsylvania

## Tuesday April 7, 2011

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Outline

Review

Todays Goals

Distinct Eigenvalues

Repeated Eigenvalues

Complex Eigenvalues

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Review

1
2
3

## Defined systems of differential equations

Developed the notion of Linear Independence.
Developed the notion of General Solution.

## Tuesday April 7, 2011

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Review

Linear systems
Definition
The following is a first order system
dx1
= a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n + f1 (t)
dt
dx2
= a21 x1 + a22 x2 + ... + a2n + f2 (t)
dt
..
.
dxn
= an1 x1 + an2 x2 + ... + ann + fn (t)
dt
Where each xi is a function of t.
Ryan Blair (U Penn)

## Tuesday April 7, 2011

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Review

The Wronskian

Theorem
Let X1 , X2 , ..., Xn be n solution vectors to a homogeneous system on
an interval I . They are linearly independent if and only if their
Wronskian is non-zero for every t in the interval.

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Todays Goals

Todays Goals

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Distinct Eigenvalues

Guessing a Solution
Given a constant coefficient, linear, homogeneous, first-order system
X=AX
our intuition prompts us to guess a solution vector of the form

k1
k2 t
t

X=
... e = Ke
kn

## Tuesday April 7, 2011

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Distinct Eigenvalues

Guessing a Solution
Given a constant coefficient, linear, homogeneous, first-order system
X=AX
our intuition prompts us to guess a solution vector of the form

k1
k2 t
t

X=
... e = Ke
kn

## Hence, we can find such a solution vector iff K is an eigenvector for A

with eigenvalue .

## Tuesday April 7, 2011

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Distinct Eigenvalues

## General Solution with Distinct Real Eigenvalues

Theorem
Let 1 , 2 , ..., n be n distinct real eigenvalues of the n n
coefficient matrix A of the homogeneous system X=AX, and let K1 ,
K2 , ... , Kn be the corresponding eigenvectors. Then the general
solution on (, ) is
X = c1 K1 e 1 t + c2 K2 e 2 t + ... + cn Kn e n t
where the ci are arbitrary constants.

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Repeated Eigenvalues

Repeated Eigenvalues
In a n n linear system there are two possibilities for an eigenvalue
of multiplicity 2.
1
2

## has two linearly independent eigenvectors K1 and K2 .

has a single eigenvector K associated to it.

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Repeated Eigenvalues

Repeated Eigenvalues
In a n n linear system there are two possibilities for an eigenvalue
of multiplicity 2.
1
2

## has two linearly independent eigenvectors K1 and K2 .

has a single eigenvector K associated to it.

K2 e t .

## Tuesday April 7, 2011

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Repeated Eigenvalues

Repeated Eigenvalues
In a n n linear system there are two possibilities for an eigenvalue
of multiplicity 2.
1
2

## has two linearly independent eigenvectors K1 and K2 .

has a single eigenvector K associated to it.

## In the first case, there are linearly independent solutions K1 e t and

K2 e t .
In the second case, there are linearly independent solutions Ke t and
[Kte t + Pe t ]
where we find P be solving (A I)P = K

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Repeated Eigenvalues

## Given an n m matrix A with complex entries,

Re(A) is the real n m matrix of the purely real entries in A and
Im(A) is the real n m matrix of purely imaginary entries of A.

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Complex Eigenvalues

Complex Eigenvalues

Theorem
Let = + i be a complex eigenvalue of the coefficient matrix A in
a homogeneous linear system X = A X, and K be the corresponding
eigenvector. Then
X1 = [Re(K)cos(t) Im(K)sin(t)]e t
X2 = [Im(K)cos(t) + Re(K)sin(t)]e t
are linearly independent solutions to X = A X on (, ).

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