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Implementing Pb-Free

Assembly at Your Factory


Ronald C. Lasky, Ph.D., PE
Senior Technologist Indium Corp
Visiting Professor, Dartmouth
Timothy Jensen
Indium Corp
Feb 2004

Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Agenda
• Pb-Free World Status
• Alloy Selection
• Getting Your Facility Ready: Best Practices
• PWB and Component Finishes
• Solder Paste Pre-Screening
• Overview of Motorola Implementation
• Large Board and Wave Soldering Issues

All slides available at www.pb-free.com

Slide #1 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Dr. Ron Lasky
• Native of Binghamton
• Graduate of BCC, Cornell,
BU, Cornell
– PhD in materials science
• NYS Professional Engineer
• More than 20 years in
electronic and
optoelectronic packaging
at IBM, Universal
Instruments, Cookson
(Alpha)
• Author of 5 books
• Currently a Senior
Technologist for Indium
and a Visiting Professor at
Dartmouth College

Slide #2 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Electronics:
Still the Largest Industry
• Holding at $1 trillion
– Bigger than automotive
– But Food?
• $170/yr x 6 billion > $1 T
• Typical long term growth is 6-8%
CAGR
– Vs 2-4 % for economies in good times
– Early 2000s down slightly

Slide #3 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


The Electronic Industry: $1.1T

Military, $89
Automotive, $52
Industrial and Medical,
Computer, $429 $113

Consumer, $123

Communications, $300

All assembled on 30-35K lines!


Source: Prismark

Slide #4 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Courtesy Prismark

Slide #5 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


System Cost: $1K PC
Discretes: 4%

ICs: 27%
Substrates: 4%

Assembly & Test: 14%


SGA & Profit: 16%
Connectors: 3%:
Distribution: 14%
R&D: 2% Solder: 0.05%!
Housing and I/O: 16%
Source: Prismark

Slide #6 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


What is a Printed Circuit Board (PCB)?
• Starts with a PWB • Reflow melts the solder
• Solder Paste is printed • The finished PCB is
• IC, passive, active tested
components are placed • Thru hole assembly may
also be performed

Source: The Internet

Slide #7 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Cross Section of a PQFP Component
Molding Compound Wire Bonded
Silicon Die
Nitto Denko Tanaka
8 cents 18 cents

Die Attach Adhesive Courtesy:


Ablestik Prismark
0.4 cents
Leadframe
Shinko 1.2 cents
91 cents per lead

The silicon die is the heart of electronics, it produces all of


digital and analog functions. The material and leads that
enclose the die are called the package. The resulting device
called a component, a component package or a semiconductor
package.

Slide #8 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


• The relentless size
reduction of
passives
• Assembling the
0201 is one of the
current process
challenges
• A trillion
assembled each
year Source: The Internet

Slide #9 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


PWB Assembly

Stencil Chip Shooter Pick and


Reflow Oven
Printer Place

Hand Mount and Opto


Wave or Selective Inspection/Test
Sources: DEK, UIC, Electrovert Solder

Slide #10 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb-free Initiatives & Global
Trends

Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Current Pb-free Legislation

• WEEE/ROHS directives

• Japanese Home Electronics


Recycling Law

• USA? Some state activity, nothing


federal
– EPA: ‘Deal with Electronics or We Will’

Slide #12 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb-free Legislation
• EU Ratifies WEEE / ROHS directive
– Dec 2002 EU parliament passed legislation
to ban use of:
• Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr VI, PBB, PBDE
– Affects ALL products sold after July 2006.
• Exceptions
– Telecom equipment until 2010
– High lead solder applications (>85% lead alloy)
– Recycling program enforced June 2005.

Slide #13 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb-free Legislation
• Japanese Pb-free Activity
– No direct ban on using Pb
– MITI proposed recycling legislation in May 1998.
– Japan home electronics recycling law requires
OEMs to collect and recycle 4 major products
since April 2001.
– These measures, as well as marketing advantage,
are pushing major Japanese companies to be
more environmentally conscience

Slide #14 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Japanese Pb-free Products
• Matsushita / Panasonic
announcement
– By March 2003 – Over 70 million PCBs
(approximately 12,000 product models) will
be built using a Pb-free solder.
• Products have been built in over 100 different
factories

Slide #15 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Panasonic Pb-Free Examples

MJ70 Minidisc Player MJ30 Minidisc Player

Slide #16 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Hitachi Pb-Free Examples

H845L Camcorder PC Audio Board, Flora 220CX

Slide #17 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Is Pb-Free a good thing?

Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


True or False
• Electronics is a major contributor
to environmental lead. ⇒
FALSE

– Batteries: 4,000,000 tons


– Bullets: 200,000 tons
– Electronics: 18,500 tons < 0.5%
– Not to mention tire balancing weights!
• About 100,000 tons/year

Slide #19 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


True or False
• The level of lead in the blood of
US residents has increased
since 1945 ⇒ FALSE

• Paint and gasoline reductions


have had a stunningly positive
effect.

Slide #20 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Average US Lead Levels in Micrograms per
Deciliter of Blood
30

25

20
Pb( µg/dl)

15

10

0
1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995
Year

Slide #21 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb does Leach
• Pb Leach Testing
– Use water with a pH of 7-7.05
– Pb will not leach very much at this pH
• In acid water, Pb does leach
• After all, we banned Pb from
plumbing for good reason
• However, no measurable results in a
“real life” experiment

Slide #22 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb-Free Solder Alloys
• Present alloys chosen to replace
Sn/Pb are Sn/Ag/Cu alloys
• Ag-containing Solders also Leach
– EPA Groundwater Leaching Tests
• ALL Pb-free silver-containing solders fail
– “Lead-free Solders: A Push in the Wrong Direction?”
Ed Smith, K-Tec Inc.
– “Reliability & Leachate Testing of Pb-free Solder
Joints” – Thomas Woodrow, Boeing

Slide #23 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb-Free Solder Alloys
• Silver containing replacements
– Are we taking a wrong turn?
• Silver is toxic
• Silver is a biocide
• Silver is known to kill more than 650 different viral,
bacterial and fungal organisms
• Also, Silver will kill most marine life

Slide #24 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb-Free Initiative Summary
• Simply changing from SnPb to SnAgCu may not fix
the problem
• Recycling must be the long term answer
• Expect more legislation and higher landfill costs in
the years to come!

Despite the data, Pb-free solder in the Electronics


Industry is going to happen…

Slide #25 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb-Free Alloy Selection

Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Alloy Selection Overview
• Potential Alloy Overview
• General Alloy Search
• Sn/Ag/Cu in Depth

Slide #27 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Alloy Decision Process
• The melting point should be as close to
Sn/Pb eutectic as possible
• The alloy must be eutectic or very close to
eutectic
• It must contain no more than three
elements
• Use of existing patents should be avoided
to ease implementation
• Reliability should be equal or better than
Sn/Pb Edwin Bradley – NEMI chairperson, Motorola

Slide #28 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Options
• Current Alloy List
• Alloy properties
• Pros & Cons of each

Slide #29 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Options: Current Alloy List

– Sn/Ag – Sn/Ag/Bi/X
– Sn/Cu – Sn/Sb
– Sn/Ag/Cu – Sn/Zn
– Sn/Ag/Cu/Sb – Sn/Bi

Slide #30 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Options: Current Alloy List

– Sn/Ag – Sn/Ag/Bi/X
– Sn/Cu – Sn/Sb
– Sn/Ag/Cu – Sn/Zn
– Sn/Ag/Cu/Sb – Sn/Bi

Slide #31 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Scientific Realities: 91Sn/9Zn
• Melting point = 199°C
• Zinc reacts with both acids and bases
• All flux/vehicles are mildly acidic at room
temperature
• Which means shelf-life is in the order of
days, not months!
• Also may need conformal coating once in
place - Zn oxidizes very readily

Slide #32 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Scientific Realities: 96.5Sn/3.5Ag
• Melting point = 221°C
• Years of experience
• Relatively poor wetting
• Poor thermal cycling (-40/+125)
1st Last
Alloy # on #
Composition Failure Failure Rank
Code Test Failed
(cycle) (cycle)
A1 Sn 3.5Ag 12 12 1282 1987 8
A11 Sn 4Ag 1Cu 14 14 2340 2552 3
A14 Sn 4Ag 0.5Cu 14 14 2108 2579 5
A21 Sn 2.5Ag 0.8Cu 0.5Sb 14 14 2378 2378 2
A32 Sn 4.6Ag 1.6Cu 1Sb 1Bi 15 15 2161 2161 4
A62 Sn 3.4Ag 1Cu 3.3Bi 14 14 1864 2527 6
A66 Sn 3.5Ag 1.5In 14 14 2387 2577 1
B63 Sn/Pb Control 13 13 1845 2607 7 Source: NCMS

Slide #33 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Scientific Realities: 58Sn/42Bi
• Melting point = 138 °C
• Years of experience
• Poor shock resistance
• 1% Ag addition strengthens this alloy
• Low MP eliminates temperature issues
with components and board

Slide #34 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Scientific Realities: Sn/Ag/Cu
• Melting Point = 217°C
• Cu improves wettability, creep, thermal
fatigue
• High solderability & reliability

Slide #35 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Scientific Realities: Sn/Ag/Cu/Sb
• Melting point = 215 – 217°C
• 0.5% Sb may strengthen alloy
• May be considered for wave soldering by
effectively lowering Ag content
• Patented composition may limit worldwide
availability
• Four part alloy makes manufacturing
consistency less reliable.

Slide #36 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Scientific Realities: Sn/Ag/Bi
• Melting Point = 210 - 215 °C
• Bi lowers melting point & improves
wettability of SnAg alloys
• Avoid using in presence of Pb:
• a 96°C ternary alloy(Sn/Pb/Bi) may form

Slide #37 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb-free Alloy Investigation

• Phase 1: DOE to analyze 10 probable


alloy solutions using Sn/Pb as
Benchmark
• Phase 2: Optimize flux chemistry

Slide #38 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Alloy Performance Investigation

Alloy Solidus Liquidus

63Sn37Pb 182.1 183.0


96.5Sn3.5Ag 219.7 220.8
99.3Sn0.7Cu 225.7 227.0
95.5Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu 216.3 217.5
93.6Sn4.7Ag1.7Cu 215.9 217.1
96.2Sn2.5Ag0.8Cu0.5Sb 216.9 218.2
91.7Sn3.5Ag4.8Bi 202.1 215.1
90.5Sn7.5Bi2Ag 190.6 214.7
58Bi42Sn 136.3 138.5
95Sn5Sb 238.3 240.3
89Sn8Zn3Bi 190.6 195.4

Slide #39 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb-free Alloy Investigation

• 5 Individual studies performed


– Wetting
– Shelf life
– Tack time
– Solder Ball
– Visual reflow inspection
• Performance ranked 0-10 for each
category

Slide #40 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


R&D Test #1: Wetting
Cu pad Unwetted Cu

70%

Print Reflow spread


paste
(offset) Solder
bump

Slide #41 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Wetting Examples

4 5 7

40% 50% 70%

Slide #42 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


R&D Test #2: Shelf Life
Shelf life was based on the percentage change
in viscosity over time. The length of the test
was 30 days.
SLI Description
0 Overall instability > 25%
2 Overall instability = 20-25%
4 Overall instability = 15-20%
6 Overall instability = 10-15%
8 Overall instability = 5-10%
10 Overall instability = 0-5%

Slide #43 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


R&D Test #3: Tack Stability

6
8
10

4
Tack 2
0
0
0 Time
Slide #44 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003
R&D Test #4: Solder Balling
SBI Number of solder balls
0 Did not reflow
1 > 501, with some reflow
2 401-500
3 301-400
4 201-300
5 151-200
6 101-150
7 51-100
8 21-50
9 11-20
10 0-10

Slide #45 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Alloy Investigation- Results

1. Sn63/Pb37 7. Sn99.3/Cu0.7
2. Sn91.7/Bi4.8/Ag3.5 8. Sn96.2/Ag2.5/Cu0.8/Sb0.5
3. Sn90.5/Bi7.5/Ag2 9. Sn95/Sb5
4. Sn95.5/Ag3.8/Cu0.7 10. Sn96.5/Ag3.5
5. Sn42/Bi58 11. Sn89/Zn8/Bi3
6. Sn93.6/Ag4.7/Cu1.7

Slide #46 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


R&D Test #5: Visual
BEST

10

2 BAD

Slide #47 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Winner- Sn/Ag/Bi ???
• Bi addition lowers melting
point & improves wetting
• BUT……..Concerns with
• Fillet Lift
• Low temperature ternary alloy
formation with Pb contamination

Slide #48 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb Contamination Concerns
Why Bi alloys are not the short-term solution
250
0% Pb
225 3% Pb
6% Pb
Onset Temp, deg. C

200

175

150

125 Sn-Pb-Ag
100 Eutectic
Sn-Bi-Pb
75
Peritectic
Sn-Bi-Pb Eutectic
50
Sn-3.8Ag- Sn-2Ag-2Bi Sn-2Ag-4Bi Sn-2Ag-7.5Bi Sn-10.5Bi Sn-12Bi
0.7Cu

Slide #49 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Sn/Ag/Bi on Sn/Pb Finish

Sn/Ag/Bi with Pb contamination Sn/Ag/Bi with Pb contamination


after 1 reflow after thermal cycling
Ref: Zequn Mei, Fay Hua, and Judy Glazer, “SN- BI- XSOLDERS”, SMTA International, San Jose, CA, Sept. 13- 17, 1999.

Slide #50 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Sn/Ag/Bi Fillet Lift

Ref: “Lead-Free Solder Project Final Report”, NCMS Report 0401RE96 , August 1997.

Slide #51 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Bismuth Alloy Summary

• Sn-Ag-Bi alloys show formation of:


– Eutectic 96C phase at Bi > 10.5%Bi
– Peritectic 135C phase Bi > 4%Bi
In the presence of Pb.
• Sn-Ag-Cu alloys show formation of:
– Eutectic 179C phase.
• Wetting occurs at liquidus, so it is key melt
temp variable.
• PCB finish can affect wetting temperature due
to base metal diffusion into solder.

Slide #52 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Conclusion
Pb-free Paste - SnAgCu

• Challenges:
– higher processing temperatures
– wettability
– must wet to a variety of metallizations

Slide #53 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


NEMI Alloy Summary
• NEMI Chosen Alloy
– 95.5Sn/3.9Ag/0.6Cu
– 217 C liquidus
• Pb-Free is now driven by both market factors
and now legislation
• SnAgCu preferred short/medium term solution
– NEMI, JEITA, IDEALS all agree on Sn/Ag/Cu
• When components become completely Pb-Free,
SnAgBi may become preferred solution
– Lower process temp
– Excellent wettability

Slide #54 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Eutectic of Sn-Ag-Cu solders
„ B. Boettinger, K. W. Moon of NIST performed studies to determine the true Sn-
Ag-Cu eutectic.
Estimation of Ternary Liquidus Surface, 10/23/99
Based on Marquette saturation data,
with NWU and NIST thermal analysis.
8
270 C
7

6
250 C Ag3Sn
5
wt%Ag

230 C
4
220
3 C Cu6Sn5
230 C

2
Sn
Alloys in shaded 1
NIST experimental work
270 C
250 C

23 0
C showed that the composition
290

area have freezing


310
C
0 is approximately
range <10°C.
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Sn3.5Ag 0.9Cu. (+/- 0.1%)
wt% Cu (In agreement with Loomis and Fine)

Slide #55 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Relative Material Costs

• Sn $5.06/kg
• Zn $1.06/kg
• Cu $1.94/kg
• Bi $5.63/kg
• In $250.00/kg
• Ag $180.00/kg
• Sb $1.75/kg
• Pb <$1.00/kg

Slide #56 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb-Free Cost
• All the lead-free alloys are more
expensive than the lead-containing
alloys
– Raw material costs are higher
– Currently there is no economy of scale
– Minimal Production experience
compared to Sn/Pb powder production

Slide #57 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Which SAC to Use?
• Melting Point Comparison
• Wetting Comparison
• Long Term Cost Comparison

Slide #58 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


DSC of Actual Samples from
Solder Vendor A
96.5Sn/3.0Ag/ 95.5Sn/4.0Ag/ 95.5Sn/3.8Ag/
0.5Cu 0.5Cu 0.7Cu

Sample 1 216.76 °C 216.89 °C 216.70 °C

Sample 2 216. 49 °C 216.38 °C 216.56 °C

Sample 3 216.71 °C 216.35 °C 216.75 °C

Average 216.65 °C 216.54 °C 216.67 °C

Slide #59 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


IPC DSC Comparing SAC305
Suppliers
Supplier 1 Supplier 2 Supplier 3

Sample 1: 226.6 °C 217.8 °C 216.0 °C

Sample 2: 220.3 °C 216.7 °C 216.0 °C

Average: 223.45 °C 217.25 °C 216.0 °C


Source: IPC-SPVC-WP-006

Slide #60 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Comparing the Wetting Forces

Difference in wetting per J-STD test procedure not


statistically significant between SAC alloys.
Source: IPC-SPVC-WP-006

Slide #61 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


SAC Actual Wetting

Source: CEMCEX2003 Seelig et al

Slide #62 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Long Term Relative Costs
• Sn/Pb = 1x
• SAC305 = 2.15x
• 95.5Sn/3.8Ag/0.7Cu = 2.3x
• SAC405 = 2.35x

Slide #63 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Alloy Summary
• Sn/Ag/Cu (SAC) is the best current option
• Sn/Ag/Bi worth consideration is Pb
contamination is not an issue.
• Sn/Bi doped with 1% Ag could be a viable
option for assemblies with tight
temperature restrictions.
• SAC305 ranks slightly higher than other
SAC alloys due to cost and performance.

Slide #64 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Getting Your Facility Ready:
Pb-Free Implementation
Best Practices

Slide #65 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb-Free Best Practices
• Assess Yourself
– Crucial with Pb-free
• Throughput Maximization
• CIP
• Process Software to Help
• Use the Right Tools
– Statistical Thinking
– DOE
– SPC

Slide #66 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


An SMT Process
Equipment
A
Product Product
Requirements
People Activities Procedures
Meets
Requirements
•On time
Materials
•Under cost

Slide #67 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Assessment Categories
• DFM, Process and Equipment
• Materials Supply and Validation
• DOE, SPC, CIP
• Training and Failure Analysis
• Developed from pooled information
from industry experts

Slide #68 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


DFM, Process and Equipment
Ranking Key: 0 = strongly disagree or don't know , 3 = disagree, 5= neutral, 7 = agree, 10 = strongly agree

1 We have a documented and functioning DFM system that includes design ground rules (DGRs). Our entire 10
organization is strongly committed to DFM. DFM is a way of life (this question counts 3 times):
2 Our DGRs are established by using designed experiments and statistical process control: 8

3 The process engineers know how to run all of the equipment: 3

4 The engineer(s) responsible for stencil printing knows how to design a stencil 9

5 The engineer(s) responsible for component placement knows how to balance and optimize the placement 9
equipment. He assures that this operation is performed on all jobs:
6 The engineer in charge of the reflow process assures that the reflow profile matches the solder paste 9
specification:
7 Our process engineers have a disciplined and proven strategy to improve productivity: 9

8 Our process engineers have a disciplined and proven strategy to improve quality: 9

9 Our process equipment is "qualified" with a test and evaluation procedure that is founded on DOE principles: 3

10 There is a process engineer or team of engineers responsible for implementing new processes and technology: 9

Total Score out of 120 98

Ratings:
World Class = > 95 Your score places you as "World Class" in DFM, Process and Equipment for
Above Average = 75 - 94 SMT assembly. Your clearly recognize the importance of these topics in your
Average = 55 - 74 assembly processes. This score still offers some opprotunity for improvement.
Below Average < 55 Look at your results on each question and develop an action plan for
improvement if appropriate.

Slide #69 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Materials Supply and Validation
Ranking Key: 0 = strongly disagree or don't know , 3 = disagree, 5= neutral, 7 = agree, 10 = strongly agree

1 We evaluate our solder pastes and/or materials with a systematic evaluation procedure, such as "The 12 Board 0
Paste Evaluator" (shown below) or DOE to assure its performance (this question counts 3 times):
2 My engineers have read and understand the solder paste and materials specs and assure they match our use 8
conditions:
3 The response to pause of my solder paste is adequate for my applications: 5

4 The cost of my solder paste and/or materials is not the main criteria for its purchase: 7

5 The printed volume consistency of my solder paste is best of breed: 7

6 My materials supplier(s) understand(s) my process and business needs, we treat each other like partners: 4

7 Few, if any end of line defects can be traced to inadequacies of my solder paste and/or materials: 4

8 The type (i.e. 2, 3, 4, 5) of the solder paste we use matches the application requirement: 4

9 Our organization has a systematic method to assure that the materials/components for future jobs are being 6
prepared while current jobs are being run:
10 Our organization has a systematic method to assure that we have an uninterrupted supply of materials from our 6
vendors:
Total Score out of 120 51

Ratings:
World Class = > 95 Your score places you below average among users of SMT materials. This
Above Average = 75 - 94
position offers overwhelming opportunities for improvement. Look at your
Average = 55 - 74
results on each question and develop an action plan for improvement. Your
Below Average < 55
organization has an urgent need to recognize that evaluating your solder
pastes and materials is a most important activity.

Slide #70 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


DOE, SPC, CIP
Ranking Key: 0 = strongly disagree or don't know , 3 = disagree, 5= neutral, 7 = agree, 10 = strongly agree

1 We have a continuous improvement plan that is effective, uses metrics, and is recognized as valuable by the 3
entire organization (this question counts 3 times):
2 We measure our process uptime: 8

3 We measure our unscheduled downtime: 2

4 We measure our line efficiency: 2

5 We measure our work in process time: 5

6 We know our process's Cp and Cpk: 9

7 We have a statistical process control program and use the resulting data effectively to monitor and improve our 9
processes:
8 Our process engineers use designed experiments to optimize our processes and evaluate equipment and 9
materials:
9 Quality is everyone's job: 8

10 Productivity is everyone's job: 8

Total Score out of 120 69

Ratings:
World Class = > 95
Above Average = 75 - 94 Your score places you as average in DOE, SPC and CIP for SMT assembly.
Average = 55 - 74 This position offers significant opportunities for improvement. Look at your
Below Average < 55 results on each question and develop an action plan for improvement. Having
an effective CIP program is vital for success.

Slide #71 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Training and Failure Analysis
Ranking Key: 0 = strongly disagree or don't know , 3 = disagree, 5= neutral, 7 = agree, 10 = strongly agree

1 Our organization has a sophisticated training program for all levels of our staff (this question counts 3 times): 9

2 Our engineers understand the difference between common cause and special cause failures and use this 8
knowledge in process troubleshooting:
3 Our engineers use sophisticated modeling tools, like StencilCoach, Reflow Coach and LineBalancer to help them 5
model processes and perform "what if" analysis:
4 Management uses costing tools like ProfitPro to perform financial "what if" analysis, before making financial 3
investments in equipment etc:
5 Our operators cannot change the process equipment's operating parameters: 8

6 Our engineers know and use analytical problem solving and brainstorming techniques to perform failure analysis: 4

7 There is a process line escalation policy that is understand by all (e.g. if the line is down and remains down this 4
information gets escalated in a documented fashion):
8 Our process engineer's yearly performance review is related to process improvement goals: 4

9 We can perform failure analysis or vend this task out: 6

10 Our staff has all ot the tools necessary to perform their jobs: 6

Total Score out of 120 75

Ratings:
World Class = > 95
Above Average = 75 - 94 Your score places you as above average in Training and Failure Analysis for
Average = 55 - 74 SMT assembly. This score still offers considerable opportunity for
Below Average < 55 improvement. Look at your results on each question and develop an action
plan for improvement, if appropriate.

Slide #72 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Line Level Metrics
Line Efficiency (%) First Pass Yield (%)
Start
60 Goal 98
40 97 99 Goal
80
20 100 96 100
95
94
Start
Line Uptime (%) WIP (hrs)

40 50 60 70 80 90 100 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Slide #73 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


But No Matter What
You do, Have a CIP
• Assess yourself
• Establish/Measure Metrics
– Paste Volume
– Productivity Metrics
– Pareto Defects
• Monitor Success/Develop Action
Plan
• Fix the Problems
Slide #74 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003
Software Tools to Help
• In addition to AuditCoach™
• Stencil Coach™
– Helps design stencils including PIP
• WaveCoach™
• LineSimulator™
– Simulates entire line, much easier than
Arena®
• ReflowCoach™

Slide #75 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Stencil Design: StencilCoach™
Aspect Ratio
Aperture Width > 4-5
W
particle diameters

Aspect Ratio = W/t > 1.5


t

Area Ratio
Aopening= πD /4
2 Circular Aperture Diameter >
D
8 particle diameters
Awall=πDt =>
t ArR=D/4t ArR = D/4t > 0.66

PW=1-3+ W = PW - AR= W/t


Calculations Recommendations: P/2 2 to 3 > 1.5

Pitch Pad Width PW Aperture W Stencil Aspect AR


Solder
Rectangular Aperatures (P - mils) (PW - mils) OK? (W -mils) OK? Thickness Ratio OK?
Paste Type
(t - mils) (AR)
50 26 TRUE 23 TRUE 6 3.833 TRUE 3
25 15 TRUE 12 TRUE 6 2.000 TRUE 3
20 12 TRUE 10 TRUE 5 2.000 TRUE 3
16 10 TRUE 8 TRUE 5 1.600 TRUE 4
12 8 TRUE 6 TRUE 4 1.500 TRUE 4
35 19 TRUE 17 TRUE 6 2.833 TRUE 3

PW=0-2+ D = PW - ArR=D/4t
Recommendations: P/2 2 to 3 >0.66
Pitch Pad Dia Pad Dia Aperture D Stencil Area ArR
Solder
Circular Aperatures (P - mils) (PD - mils) OK? Diameter OK? Thickness Ratio OK?
Paste Type
(D-mils) (t-mils) (ArR)
40 21 TRUE 19 TRUE 5 0.95 TRUE 3

Slide #76 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pin-in-Paste
Vsolder= 2Vf + Vh - Vp

Vf= Fillet Volume (Pappus-Gu


Vh
Vf Vh= PWB Hole Volume
Vp

Vp= Pin Volume

Inputs Outputs Instructions: T


stencil metrics
Solder Pad Diameter (mils) 76 V = 2Vf +Vh-Vp Cubic Mils component in
Pin diameter mils 18 Vf 17585.147 Cells D32-33 a
PTH diameter mils 30 Vh 40997.784 or stencil ape
PWB Barrel Length mils 58 Vp 14759.202
Paste Reduction Factor 0.52 V 61408.876
Solder Paste Volume Needed 118093.992

If Pin is Square…... Stencil Metrics


Length - mils 18 Stencil Thickness - mils 7
Width - mils 22 Side: If Square Aperture - mils 129.887
Equivalent Pin Dia mils 22.454 Radius: If Round Aperture - mils 73.281
Rectangular? If First Side is (mils): 80
Second Side should be (mils: 210.882

Slide #77 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


ReflowCoachTM
Time 265
217 C
Temperature Temp 240

Time

Time-s 0 90 140 190 230 250 295 325


Temp-C 30 100 150 209 217 230 217 120

Thruput Calculator
Tunnel Length cm 249 Thruput Bds/min 2.84 Obeys Lee Dwell Criteria? Yes
Belt Speed cm/min 71 Profile Time (min) 3.51
Product Length cm 20
Product Spacing cm 5

Slide #78 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Ramp Up to 217 C

250

200
Temperature (C)

150
Lower Limit
Upper Limit
User Profile
100

50

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Time (seconds)

Slide #79 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Time Above Liquidus

260

255

250
Temperature (C)

245
User Profile
Hi Ramp
240 Low Ramp
Temp Max
235 Temp Min
Time Min
Time Max
230

225

220

215
0 20 40 60 80 100
Time (seconds)

Slide #80 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Ramp Down

220

210

200

190
Temperature (C)

180
Low Ramp
170 Hi Ramp
User Profile
160

150

140

130

120
290 295 300 305 310 315 320 325 330
Time (Seconds)

Slide #81 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


The Tools to Do the Job Right
• Statistical Thinking
• DOE
• SPC

Slide #82 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Statistical Thinking
Common
Causes Paretos
Special
Histograms
Causes

Control Process
Charts Variation

Ref: Sheri Flori

Slide #83 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Statistical Thinking…
The Case of the Squirrel
• The greatest birder
in MA was being
harassed by
squirrels
• It was a crisis
• Even squirrel proof
feeders designed
by NASA wouldn’t
work
• We needed to
apply BMT!
Slide #84 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003
So I Got Serious

A Crossman BB/Pellet Gun

Slide #85 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


The first shot with BBs.
What should I do?

Slide #86 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


The second shot.

X
X

Slide #87 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


The third shot and
fourth.

X X

X
X

What is it telling me?

Slide #88 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


I try pellets.

X
X X
X
X

What is this telling me?

Slide #89 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Accuracy and Precision
• Accuracy: How close
to the measured.
Target Measured
• Precision: How Value Value
repeatable
Accuracy
• Examples of:
– Poor accuracy and
precision (BB’s)
– Good precision, poor
accuracy (pellets w/ bad
sighting) Repeatability
(Precision)

Slide #90 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Process Variation = Lost $
LSL USL

LSL USL

LSL USL

Ref: Sheri Flori

Slide #91 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Types of Variation

Common Cause Special Cause


• Natural, expected variation • Unnatural, not expected
• Controllable • Possible examples in
• What are examples of CC pellet gun calibration
in calibrating the pellet gun
Knob twiddling can correct neither!

Slide #92 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


An SMT Electronic Assembly
DOE Example

Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Random Variation:
Dr. Ron Golf Scores
Number of Rounds Average = 82

Random Variation =
Variance: Sr2

Score

Slide #94 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Variation from Factors: Tiger vs Dr. Ron
68 82
Implies that
∆= Difference there is a greater
in averages difference
between Tiger
Number of Rounds

and Dr. Ron,


than among
them ∆2 >> Sr2

STiger SDr. Ron

Tiger’s Scores Dr. Ron

Slide #95 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


When Variation from Factor Change is Small…….

For example: Phil Mickelson and
David Toms. Then, ∆2 << Sr2
Number of Rounds

Sr

Score

Slide #96 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


DOE Uses ANOVA
• ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)
– Compares S2 to ∆
• The F Statistic: ∆2
F∝ 2
Sr
• Large F => factors have a significant
effect on result
• “Large” varies with sample size,
typically > 4 for 95% confidence

Slide #97 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


A Good Stencil Print

*Illustrations courtesy of MPM Corporation

Slide #98 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


High Speed UFP Printing
• The objective is to perform High
Speed Ultra-Fine Pitch Stencil
Printing.
• Print speed, separation speed and
wipe frequency need to be minimized
to reach this goal.
• Target is 8 second cycle time with
current cycle time >20 seconds

Slide #99 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Cycle Time Breakdown
10
21.8 sec.

0
LOAD VISION PRINT SEPARATE UNLOAD Wipe

• 10 inch wide board printed at 1 inch


• 2 s Load + 2 s Vision + 10 s Print + 5 s Separate + 1.8 s Unload + 1 s Wipe = 21.8 sec

Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Cycle Time Breakdown
10

0
LOAD VISION PRINT SEP. UNLOAD Wipe

Objective:
1.8 s Load + 1.8 s Vision + Print + Separate + 1.5 s Unload + Wipe < 8sec

Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Factors
• A: Print Speed: 1=4, 2=6, 3=8 inch/sec
• B: Separation Speed: 1 = 1, 2 = 1.5 sec Number of Runs:
• C: Wipe Freq: 1= 1/8, 2= 1/12 3x2x2x2x2=48
– 1/8 adds 0.875 sec, 1/12 adds 0.6 secs Not that many!
• D: Stencil Type: 1= Efab, 2 = Laser
• E: Paste: Vendor A =1, Vendor B =2
• Full Factorial
• Assume no interactions
• Aperture: W= 8, t= 5, L= 64 mils=>2560 mils3
• Desire paste volume to be +/- 10% of aperture
volume
• Response: Solder Paste Volume

Slide #102 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


MiniTab Results
Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Adj MS F P
Print Sp 2 175117 175117 87558 2.48 0.096
Separati 1 104533 104533 104533 2.97 0.093
Paste Ty 1 559008 559008 559008 15.86 0.000
Stencil 1 274519 274519 274519 7.79 0.008
Wipe Fre 1 902008 902008 902008 25.60 0.000
Error 41 1444731 1444731 35237
Total 47 3459917
For stencil and paste, we can reject H0 Minitab is available
with confidence. Hence, we can select Free for 30 days at
the better choice for each of these factors
and re-experiment to optimize total speed.
Minitab.com!

Slide #103 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


SPC and Variables Data
• Data relating to a specific process
step
• Quantitative
• Can be used to monitor and improve
process performance
• Example: Solder Paste Volume
• Variables data are crucial for an
effective SPC Plan
Slide #104 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003
Process Data: Attribute Data
• Data that relates to the 350
300
performance of the 250
product 200

• Examples: 150
100
– Shorts 50

– Opens 0
Shorts Opens Missing Solder Balls
Compnent
– Missing Component
• Important, but cannot be Pareto Attribute Data
measured to improve
process performance
• Any plan should strive to
relate attribute data to
variables data and develop
a CIP around this
relationship

Slide #105 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Variables Data Example

Opens
Shorts

Upper Spec Limit Lower Spec Limit

Solder Paste Volume Solder Paste Volume

= Average

Slide #106 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Variables Data: Solder Paste
Volume
Process Occurrences

LCL UCL

LSL USL

Solder Paste Volume

Slide #107 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Control Chart for SPC
USL

UCL
Sigma 3
Sigma 2
Sigma 1 Centerline
Sigma 1
Sigma 2
Sigma 3
LCL

LSL

Slide #108 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Solder Paste A
Solder Paste B

Slide #109 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Paste B Process Capability Sixpack for Print Volume

Xbar and R Chart Capability Histogram


1
1900 5 UCL=1898

1800
Mean

Mean=1750
1700
5
1600 LCL=1602
1200 1700 2200
Subgr 0 100 200
600 Normal Prob Plot
UCL=541.0

400
Range

R=255.9
200
22

0 LCL=0

1500 1750 2000

Last 25 Subgroups Within Capability Plot


1950 StDev: 110 Process Tolerance
Cp: 1.06 Within
1800 Cpk: 1.06 I I I
Values

Overall
Overall I I I
1650
StDev: 111.634 Specifications
Pp: 1.05 I I
1500 Ppk: 1.05 1400 2100
180 190 200
Subgroup Number

Slide #110 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Paste A Process Capability Sixpack for Print Volume

Xbar and R Chart Capability Histogram


2050 1
1 1 1
8 1 8 5 UCL=1898
1800
Mean=1750
Mean

2
66 6 6 22 2 66 6 62 6 66 2222
1550 6 51 5 56 55 5222222225 6151 5 5 5622 1 6 5 2666 2 52 55 562 LCL=1602
11 111 1 111 11 111 1 1 1 11111 1 1111 1 11 1 1 1 11 11
1 11 1 11 11 1 1
1 1
1 1 1 1 1 11
1 1 1
1300 1
500 1500 2500
Subgr 0 100 200
1
Normal Prob Plot
1500 1 1
11 1
1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1
11 1 1 1
1000 1
1
1 111 11 1 1 1 1 1 11
Range

1
1 11 1 11 11 111 11 11 1
1
1 1 1 11 1 111 1 1 11 11 1 111 11
1 1 1 11 1 1 1 111 111 11 1 1 1 1
1 111 2 1 1 11 11111 121 2 111 1 11 12 1 1 11 1 21 2 2 121 1 2 2 2 11 2
2
500 22 2 2 2 22 222 2 2 2 2 2 22222 2 22 2 22 2 UCL=541.0
2 2 2 22 2 22 2
2 2 2 2 2 222
2 2 22 2 22 2 2
R=255.9
0 LCL=0

600 1600 2600

Last 25 Subgroups Within Capability Plot


2500 StDev: 110 Process Tolerance
Cp: 1.06 Within
2000 Cpk: 1.06 I I I
Values

Overall
Overall I I I
1500
StDev: 273.152 Specifications
Pp: 0.43 I I
1000 Ppk: 0.43 1400 2100
180 190 200
Subgroup Number

Slide #111 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Best Practices Summary
• Assess Yourself
• Use Metrics
• Develop and Implement Action Plan
• Monitor Success
• Continuously Improve

Slide #112 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb-Free Board/Component
Finishes
Board Finishes Component Finishes
– Immersion Ag – Sn/Pb
– OSP – 100% Sn
– Electroless Ni/Immersion – Pd/Ag
Au – Ni/Pd
– Immersion Sn – Ni/Sn
– Ni/Au
– Ni/Pd/AU

Pb Contamination and ability to withstand the higher


reflow temperatures are the main concerns.

Slide #113 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Component Finishes: Pure Sn
• Easiest and most obvious choice
• Sn Whiskers still a major concern
• So TI recommends Ni/Pd/Au

Slide #114 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Structure of Pb-Free Preplated Finishes

NiPdAu finish: Present


NiPd finish: Past
GOLD: 30-150 ANGSTROMS

PALLADIUM: MINIMUM OF 3u” PALLADIUM: 0.2-6.0 u”

NICKEL: 40 - 60 u” NICKEL: 20 - 80 u”

Pd / Ni STRIKE: < 5 u”

Ni STRIKE: < 5 u”

COPPER BASE METAL COPPER BASE METAL

• NiPdAu structure shown has been in use since early 1990s.


• Enhanced wetting performance with NiPdAu finish seen in solderability tests.
• See TI Application Note SZZA026 for complete evaluation of NiPdAu finish.
Courtesy: James Huckabee, TI

Slide #115 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


NiPdAu (SOP) Board Mount: Visual Appearance

Typical wetting NiPdAu finished SOP Typical wetting NiPdAu finished SOP
components with SnPbAg solder, NiAu components with SnAgCu solder, NiAu
PWB finish. PWB finish.

Visual Appearance Results: All solder joints exhibited a heel fillet height at least one times the lead thickness and
evidence of wetting to the sides of the leads. This performance would be considered acceptable for all 3 classes of
products identified in IPC-A-610C (general electronic products, dedicated service electronic products, and high
performance electronic products.

Courtesy: James Huckabee, TI


Slide #116 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003
PWB Surface Finish Summary
HASL ENIG OSP ImSn ImAg
Thickness Au: 3 - 8
100 – 1000 8 - 20 40 – 60 3 - 12
(microinches) Ni 50 - 150

Fine pitch
Poor Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent
quality

Contact Not
Fair Good Good Good
Connections Recommended

Not Not Not


Wire Bonding Limited Limited
Recommended Recommended Recommended

Cost
1X 2X 0.3X 1X 1X
(To HASL)

Availability High Moderate High Very Limited Limited

Hazard to
High Moderate Low High Low
Manufacture

Slide #117 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


2006 Finish Estimations

Additional slides available at www.pb-free.com Projections courtesy of Enthone, Cookson Electronics

Slide #118 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Immersion Ag
• Low Cost
• Planar Surface
• Compatible with touchpads /
solderless connections (if thicker Ag
is used)
• 2 – 10 microinches typical thickness

Additional slides available at www.pb-free.com

Slide #119 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


ImAg Issue #1: Tarnish
• Just like Ag silverware, this finish
will yellow over time
– Will occur during assembly
– Often, purely cosmetic
• Solderless connections appear very
tolerant of tarnish
• Thicker Ag less prone to tarnish
Additional slides available at www.pb-free.com

Slide #120 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


ImAg Issue #2: Migration
• The presence of moisture and
current can cause the migration of
Ag ions
• Migrate from cathode to anode
forming dendrites that reduce
resistance…may eventually form a
short
Additional slides available at www.pb-free.com

Slide #121 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


ImAg Issue #2: Migration

NO SIGN OF DENDRITIC GROWTH


*graph from www.alphametals.com

Slide #122 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


ImAg Issue #3: Premature
Intermetallic Failure

Additional slides available at www.pb-free.com

Slide #123 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


ImAg Issue #3: Premature
Intermetallic Failure
• Thick Ag finishes tarnish less and
are more compatible with solderless
connections, but…
– Thick Ag means more organic co-deposit
– Organic co-deposit must be forced out of
molten solder
– Non-expulsion of organics can result in
microvoids along board/solder intermetallic
Additional slides available at www.pb-free.com

Slide #124 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb-Free Solder Paste Evaluation:
Pre-Screening
Since there are 10-20 solder paste
suppliers, it is essential to narrow down the
Pb-free candidates prior to actual physical
evaluation

Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Lot-to-Lot Viscosity Stability

Slide #126 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Typical Pb Contamination

Pb Content Must be less than 0.05%

Slide #127 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb-Free Reliability
• Surface Insulation Resistance
– Test procedure in J-STD-004
– 7-day test to determine if flux residue with
affect electrical reliability
• Electromigration
– Test procedure in Telcordia GR-78
– 21-day test for electrochemical migration

Slide #128 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb-Free Supplier Support
• Assess your company needs against
supplier capabilities.
– Are they available globally?
– Are they available locally?
– Can they accommodate changing
requirements?

Slide #129 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb-Free Solder Paste Evaluation:
Printing through Reflow

Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Approximate Distribution of
Process Related Defects

Component Placement
15%

Reflow
15%

Incoming Components Solder Paste Screen Printer


6% 64%

Slide #131 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Evaluating the Pb-Free Print Process:
Four Main Paste Variables
• Viscosity Relative to Production
Temperature
• Stencil Life
• Response to Pause
• Resistance to Excessive Shear
Thinning

Slide #132 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Effects of Viscosity
Too High Too Low

• Poor rolling • Excessive deposit


• Blade Hang-up • Solder balling
• Aperture clogging • Solder beading
• Insufficients • Slumping
• Bridging

Slide #133 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Viscosity Vs. Temperature

Slide #134 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Solder Paste Stencil Life
Tack Life

3
Delta Tack Force (grams/mm2)

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Brand X
-1
Good Paste

-2

-3

-4

-5

-6
Time (hrs)
Inspired by: MPM

Slide #135 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Effects of Short Stencil Life
• Variability in solder paste deposits
• Loss of “up time”
• Wasted paste, wasted money

Slide #136 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Solder Paste Response to Pause
One Hour Pause
Response to Pause

50

45
Volume of Print (cubic mils)

40

35

30
Brand X
25
Good Paste
20

15

10

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
Print Number Inspired by: MPM

Slide #137 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Effects of Poor Response to
Pause
• Loss of up time
• Paste deposition variability
• Higher cost of “time for assists”

Slide #138 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


The Twelve Board Paste Evaluator
1. Start with enough paste for 12 prints
2. Print 4 boards (no kneading)
Metrics to Measure:
• Print Volume
• Print Definition
• Volume and Definition after Idle
• Release from Aperture
• Squeegee Hang up
Two hour sit, place, Six hour sit, place, • Tack
measure tack measure tack • Solder Joint Quality
For Final Candidates
•Coalescence
1 Board, 1 hr sit 1 Board, 3 hr sit •Reflow Window
then reflow Repeat •J Standards
then reflow

3. Pause one hour, no kneading, print 4 more


boards, repeat tests in 2
4. Pause one hour, no kneading, print 4 more
boards, repeat tests in 2
The above is good, but should also test for shear thinning!

Slide #139 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Solder Paste Resistance To
Shear Thinning
50

40
Acceptable
Tack (grams)

30

20

Unacceptable
10

0
0 60 120 180 240

Time (minutes)

Slide #140 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Effects of Excessive Shear
Thinning
• Excessive deposit volume
• Slumping
• Bridging
• Balling/Beading

Slide #141 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Measuring Shear Thinning Effect
• Often overlooked in solder paste evaluations.
• Discovered once a solder paste is implemented into
production (too late).
• Requires many print strokes, thus many boards to
discover.
• One suggested technique:
• 1. Place fresh paste onto stencil (Repeat for all pastes being evaluated)
• 2. Set printer to run 30 knead strokes, wipe the underside of the stencil.
• 3. Print one board
• 4. Set printer to run 50 knead strokes, wipe the underside of the stencil.
• 5. Print one board
• 6. Set printer to run 100 knead strokes, wipe the underside of the stencil.
• 7. Print one board
• 8. Measure response variables on each printed board

Slide #142 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Placement Capabilities:
The Solder Paste Tack
• Should not be much different than
standard Sn/Pb solder pastes
• Suggested evaluation technique:
1. Using fresh paste, print three boards
2. After 8 hours, place components onto one board
3. After 24 hours, place components onto the second board
4. After 48 hours, place components onto the third board
5. Compare the results and determine which solder paste
lost more components, during the placement process, at
each time interval

Slide #143 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Evaluating Pb-Free Reflow
• Most analyzed aspect of transition to pb-
free.
• Primary Pb-free reflow response variables:
– Wetting
– Appearance
– Voiding
– Solder Balling
– Tombstoning
• Critical Evaluation Criteria:
– Time above liquidus (TAL)
– Peak temperature
– Soak time

Slide #144 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb-Free Profile Variables
Reflow Profile for Indalloy #241
95.5Sn/3.8Ag/0.7Cu
300

250
PEAK
MP = ~217 C
Temperature (C)

200

150

100
Soak Zone TAL
50

0
0 1 2 3 4 5

Time (Min)

Slide #145 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Reflow DOE
Low Middle High

Soak Time 1 minute 2 minutes 3 minutes

TAL 40 Sec. 60 Sec. 80 Sec.

Peak Temp. 230 °C 240 °C 250 °C

Are 27 profiles realistic with multiple solder pastes?

Slide #146 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Categorizing the Response
Variables
• Potential defects need to be ranked
according to each individual process.
– Which is more critical to the process?
• Probe testability
• Residue color and quantity
• Etc.
– Which is more detrimental to the product?
• Voiding
• Tombstoning
• Bridging
• Etc.

Slide #147 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Analyzing the Overall Results
• 60 – 70% of all defects are attributed
to the stencil printing process.
– Should be considered the most important
for overall process consideration
• Reflow is a new crucial variable for
Pb-Free
– Not necessarily an issue for paste
– Critical for components and boards

Slide #148 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Paste Evaluation Summary
• Pb-free transition requires a knowledge of
statistics and DOE to have a successful
implementation.
• Pre-screening of solder pastes necessary
to make evaluation practical in size.
• Printing and reflow require careful
analysis to adequately distinguish
between solder pastes.

Slide #149 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Motorola Pb-Free Cellphone
Assembly
Courtesy: Vahid Goudarzi,
Motorola

Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Motorola’s Process Criteria
• Paste must have good response to pause,
tack, slump and other printing metrics
• The process/paste must show good
coalescence and solder joint quality in a
broad reflow process window
• The reliability of the finished product must
be as good or better than the standard Pb
solder
• The process must be simple and robust so
that it can be transferred to other
locations world wide

Slide #151 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Paste Evaluation/Manufacturing
Process Development
• Screen Printing Evaluation
• Reflow Profile Development
• Tackiness Measurement
• Surface Insulation Resistance
(SIR) Evaluation

Slide #152 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb-free Solder Paste Evaluation
Paste evaluation & selection strategy:
Work with 8 preferred paste suppliers to develop a lead-free solder paste that
meets Motorola’s manufacturing quality & product reliability requirements

The Finalists: Flux Vehicles


Phase # 1 Phase # 2 Phase # 3
A A1 A2 A3
Paste B1 B2 B3
B
Suppliers
C C1 C2
Lead-free solder paste suppliers & materials

These studies were completed using Sn/Ag/Cu, Entek finish


boards, & air atmosphere

Slide #153 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Stencil Printing Evaluation
• Objective: To ensure Pb-free paste
performs consistently as a function of
time
• Variables:
– Abandon time @ t=0, t=1, & t=4 hours
– Solder paste (A1, B1, C1, A2, B2, C2, A3, B3)
• Output:
– Volume measurement using laser system
– Visually inspect for smearing and selected
apertures for clogs.
Optimum Print Speed, Squeegee Pressure, & Snap Off was set per paste
supplier recommendation and validated

Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


OSP Finish Test Vehicle for Paste Evaluation

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 171 8 1 9 2 0 2122 23 24

R
S
C
A
B
C
D
E
F
C
S
R
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 171 81 9 20 21 22 23 24

Selected Inspection Sites


Based on gage R&R
results

Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Solder Paste Volumetric Measurement
or 12 mils SMD pads @ t=0 h

400
Volume

300

200
Paste C1 Paste C2 Paste B3 Paste B1 Control Paste A1 All Pairs
Tukey- Kramer
0.05

Pb-free Solder pastes performed well @ abandon time = 0h

Slide #156 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Solder Paste Volumetric Measurement
for 12 mils SMD pads @ t=1 h
400

300
Volume

200

100

Paste B1 Paste A1 All Pairs


Paste C1 Paste C2 Paste B3 Control Tukey-Kramer
0.05

Paste C2 failed @ abandon time=1h

Slide #157 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Reflow Profile Development
• Objective: To determine reflow process
window & identify a Pb- free paste which
requires MINIMUM peak temp.
• Variables:
– Peak temperature
– Time above liquidus
– Solder Paste (A1, B1, C1, A2, B2, C2, A3, B3)
• Output:
– Coalescent performance
– Solder joint quality

Slide #158 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Reflow Profile Matrix
Pb-free 2X3 Full Factorial Reflow DOE
• Minimize peak temp. to reduce thermal stress on Components
• Interaction between peak temp. & time above liquidus
Time Above Liquidus
60Sec. 70Sec. 80Sec.
Peak Temperature

Peak temp

229C P1 P4 P7 Ramp rate

237C P2 P5 P8
Time above
liquidus
245C P3 P6 P9
Lead-free reflow profile
Selected paste MUST perform equally well @ P1 through P9 in
air atmosphere

Slide #159 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Reflow Profile Development Cont.
Inspection criterion:
Coalescent performance @ P1,P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, P7, P8 &P9

Poor Coalescent Good Coalescent


Poor coalescent is attributed to powder oxidation during reflow
process in air atmosphere

Slide #160 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Reflow Profile Development Cont.
Inspection criterion:
Wetting performance @ P1,P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, P7, P8 &P9

Insufficient toe fillet

Poor Solder Joint Good Solder Joint

Insufficient toe fillet results in field reliability issues

Slide #161 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Flux Tackiness Measurement
• Objective: To ensure flux provides sufficient
tackiness to hold components in place during
manufacturing processes
• Variables:
– Paste life @ t=0;t=1h t=2h; t=4h; t=8h
– Pb-free solder pastes
• Output:
– IPC-TM- 650 Test Procedure: Measure the force
required to Separate a 5mm diameter probe from paste
– Shake Test -Automated vision inspection after
placement

Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Flux Tackiness Measurement Cont.
IPC650 Tack Test - Tack test evaluation result

Tack Test
Tack Test
2.5
2.5
2
Tack (g/mm2)

2
Tack(g/mm2)

Control
Indium 51A #1
1.51.5 Indium 92J
Control #2
Indium 232-99-2
1 B1
Indium SMQ 230
1
0.5 B3

0.5 0
0 1 2 4 8
Time (Hrs)
0
0 1 2 4 8
Time (Hrs)

Slide #163 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Flux Tackiness Measurement Cont.
To ensure flux provides sufficient tackiness to hold
components in place during assembly process
Component placement offset after 120 second of
shaking by chip shooter
1) Populated PCBs after 0, 4, and 8
hours
resistor

-3

1
2) Image components to determine
X, Y, and Theta offsets. 3.2x1.6

-1

-1
0
3) Place PCBs on XY table of Chip caps

1
3

0
Shooter & shake PCBs for 120
tantalum

1
2

1
Sec.
switch

-1

0
4) Image components to determine
X, Y, and Theta offsets caps

1
1
5) Determine delta for before & after -4 -2 0 2 4 6

shake process X-Offset Y-Offset Theta

Slide #164 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Surface Insulation Resistance
Motorola SIR Test Boards = B25 Test Board + Solder mask
Supplier B Surface Insulation Resistance Test

109
Channel 1

Ohms
Channel 11
Channel 21
Channel 153

107 Channel 163

24 72 120 168 216 264 312 360 408 456


Hours

SIR requirements is minimum of 10 8 Ohms

Slide #165 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Paste Final Evaluation Results Phase 3
Phase 1 Phase 2
Paste Paste Paste Paste Paste Paste Paste Paste
B1 A1 C1 B2 A2 C2 B3 A3

Visual Inspection
Printing Paste
Volumetric data NT NT NT
P1,P5,P9
Reflow
P1,P2,P3,P4,P5,
P6,P7,P8,&P9

Instron IPC650 NT NT NT NT NT NT
Tackiness
Shake Test NT NT NT NT
Solder Joint NT NT NT NT NT
Quality
ALT NT NT NT NT NT NT
J-STD B25 NT NT
SIR
Motorola NT NT NT NT NT

Passed Failed NT Not tested


Paste B3 met all requirements

Slide #166 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Paste Final Evaluation Results Cont.
Solder Coalescent Comparison @ P1, P5, & P9
Supplier A Paste Supplier B paste

B3 B3
A1 A1 B3 B3B3
@ @
@ @ @ @@
P1 P5 P1
P1 P5
P5

A1 B3
B3
@ @
P9 P9

Poor Coalescent Good Coalescent


Paste A1 does not fully coalesce and result in grainy joint due to powder
oxidation in air atmosphere

Slide #167 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Paste Final Evaluation Results Cont.
Solder Joint Evaluation @ P1, P5, & P9

Lead-free @ P1(229;60) Lead-free @ P5(237;70)

Lead-free@ P9(245;80) Leaded @ 210 C


No significant difference in solder joint fillet @ P1, P5, & P9 using
B3 solder paste

Slide #168 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Paste Final Evaluation Results Cont.
Solder Joint Evaluation @ P1, P5, & P9

B3 B3
@ @
P1 P5
Insufficient toe
fillet

B3
Sn/Pb
@
P9 Paste A1

No significant difference in solder joint fillet @ P1, P5, & P9 using


B3 solder paste

Slide #169 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Paste Final Evaluation Results Cont.
Intermetallic formation
P9
0.0025 mm

P1 P5
0.0023 mm 0.0025 mm

Slide #170 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Recommened 235C profile
Recommended Profile for B3
300
Time above 217C: 70s Peak 235C
250

200
Temp/C

150
Ramp
100
0.7
50 deg/sec

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Time/min

Peak Temp. = 235 C +/- 5C; Time Above Liquidus = 70Sec +/ 10Sec

Slide #171 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Reliability Evaluation
Product Level & Solder Joint Reliability Evaluation

• Drop Test
• Shear Test
• Liquid-to-Liquid Thermal Shock
• ALT for different Products

Pb free solder joints MUST perform equal or better


than leaded solder joints

Slide #172 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Reliability Evaluation Cont.
Drop Test 25

% of crack
1) Dropping products from 5 feet 20
Leaded radios
15
2) Vert. & horiz.vibration for 2 hrs 10
3) Thermal shock for 48 hrs 5
4) Repeated step 1 thru. 3 X times 0
5) Measure % joint cracks on shields

7
e2

6
4
1

5
3

ld
ld
ld
ld

ld
ld
ld

ie
ie
ie
ie

ie
ie
ie

Sh
Sh
Sh
Sh

Sh
Sh
Sh
25
20

% of crack
Pb-free radios
Drop test vehicle
Shields

15
10
5
0

4
1

7
Sh 6
3
2

5
ld
ld

ld
ld
ld
ld

ld
ie
ie

ie
ie
ie
ie

ie
Sh
Sh

Sh
Sh
Sh

Sh
Shield solder joint cracking is significantly reduced using B3

Slide #173 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Reliability Evaluation Cont.
Solder Joint Reliability Evaluation
Test Vehicle SOIC

0.5mm QFP

0.5mm CSP
• 6X6 mm Package size CSP20X40 Cap.
• 0.5 mm pitch partial array
• 0.3 mm solder balls size 0.8mm
CSP
0.5mm
Conn.
BGA

0.75mm CSP
0.5 mm CSP

DIME

Slide #174 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Reliability Evaluation Cont.
Shear Test
•10
•SnPb
•9
•SnAgCu
•8
•Shear at failure (kg)
•[after thermal shock]

•7

•6

•5

•4

•3

•2

•1

•0

•Ceramic •Tantalum •Small •Ferrite Bead •Mid-size


•Inductors •Capacitors •Capacitors •capacitors

No significant difference in shear force after LLTS.

Slide #175 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Reliability Evaluation Cont.
Liquid-to-Liquid thermal shock evaluation
(-55 °C to +125 °C)
Variables:
- Solder Paste (Paste B3 & Pb Paste)
- Component Type ( 0402, 0603, 0805, BGAs, CSPs, VCO,
Transformer)

Output:
- Electrical test at every 75 cycles for 450 cycles
- Red dye analysis at 150, 300, and 450 cycles

Slide #176 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Reliability Evaluation Cont.
Liquid-to-Liquid thermal shock results after
450 cycles
Joint crack data for different components
125 Passed Joint
100
Crack area, %

75

50
Failed Joint
25

0
Failed Joint
-25
Pb-free Sn-Pb All Pairs
Tukey-Kramer
Solder 0.05 Red dye evaluation result

No significant difference in cracked area in leaded and Pb-free joints

Slide #177 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Products Built with Pb-free Paste

* Concorde iDEN * i700 iDEN

* i1000 iDEN * i85 iDEN


* i1000 Charger
Products built with Pb-free solder paste and passed ALT

Slide #178 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Manufacturing Issues
• Tombstone Failures
• Air Voids on CSPs
• Logistics: Have a Plan to Avoid
mixing SnPb and Pb-free Assembly

Slide #179 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Manufacturing Issues Cont.
20X40 Tombstone Failures
Lead-free Solder paste is more prone to tombstone failures due to
higher coalescent force.
T3 T3
T1 T2
T4

T5

Before Reflow After Reflow


T1 & T2 : Tack Force
T3 : Weight
T4 : Surface Tension (outside)
T5 : Surface Tension (underneath)

T4 is significantly higher using lead-free solder paste

Slide #180 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Manufacturing Issues Cont.
20X40 Tombstone Failures
Tombstone failures are attributed to lead-free solder paste & blind vias

Blind Via

Pads without blind vias did NOT show tombstone failures

Slide #181 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Manufacturing Issues Cont.
20X40 Pad Design for Conventional PCB

Evaluated Circle, ½ Circle, Rectangular (vertical & horizontal),


Oblong, square stencil, etc.

0402 Stencil Aperture Openings

.015" .011" .018"


Stencil design to minimize .007"
tombstone failures C .022"
A*
.041" .008"
on pads with blind vias
.047"

Slide #182 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Manufacturing Issues Cont.
Tombstone / floating Failures

Paste volume was reduced to eliminate tombstone failures on large


discrete inductors

Slide #183 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Manufacturing Issues Cont.Voids
Air voids on CSPs
• 6X6 mm Package size
• 0.5 mm pitch partial array
• 0.3 mm solder balls size

0.5 mm CSP

DIME

Slide #184 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Manufacturing Issues Cont.
Voids Mechanism in CSPs
1) Solder bump oxidation
2) Flux out gassing

Slide #185 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Manufacturing Issues Cont.
Air voids on CSPs
BGA/CSPs are more prone to voids mainly due to leaded bumps on package &
increased oxidation of powder due to higher reflow temp.

Solder Pastes
Variables:
Paste B3 Paste #15 Paste #16
- Ramp Rate
- Solder Paste Ramp Rate (Deg./Sec.) 0.5
CSPs CSPs CSPs
Outputs:
- Number of voids 0.8 CSPs CSPs CSPs
- Void size
1.5 CSPs CSPs CSPs

Slide #186 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Manufacturing Issues Cont.
Air Voids in CSPs joints
Void Quantity VS. Ramp Rate Void Size VS. Ramp Rate
25

30

20

Average Void Size (% of joint)


25

15
20

10
15

5
10

All Pairs All Pairs


0.5 Deg/Sec 0.8 Deg/Sec 1.5 Deg/Sec 0.5 Deg/sec 0.8 Deg/sec 1.5 Deg/sec
Tukey-Kramer Tukey-Kramer
Ramp Rate 0.05 _ID_ 0.05

• Quantity of voids are not significantly affected by ramp rate


• B3 shows significant reduction in void size as ramp rate increases

Slide #187 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb-free Joint&Component Appearance
4) Joint & Component Appearance
Coalescent Performance Comparison
Pb
PbPaste
PasteAfter
BeforeReflow
Reflow Pb
Pbfree
freePaste
PasteBefore
After Reflow

Pb paste fused onto Cu coupon Pbfree


freepaste
pasteprinted
fused onto
Pbpaste
Pb Before Reflow
printed onto Cu coupon Pb ontoCu
Cucoupon
coupon

Pb-free Paste has a significantly higher Coalescent force

Slide #188 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Solder Joint Comparison

PasteB3 Control(Pb)

Slide #189 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Pb-free Joint &Component Appearance Cont.
Shield Discoloration
SnO & SnO2 is formed after lead-free reflow process.

Leaded reflow profile Lead-free reflow profile


Oxidation does not affect electrical performance

Slide #190 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Motorola Pb-Free Implementation Summary
9 Solder Paste Selection - Evaluated 19 different Pb-free solder pastes
and selected B3 based on manufacturing and product level reliability
requirements.

9 Manufacturing processes - Reflow profile, screen printing operation,


tackiness evaluation, etc. completed

9Reliability Evaluation - Pb-free solder joint reliability evaluation has


shown equal or better performance compared to current materials

9Components 100% of the components Pb-free qualified


-

9Electrical & Mechanical 100% completed with NO issues


-

9Quality - No manufacturing/product quality issues; DPHU goal were met


Slide #191 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003
Motorola Pb-Free Summary
•Production since 09/04/01

•Many site implementation

•More than 1M cell phones have been


shipped to the field

• No field reliability issues have been


encountered

Slide #192 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Wave Soldering and Large Board
Issues

Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Lead-free Complex Board
• Functional units were assembled using current materials,
equipment set and a no clean Pb-free solder paste

mid-range server board Pb-free thermal profile


• materials • linear heating ramp – 0.9 °C/s
– surface finish: Ni/Au • average peak temperature - 247
– board resin: hi Tg FR-4 resin °C
– current component • dwell time – 75s above 217 °C
technologies • Courtesy: Eddie Hernandez, HP

Slide #194 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Large Board Summary
• Higher delta T on board => higher
peak T = 245oC
– Reflow profiling and control much more
important
• DOE needed for Process
Optimization
• NiAu and OSP were successful
• Similar manufacturing issues to
Motorola
Slide #195 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003
Wave Soldering
• Must use SAC, not SnCu
– SnCu does not process well and can cause
Tin Pest
• Process Control is crucial

Slide #196 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Transformation of Beta-Tin into
Alpha-Tin in Sn-0.5Cu at T <10oC

Ref: Y. Karlya, C. Gagg, and W.J. Plumbridge, “Tin pest in lead free solders”, Soldering and Surface
Mount Technology, 13/1 [2000] 39-40

Slide #197 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Wave Soldering Overview
Exhaust
Preheating (IR)
Conveyor

Cooling
Fan
Preheating (CVX)
Fluxer Air Knife
Inspired by Steve Breed, Speedline Chip Wave Laminar Wave

Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


The Process
• Angle of Conveyor: • Wave Form
Typically fixed at 6o – Don’t use chip wave if you
• Conveyor Speed: don’t have chips!

– Thermal Mass Dependent Depth of Immersion: 50%

– 150 cm/min typical Solder Purity: Monitor
• Flux: According to Specs! Monthly
• Preheat parameters: • Solder Temperature:
– Too hot =>drives off flux 260oC
– Too cool => no activation
– Temp Rqmts depends on flux
type

Slide #199 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Adequate Fluxing is Crucial
• Follow the flux and
sprayer
specifications to
assure coverage
with in spec
• Measure coverage
with a fluxometer

http://www.ecd.com/emfg/instruments/fluxometer/index.asp

Slide #200 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


“KIC”: PWB Temp Profile
Board Bottom
183 C

∆T<140oC
Temperature

Board Top
Ramp Rate: 2-4oC/s

Entrance of Wave: Time


Wave
>100oC Alcohol Flux
>120oC Water Flux

Slide #201 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


WaveCoach™ can Help

Board Bottom
183 C
Temperature

Board Top

Time

Time (sec) 0 90 150 170 200 Conveyour Speed (m/min)


Temp Top -C 30 70 90 Length of Waves (cm)
Temp Bottom 120 235 160

Results
Time in Wave (s) 3.86 PWB Bottom ∆T 115.00 Cool Down Rate (C/s) 2.50 PWB Bottom T at Wave 120.00 PWB Top T at Wave
Within Spec? FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE

Slide #202 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


The Contour Wave Form
PWB pulls solder over exit

Courtesy: Electrovert

Slide #203 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Calculating:
The Dwell Time
• Dwell time (DT) related to conveyor
speed (CS) and “length” of wave
(LW).
– DT = LW/CS
• LW = 3 “, CS= 5’/min
– What is DT?
• Use LevCheck™
– Glass with grid
Slide #204 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003
Optimizing the Process
1. Setup the Fluxer 4. Set depth of
2. Establish pre-heat immersion at 50%
profile 5. Monitor solder
3. Set the contour purity monthly
wave to just pull • Alpha “Pot Rite”
solder over the program
exit wing 6. Set Solder
• Only use chip wave Temperature
if you have chips 7. Set Dwell Time

Slide #205 Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003


Thanks for Coming!

Pb-Free Workshop © Ronald C. Lasky, Timothy Jensen 2003