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Chapter 3

3.1 PURE BENDING 3.1 3.2 Points to note:
it is called the:

3.3 (i) Strain Due to Bending
For a fibre JK the new length L’:
and the max numerical strain
is given by:
m

(the change in length of JK)

3.4  Common I values:

rectangular X-section, width b, height h:

I

z

bh

3

12

S

I

C

bh

2

6

C

h

2

Circular X-section, radius r, diameter d:

r

4

d

4

 I   4 I 64 S  C C = r

3

r d

3

4

,

32

3.7

Example 1

Consider a beam of rectangular X-section with load of 5 kN/m (take E = 175 GPa) determine

 (a) Max. tensile and compressive stress at mid-span (b) normal stress and strain at A (c) radius of curvature at B. C C is on NA
B
D
A

Note: A is 20 mm from NA, B is on NA, D is on top fibre, E is on bottom fibre

I

of section

1

.

3

bh

.

12

0 08 012

3

12

3.8

1152

.

10

6

m

4

(a) At mid-span, B.M. = ?

M

xz

kN m

10

2

5

 

.

10

2 2

2

Using

At top fibre



My

x I

x

10

10

3

(0.06)

11.52 10

6

 52.1 MPa

At bottom fibre

x = 52.1 MPa

Plotting the stress distribution 3.9

Note: A positive bending moment causes compressive (-ve) axial stresses above the neutral axis and tensile (+ve) stresses below the N.A.

- Stress distribution is linear.

- Max. stresses are induced at top and bottom fibre i.e. fibre furthest from N.A.

(b) At a section thro’ A

We have

B

.

A

A

M

.

10 ( 1 )

( )

5 1

2

2

7 5 KN m

.

.





M y

A

I

7 5

.

10

3

0 02

.

11 52

.

10

6

13 MPa

A

E

13

10

6

175

74 . 3

10

9

10

6

3.10

(c)

Since

x



y



y

x



0.02

74.3 10

6

269 m

3.11

Note:

y

(a)

x ρ is radius of curvature of the neutral axis Example 2
Example 2
An overhanging beam of T -shaped cross-section is loaded as shown
in the Fig. Determine the max. tensile and compressive bending
stresses.
y .
X-sectional area is divided into A 1 & A 2 . Let distance of centroid
from bottom =
y A
A
 2
A y
A y
1
1
2
1
2
20
(60)
70
60
(20) 30
y 
20
(60)
60
(20)
50
mm

3.12 3
bh
2
I 
12
A
1
1
20
3
2
60 
20
20 60

20
12
20
A
2
1
3
2
20 
60
20
60

20
12
4
4
136
10 mm
From equilibrium
R = 5 kN.
1
R
= 10 kN
2 If you have a distributed load that does not act
along the whole length of the beam, you have to
introduce another distributed load of equal
magnitude but acting in the opposite direction
beyond the right end limit of the given distributed
W
x
L
0 a
Equivalent System
Represented by
W<x0> 0
x
L
0 a
Represented by
W<xa> 0

3.13 kNm
w x
 5
x  4
 1
x
0  4
x  3
0  10
x  3
 1
 3
x  4
 1
Shear force:
F

 wdx
 5
x
0  4
x  4
x  3
 10
x  3
0  3
x  4
0 kN
(1)
F = -5 + 12 -10 = -3 kN 3.14 Bending Moment:
M

 Fdx
  5
x
0  4
x  4
x  3
 10
x  3
0  3
x  4
0
M

Fdx
x x  3
2
2
 5
x
 4
2  10
x  3
 3
x  4
kNm .
2  4
(2)
(B.M.)
To locate position of maximum bending moment
Consider 0 < x < 3
Max. B.M. occurs at positions of zero shear force
F  5
x
0  4
x  4
x  3
 10
x  3
0  3
x  4
0 kN
For zero shear force,
0 = -5 + 4x,
x = 1.25 m
Note: From the shear force plot it is noted that zero
shear force occurs at x < 3

3.15 Hence the Bending Moments are :
x
2
M 5
x
 4
At x = 1.25 m
2
Note: x < 3 m
3125 .
kN . m
3 
2
M 5
 4
 kN . m
3
2
At x = 3 m
3
My

I
largest bending stress occurs at max. y (top and bottom fibre)
i.e. at y = 30 mm, -50 mm.

3.16

Hence At x = 1.25 m

max.

(

top fibre ) 

3125

.

10

6

30

136

10

 68 9 MPa

.

/

N mm

2

At x = 3 m

max.

max.

(

(

bottom fibre ) 

3125

.

10

6

 

50

136

10

4

top fibre

)

114 . 9 MPa

3 10

6

30



66 2 MPa

.

136 10

4

/

N mm

2

Hence

c

( bottom fibre 

)

3

10

6

50

136

10

4

 110 3 MPa

.

max. tensile stress occurs at x = 1.25 m

max. comp. stress occurs at x = 3 m. Check i.e. Stresses at locations of zero shear must be investigated F xy
kN
Check for values of maximum
bending stresses here
7
1.25 m
A
D
B
-3
-5
3 m
1 m x

3.17

3.2 SHEAR STRESSES IN BEAMS

Stresses in a beam M
+ δM xz
xz
M
+ (dM xz /dx)dx
xz

M

xz  M
xz

dx

X

3.18 Stresses in a Beam
P
P
M
xz
σ xx comp top, tensile bottom
 xy
F
xy
gives
National University of Singapore
National University of Singapore
National University of Singapore

Bending moment induces normal bending stresses in the direction of the beam axis. Shear force induces shear stresses.

3.19

Pure bending without shear induces only normal stresses in the direction of the beam axis. When a shear force is present (i.e. the bending moment varies along the length of the beam), shear stresses are also induced. (In practice, it is very uncommon to encounter pure bending in a beam).

Consider an elemental length of a beam where the shear force is constant but there is a variation in the bending moment. e.g. a simply-supported beam with a central point load. 3.20

Consider the portion of the beam element above a vertical distance y from the centroid of the cross-section; i.e. we have made an imaginary horizontal cut at y and chosen the upper element which has a surface exposed by the cut. For equilibrium in the axial direction;

Using

xx



A

xx

1

dA F

yx

M xz

I

z

y



A

3.21

xx 2

dA

0

F

yx

 

A

M

xz

M y

xz

I

z

dA 

A

F 

yx

M

xz

I

z A

ydA

M

xz

I

z

y dA

Dividing by x and letting x 0

Now

dF

yx

dx



1

dM

xz

I

z

dx

y dA A y

A

A

ydA

(first moment of area A about the Z-axis)

 A - area of the cross-section isolated by the horizontal cut; i.e. above the location of the shear stress being determined (i.e. above y) y - vertical distance between the centroidal axis and the

CG of

Since

A

dM

xz

dx

dF

yx

dx

F

xy

F xy

I

z

A y

3.22

-this term is known as the

‘shear force per unit length’ or ‘shear flow’

We have,

shear stress

Since

yx

xy

shear force

yx

Area

1

dF

yx

b

.

dx

xy

 1 dF yx . b dx 1 F xy . b I

z

Ay

3.23

Example 1 Determine the shear stress distribution in a beam of rectangular cross-section (b x h) subjected to the loading shown below. Consider the cross-section at y-y. 3.24

At y = 0,

F xy

xy

yx

F xy

A y

I b

z

P

at section y-y

h

A    2

y b

y

I

z

y

1

12

1 h

2 2

bh

3

y

b b

 P  h  2   y  b   y     1  h   2 2  y         xy 1 3 bh b  xy  12 6 P  h   bh   2   3   2 2  y    3 P  xy  max  2 bh

3.25 The shear stress distribution is parabolic; maximum at the centroidal axis and zero at the top and bottom. (Contrast this with the normal stress distribution caused by bending, where the maximum stresses occur furthest from the centroidal axis).

3.26

3.3 RELATIVE MAGNITUDES OF BENDING AND SHEAR STRESSES For a rectangular cross-section (bxh) simply-supported beam with a central point load, The maximum bending moment and shear force (numerical values) are:

M

xz (max)

F

xy (max)

Max. bending stress:

xx (max)

1

2

1

2

P

P

L

2

1

4

M

xz (max)

I

z

y

max

xx (max)

3 PL

2 bh

2

3.27

PL

1

4

PL

h

1

12

bh

3

2

Max. shear stress:

Using the previous example with y = 0 (for max. shear

stress) and P replaced by

1

2

P

;

3 P

4 bh

xy (max)

xx

(max)

xy

(max)

2

L

h

Hence, if the beam length is much greater than its depth (e.g. L 10h), the maximum shear stress will be at least an order of magnitude smaller than the max. bending (normal) stress.

3.28

Example 1

A box beam is loaded as shown in the Fig., I about N.A. = 10.5 x 10 -6 m 4 . Draw shear force and B.M. diagrams and calculate

a) Shearing and bending stresses at point E,

b) Max. shear and bending stresses.  Beam cross-section

From equilibrium

Note: Point E is 40 mm from the top fibre

R A = 3 kN,

R B = 11 kN

3.29

The shear force and bending moment diagrams can be constructed as follows: F xy
(kN) 7
1.5
-3
-4 x
M
xz
(kNm)
1.5
6
4.5
x
-8

3.30 yt
yt
Beam cross-section

To determine

(120

80

At pt. E

y

t

40

60)

7200

y

y

t

t

y

t

80

40

20

2(20

60)

20

80

100

20

2

64

408

10

3

10

3

7200

168

10

3

56.7 mm

176 10

3

 

F xy = - 3 kN

3.31

40

60

2

Ay

0.08

0.04

(56.7

80

40(56.7

117.4

10

6

m

20)

3

20)

10

9

3

m

xy F
xy
A y
Ib
3
 6
 
3
10
117 4
.
10
N m
6
10 5
.
10
(
2
0 02
.
)
 .
0 839
MPa

2

Bending stress, at E, M xz = 4.5 kN.m

xx





My

I

4 5

.

10

3

56 7

.

40

10

3

10 5

.

10

6

7 16 MPa

 . For max. shear stress, Max. shear force = 7 kN ,

2 x 4

3.32

A y

80

40 (

56 7

.

xy

80

40

36 7

.

  123  10  6 m 3 F xy Ay Ib 7  10 3  123  10  6 10.5  10  6  2  0.02 
  20 ) 2   20   2  20  16 7 . 

16 7

.

8 4

.

2.05 MPa

3.33

(

56 7

.

40 )

10

2

9

3

m

For max. bending stress, Max. B.M. = - 8 kN.m

at x = 4

Note:

xy (max)

max





M

max

y

I

 

8

10

3

63 3

.

10

3

10 5

.

10

6

 48 2 MPa

.

occurs at N.A.

(compression)

xx (max) occurs at bottom fibre (at support B).

3.34