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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014

2.1 Support and locomotion in human and animals


No
(a)

(b)

Marking scheme
What is the difference between locomotion and movement?
Locomotion: Locomotion refers to the ability of a whole organism to move from one place to
another
Movement: Movement refers to a change in the position of any part of an organisms body but
it does not necessarily involve locomotion

Marks
1
1

Diagram shows three organism P,Q,and R

Describe the type of skeleton in P and Q 4


Organism P
F1-Hydrostatic skeleton

E1-The support is derived from body fluid contained within the body cavity

Organism Q
F2-endoskeleton

E2-the support is derived from hard skeleton of bones inside the body

Explain one similarity and two differences between the skeleton Q and R
Similarity:
P1-the skeleton support important body organ

P2-It protect the organ form damage

Differences:
Exoskeleton

Endoskeleton

D1-Found in the bodies of invertebrate such


as arthropods

D2-Found in the bodies of all vertebrate


including fish amphibian ,bird, reptiles and
mammals

D3-Are non living

D4Are living structure

D5-Made up of chitin, whereas in crap it


contains lime

D6-Made up of calcium and phosphate


2

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Support and locomotion with an endoskeleton


Label all the structures:

Strenum

ribs

ilium

sacrum

obturator

coccyx

iscium
Pubic symphysis

Suture
Canial bone
Facial bone

Femur
Synovial
fluid

Patela

Humerus
Synovial
membrane

Tibia
fibula
Metatarsals

Tendon

Tarsals
phalanges

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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014

The Vertebral Column


Aspect

Marking scheme

Knowledge

Diagram shows two vertebrae. Structure S is located between the vertebrae


Name structure S and state the importance of structure S?2
Name: Cartilagenous disc
Importance: Absorb shock/reduce friction
Labelling

Label the part of the vertebra as shows

P: Spinous processes

S: Transverse process
R: vertebral foramen
T:Vertebral process
U: Centrum
Function

State the function of P and Q.


P : muscle attachment

Vertebrae

Q : the placing of spinal cord


Name vertebra, State their special structural characteristic
Type of vertebrae

Name & Characteristic


Name:
Cervical (vertebra)
Characteristic:
Have (a pair of )transverse forearm
Name:
Lumbar (vertebra)
Characteristic:
Processes short/thick//large centrum

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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014
Name vertebra, State their special structural characteristic
Type of vertebrae

Name & Characteristic


Name: Thoracic Vertebrae
Charactersitic:
Have spinous processes that are long and
serve as points of attachment for muscles and
ligaments
State two main characteristic of P
F1-Have long process
F2-Have two facet/zygophophysis
Name: Sacrum

coccyx

Characteristic:
- Formed through fusion of 5 bones
- Coccyx triangular in shape and formed
through the fusion of 4 bones

Name the bones


Q:Rib
State one function of Q in respiration 1
Protect the lungs in the thoracic cavity//move upward and downward /to change the volume
/pressure of thoracic cavity
Differences

Diagram shows two types of vertebrae inhuman backbone

State two differences in structure between the vertebra P and vertebra Q


P
Q
Smaller Centrum
Larger Centrum
Has vertebratrial canal
Has no vertebratrial canal
Has no zygapophysis at the transerverse
Has zygapophysis at the transverse
process and side of centrum
process and side of centrum
Has short transverse process and
Has long transverse process
Has large neutral canal
Has small neutral canal

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Differences

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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014
Diagram11.2.3 shows two vertebrae.

Compare and contrast between the two vertebrae.


Similarities:
Similarity

Explanation

S1 Both have centrum

E1 Gives support and able to withstand


compression force

S2 Both have neural canal

E2 to contain spinal nerve

S3 Both have neural spine

E3 For muscle attachment

S4 Both have transverse process

E4 For muscle attachment

S5 Both have neural arch

E5 Form neural canal which protect the spinal cord


E6 Both have zygapofisis
E7 To articulate with another vertebra

Differences:
Vertebra cervical

Vertebra lumbar

D1: Flat (small) centrum

Large and thick centrum

E1: Give more support


D2: Short neural spine

Long neural spine

E2: Attachment more muscles


D3: Broad transverse

Well develop transverse process

prosess
E3: For attachment more muscles

E4: Enable blood supply to head


D5: Bigger neural canal

Small neural canal

E5: Contain bigger spinal cord/ brain trunk


D4: Has to vertebrarterial

No vertebrarterial canal

canals

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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014

Appendicular Skeleton
Label all of the appendicular parts.
Head of
humerus
Pelvic girdle

Head of
femur
Humerus

Femur
Patella

Tibia

Ulna

Radius

Fibula

Carpals

Tarsals

Metacarpa
ls

metatarsals

phalanges

Phalanges
The Upper Limb
The Lower Limb

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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014

The structure of a joint


Aspect

Marking scheme

Marks

Ligament

Name the tissue that holds bones P and Q


Ligament

State the characteristic of the tissue names in (b)


Tough fibrous connective tissue //elastic

1
1
1

Diagram shows a joint in human pelvic girdle

Describe briefly the importance of L for movement


P1-L/Ligament is elastic /tough
P2-Connect between pelvic girdle and femur
P3-Prevent dislocation (of joint during movement)\
A synovial
joint

Name the structure that produces liquid W


1

Synovial membrane

Name and state the function Liquid W


Liquid S: synovial fluid
Function :Acts as a lubricant ( which reduces friction between the ends of bones )

1
1

1
1

The ends of the two bones are covered by X. What is the main function of X?
F1-X is the cartilage which
F2- cushions the joints// absorbs shock// reduces the friction between the end of

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Aspect
A synovial
joint

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Marking scheme

Marks

What is the function of the structure labelled V?


To hold the two bones together and facilitate movements

The hip joint between the femur and the pelvic girdle (or the shoulder joint between the
humerus and the pectoral girdle)

Name the type of joint at X


Hinge joint

State the characteristic of the type of joint named in (c)


Allow movement in one direction /axis/at 180 o

Give one example of a pair of bones that has this type of joint.

Knee joint

Ball-andsocketjoints

Name the type of joint


F-Shoulder joint
State the characteristic of the type of joint named
F-allow rotational movement in all direction
Differences

What is the different between the knee joint and the joints on the shoulder/
P1-Joints in allow movement t in one plane
P2-Joints on the shoulder allow rotational movement in all direction

1
1

Diagram shows a forearm of humans

Explain the similarity and difference between joint S and T


Similarities:
F1-Both Joint s and Joint T has a cavity filled with synovial fluid acts as lubricants to
reduce friction between bones absorbs shock of the movement
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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014

E1--the end surface of humerus bone of Joints S and Joint T are covered with cartilage
F2-the end surface of the humerus bone of Joint S and Joint T are covered with cartilage
E2-To protect the bone /reduce friction between the bones
F3-Both Joints and T are connected with ligaments
E3-to absorb shock //strengthen the articulation of bines /joints
Differences:

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

D1-joint s is hinge joint


E4-Joint s allow the movement of bones in one plane direction
D2-Joints T is ball-and socket joint

1
1

E5-Joint T allows rotation movement of bones in all direction


Differences

Diagram 7 shows a forearm of humans

Compare joint S and joint T in diagram5


Criteria
C1-Name of joint
C2-Characteristic of the joints
Similarities:
F1-Both joints and joints T has a cavity filled with synovial fluid //lined with synovial
membrane
E1-Which acts lubricant to reduce friction between bones//which secretes synovial fluid
into the synovial cavity
F2-the end surface of humerus bone of Joint S and Joint T atr covered with cartilage
//strengthened with ligaments
E2-To absorbs shock//reinforce the articulation of bones
Differences:
F3-Joint S is hinge joint while Joint T is ball-and socket joint
E3-Joints S allows the movement of bones in one plane while Joint T allow rotational
movement of bones in all directions
E4-Joints S is the point where the distal end of humerous articulates with the ulna and
the ulna radius while Joint T is the point where proximal end of humerous articulates
with the scapula
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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014

The action of antagonistic muscles


Fill in the blanks with correct answers.

B) Biceps muscle, B: B- contracts,


while
Triceps muscle, C- relaxes

A: radius

C: ulna

D: scapula

C
E: Humerus
G)Biceps muscle, B relaxes
while
Triceps muscle, C - contracts
F: Ulna

B
C
H: radius

No

Marking scheme

Marks

Name the muscle involved in the movement in the


F1-Biceps muscle
F2-triceps muscle
Describe the muscle actions that allow movement in the
P1-The biceps muscle and triceps muscle act antagonistically
P2-to pull the radius bone or ulna bone, and enable the arm to be bent or straightened
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No
(a)

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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014
Marking scheme

Marks

Figure shows a human forearm which consist of muscle .bones .tendons and joints

Based on diagram, explain the meaning of antagonistic muscle2


F1-A pair of muscle that work together in opposite direction to allow movement
E1-when triceps muscle contract, biceps muscle relaxes at same time, and the arm is straighten
(b)

Describe the action of muscle, bones tendon and joint which enable the movement of the
forearm to bend and to straighten efficiently
1
1
1
1
1

P1-When triceps muscle contract, biceps muscle relaxes


P2-Ulna is pull down, the arm is straightened
P3-When biceps muscle contract, triceps muscle relaxes
P4-Ulna is pull up ,the arm is bent at the elbow joint
P5-Tendons which are strong and inelastic fibers attached muscle to the bones

(c)

1
1

P6-Synovial fluid which fills the space in the joint lubricates the joint to prevent friction when
bones move

P7-The cartilage at the articulating surfaces of the serves as a shock absorber to prevent the
bones form damage

Diagram 7 shows a forearm of humans

Describe the straightening and bending of the forearm brought about by the antagonistic action
of the muscle labelled as M and N
C1-state the Name of muscle M and N correctly
C2-the action of muscle and the resulting movement sample
F1-M is the biseps and n is the triseps

E1-When the M/biseps contracts,the tendons transmit the pulling force produce by contraction
to the radius

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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014

E2-at the same time the N .triceps relaxes resulting in the bending of elbow joint//the forearm
moves upwards

1
1

E3-When the triceps contracts the tendons transmit the pulling force to ulna
1

E4-At the same time the biceps relaxes, the forearm is straightened /extended
(d)

Diagram 11.1.3 shows the movement of a human forearm.

Diagram 11.1.3(i)

Diagram 11.1.3(ii)

Based on Diagram 11.1.3(i) and Diagram 11.1.3(ii), explain the roles of the muscle, tendons,
bones and ligaments in the movement of the forearm.10
P1 Forearm has two sets of muscles; biceps and triceps
P2 acts antagonistically
P3 muscles connected to bone by tendons.
P4 Bones are held together by ligaments.
P5 When the biceps contracts, the triceps relaxes.
P6 Biceps becomes shorter (and thicker), triceps becomes longer (and thinner).
P7 This exerts a pulling force which transmitted to the radius through the tendons.
P8 The radius is pulled upward and the fore arm is bent.
P9 When the triceps contracts, the biceps relaxes.
P10 The triceps becomes shorter and thicker while the biceps becomes longer and thinner.
P11 This exerts a pulling force on ulna through tendons.
P12 The ulna and radius pulled downward, causing the forearm to straighten.

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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014

Muscles Involved in Walking


No
(a)

Marking scheme

Marks

Figure shows movement activities in a human

Based on figure (i) and (ii) explain how the above movement takes place which involves
muscle tendons, bones, ligament, and joint
P1-Tendons ,ligament ,bones muscle and joints are important feature in a movement
P2-Tendons connect muscle to bones
P3-Tendons are strong and non elastic
P4-Force is transfers to bones through tendons
P5-Ligament connect two bones together
P7-to give support and strength to the joint
P8-Ligament is string and elastic
P9-The quadriceps/extensor muscle contract while the biceps femoris muscle relax and the leg
is bent

1
1
1

P11-Calf muscle contract to lift up the heels


P12-feet push downward and backward
P13-Repeated contraction and relaxation muscle results in the running movement

10

Max 10

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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014

Consequence of impaired musculoskeletal system on support and locomotion


Type of impairment

Marking Scheme

Osteoporosis

A boy has broken his femur during a sport practice .the doctor suggest to take
plenty of dairy product and vitamin .Explain why2
F1-Contains more calcium
E1-for bone formation
F2-Viatmin D
E2-For the absorption of calcium and phosphorus
State one type of mineral that is essential for the strength of this vertebra
calcium/ phosphorus
Explain how the lack of mineral stated in (c)(i) leads to osteoporosis.
osteoporosis // Porous / brittle bone
Suggest one way on how to reduce the risk of this disease.
taking a diet rich in calcium/phosphorus and vitamin D // drink milk, regular
exercise
(any one)

Arthritis

When structure T (cartilage) wear and tear at certain joints. it may cause a person
suffer form a painful and stiff knee which restrict daily activities like walking
Name the disease describe in above statement1
Arthritis//osteoarthritis

Name the disease related to the condition in diagram 4.1


Osteoarthritis
Explain the disease you named in (e) (i) 2
F-Caritilage wears off and tears off
E1-Friciton takes place
E2-Individual feels pain during movement
State one factor that increase the chances an individual to get this disease
Age/dief
Suggest one method that can be used to treat the disease in (e)
Medication /surgery to replace the damage joints with the artificial ones made of
plastic or metal

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No

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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014
Marking scheme

(a)

Marks

Diagram, 4.1 and 4.2 shows two conditions that may occur at joint

Differentiate the condition in Diagram 4.1 and 4.2


the cartilage in diagram 4.1 wear off whereas cartilage in diagram 4.2 is not wear off /synovial
membrane in diagram4.2wear off//synovial membrane in diagram 4.2 swollen whereas synovial
membrane in diagram 4.1 not swollen
(b)

1
1

Joints and the contraction of muscle are very important to allow the movement of organism
occurs. Explain why the contraction of muscle needs sufficient blood2
1
1

P1-Contraction of muscle need more energy form cell respiration


P2-Need more oxygen and more glucose that transported through blood
Aspect

Marking scheme

Marks

Muscle cramp, muscular dystrophy, osteoporosis and arthritis are four health problems
related to the musculoskeletal system
Muscle
cramp
Muscular
dystrophy

Osteoporosis

F1-caused by involuntary and painful contraction which develop when there is lack of
stretching during an exercise

E1-Heat,massage ,rubbing and rest can reduce cramps

F2-Caused by mutation in a gene on the X chromosome

1
1

E2.1-the mutated gene makes the body unable to produce he protein needed to build
and maintain healthy muscle
E2.2Medicine and therapy are provided to show the course of the disease

F3-Caused by the reabsorption of calcium and phosphorus into the blood stream si
more than the withdrawing of calcium during the formation of bones

E3.1-Prevention beginning form childhood ,with good nutrition and exercise

1
1
1

E3.2-A balance diet including and adequate calcium intake


E3.3-Fall prevention in elderly people
Arthritis

F4-Cause by the exhaustion if cartilage /depletion of synovial fluid and degeneration of


synovial membrane at the joint

E4-Certain drug such as colchicines and non steroidal anti flammatory drugs are used
to reduce the pain.

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No
(a)

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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014
Marking scheme

Marks

Diagram 6.3 9a) and 6.3 (b) show two disease that are related to musculoskeletal system

Describe both disease 4 in diagram 6.3 (a)


diagram 6.3 (a)
F1-Type of disease is osteoroposis

E2-Caused by gradual loss of bone density/bone m,ass is reduced


E2-Bone become porous and lighter/easily break /brittle
E3-Occur most often in old people /particulary women who have gone meno pause
E4-This disease can prevented by taking a diet rich in calcium ,phoporous and vitamin D /doing
weight bearing exercise

1
1
1

Diagram 6.3 (b)


F1-The disease is arthritis /rheumatoid arthritis

1
1

E1-It caused by an inflammation or degeneration of the synovial membrane, bones and


cartilage at the joints
E2-cause joint pain /stuffiness and swelling of joints/loss of joint function
(b)

Osteoporosis is a bone disorder. Arthritis cause painful joint


Explain the condition of osteoporosis and arthritis respectively
Osteoporosis
1
1

P1-the bone become thinner /more brittle /porous /fragile


P2-Loss of bone mass
P3-Lack of calcium /phosphorous/vitamin D

Arthritis
P4-Cartilage between bones becomes thinner

1
1
1
1

P5-Ligaments become shorter/loss elasticity


P6-Less production of synovial fluid
P7-The joints become swollen stiff/painful any 4

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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014

The mechanism of locomotion in an earthworm


Aspect
Knowledge

Marking scheme

Marks

Diagram 2.1 shows the movement of an earthworm

Name two types of muscle that are involved in the movement of an earthworm
P1-Cicular muscle
P2-Longtitudinal muscle

1
1

1
1

Explain the function of the liquid found in the worms body that allow it to move
forward
P1-The fluid in the body acts as a hydrostatic skeleton
P2-to propel its body forward
Adaptation

How these organisms support it? Explain. 4


P1 Has hydrostatic skeleton
P2 Body wall consist of outer circular muscle
P3 (and) inner longitudinal muscle.
P4 Body cavity is filled with a fluid which is held in compartments.
P5 The muscles act antagonistically

1
1
1
1
1

1
1

Describe the muscle actions that allow movement in the Worm


P1-Longitudinal muscles and circular muscles act antagonistically
P2-to enable its body to shorten and lenghten (alternately)
Mechanism

Explain the muscle action for the forward movement of an earthworm 3


P1-Cicular muscles and longtidinal muscle /both muscle act antagonistically// apair of
antagonistic muscle

P2-The contraction of contraction of circular muscles//relaxation of longitudinal


muscle

P3-Cause the segment (of the earthworm ) to extend /be longer relaxation of circular
muscles

P4-the contraction of longitudinal muscle //the relaxation of circular muscles


1
1

P5-Cause the segment (of the earthworm )to shorten /shorter


Any 3

3
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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014

Aspect
Mechanism
(Essay)

Marking scheme

Marks

Diagram 11.1.2 shows the locomotion of earthworm in habitats.

Explain how locomotion in earthworm occurs.

P1 (When earthworm is crawling over a surface), the chaetae in


of the body pushed into the ground to anchor it.
P2

posterior end

The muscle in the anterior end of the body contracts, while the longitudinal
muscle relaxes.

P3 (Hence) the anterior end of the body elongates


P5 The body fluid is pushed backward.

1
1
1

P6 The chaetae in the posterior end of the body are withdrawn while the chaetae in
the anterior end of the body are push into the ground.

The longitudinal muscle in the anterior end of the body contract, while the
circular muscle relax.

P4 The hydrostatic pressure builds up in the body

P7

P8 causes the anterior end of the body become short and thick.

1
1
1
1

P9 The body fluid flows into the anterior end of the body
P10 causing the posterior end of the body pulled forward.
P11 The earthworm moves on the ground by alternately lengthening
and shortening its body, assisted by chaetae.

10

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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014

C. The mechanism of locomotion in a bird


No
(a)

Marking scheme

Marks

Diagram 7.2 shows one of the adaptive characteristic found in birds which help in their in
locomotion

Based on the diagram 7.2 and on your biological knowledge i how birds are adapted to fly
C1-Name the adaptive characteristic
C2-Explain its function
Adaptive characteristic

Function

F1-Bird have hollow bones /small head


/no fat in the body

E1-To achieve light weight

F2-The body is streamlined

E2-To reduce air resistance/drag (while


flying in the air)

F3-Having feather in their tails and


wings

E3-To increase the surface area which


enables the bird to fly over a long period
of time

F4-Having aerofoil wings

E4-Which generate the lift for flying


though air

F4-Having a pair of antagonistic muscle


//pectoralis major and pectoralis

E5-Which enable the bird to flap their


wings up and down

10

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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014

The mechanism of locomotion in a fish


Aspect
Adaptation

Marking scheme

Marks

diagram shows a fish

State two adaptation of the fish on how to reduce the resistance in water 2
P1-Fish have stream line shapes //the anterior of fish is smooth and rounded/the body is
long and tapers towards the end
P2-the body of fish is covered with scales that have a slimy coating

1
1

Diagram 7.1 shows the structure of fish. Diagram 7.1 is a cross section of fish showing
Myotomes

Based on both diagram ,Explain how these structures help the fish to move6
P1 Has flexible endoskeleton

1
1
1
1

P2 Has W shaped muscle block ie myotomes


P3 Contract and relax antagonistically // one side contracts, another side relaxes
P4 Make the tail/ caudal fin to move side by side alternatively
P5 To push the fish forward // control the fish direction

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P6 Has sleek and streamlined body shape


P7 Overlapping scale facing backward
P8 To reduce water resistance
P9 Yawing is prevented by having dorsal and ventral fin
P10 Pitching is prevented by having pelvic and pectoral fin
P11 Rolling is prevented by having dorsal and ventral fin

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Aspect
Adaptation

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Marking scheme

Marks

Diagram shows the movement of a fish in water

Explain the adaptation of fish to enable them to move in water

Mechanism

Adaptation

Explanation

F1-Fish have streamlined


shapes(where the anterior of fish is
smooth and rounded .and . the body is
long and tapers towards the end)

E1-This will help the fish to reduce water


resistance

F2-The skin is covered with scales that


have a slimy coating

E2-This will help the fish to reduce


friction

F3-Fish have fins

E3-helps fish to stabilize and help to


move efficient in water

Describe the mechanism of locomotion of fish


P1-The muscles of the fish called myotomes
P2-Myotomes are arranged p\on both sides of the body /anchored to both side of the
vertebral

1
1
1
1
1

P3-The muscle act antagonistically


P4-When one side of myotomes cantract,the other side of myotomes relax
P5-This causes the body to bend in the direction of the contraction

Explain the role of body muscle in the mechanism of locomotion 6


P1-Myotomes muscles are arranged on both side of the body
P2-The vertebral column of fish is flexible and can bent form side to sode
P3-Myotomes muscle act antagonistically in fish/carry out opposite action in a fish
P4-when the muscle on right side contract, the muscle on the left side relax
P5-the tail /body will be bent to the right
P6-when the muscle on the left side contract, the muscle on the right side relax
P7-the tail /body will be bent to the leaf
P8-alternate contraction of the right and left myotome back block enables its tails to
move left and right

P9-to produce a force that propel the fish forward


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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014

Aspect
Mechanism

Marking scheme

Marks

Diagram 11.4.1 shows a body structure of a fish.

Explain how coordination of a myotome and fins of a fish contributes to swimming


activities in the aquatic habitat.
P1: Myotomes are muscle block

1
1
1

P2: arranged in segments on both sides of the body / vertebral column.


P3: The muscles acts antagonistically / contraction of myotomes on
one side of vertebral column and relaxation of the myotomes on
the other side.
P4: the contraction of myotomes on the right side of the body will bend

the tail to the right // the contraction of myotomes on the left side of
the body will bend the tail to the left.
P5: Alternate contraction of the right and left myotome block causes

the body to bend side to side.


1

P6: This produces the forward thrust which propel the fish forward
P7: The paired fins and unpaired fin used to maintain the balanced of

1
1

body during swimming.


P8: The pectoral fins used to steering and brake.
P9: The pelvic fin are used to prevent diving and rolling movements

1
1
1

P10: Dorsal and ventral fins used to stay on course without yawing.
P11: Tail/caudal fin used to propel the fish.

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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014

The mechanism of locomotion in a bird


Aspect
Knowledge

Marking scheme

Marks

Diagram shows flight muscle of a bird

Name X and Y
Structure X Pectoralis major muscle

1
1

E1-For contraction

1
1

State three body characteristics that enable a bird to fly in air.


P1- Insects have wings without bones while birds have wings with bones
P2- The muscles of insects are attached to the exoskeleton
P3- The muscle of birds are attached to the endoskeleton

1
1
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Structure Y Tendon
Name two other groups of animal that can fly.
Bats, Insects
Adaptation

Explain why structure X has an abundance of mitochondria

F1-Mitochondria generate / produce energy / ATP // Structure X needs a lot of energy

How does the arrangement of feathers on a bird help it fly in the air?
The feathers are parallel and overlap one another to reduce wind resistance
Describe the characteristics of birds bones that allow the bird to gain elevation in
the air.
The bones are hollow; the body is small; the body is shaped like an aerofoil
State one more feature of the bird that helps it to fly in the air.
very light body
Function

Explain the function of X in locomotion of bird2


1
1
1

P1-X contracts
P2- Create pulling force
P3-To pull the wing downward/down stroke
Predicting

Explain the effect to the locomotion of bird if structure Y is torn 2


P1-(Pulling) force (that created by contraction of muscle) cannot be transferred to the
bone.

P2-Bone cannot be pulled downward

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Aspect
Predicting

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Marking scheme

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Explain why the bones of a female bird that lays eggs are more brittle as its age
increase
F1-(birds) bones mass decrease
E1-As the bones are more porous /lighter
E2-(since it had) lay many eggs
E3-Much calcium /phosphorus /phosphate used in forming the shells of the eggs
E4-Leaving less /little calcium /phosphorus /phosphate used to form (strong )bones
//more bone minerals to be lost than deposited //re-absorption of calcium. phosphorus
/phosphate into blood stream is more than the withdrawing of calcium (during the
formation of bones

Mechanism

1
1
1
1
1

Diagram 2.2 shows the arrangement of flight muscle in a bird


A bird can fly with its wings.
Describe the mechanism of locomotion of a bird flying in the air.
P1 Bird fly by flapping their wings / gliding
P2 The wings of bird is in the shape of aerofoil
During flying:
P3 (To fly) the pectoralis major contract
P4 The pectoralis minor relax

1
1
1
1
1
1

P5 The pectoralis muscles are antagonistic muscles


P6 The wings moving downward and backward
P7 The air resistance produced as a result of moving wing downward

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

P8 provide an upthrust on the wings


P9 The thrust is transmitted from wings to the coracoids until sternum
P10 (As result) the whole body is lifted up
P11 (then) the pectoralis minor contract
P12 The wings are pulled up
P13 The air resistance is very low
P14 The wings are ready to move downward.
During gliding:
P15 The wings spread (to act as aerofoil)
P16 The air move faster on the upper of the wings compared to the
wings

lower of the

P17 The air pressure is lower in the upper surface than below the wings

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1

P18 Upward thrust produced enable the birds to glide.


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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014

Appreciating A Healthy Muscoskeletal System


No

Marking scheme

Marks

(a)

Impaired musculoskeletal system could cause diseases such as osteoporosis, muscular


dystrophy and arthritis.
Discuss how someone could have a healthy musculoskeletal system.
Facts

Explanation

F1: Having a wellbalanced diet

E1-contain sufficient calcium and phosphorus

E2-Contain sufficient vitamin D


E3-To build strong bones / prevent osteoporosis

F2: Having a good


posture

E4-While standing, our body should be erect straight, so that the


weight of our body is supported by both our feet.

E5-While sitting, the thorax is vertical/the thigh is comfortable/


almost all muscle relaxed
E6-While walking, our body should be upright and straight
E7-While lying down, use a mattress that is firm so that the body is
evenly supported
E8-Bend both knees when lifting heavy object from the floor.
F3: Using proper
attire for daily
activities

E9-Wearing tight could restrict the movement

F4-Taking appropriate
precautions during
vigorous activities

E15: Consistent and moderate exercise can increase the bone mass
and prevent osteoporosis
E16: Very vigorous activity could results in pain/strain/
dislocation/ Fractures.

F5: practicing
correct and safe
exercise techniques

E17: Warming up before exercise can raise the temperature of our


muscle to enabling them to make more efficient use of energy/

E10: Wearing high-heeled shoes could injure the back bone.

Preventing injuries
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No
(b)

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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014
Marking scheme

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Table shows the lifestyle of two adults X and Y


Individual X

Individual Y

Taking too much carbohydrate in his diet

Taking a diet rich in


calcium ,phosphate,carbohydrate,protein and
vitamin D

While sitting backbone and hip are not


supported by the back of the chair

Sit upright with the backbone against the back


of the chair

Always wear high heels

Always ware flat shoes

Wear tight clothes at all times

Wear loose and comfortable clothing at all


times

Practising extreme sports for long period


of time

Always warm up before doing vigorous


activities

Based on table:
Which individual practice good life style which leads to a healthy musculoskeletal system
State the factors that affect the musculoskeletal system of the individual chosen and give your
reasons 10
Facts

Explanation

F1-Having a balance diet is important


in maintaining a healthy
musculoskeletal system

E1-Because taking a diet rich in


calcium ,phosphate and vitamin D can build
up strong bone

//can prevent osteoporosis


F2-Having a good posture when sitting

F3-Wearing proper shoes

E2-Having a good posture will enhance good


musculoskeletal system and blood circulatory
system
E3-Shoes that fits allow freedom of movement
of feet //wearing high heeled shoes may
inhibits proper walking posture as the
//body weight is exerted on the front part of
the feet

F4-Wearing proper clothes /attire


F5-Taking the appropriate precautions
during vigorous activities

E4-Clothes should not be too tight because


tight clothes will restrict our body movement

E5-shoulds take warm-up exercised and to


prevent injuring our muscles

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(c)

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The musculoskeletal system is important to us to give us support and movement.


Give two ways to maintain a healthy musculoskeletal system2
1
1

P1-Have a balanced diet//taking a diet rich in calcium


P2-Have a good posture (when standing,sitting and walking)

(d)
Unbalanced diet, an unhealthy lifestyle and the process of ageing may cause diseases
such as osteoporosis and arthritis.
Justify the above statement and explain how such diseases can be avoided.
P1: (unbalanced diet) such as diet less in calcium /

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P2: less in phosphorus could lead


P3: less in vitamin D
P4: unhealthy lifestyle such as consume liquor
P5: Process of ageing such as life after menopause
P6: (could) cause osteoporosis / bone becomes porous/ soft and brittle
P7: (could) cause arthritis / inflammation of the joints.

Way to overcome osteoporosis:


P8: Optimize calcium intake to increase the bone mass

1
1
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1

P9: Optimize vitamin D intake to enhance calcium absorption


P10: Exercise regularly to help strengthened the muscle and bone
P11: undergo hormone replacement therapy during menopause to
prevent osteoporosis
Way to overcome gouts:
P12: Reduction of offal and protein in diet

1
1

P13: Taking medication to lessen the joint inflammation and to reduce


the level of uric acid in the body.

P14: Less/stop consumption of liquor.


P15: Massage on the surrounding muscles using heat therapy.

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No

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(a)

Figure 3 shows Ramu (A) and Johari (B) adopting two different postures. Examine
Figure 3 carefully and then answer the following questions

Define the term posture.


1

Posture is defined as a way a body is positioned


(b)

What is meant by a correct posture?


P1- body shape is in a correction position
P2-the muscles are minimally strectched

(c)

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1
1

1
1

1
1

How can you adopt the correct posture while standing?


P1-When standing, the head must be aligned with the backbone and backside
P2-the shoulder should be arched slightly to the back of the head
P3-the body and the sole of the feet should form a straight line

(e)

1
1

Which student is adopting the correct posture, student A or B


Student A

(d)

What is the effect of a bad posture on the human body? Answer this question in terms of:
(i) Energy
causes a lot of energy to be wasted when the muscles are working
(ii) Breathing mechanism
P1-prevents proper movement of the chest area and
P2makes breathing difficult

(f)

How can physical exercise help you to adopt the correct posture?
P1-helps to maintain muscle strength
P2-produces good movement and support

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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014

Supports in Aquatic and Terrestrial Plants


Type of plant
Floating
plant

Marking scheme

Marks

Diagram shows a plants ,water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes ) on the surface of the
pond

Figure 4.2(a) shows the cross section of a water hyacinth stem and figure 4.2 (b)
shows the cross section of a woody plant.
What is structure P?

P: air sac
Explain how structure P helps the plant in support.
P: to reduce the density of aquatic plant // to keep aquatic plant light

1
1
1

Describe how woody plant is supported by structure Q in figure 4.2 (b).


P1-able to float
P2-get enough sun light
P3--carry out photosynthesis
Explain the adaptation of the plants which enables to float water surface // Explain
the adaptation of the plant which enable it to float on water surface.
Adaptation

Explanation

F1-Large air sacs in the roots /leaves

E1-Keep the plant floating on the water


surface buoyancy/plant is light /low density

F2-Aerenchyma tissue in the stem


/root/leaf

E2-Keep the plant is light /low intensity

F3-Broad leaves which firm and


flexible

E3-Resist tearing by wave action

F4-Few vascular tissue found in the


middle of the stem

E4-Enable the stem to bend without


breaking //xylem tissue are not lignified

F5-stem are large and swollen

E5-Increase the air content to help plant to


float

F6-Small and fibrous root

E6-To trap the air bubbles /gases (help


plant to float)

any 2F with 2E

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Type of plant

Marking scheme

Marks

Woody
plants

Name one tissue that provided support to plant in diagram 4.2


Schlerenchyma tissue/xylem tissue

Like humans and animal, plants also need support. Give one necessity for support in
plant
P2for photosynthesis//flower need to be lift for pollination

1
1

Terrestrial plants need support for one main purpose. State the main purpose.
To absorb maximum sun light energy for photosynthesis

1
1
1

P1-to be in an upright position so their leaves can absorb maximum sunlight

Explain how turgidity provides support to in plant in diagram


P1-Turgor pressure of liquid content in the vacuole
P2-Pushes the cell membrane against the cell wall
P3-Creating support for the stem .leaves and roots

Any 2P

Diagram 11.2.2 shows a cross-section of a woody plant stem.

Explain what modifications are found in the tissues of woody plants which giving
support to the plants.
Type of tissue

Explanation

P1 Xylem tissues

E2 Xylem vessels and tracheids are strengthened with


lignin

P2 Parenchyma tissues

E3 Store starch and sugar and water.


E4 Turgid cells give support to the plant.

P2 Collenchyma tissues

E5 Walls thickened with cellulose and pectin

P3Schlerenchyma
tissues

E5 Wall thickened with lignin to provide support

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Type of plant

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Marks

Woody
plants

How plant Q obtain support?


Q: it obtains support from the xylem vessels and tracheid (lignin)

Draw the cross section of area XY and label all parts that give support to Qs stem.

Compare

Explain the differences between P and Q and R referring to the stem condition.
P stem is soft because it has no lignin but the stems of Q and R is hard
By giving one example woody plant and non woody ,explain how the support system
in woody plant differ from that of non woody plant
Non-woody plants (herbaceous plants)
Example: Balsam plants
P1-(support in herbaceous plants is ) Provided by the turgidity of the parenchyma
/collenchymas cells

P2-(when there is enough warm in the ground),the cell take in water by osmosis and
become turgid

P3-the turgid pressure of the fluid in the vacuole pushes the cell contents/plasma
membrane against the cell wall

P4-Creating support for it stem /root /leaves

1
1

P5-the thin thickening die cell walls with cellulose/collenchymas cells gives support
to herbaceous plants
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Chapter 2: Locomotion and support 2014
Woody plants:
example :Rambutan tree/hibiscus/any suitable example

P6-woody plants have specialized tissues /scerenchyma tissues/xylem vessels


/tracheid.ti gove tehn support

P7-These tissue have cellulose walls which jave deposits of ligin for added strength
P8-Sclerenchyma cells have very thick walls 9which do not provide water to pass
through)
P9-(these cells are dead cells and )their function is provide support for the plant
P10-xylem vesels from he woody tissues of the stem
P12-This makes the plant stronger and also provides support for then plant

1
1
1
1
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P13-Tracheid are also dead cells with thick walls and very small
P1-they are found with the xylem vessel and together they support the plants Max10

TIPS:
Word Classify the plant give answer in aquatic plant//Terrestrial plant

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