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COLLEGE

Sector 28, Nr.Pashujaivik,

Gandhinagar-382028.

Tel: (079)29289540 ; Fax : (079)23243708

Email: Principal_gecp@yahoo.co.in

101 - MATHEMATICS

1

2

Differential Calculus

Successive Differentiation : Leibnitz Theorem, Taylor's And Maclaurin Expansions,

Indeterminate Forms.

Tracing Of Curves ++

Asymptotes (Parallel To Axis And Oblique) Tracing Of Cartesian, Parametric And

Polar Curves.

Partial Differentiation

Partial And Total Differential Coefficient, Euler's Theorem, Transformations,

Geometrical Interpretation Of Partial Derivatives, Tangent Plane And Normal

Line, Jacobeans, Taylor's Expansions For

Two Variables, Errors And

Approximations, Maxima And Minima Of Functions

Of

Two

Variables,

Lagrange's Method Of Undetermined Multipliers To Determine Stationary Values.

Integral Calculus

Reduction Formulae: Beta, Gamma And Error Functions, Elliptic Functions

Application Of Integration : Area Of A Bounded Region, Length Of A Curve,

Volume And Surface Area Of A Solid Of Revolution For Cartesian, Parametric And

Polar Curves.

Multiple Integrals

Double Integral, Change Of Order Of Integration, Transformation Of Variables By

Jacobean Only For Double Integration, Change To Polar Co-Ordinates In Double

Integrals Only. Triple Integral, Application Of Multiple Integration To Find Areas,

Volumes, C.G., M.I. And Mean Values.

Complex Numbers

De Moivre's Theorem And Its Applications, Functions Of Complex Variables

Exponential, Hyperbolic And

Inverse

Hyperbolic Trigonometric And

Logarithmic.

Infinite Series

Definition, Comparison Test, Cauchey's Integral Test, Ratio Test, Root Test,

Leibnitz's Rule For Alternating Series, Power Series, Range Of Convergence,

Uniform Convergence.

Matrix Algebra

Elementry Transformations And Rank, Inverse By Elementry Transformation,

Normal Form Of A Matrix, Consistency Of System Of Linear Equations, Solution

Of Systems Of Equations, Linearly Dependent Vectors In R3, Linear And

Orthogonal Transformations, Eigen Values, Eigen Vectors.

GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING

COLLEGE

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Email: Principal_gecp@yahoo.co.in

Modeling Of Engineering System (Leading To Ode Of First Order, First Degree,

Including Orthogonal Trajectories), Exact Differential Equations And Integrating

Factors, Unified Approach To Solve First Order Equations, Linear, Reducible To

Linear, Applications Including Modeling, Solution Of First Order And Higher

Degree Differential Equations (Clairut's Equations Only)

Reference Books

1 Elementary Engineering Mathematics & Higher Engineering Mathematics By B.S.

Grewal (Khanna Publishers, Delhi)

2 Mathematics For Engineer's By Chandrika Prasad (Prasad Mudranalaya, Allahabad)

3 Engineering Mathematics I & II By Wartikar & Wartikar (Pune Vidyarthi Griha

Prakashan, Pune)

4 Engineering Mathematics (II) Advanced Engineering Mathematics By H.K. Das (S.

Chand & Co. Ltd., New Delhi)

5 Engineering Mathematics By Vol. I,II & III By Kandaswamy, Thilagavathi And

Gunavathi (S. Chand & Co. Ltd., New Delhi)

6 6. A Text Book Of Engineering Mathmatics By Srivastava And Dhawan

(Dhanpat Rai & Sons, Delhi)

7 Engineering Mathematics Vol. I & II By S.S. Sastry (Phi)

8 A Text Book Of Engineering Mathematics By Bali, Saxena & Iyengar (Laxmi

Publications, New Delhi)

9 Engineering Mathematics I,II(F.E.Sem.I & II) By Kumbhojkar G. V. (C. Jamnadas

& Co., Bombay)

1

Note: Any Two Widely Used Operating System May Be Used As Examples.

Hardware Requirements For Microsoft Dos And Windows Installation, Ms-Dos

Commands And Programming, Customizing And Configuring Windows, Configuring

The Taskbar, The Start Menu, Using The Windows Interface To Create, Print, And

Store A File Using Explorer, Managing Disk Resources And Utilities, Manage Long

And Short Filenames In A Mixed Environment, Disk Defragmenter, Scan Disk,

Running Applications, Installation Methods, Architecture And Memory, The Memory

Usage Of A Ms-Dos Based Application Operating In Windows.

GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING

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Email: Principal_gecp@yahoo.co.in

Microsoft Word

Overview Of Microsoft Word, Formatting Text And Documents, Headings, Footers

And Footnotes, Tabs, Tables And Sorting, Working With Graphics, Templates,

Wizards And Sample Documents, Tools Spell Check, Mail Merge.

Fundamental Of Worksheet Usage

Worksheet Fundamentals, Embedding, Enhancing And Modifying Charted Data,

Formatting Worksheet Data, Producing List Type Information, Customization Of The

User Interface For Optimal Performance, Data Organization, Data Analysis, Data

Manipulation, Data Access, Querying External Database Form Within The

Worksheet, Import And Export Of Data Integration With Other Applications.

Overview Of PowerPoint, Creating And Formatting Presentations, Working With

Text, Working With Graphics.

Usage Of Internet

Getting Connected To Internet And Visit Of Popular Web Sites.

The practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

Minimum 10 experiments should be carried out.

References:

1

2

3

4

Mastering Windows-95 By Coward(BPB)

The Compact Guide To Microsoft Office Professional Ron Mansfield (BPB)

Books Online By Microsoft

103 - MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

1

2

definition and units of space, time, metal, force, the science of mechanics, SI Units.

Statics: Principles of statics, particle, rigid body, coplanar, concurrent and nonconcurrent parallel and non-parallel forces, composition and resolution of forces,

moment, couples and their properties, combination of coplanar couples and forces,

equilibrant, equilibrium, free body diagrams, analytical and graphical conditions of

equilibrium for coplanar force systems.

GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING

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3 Truss: Simple planar trusses and analysis for member forces, methods of

joints and methods of sections

4 Distributed forces, center of gravity and moment of inertia: Center of gravity of

lines, plane areas, volumes and bodies, Pappus-Guldinus Theorem, Moment of

Inertia of Areas, polar moment of inertia, radius of gyration, parallel axes theorem,

moment of inertia of bodies

5 Friction: Theory of friction, static and sliding friction, laws of friction, angle and coefficient of friction, inclined plane friction, glider friction, wedges, belt and rope

friction.

6 Strength and elasticity: Stresses: axial, normal, in-plane, tensile, compressive, shear,

flexural, thermal and hoop, complementary shear.

7 Strain: Linear, shear, lateral, Thermal and volumetric, Poissons ratio

8 Elasticity: Elastic, homogeneous, isotropic materials; limits of elasticity and

proportionality, yield limit, ultimate strength, plastic state, proof stress, factor of

safety, working stress, load factor, section of composite materials, prismatic and nonprismatic sections

9 Bending Moment and Shear Force: Types of load, beams and supports, bending

moment and shear force diagrams in statistically determinate beams subjected to

concentrated, uniformly distributed loading, relation between bending moment, shear

force and rate of loading, point of contraflexure.

10 Stress in Beams: Theory of simple bending, bending stresses and their distribution,

moment of resistance, modules of sections, distribution of shear stress in different

sections.

11 Torsion: Shaft subjected to Torsion, shear stress, shear strain, angle of twist, power

transmitted by shaft.

Term work:

Atleast 8 experiments based on above syllabus and solution of at least 20 problems.

Text Books:

1. Applied Mechanics by S.B.Junarkar

2. Engineering Mechanics by A.K.Tayal

3. Mechanics of structures Vol-I by S.B.Junarkar & H.J.Shah

4. Strength of Materials by Ramamurth

GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING

COLLEGE

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1 Introduction to C

Data representation, Flow Charts, Algorithms

Overview of C

Constants, variables and Data types

Operators and Expressions

Managing Input & Output Operators

Decision Making and looping

Arrays

Handling of Character strings

User defined functions

Structures and Unions

Pointers

File Management in C

Dynamic Memory Allocation and Linked List

The Preprocessors

2 Introduction to C++

- Object Oriented Concepts:

Object oriented Development, Objects and classes, generalization and

Inheritance, aggregation

- Object Oriented Programming style and languages:

Object oriented style, reusability, extensibility, class definitions, creating

objects, calling operations, using inheritance, implementing associations,

object-oriented language features.

- Object oriented Languages : an example

Basic programming output using cout, preprocessor directives, variables,

input and output, Manipulators, type conversion, operators, library functions.

- Structures, enumerated data types, simple functions, passing arguments,

overloaded functions, inline functions, default arguments

- A simple class, objects as physical objects and as data types, constructors,

constructor objects as function arguments, returning objects from functions, structures

and classes, classes, objects and memory, static class data, array fundamentals, arrays

as class member data, array of objects, strings.

COLLEGE

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binary operators, data conversions

- Inheritance, class hierarchies, public and private inheritance, levels of

inheritance, multiple inheritance, containership, classes within classes, pointers,

memory management, new and delete, pointers to objects, pointers to pointers,

debugging pointers.

- Virtual function, friend functions, static functions, assignment and copy

initialization, this pointer, multiple objects, file pointers, disk I/O, object I/O, I/O

with multiple objects, file pointers, disk I/O with member functions, error

handling, redirection, command line arguments, printer output, overloading the

extraction and insertion operations, multi-file-programs, using the project feature.

Textbooks:

1 Programming in C by E.Balagurusami (TMH-95)

2 Programming with C++ by E.Balagurusami(TMH-95)

3 Programming with C by Kernighan and Richie

4 Object Oriented Programming in Turbo C++ by Robert Lafore(Galgotia-1994)

105 BIOCHEMISTRY

General principles. Buffers. Electroanalytical methods - Potentiometric and

conductometric. Photometry Chromatographic methods of separation - gel permeation,

ion exchange, reverse-phase and affinity chromatography HPLC and FPLC.

Centrifugation. Radiotracer techniques Gel electrophoresis techniques - molecular weight

determination, electroblotting and electroelution, capillary electrophoresis APIelectrospray and MADI-TOF Mass spectrometery. Analysis of carbohydrates, lipids,

proteins and nucleic acids. Enzyme and cell immobilization techniques. Immunochemical

methods of analysis. Biosensors and diagnostics.

Text/references :

1.

2.

3.

4.

T.G. Cooper; The Tools of Biochemistry. Wiley Intersciences, 1977.

R. Scopes; Protein Purification - Principles & Practices. Springer Verlag, 1982.

Selected readings from Methods in Enzymology, Acadernic Press

COLLEGE

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Email: Principal_gecp@yahoo.co.in

Part I

1

2

3

4

5

Introduction To Engineering Graphics : Principles Of Projection Lines And

Dimensioning. B.I.S. Code Of Practice (Sp 46) Scale, Representative Fraction,

Plane Scale, Diagonal Scale, Vernier Scale And Scale Of Chords.

Engineering Curves

Classification Of Engineering Curves. Construction Of Conics, Cycloidal Curves,

Involute And Spiral.

Loci Of Points

Simple Mechanism Like Slider Crank Mechanism Four Bar Chain Mechanism

Etc.

Fastening And Connecting Methods

Screw Threads, Bolts, Nut, Stud, Locking Devices, Simple Riveted And Welded

Joints, Pipe Fitting, Couplings, Cotter Joints, Pin Joints.

Electrical Electronics, Chemical And Pipe Drawing, Basic Notation And Symbols For

Simple Flow Diagram.

7

8

Projection Of Line Inclined To Both Planes And Simple Cases, True Length Of

Straight Line And Its Inclination With Reference Planes (Traces Are Not Included),

Projections Of Perpendicular And Oblique Planes.

Introduction To Projection Of Solids, Section Of Solids And Interpenetration Of

Solids

Classification Of Solids, Projection Of Right And Regular Solids With Their Axis

Inclined To Both Planes, Projection Of Sphere, Section Of Pyramid, Cone, Prism

And Cylinder, Method Of Determining Line Of Interesection And Curve Of

Intersection.

Intersection Of Prism-Prism, Cone-Cylinder, Cylinder-Cylinder, Cylinder-Cone,

Cylinder-Prism.

Development Of Surfaces

Parallel Line Development, Radial Line Development, Development Of Sphere By

Zone Method And Lune Method.

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Part 3 Orthographic Projections

Orthographic Projection :

Conversion Of Pictorial Views Into Orthographic Views, Type Of Sections (Full,

Half, Offset, Broken, Removed, Revolved) Section Views, Orthographic Reading,

Missing Views And Missing Line Problems.

9 Isometric View

Conversion Of Orthographic Views Into Isometric Views.

10 Introduction To Computer Aided Drafting

Advantages Of Cad, Elements Of Cad, Components Of Computer, Input And Output

Devices, Types Of Software, Basic Functions, Drafting Softwares.

Part 4 Civil Engineering Drawing

Introduction Of Civil Engineering Drawing.

Plan Elevation, Section And Foundation Plan Of A Residential, Public Bldg.,

Industrial Buildings.

Typical Layout Of Residential, Public And Industrial Buildings.

Drawing Of Building Details Such As

Roofs & Roof Trusses

Column Footings

Simple Machine Foundations

Typical Wall Sections (For 20 Cm, 30 Cm,

40 Cm Thick

Wall)Through Door, Window, Steps, Etc.

RCC Lintel With Chhajjas

Floors

Abbreviation And Symbols Of Building Items, Water Supply And Sanitary,

Electrification, Etc.

Electric Wiring Diagrams For Residential Public And Industrial Buildings And

Domastic Appliances, Standard Electrical Symbols, Main And Distributory Boards,

Simple Earthig Etc.

COLLEGE

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Term Work :

Part 1,2 And 3

Each Candidate Shall Submit A Set Of The Following Sheets Certified By The

Principal Of The College That They Have Been Executed In A Satisfactory Manner In

The Drawing Halls Of The College.

1 One Sheet Of Engineering Curves.

2 One Sheet Of Loci Of Points.

3 One Sheet Of Projections Of Points, Line And Plane Surfaces.

4 One Sheet Of Orthographic View With Section (Two Problems One In 1st Angle

And Other In 3rd Angle System Of Projections).

5 One Sheet Of Reading Of Orthographic Views And Missing Lines/Missing Views.

6 One Sheet On Projections Of Solids And Sections Of Solids.

7 One Sheet On Development Of Surfaces And Interpenetration Of Surfaces.

8 One Sheet On Isometric Projections/Views.

9 Sketch Book Containing Sketches Of Machine Parts, Electrical, Electronics,

Chemical And Pipe Drawing, Lines, Dimensioning, Scale, Students Are Given

Complete Understanding Of Bis Code Sp 46.

Part 4

1

2

Domestic Applications Standard Electric Symbols, Main And Distribution Boards

And Simple Earthing.

One Sheet On Industrial Structure Layout.

Reference Books :

1

2

3

4

5

Engineering Drawing N. D. Bhatt

Civil Engineering Drawing Gurucharansingh

Civil Engineering Drawing Malik And Meo

Machine Drawing N.D. Bhatt

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107 - ELEMENTS OF MECHANICAL AND CIVIL ENGG.

Mechanical Engineering

1. Introduction : Force and Mass, Pressure, Work, Power, Energy, Heat,

Temperature, Units of Heat, Specific Heat capacity, Inter change of heat, Change

of state, Mechanical equivalent of heat, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Efficiency,

Types of prime movers, Sources of Energy.

2 Fuel and combustion: Introduction, Classifications, Solid fuel, Liquid fuel, Gases

fuel, Combustion, calorific values.

3 Properties of gases: Gas laws: Boils law, Charles law, Combined gas law, Gas

constant, Non-flow process, Constant volume process, constant pressure process,

Internal energy, Relations between Cp. & CV, Enthalpy, Isothermal process, Poly

Tropic process, Adiabatic process.

4 Properties of steam: Introduction, Steam formation, Enthalpy, Specific volume of

steam, Steam tables, Internal energy, Non-flow process, Throttling calorimeter,

Separating calorimeter and Combined calorimeter.

5 Heat engine: Thermal prime movers, Elementary of heat engine sources of heat,

Working substances, Converting machines, Sink of heat, Classification of heat

engine, Heat engine cycles, Carnot cycle, Carnot cycle with vapour, Rankine

cycle, Otto cycle, Diesel cycle.

6 Steam Boilers: Introduction, Classification, Simple vertical boiler, Vertical multi

tuber boiler, Cochran type, Lancashire boiler, Locomotive boiler, Marine

Boiler(Scotch type), Babcock and Wilcock boiler, High Pressure boiler, Boiler:Details, Performances, Functions of different Mounting and accessories.

7 Internal combustion Engine: Introduction, Classification, Engine details, Otto four

stroke cycle, Two stroke cycle, Different between two and four stroke cycle,

Indicated Power Efficiency.

8 Speed Control: Introduction, Governors, Steam engine governing, I.C. engine

governing, Flywheel

9 Pump: Introduction, Reciprocating pump-Types & Operations, Bucket Pump, Air

chamber, Centrifugal pump and type of centrifugal pump, Priming, Rotary pump.

10 Air compressor: Introduction, Reciprocating compressor, Operation of

Compressor, Work for compression, Power Required, Reciprocating compressor

efficiency, Multi stage reciprocating compressor, Rotary compressor.

11 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning: Introduction, Refrigerant, Types of

refrigerators, Vapor compression refrigerators, Window air conditioners.

12 Transmission of motion and Power: Introduction, Methods of drive, Power

transmission Elements, Shafting, Belt, Drive, belting, pulleys, Velocity ratio of

pulleys, Power transmitted by a belt, Change drive, Friction drive, Gear drive, Spur

gear, Helical gear, Spiral gear, Bevel gear, Worm gear, Rack and Pinion, Velocity

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ratio of toothed gear, train of wheels, Power transmission by earing, Bearing

classification, Bush bearing, Ball and roller bearings.

Term Work: Based on above syllabus at least five practical

Text books:

1 Elements of mechanical engineering by Hajra Chaudhary

2 Elements of mechanical engineering by Mathur & Mehta

Civil Engineering

1

2

3

4

surveying Instruments: Chain, Tapes, Compass, Theodolite, Measurements involved

in surveying and leveling.

Building Construction: Different types of building planning, types of load on

structures, Load bearing and frame structures and Building components,

requirements for different building i.e. Residential, Commercial, Industrial and

Public Building, Masonry construction: Construction of walls, various types of

bonds, Concrete constructions: Common concrete elements like slabs, beams,

column, foundation, lintel etc.

Environmental engineering: Introduction to global environmental problems,

Ecology and Biosphere, Green House effect, Depletion of Ozone and Acid effect.

Transportation Engineering: Introduction, Roads-Types and Material of Construction.

Railways-Types and methods of construction, Classification of Indian Railways, Role

in Transportation

Term Work:Minimum five basic assignments to be carried out.

Text Books:

1 Elements of Civil Engineering by M.B.Gohil & J.N.Patel

Reference Books:

1

2

3

Surveying and leveling by T.P.Kanetkar

Environment Engineering by B.S.Kapoor

GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING

COLLEGE

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109 - WORKSHOP PRACTICES

Instruction / Demonstration

Should Be Given For Each Of Following Shops / Trade Which Include Importance

Of The Shop / Trade In Engineering, New Materials Available, Tools / Equipments

Required Indicating The Use Of Each Tool / Equipment, Methods Of Processing

Any Special Machines, Power Required Etc.

1. Joining Process

2. Sheet Metal Work

3. Plumbing (Metalic & Non Metalic Pipe Fittings)

4. Electro Plating

5. Metal Clading & Painting

6. Manufacture Of Plastic Products

7. Metal Machining , Turning, Drilling, Grinding Etc.

8. Carpentry / Pattern Making

9. Fitting / Assembly Practice

10. Forging And Hot Working Processes

11. Moulding And Casting Processes

Exercise And Term Work:

Each Student Is Required To Prepare Simple Exercises In Following So As To

Have A Feeling Of How The Jobs / Parts Are Prepared And Use Of Tools /

Equipments (Any Eight)

1

2

3

Electroplating - 1 No

Painting Of Metal Piece - 1 No

Sheet Metal Part - 1 No

4. Plumbing - 1 No

5 Arc Welding / Gas Welding / Welding - 1 No

6 Soldering / Brazing - 1 No

7 Drilling Practice - 1 No

8 Fitting / Assembly - 1 No

9 Carpentry Practice - 1 No

10 Forging Practice - 1 No

Over And Above These Exercises Each Student Is Required To Prepare A Laboratory

Report On Instruction / Demonstration And Exercises Prepared By Him As A Part Of His

Termwork.

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301 - MATHEMATICS-III

1. Fourier series: Periodic functions, Drichlet's conditions, Fourier series, Euler's

formula. Fourier expansion of periodic functions with periodic functions with

period 2, Fourier series of even and odd functions. Fourier series of periodic

functions with arbitrary periods, half range Fourier series. Harmonic analysis.

2. Laplace Transform: Motivation, definition, Linearity property, Laplace

transforms of elementary functions, shifting theorem. Inverse Laplace

transforms, Laplace transforms of derivatives and integrals, Convolution

theorem, Application of Laplace theorems in solving ordinary differential

equations, laplace transforms of periodic, Unit, step and impulse functions.

3. Ordinary differential Equations: Linearity differential equations of higher

order with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Higher

order linear differential equations with variable coefficients (Cauchy's and

legendre forms), Simultaneous linear differential equations, Models for the

real world problems and their solutions in particular, Modeling of electric

circuits, Deflection of beams, Free oscillations, forced oscillations,

Resonance, Solution of Bessel and Legendre equations by series method,

Definition and properties of Bessel's functions, Legendre functions by series

method, Definition and properties of Bessel's functions, Legendre's

polynomials and properties like recurrence relations, orthogonality.

4. Partial Differential equations: formation of differential equations, Directly

integrable equations, Models of engineering problems leading to first order

partial differential equations, Lagrange's equation, Solutions of special type of

first order partial differential equations, homogeneous linear equations with

constant coefficients, application of partial differential equations, Boundary

value problems and method of separation of variables, Modeling of vibration

of a stretched string - one dimensional wave equation.

5. Numerical methods: Motivation, Errors, Truncation error, Rounded off error,

Absolute error, Relative error and percentage error, solution of algebraic and

transcendental equations by Newton-Raphson method, Bisection, False

position and iteration and extended iteration methods, Convergence of these

methods.

Reference Books:

1. Higher Engineering mathematics, by Dr.B.S.Grewal, Khanna publishers,

New Delhi.

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2. Engineering Mathematics vol- II, by Prof. Wartikar & Wartikar Pune

Vidhyarthi Gruh, Pune.

3. Engineering Mathematics by Dhavan & Shrivastava, Dhanpatrai & Sons,

New Delhi.

4. Engineering Mathematics- Vol I & II, by S.S.Sastry, prentice Hall of India,

New Delhi.

5. Mathematics for engineering students, by P.D.S Verma kalyani publishers,

Ludhiyana and Delhi.

6. A textbook on engineering by N.P.Bali, Ashok Saxena & Iyengar, Laxmi

publications (p) ltd. New Delhi.

7. Engineering mathematics vol-I, II & III by Kandaswamy, Thilagvati &

Gunavathi, S.Chand & Co. (p) ltd, New Delhi.

8. A first course in mathematics for Engineering, Mathematics for engineers,

Advanced Mathematics for engineers by chandrika prasad, Prasad

mudranalaya, 7 Beli Avenue, Allahabad.

9. Engineering mathematics vol I, II, III&IV by Kumbhojkar,

G.V.C.Jamnnadas & Co., Bombay.

10. Engineering Mathematics- Vol I by Chintamani das, New central book

agency (P) ltd, Calcutta.

11. Advanced Engineering Mathematics (Fifth Edition), by Erwin Kreyszig,

Willey Eastern Ltd., New Delhi.

302 - CIRCUIT THEORY

1. Circuit Concept: Charge and Energy, The relationship of field and circuit

concepts, Capacitace, Resistance and Inductance parameter Units and Scaling,

Approximation of a physical system as a circuit..

2. Network Cinvention: Referance direction for current and voltage, Active element

convention, Dot convention, Topological Description.

3. Network Equations: Kirchoffs law, The no of network equations, source

transformation, loop variable analysis, Node variable analysis, Determinants,

Minors, and Gauss Methods, Duality, State variable analysis.

4. Initial conditions in network: Initial condition in elements, Geometrical

Interpretation of Derivatives, Procedure for Evaluating initial conditions, Initial

state of network.

5. Solution of differential equation by classical and Transform methods: Second

order equation, Higher order equation, Network excited by external energy

sources ,response as related to s-plane location of the roots.

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6. Transform of other signal waveforms: Unit step function, Ramp and impulse

function, waveform synthesis, initial value and final value theorems.

7. Impedance Functions and network theorems: concept of complex frequency,

Transform impedance and transform circuits, series and parallel combinations of

elements, superposition and reciprocity, Thevenin and Norton theorem.

8. Network Functions: Poles and Zeros: Terminal pairs, network functions for the

one port and two port, calculation of network function, poles and zeroes of

network function, Restrictions on poles and zero locations for driving point

function, Time domain behavior from the pole and zero plot, Stability of Activity

Networks.

9. Two port parameters: Relationship of Two port variables, Short Circuit

Admittance parameter, The open circuit impedance parameter, Transmission

parameters, The Hybrid parameters, Relationships between parameter sets,

parallel connection of two-port networks

10. Sinusoidal steady state analysis: The sinusoidal steady state, The sinusoid and

ejwt, solution using ejwt , solution using real and imaginary part, phasor and

phasor diagram.

The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

Books:

1. Network Analysis (3rd Edition)-by Van Valkenburg

2. Network Analysis-by G.K.Mithal

1. Cell and Tissues:

Physical Structure of the Cell; Functional System of the cell-Transport of Ions and

Molecules through the cell membrane; Membrane Potentials and Action Potentials;

Inhibition of Excitability; Recording Membrane potentials and Action potentials.

2. Respiratory System:

Structure of Respiratory tract, Lungs, Diaphragm. Mechanics of Pulmonary

Ventilation, Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities. Physical Principle of Gas Exchange.

Pulmonary function testing. Artificial Respiration.

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3. Cardiovascular System:

Structure of Heart, Heart valves, Arteries, Veins, Coronary Circulation.

Heart as a pump, Physiology of Cardiac muscle, Cardiac Cycle. Rythmic excitation of

heart. Control of excitation and conduction in the heart. Introduction of ECG and

cardiac activity. Physics of Blood pressure, flow and resistance. Vascular

distensibility and functions of Arterial and Venous Systems. Heart rate and normal

Heart sounds.

4. Body Fluid:

Blood and its composition and function. Various Cells and their structures. Numbers Cell

counting, Haemoglobin and its estimation, Anaemia, Blood counts and ESR.

5. Skeletal and Muscular System:

Structure and Formation of bone; Types of bones, joints, Classification of movements;

Classification of muscles- Muscle contraction mechanism, EMG.

6. Nervous System:

Outline of Cranial and Spinal nerves. Structure of Spinal Cord and different Brain parts.

Vertibral column and Cranial cavity. Excitation of skeletal muscle- Neuro muscular

transmission, Excitation-Contraction Coupling, Contraction of Smooth muscle. General

design of Nervous System- CNS- its function, Synapes, Receptors, Types of Sensation.

EEG.

7. Excretory System:

Structure of Kidney, Formation of Urine, Concentration and Dilution of Urine, Renal

Function Tests, Artificial Kidneys, Dialysis.

8. Special Senses:

Vision: Eye as a camera, Mechanism of accomodation, Visual accuity, Ophthalmoscope,

Colour vision, Perimetry.

Hearing: Tympanic membrane and the Ossicular system, the cochlea, Hearing mechanics

and abnormality, Deafness, Audiometry.

9. Reproductive System:

Spermatogenesis; Semen; Ovarian cycle physiology.

10. Endocrine System:

Physiological actions of the hormones secreted by: Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Islets

of Langerhans, Adrenal, Testes and Ovaries. Bio feedback

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mechanism of hormone regulation. Homeostasis- Regulation of Internal

Environment.

11. Functions of the Skin.

Term Work and Practicals shall be based on the above syllabus.

Books:

1. Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness.

Ross and Wilson .

By- Anne Waugh. Allison Grant.

2. Illustrated Physiology.

By- Mc Naught, Callander.

3. Human Anatomy: Regional and Applied.

By- Chaurasia, B.D.

4. Physiology of Human Body.

By- Guyton.

5. Engineering Principles of Physiological Functions.

By- Chneck.

6. Grants Atlas of Anatomy.

By-Agar.

7. Principled of General Anatomy.

By- A.K.Datta.

8. Human Anatomy and Physiology,1995.

By- Van Wynsherge.D, Noback, C.R and Caroia R.

304 - BASIC ELECTRONICS

1. Introduction to electronics theory: atomic structure, terminologies, bohrs

postulate, electron theory, energy band diagram, ionization potential, metal,

semiconductor, insulators.

2. Semiconductor theory: transport phenomenon in semiconductors-mobility,

conductivity, drift, diffusion, concept of hole, semiconductor materials, types of

semiconductors, mass action law, hall effect, generation and recombination of

charges, continuity equation, potential variation in graded semiconductor.

3. Semiconductor diodes: introduction, ideal diode, resistance levels, equivalent

circuits, switching characteristics, notation of diode and its testing, zener diode,

LEDs, diode arrays,

4. Diode applications : Load line analysis, diode approximations, series diode

config. With DC inputs, parallel and series parallel config.AND / OR gates,

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sinusoidal inputs, half wave and full wave rectifications, clipper, clampers, zener

diode, voltage multipliers.

5. Special purpose devices: schottky barrier diodes, varactor diodes, power diodes,

tunnel diodes, photodiodes, photoconductive cells, IR emitters, LCD, solar cells,

thermistors.

6. Bipolar junction transistor: construction, operation, various configurations, limits

of operation, notation, specifications and their use, testing, casing and terminal

identification.

7. DC biasing of BJTs: operating point, fixed bias ckt., emitter stabilized ckt.,

voltage divider bias, dc bias with voltage feedback, miscellaneous bias

configurations, design operations, switching networks, bias stabilization.

8. BJT transistor modeling: amplification in the AC domain, transistor modeling,

important parameters: Zi, Zo, Av, Ai, The re transistor model, hybrid equivalent

model, graphical determination of h-parameters, variation of transistor

parameters.

9. Field Effect Transistors: construction and char. of JFET, transfer char, important

relationship, depletion type MOSFET, enhancement type MOSFET, MOSFET

handling, VMOS, CMOS.

10. FET biasing: fixed bias, self bias, voltage divider bias, depletion type MOSFET,

enhancement type MOSFET ,combination networks, design, trouble shooting,

universal JFET bias curve.

11. Discrete and IC manufacturing techniques: introduction, semiconductor materials,

discrete diodes, transistor fabrication, integrated circuits, monolithic integrated

ckt., production cycle, thin film and thick film integrated circuits, hybrid

integrated ckts.

The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

Text book:

1. Millman - Halkias, Integrated Electronics Analog and Digital circuits and Systems

, Tata MacGraw- Hill.

2. Robert Boylestad Electronic devices and circuit theory ,PHI edition.

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1. Introduction To Digital Circuits:

Binary systems, number base conversion, octal and hexa-decimal numbers,

Complements, Binary codes, binary storage and registers, binary logic, Boolean

algebra and logic gates, basic theorems and properties of Boolean algebra,

Boolean functions, canonical and standard forms of Boolean functions, digital

logic gates, simplification of Boolean functions, map method,

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Two to six variable maps, NAND-NOR implementation and other two level

implementation, dont care conditions, tabulation method, determination and

selection of prime implicants.

Combinational Logic Circuits:

Adders, subtractors, Code converters, Analysis procedure, multilevel NAND

NOR ckts. EX-OR and equivalence functions . Binary and decimal parallel adder

, magnitude comparator , Decoder, multiplexer, ROM and PLA .

Sequential Logic Circuits:

Flip-flops, triggering of Flip-flops, anal conversion of flip-flops, Analysis of

clocked sequential ckt. State reduction and assignments Flip-flop excitation

tables. Design procedure , design of counters, design with state equations.

Registers, counters And Memory Unit :

Registers, shift registers, ripple counters, synchronous counters, timing sequences,

memory unit.

Register transfer logic

Inter register transfer, arithmetic logic and Shift micro operation, conditional

control statements, fixed point binary data , over flow, arithmetic shifts, decimal

,floating points, non numeric data, Instruction codes.

Processor Logic Design

Processor organization, Arithmetic logic unit (ALU)Design of arithmetic, logic

and arithmetic-logic ckts. Status registers, Processor unit, Design of accumulator.

Control Logic Design

Control organization Micro program control, Control of processor unit

PLA control, micro program sequencer.

Computer Design

System of configuration, Computer instructions, Timing and control

Execution of instruction, Design of computer registers & control.

Digital Integrated Circuits.Digital IC specification terminology

Logic families- RTL, DTL, TTL, I2L, ECL, MOS, CMOS, Interfacing

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The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

BOOKS :

Morris Mano, Digital logic and computer design, PHI.

A Anand kumar, Fundamentals of digital circuits , PHI

306 - Instrumentation Workshop

Instruction / Demonstration Should Be Given For Each Of Following:

1. Tools and their use: pliers, cutter, stripper, screw driver, crimping tool, soldering

iron etc.

2. Understanding of single phase and three phase wiring.

3. Understanding of switch accessories, wires and cables.

4. Understanding and use of multi-meter, tester, series lamp, megger.

5. Understanding of house wiring, fuse, earthing, MCB, ELCB.

Exercise on:

1. Fan wiring

2. Tube light wiring.

3. Staircase wiring

4. Application of series lamp for troubleshooting of electrical appliances.

5. Soldering practice.

Over And Above These Exercises Each Student Is Required To Prepare A Laboratory

Report On Instruction / Demonstration And Exercises Prepared By Him As A Part Of His

Term work.

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B.E. SEM IV

401 - Applied Mathematics

1. Vector Calculus: Reorientation, Differentiation of vectors, Scalars and vector

fields, Gradient of a scalar function, Directional derivative, Divergence and curl

of a vector function and their physical meanings, Line Surface and volume

integrals, Green's theorem, Gauss and stoke's theorems (Without proof),

Irrotational, Solenoidal and conservative vector fields. Curvilinear coordinates

(Cylindrical and spherical polar), applications.

2. Functions of complex variables: Reorientation, Analytic function, CauchyRiemann equations (Cartesian and polar forms), Harmonic functions, conformal

mappings, Complex integration, Cauchy's theorem and integral formula,

Singularities, Taylor's and Laurent's series, Residue theorem, Evaluation of

integrals using residues.

3. Fourier Transforms: Fourier integral theorem (only statement), Fourier sine and

cosine integrals, Complex form of Fourier integral, Fourier sine and cosine

transforms, Inverse laplace transforms by residue, Solutions of boundary value

problems using Fourier transforms. Application to transverse vibration of a string

and transmission lines.

4. Solution of cubic by Cardon and biquadratic equations by Ferrari's method.

5. Matrices: Cayley- Hamilton Theorem, Special matrices like hermitian, SkewHermitian and unitary, Quadratic forms.

Reference Books:

1. Higher Engineering mathematics, by D.B.S.Grewal, Khanna Publishers, New

Delhi.

2. A textbook on Engineering mathematics, N.P.Bali, Ashok Saxena & Iyengar,

Laxmi publications (p) ltd, New Delhi.

3. Engineering mathematics- Vol -III by Prof. Wartikar & Wartikar, Pune

Vidhyarthi Gruh, Pune.

4. Mathematics for engineers, advanced mathematics for engineers, by

Chandrika prasad, Prasad Mudranalaya, 7 beli Avenue, Allahabad.

5. Advanced Engineering Mathematics by Erwin Kreyszig, (Fifth Edition), wiley

Eastern Ltd., New Delhi.

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1. Operational amplifiers: introduction, differential and common mode operation,

op-amp basics, practical op-amp circuits, op-amp parameters.

2. Op-amp applications: constant gain multiplier, voltage summing, voltage buffer,

controlled sources, comparators, instrumentation circuits, integrator,

differentiator, log and anti log amplifier, full wave, half wave rectifier, active

filters.

3. Feedback and oscillator circuits: feedback concepts, feedback connection types,

practical feedback circuits, feedback amplifier- phase and frequency

considerations, oscillator operation, phase shift oscillator, Wien bridge oscillator,

tuned oscillator, and crystal oscillator.

4. Linear Wave-shaping circuits: introduction, RC high pass and low pass circuits,

response to standard input signals.

5. 555 Timer: introduction, operation, 555 as astable, bistable, monostable

multivibrator, applications.

6. BJT small signal analysis: common emitter fixed bias, voltage divider bias,

emitter bias and emitter follower configurations, common base configuration and

collector feedback configuration, collector DC feedback configuration.

Approximate hybrid equivalent model

7. Systems approach- Effects of Rs and RL: Two port systems, effect of load

impedance and source impedance, combined effect of R s and RL, BJT CE, CB,

Emitter follower networks, FET networks, cascaded systems.

8. BJT and JFET frequency response: introduction, logarithms, decibels, general

frequency considerations, low frequency analysis- bode plot, low frequency

response for BJT and FET amplifier, miller effect capacitance, high frequency

response of BJT and FET amplifier, multistage frequency effects, square wave

testing

The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

Text book:

1. Robert Boylestad- Electronic devices and circuit theory - PHI edition.

2. Millman - Halkias, Integrated Electronics Analog and Digital circuits and Systems

, Tata MacGraw- Hill

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Transducers and their Static and Dynamic performance characteristics. Electrical

Design Consideration.

2. Transduction Principles:

Resistive, Inductive and Capacitive Transduction; Photoconductive and Photo

voltaic Transduction. Fibre Optic Sensor. Strain Gauge- types, construction,

selection materials, Gauge factor, Bridge circuit, Temperature compensation.

LVDT- construction, sensitivity, merits etc. Capacitive Transducer- variable

seperation, variable area and variable dielectric type; merits and demerits.

Piezoelectric Transducer: piezo crystals- output equation, mode of operation,

merits and demerits.

3. Temperature Transducers:

Thermo resistive transducer- RTD and Thermister; Thermo emf Transducerthermo couples; Non contact type infrared thermometry; optical pyrometer.

Thermister used for cardiac output measurement, nasal air flow measurement.

4. Pressure Transducers:

Extra vascular and Intra vascular pressure sensors; Strain Gauge type Blood

pressure transducers; Diaphragm type capacitive pressure transducer; Piezo

electric pressure transducer; Intra vascular fibre optic pressure transducer; Fibre

optic pressure transducer for intracranial pressure measurement in new borns;

Tonometry; Stethoscopes; Phonocardiograph sensor.

5. Flow Transducers:

Electromagnetic Blood flow transducer; Elasto resistive plethysmographic

transducer; Air flow transducer for Fleish pneumotachometer; Ultrasonic flow

transducer.

6. Displacement Transducers:

LVDT and resistive potentiometric transducers for translational and angular

displacement measurement; Strain gauge displacement transducer; capacitive and

displacement transducer for respiration sensing.

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7. Nuclear Radiation Transducers:

Ionization transducer- GM counter; Scintillation transducer- Scintillation counter.

8. Bioanalytical Sensors:

Enzyme based glucose sensor; Microbial biosensor for ammonia and nitrogen

dioxide; optical biosensor for antibody-antigen detection. Blood-gas sensorsPolarographic clark PO2 sensor; Transcutaneous PO2 sensor, PCO2 electrode,

SO2 sensor of pulse oximeter.

9. Biopotential Measurement:

Electrode-Electrolyte interface, half cell potential, Polarization- polarizable and

non-polarizable electrodes, Ag/AgCl electrodes, Electrode circuit model;

Electrode and Skin interface and motion artifact.

Body Surface recording electrodes for ECG, EMG, EEG and EOG. Electrodes

standards. Internal Electrodes- needle and wire electrodes. Micro electrodesmetal microelectrodes, micropippet electrodes. Electrical properties of micro

electrodes. Electrodes for electric simulation of tissue; Methods of use of

electrodes.

Term Work and Practicals shall be based on the above syllabus.

Books:

1. Biomedical Sensors- Fundamentals and applications.

By- Harry.N. Norton.

2. Transducers for Biomedical measurements. ( Principles and Applications.)

By- Richard S.C. Cobbold.

3.Medical Instrumentation application and design.

By- John G. Webster.

4.Principles of Applied Biomedical Instrumentation.

By- Geddes,L.A and Baker,L.E

5. Bio-Sensors. By-Hall, E.A.H.

6. Biomedical Transducers and Instruments (CRC Press)

By- Tatsoo Togawa., Toshiyo Tamura, P. Ake Ober

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1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Introduction, Examples of Control Systems, Closed-Loop Control Versus OpenLoop Control, Design Of Control Systems.

Mathematical Modeling :

Introduction, Transfer Function and Impulse-Response Function, Block Diagrams,

Modeling in State-Space, Mechanical Systems, Electrical Systems, Liquid level

Systems, Thermal Systems.

Transient Response :

Introduction, First-Order Systems, Second-Order Systems, Transient-Response

Analysis with MATALAB, An Example Problem Solved with MATALAB.

Basic Control Systems

Introduction, Higher-Order Systems, Rouths Stability Criterion, Steady-State

Errors in Unity Feedback Control Systems.

Root Locus:

Introduction, Root-Locus Plots, Summary of General Rules For Constructing

Root Loci, Root-Locus Plots with MATALAB, Special Cases, Root-Locus

Analysis of Control Systems , Root Loci for Systems with Transport Lag, Root

Contour Plots.

Frequency Response :

Introduction, Bode Diagrams, Plotting Bode Diagrams with MATALAB, Polar

Plots, Drawing Nyquist Plots with MATALAB, Log-Magnitude Versus Phase

Plots, Nyquist Stability Criterion, Stability Analysis, Relative Stability, Closed

Loop Frequency Response, Experimental Determination of Transfer Functions

The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

Text Books :

K.Ogata , Modern Control Engg. , Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. , 3rd edition.

References :

Nagrath Gopal, Control system Engineering , Wiley Eastern

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405 - ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENT

1. Experimental Data & Errors: Measurement Recording and Reporting, Graphical

presentation of data, Precision & Accuracy, Resolution & sensitivity, Errors in

Measurement, Statistical evaluation of measurement data and errors, The decibel,

Problems

2. Analog DC and AC meters: Electromechanical meter movements, Analog DC

ammeters, Analog DC voltmeters, Analog AC ammeters and voltmeters, Analog

multimeters, Special purpose analog meters, How to use basic meters, Meter

errors, problems.

3. Oscilloscope: Oscilloscope subsystem, Display sub system, Vertical deflection

subsystem, Dual trace Feature, Horizontal Deflection subsystems, oscilloscope

probes, oscilloscope controls, How to operate an oscilloscope, oscilloscope

photography, Special purpose oscilloscope, Problems.

4. Time & Frequency Measurement: Time measurements, Frequency measurements,

Harmonic Analysis and spectrum analyzers, Problems.

5. Power & Energy Measurement: Power in Ac circuits, single-phase power

measurements, Polyphase power and measurement, Electrical energy

measurements, power measurements at high frequency, problems.

6. Resistance and measurement of Resistance: Resistance and resistor, resistor type,

color coding of resistor, measurement of resistance, wheaston Bridges, Making

balanced wheaston bridge measurement, Low value resistance measurement,

Problems.

7. Measurement of Capacitance, Inductance, and Impedance: Capacitance and

capacitors, capacitor circuit models and losses, capacitor types, color coding of

capacitors, Inductor and inductance, Inductor structure, Transformers, Impedance,

Capacitance and Inductance Measurement, complete impedance measurement,

Problems.

8. A.C.signal source: Oscillators, sweep frequency Generators, Pulse generators,

function generators.

9. Interference signals and their elimination: capacitive interference, inductive

interference and shielding, electromagnetic interference and shielding,

conductively coupled interference, ground loop interference and input guarding to

reduce it, internal noise.

The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

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Text book:

1. Wolf & Smith, Student Refrence Manual for Elelctronic and Instrumentation

measurement:, PHI .

Reference book :

Cooper, Electronic Instrumentation and Measuring Techniques, PH

406 - Simulation Packages

Matlab. Orcad, Electronic Work bench.

Simulation programs needs to be carried out from the above packages and term

work and practical should be based on the same.

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B.E. SEM V

501 - MICROPROCESSOR, INTERFACING & APPLICATIONS

1. Introduction to Micro Computers, Micro Processors:

Introduction to digital computer, Data representation, microprocessor

organization, memory, input output devices, system bus.

2. Micro Processor Architecture and Micro Computer Systems:

Microprocessor 8085 architecture, operation, memory, and interfacing devices

3. Instructions and Timings:

Data transfer group instruction, branching group, arithmetic instruction, logical

instruction, special purpose instruction, time diagram of single byte, two byte, three

byte instruction, and addressing modes.

4. Assembly Language Programming:

Programming using data transfer instruction, arithmetic and logical instruction

branching instruction, subroutine and stack, time delay and counter implementation,

code conversion.

5. Interrupts:

Vector interrupts, priority of interrupts, interrupt level

6. Parallel I / O and Interfacing applications.:

Basic interfacing concepts, interfacing displays and memories.

7. Code converters:

Data converters, ADC, DAC,their types & construction ,their interfacing with 8085.

8. Interfacing of Multipurpose programmable devices:

8155/8156,8355/8755,8279 programmable keyboard/display interface

9. Interfacing of General purpose programmable peripheral devices:

8255A PPI, 8253 programmable interval timer, and 8259A programmable

interrupt controller, DMA & 8257 DMA controller

10. Serial I / O and data applications.:

Serial I/O data communication & bus interfacing standards, basic concepts in serial

I/O using programmable chips, bus standards-RS 232,IEEE 488.

11. EPROM and RAM memories. 2764 and 6264

The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

Books:

Ramesh Gaonkar

- Micro Processor Architecture, Programming and

Applications with 8085/8080A Wiley eastern limited.

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P.K. Ghosh and P.R. Shridhar 0000 to 8085 Introduction to micro Processors

for Engineers and scientists Prentice hall of India Pvt. Ltd

2nd edition

502 - DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES & INSTRUMENTATION

SECTION: A: -

CARDI1OVACULAR

DISEASES

AND

THEIR

DIAGNOSIS: ECG,

Phonocardiography, Blood pressure & Heart rate measurements, Blood flow

measurements, Doppler.

RESPIRATORY DISORDERS AND THEIR DIAGNOSIS:X -rays, Volumes &

capacity (Spirometry), Bronchoscopy, Laryngioscopy, etc.

G. I. TRACT DISORDERS THEIR DIAGNOSIS: Laparoscopy, Cystoscopy, Upper

G. I. Endoscopy, Colonoscopy, Sigmoidoscopy, Protoscopy.

METABOLIC DISORDERS AND THEIR DIAGNOSIS: Thermometry, Oxygen &

Carbon - dioxide content and pressure, various enzyme assays. Diseases related to

Kidney & Urinary system and their diagnosis.

NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS AND THEIR DIAGNOSIS: EEG, SER,

EMG, Scanning Techniques etc.

OCULAR DISORDERS AND THEIR DIAGNOSIS: Perimetry, Refractometry,

Tonometry, Ophthalmoscopy, Ultrasound, VER, ERG, EOG, ENG etc.

Auditory disorders and diagnosis: AER, Audiometry etc.

Obstetric & Gynecological problems and their diagnosis like USG & Endoscopy.

Biotelemetry and their clinical significance.

SECTION: - B

Controls, ECG Pre-amplifier, ECG recorders.

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Multi channel recording system & control panel details, Block - diagram, Pre-amplifier &

filter circuits.

INSTRUMENTS

FOR

MEASUREMENT

OF

PHYSIOLOGICAL

PARAMETERS:Electronic manometer, Electro-sphygmomanometer, Electronic

stethoscope, Blood flow meter, Thermometer, Tonometer, Auto- refractrometer, Spiro

meter, Audiometer.

DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY MACHINE: Generation, Fluoroscopy and Image Intensifier,

Fundamentals only.

Diagnostic Ultrasound:Principle of measurements, Ultrasound imaging, Foetal

monitor, Echocardiograph, Echoencephalograph.

The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

BOOKS :

ECG Made Easy

-Atul Lutre

Practical Echocardiography -Setu Raman

Advanced Ophthalmic Diagnosis & Therapeutics-Mckinney

Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy -A. Chakraborthy

Bio-Medical Instrumentals & Measurements -Cromwell

Bio-Medical Instrumentation

-R. S. Khandpur

Medicine and Clinical Engineering -Bertil Jocobson& John Awebster

503 - ANALYTICAL & OPTICAL INSTRUMENTATION

SECTION:A

techniques in clinical diagnosis.

2.

Instrumentation techniques:

1. Use of general instruments like Incubators, autoclaves, centrifuges, hot air oven,

Balances, Auto pipettes.

2. Microtome, Processing like automatic tissue processing ("Histokinette)

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3. Laboratory counters; anaerobic apparatus, Laminar flow tables, Culture

Techniques, Blood

banking procedure & Instruments.

3. Analytical techniques like Spectrophotometry, Colorimetry, Auto analysis, Semi auto

analysis,

gas & electrolyte analysis, flame photometry, chromatography, Chromatography,

Electrophoresis, Glucometry, Measurement of pH, RIA units. PCR units , ELISA

reader,

Dispenser & washer, Pulse-oxymetry, Capnography, Arterial blood analysis etc and

their

significance in different diagnosis and prognosis of various clinical disorders.

4. Microscopy - simple, compound, binocular, trinocular, dark ground microscopy

Phase contrast microscopy, electron microscopy, CCTV, microphotography &

projection etc &

their importance in clinical diagnosis.

5. Special microscopy like endoscopy. use of fiber optics.

SECTION:B ANALYTICAL & OPTICAL DIAGNOSTIC EQUIPMENTS

Study of principle of operation, Block-diagram; Circuit diagram, Control panel,

specification, Design aspects & Applications of the following Equipments:

1. Incubators, autoclaves, centrifuges, hot air oven, Balances, Auto pipettes, microtome,

Processing like automatic tissue processing ("Histokinette), Laboratory counters;

Anaerobic apparatus, Laminar flow tables, Spectrophotometer, Colorimeter, Auto

analyzer, Semi auto analyzer, flame photometer, Glucometer, pH meter, RIA units.

PCR units, ELISA reader, Dispenser & washer, Pulse-oxymeter, Arterial blood

analyzer.

2. Endoscopes.

3. Microscopes of various types including electron microscope.

4. Chromatograph.

5. Electrophoresis apparatus.

6. Blood Gas Analyzers:

Blood PO2 Measurement; Measurement of blood PCO2; Complete Blood Gas

Analyzer.

7. Blood cell counter:

Method of cell counting, coulter counter, automatic recognition and differential

counting of cells.

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The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

BOOKS:

1. Medical laboratory technology (Methods & Interpretation)- Ramnik sood, 5th

Edition .jaypee

2. Wildman's: Clinical interpretation of laboratory tests- Sacher, 10th edition. Jaypee

3. Interpretation of common investigations- Gupta & Gupta., 4th edition .jaypee

4. The text book of Blood bank and transfusion medicine.- Satish Gupta. 1st edition,

Jaypee

5. Principle clinical Biochemistry - Chavda R,

6. Clinical diagnosis and management by laboratory methods- Henry, 19th

Edition, Anuja book company

7. Bio-medical Instruments & Measurement - Cromwell.

8. Bio-medical Instrumentation- R S. Khandpur

9. Medicine and clinical engineering - Bertil Jacobson & john Webster.

504 - BIOMATERIALS & IMPLANTS

1) Introduction To The Use Of Non-Pharmaceutical Biomaterials:

Types: Synthetics,Metals & Non Metallic Alloys, Ceramics,Inorganics & Glasses .

Bioresorbable & Biologically Derived Materials , Bioderived Macromolecules, Tissue

Adhesives, Bioactive Coatings, Carbons Composites.

Medical Device Design Requirements, Material Selection Criteria, Preclinical

Testing.

2) Polymers:

Polymerization, Polyethylene, Prosthodontic Polymers, Clinical Study Of Soft

Polymers, Bloerodible Polymers, Blood Compatible Polymers, Bioactive Polymers,

Hydrogels, Hard Methacrylats, Drug Incorporation Polymer Gels, Biocompatibility

Of Polymers-Blood Compatibility Improvement, Compatibility Evaluation.

3) Metals, Metallic Alloys & Ceramics:

Stainless Steel, Titanium & Titanium Alloys, Cobalt Based Alloys, Nitinol, CeramicsIntroduction To Bio Medical Usages-Bonding Natural Tissue. Bio-Active Glass,

High Density Alumina , Calcium Phosphate Ceramics-Porous Materials,Biological

Interactions, Dental Ceramics-High Strength Materials-Thermal Expansions, Fracture

Toughness. Drug Delivery from Ceramics. Wet Chemical Synthesis.

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4) Composite Bio-Materials:

Soft Composites, Dental Composites, Saline, Coupling Agents, Microfield Materials,

White Light Systems Bonding To Teeth. Clinical Trials, Synthesis of Fillers, Matrix

Resins, Mechanical & Physical Evaluation.

5) Mechanical Properties:

Standards & Assessments of Bio-Materials, Surface Properties of Biomaterials &

Their Testing.

6)

Bio Compatibility:

Tissue Reaction to External Materials, Blood/Biomaterial Interaction. Corrosion &

Wear of Bio-Materials. Treatment of Materials for Bio-Compatibility, Biodegradable

Materials & Their Applications, Rheogical Properties of Biological Solids-Bone

Tendons, A Blood Vessels, Biological Liquids, Mucus Etc.

7) Implant Surgical Devices, Rehabilitation Devices Used For Physiological Functions

Of Human Body Systems- Improvement Or Replacement

The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

Books

1) Bio-Materials-An Interfacial Approach.

- Hence, L.I & Ethridge E.

Academic Press , Newyork

2) Bio-Materials Science & Engineering.

- J.V. Park

Plenum Press, Newyork

3) Bio-Materials Medical Devices & Tissue Engineering

- Fredrick H. Silver

Chapman & Hall , London

4) Human Bio-Materials Applications.

- Wise

505 - MODERN DIGITAL AND ANALOG COMMUNICATION

1. Introduction

Communication systems, Analog and digital messages, S/N Ratio, Channel

Bandwidth and the rate of communication, Modulation.

2. Introduction to signals

Introduction to signals, Classification of signals, Signal operations, Unit impulse

functions, Correlation.

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3. Analysis and Transmission Of Signals

Signal transmission through a linear system, Signal distortion over a

communication channel, Signal energy and energy spectral density, Signal power

and power spectral density.

4. Linear Amplitude Modulation

Base band and carrier communication, DSB, AM, QAM, SSB, Carrier acquisition,

Super heterodyne AM receiver

5. Sampling and Pulse Code Modulation

Sampling theorem, PCM, DPCM

6. Principles of Digital Data Transmission

Digital communication system, Line coding, Pulse shaping, Scrambling,

Detection-Error probability, Digital carrier systems, Digital multiplexing

7. Emerging Digital Communications Technologies

The North American Hierarchy, Digital services, Broad band digital

communication

8. Miscellaneous

Cellular telephone (Mobile radio) system, Spread spectrum systems

The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

Books:

1) "Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems,3rd Edition, B.P.Lathi,

Oxford.

2) Electronic Communications Systems", George Kennedy, TMH.

3) "Electronic communication systems", William Schweber, PHI.

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B.E. SEM VI

601 - MICROCONTROLLER & APPLICATION

1. Micro Controller : The 8051 Architecture:

8051 Micro controller Hardware, Input /Output Pins,Ports,and Circuits, External

Memory, Counter and Timers, Serial Data Input/Output, Interrupts.

2. Basic Assembly Language Programming Concepts :

A Generic Counter, The Mechanics of Programming ,The Assembly Language

Programming Process, Programming Tools and Techniques, Programming the

8051.

3. Moving Data :

Addressing Modes, External Memory Read-Only Data Moves, Push and Pop

Opcodes & Data Exchanges.

4. Logical Operations :

Byte-Level Logical Operations, Bit -Level Logical Operations, Rotate and Swap

Operations.

5. Arithmetic Operations :

Flags, Incrementing and Decrementing, addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and

Division, Decimal Arithmetic.

6. Jump and Call Instructions :

The Jump and Call Program Range, Jump, Calls and Subroutines, Interrupts and

Returns, More Detail on Interrupts.

7. An 8051 Micro controller Design :

A Micro controller Design, Testing the Design, Timing Subroutines, Lookup

Tables for the 8051,Serial Data Transmission.

8. Applications :

Keyboards, Displays, Pulse Measurement, D/A and A/D Conversions, Multiple

Interrupts.

9. Serial Data Communication:

Network Configurations,8051 Data Communication Modes.

The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

Books :

1. " The 8051 Micro controller, architecture, programming and applications" ,

K.J.Ayala - Penram International Publisher India.

2. The 8051 Micro Controller By: Mazidi & Mazidi.

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602 - THERAPEUTIC TECHNIQUES AND INSTRUMENTATION

1. Dc fibrillator: need and circuit description. Rectangular wave defibrillator,

electrodes used. DC defibrillator with synchronizer, cardioverter. Performance

aspects of DC defibrillator. Implantable defibrillator and defibrillator analyzers.

2. Dialysers: Principle of dialysis, artificial kidney, function and working of dialyser,

parallel flow dialyser, coil hemodialyser, hollow fiber hemodialyser. Performance

analysis of dialysers, membranes used for hemodialysis. Block diagram and

working of hemodialysis machine. Blood leak detector, portable kidney machine

working and flow diagram.

3. Principle of surgical diathermy. Electrosurgical equipments and techniques.

Electrotomy, fulguration, coagulation, dessication. Electrosurgery units, spark gap

valve, solid-state generator. Construction and working of surgical diathermy

machine, electrodes used. Safety aspects like burns, high frequency current

hazard, and explosion hazard, operating principle of surgical diathermy analyzer.

4. Basic concepts about LASER. LASER coherence. Its principle of operation,

properties, gain medium, pumping mechanism and resonator design. Types of

LASER : pulsed ruby laser, ND YAG laser, argon laser and CO2 laser.

Applications

of laser in

medicine: control of gastric hemorrhage by

photocoagulation, retinal detachment.

5. Short-wave, diapulse , microwave, ultrasonic therapy: circuit description,

application and dosage control. Electrotherapy: diagnosis, electrical stimulation

for pain relief, apparatus and current waveforms, electrodes. Spinal cord

stimulator and cerebral stimulation.

6. Neonatal instrumentation: Incubator : physiological heat balance, heat production

and heat loss methods. Apnea detection. Photo therapy devices.

7. Anesthesia machine: Gas supply and delivery, vapor delivery. Patient breathing

circuit. Complete schematic of anesthesia machine.

The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

Books:

1. Handbook of biomedical instrumentation

R.S. Khandpur

PUB: Tata Mcgraw- New Delhi

2. Introduction to biomedical equipment and technology

Carr and Brown PUB: Pearson Education- Asia

3. Medical instrumentation

John Webster.

PUB: John wiley and sons-New York.

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603 - BIOMECHANICS

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Mechanics of Locomotion: Muscular mechanism, GAIT & Posture.

Mechanics of muscle.

Mechanics of cardiovascular & pulmonary system

Nature and Mechanism of biological control system. Feed back control and its

components. Control of body temperature, Control of Blood pressure, Heart rate.

Control of secretion. Control of movements etc.

6. Biomechanics of solids

7. Fundamentals of fluid mechanics

8. Physiological fluid mechanics

9. Mass transfer

10. Bioheat transfer

11. The interaction of biomaterials and biomechanics

12. Locomotion and muscle biomechanics

The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

BOOKS :

Introduction to bioengg. - S. A. Berger,Lewis,Goldsmith,Oxferd Press.

Biomechanics

-Sahay & Saxena

Orthopedic Mechanics

-D. N. Ghista & Roaf

604 - COMPUTER NETWORK & DATA COMMUNICATION

1. Introduction

2. data communications: transmission media, fundamental of digital transmission,

digitization and multilevel transmission, terminal devices, wireless

communication, video conferencing

3. The OSI seven layer network model

4. LAN Technologies: overview, hardware, services and operating systems.

5. TCP/IP and the internet: architecture, protocol and datagrams, UDP,TCP, internet

standard services etc.

6. Switching and virtual LAN

7. Communication and network security: cryptography, digital certificate and public

key infrastructure,firewalls, SSL and VPN.

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Books:

1. Networks for computer scientists and engineers oxford press, Youlu zheng

2. Computer Networks Fourth Edition- Tanenbaum, PHI

3. Data & computer communication- 7th Edition-Stallins-PHI

4. Data Communication- Foruezen-TMH

605 - DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Introduction

Discrete-Time Signals and Systems :

Introduction, Discrete-Time Signals, Discrete-Time Systems, LTI Systems,

Properties of LTI Systems, Linear Constant Co-efficient Difference equations,

Frequency domain representation of Discrete-Time Signals & Systems,

Representation of sequences by Fourier Transform, Properties of Fourier

Transform, and correlation of signals Fourier Transform Theorms, Discrete-Time

random signals.

The Z- Transform:

Z-Transform, Properties of ROC for Z-transform, the inverse Z-transform, Ztransform properties.

Sampling of Continuous-Time Signals:

Periodic Sampling, Frequency domain representation of sampling,

Reconstructions of band limited signals from its samples.

Transform Analysis of Linear Time-Invariant System:

Frequency response of LTI system, System functions for systems with linear

constant-coefficient Difference equations, Freq. response of rational system

functions relationship between magnitude & phase, All pass systems,

Minimum/Maximum phase systems, Linear system with generalized.

Structures for Discrete Time Systems:

Block Diagram representation of Linear Constant-Coefficient Difference

equations, Basic Structures of IIR Systems, Transposed forms Basic Structures

for FIR Systems, Overview of finite-precision Numerical effects, Effects of Coefficient quantization, Effect of round off noise in digital filters, Zero input limit

cycles in Fixed-point realizations of IIR filters, Lattice structures.

Filter Design Techniques:

Design of Discrete-Time IIR filters from Continuous-Time filters, Design of FIR

filters by windowing Optimum approximations of FIR filters, FIR equiripple

approximations.

Discrete-Fourier Transform:

Representation of Periodic sequences: The discrete Fourier Series, Properties of

discrete Fourier Series, Fourier Transform of Periodic Signals, Sampling the

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Fourier Transform, The Discrete-Fourier Transform, Properties of DFT, Linear

Convolution using DFT.

9. Computation of Discrete-Fourier Transform:

Efficient Computation of DFT, Goertzel Algorithm, Decimation-in-Time FFT

Algorithms, Decimation-in-Frequency FFT Algorithm.

10. Applications of DSP.

The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

Books:

1. Discrete Time Signal Processing:, Oppeheim, Schafer, Buck Pearson

education publication, 2nd Edition, 2003.

2. Digital Signal Processing: Principles, Algorithm & Application, Proakis,

Manolakis, PHI, 2003, 3rd Edition.

3. Digital Signal Processing: A Computer Based approach, Sanjit Mitra,

McGrawHill

4. MATLAB users guide.

606 SEMINAR

Student is supposed to select topic on advance area of biomedical engineering and to

carry out a literature survey and based on it prepare and present the seminar.

COLLEGE

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701 - SIMULATION & MODELING OF BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

1. Introduction to Physiological control systems, Illustration- example of a physiological

control system. Difference between engineering and physiological control systems.

2. Art of modeling Physiological systems, linear models of physiological systemsdistributed parameters versus lumped parameter models. Principle of superposition.

3. Cardiovascular system modeling and simulation. Theoretical basis, model

development, heart model, circulatory model, computational flow diagram of the

cardiac system, software development.

4. Pulmonary mechanics modeling and simulation. Theoretical basis, model

development, Lung tissue viscoelastance, chest wall, airways-full model of

respiratory mechanics. Pulmonary system software development-computational flow

diagram.

5. Interaction of Pulmonary and Cardiovascular models. Computational flow diagram

for cardiopulmonary software development.

6. Eye movement system and Wetheimers saccade eye model. Oculomotor muscle

model. Linear muscle model.

7. Simple models of muscle stretch reflex action, ventilatory control action, Lung

mechanics and their SIMULINK implementation.

8. Study of steady state analysis of muscle stretch reflex action, ventilatory control

action by MATLAB tools.

9. Study of transient response analysis of neuromuscular reflex model action by

MATLAB tools.

10. Study of frequency domain analysis of linearized model of lungs mechanics,

circulatory control model and glucose insulin regulation model by MATLAB tools.

The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

Books:

1. Physiological control systems: Analysis, Simulation and Estimation.

By: Michael C.K.Khoo.

Pub: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.

2. Virtual Bioinstrumentation.Biomedical, Clinical and Healthcare applications.

By: Jon B. Olansen and Eric Rosow.

Pub: Prentice Hall PTR. Upper Saddle River, NJ.

COLLEGE

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1. Introduction to Power Electronics, Power Diodes, Power Transistors

Overview of Power Electronics, Power Semiconductor Devices, Control Characteristics

of Power Devices, Characteristics and Specification of Switches, Types of Power

Electronic Circuits, Reverse Recovery Characteristics, Types of Power Diodes, Diodes

with RC, RL, LC and RLC Loads, Free wheeling Diodes, Performance Parameters of

Rectifiers, Power BJTs, Power MOSFETs, COOLMOSs, SITs, IGBTs, MOSFET Gate

and BJT Base Drive Circuits, Isolation of Base and Gate Drive Circuits

2. Thyristors

Thyristor Characteristics, Two Transistor model of Thyristor, Thyristor Trun-On,

Thyristor Turn-Off, Types of Thyristors, Series & Parallel Connections of Thyristors,

Gate drive circuits.

3. Controlled Rectifiers

Principal of Phase Controlled Converter, Single Phase Semi Converter, Single Phase Full

Converter, Single Phase Dual Converter, Three Phase Halfwave Converters, Three Phase

Semi Converter, Three Phase Full Converter, Three Phase Dual Converter. (Without

analysis for RL load)

4. Invertors

Principal of Operation of Pulse Width Modulated Inverters, Performance Parameters,

Single Phase Bridge Inverters, Three Phase Inverters, Current Source Inverter, Series

Resonant Inverter, Parallel Resonant Inverter, Class E Resonant Inverter, Multilevel

Inverter Concept, Applications & features of Multilevel Inverter.

5. DC-DC Converters

Principal of Step Down Converter, Principle of Step UP Converter, Performance

Parameters, Converter Classification, Switch Mode Buck, Boost and Buck-Boost

Regulators, Chopper Circuit Design.

6. AC Controllers

Principal of On Off Control, Principal of Phase Control, Cycloconeverters, PWM

Controlled AC Voltage Controllers.

7. Protection of Devices and Circuits

Cooling and Heat Sinks, Snubber Circuits, Reverse Recovery, Supply and Load Side

Transients, Current & Voltage Protection, Electromagnetic Interference.

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Characteristics of DC Motor, Operating Modes of DC Drives, Single Phase DC Drives,

Breaking Schemes of DC-DC Converter Drives, Microcomputer Control of DC Drives,

Control of AC Induction Motors using Voltage, Current and Frequency Control, Stepper

Motor Control, Introduction to FACTS, Introduction to DC Power Supplies & Flyback

Converter, UPS as AC Power Supply, Magnetic Design Considerations.

The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

Books :

1. Power Electronics Circuits, Devices and Applications by Muhammad H. Rashid,

from PHI and Pearson Education. Third Edition.

2. Power Electronics by M D Singh and K B Khanchandani, TMH Publicaiton

3. Power Electronics by M S Jamil Asghar, PHI Publication

703 - REHABILITATION ENGINEERING

1) INTRODUCTION TO REHABILITATION

Meaning & types of physical, Impairment, Engineering concept in sensory & motor

rehabilitation.

2) ORTHOTICS AND ORTHOPROSTHETICS IN REHABILITATION

Intelligent prosthetic knee, Prosthetic hand, Advance and automated prosthetics and

orthotics, Externally powered and controlled orthotics and prosthetics-FES system,

Restoration of Hand function, Restoration of standing and walking, Hybrid assistive

system(HAS).Myoelectric Hand and Arm prosthesis, Intelligent Hand Prosthesis

(MARCUS ).

3) MOBILITY:

Electronic Travel Applications ( ETA ) :

Path Sounder, Laser Cane, Ultrasonic Torch, Sonic Guide, Light Probes,

Nottingham Obstacle Sensor, Electro-cortical Prosthesis, Electro Roftalam. Polarized

Ultrasonic Travel Aid. Types of wheel chair, Design of wheelchair, Ergonomic

considerations in design of wheelchair, Powered wheelchair, Tricycle, Walkers, Crutches.

4)SENSORY AUGMENTATION AND SUBSTITUATION

Classification of visual impairment, prevention and cure of visual impairment, Visual

augmentation, Tactual vision substitution, auditory substitution and augmentation,

Tactual auditory substitution, Assistive devices for the visually impaired.

COLLEGE

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Subjective and Objective measurement methods, Measurement and assessment,

Measurement, objectives and approaches, characterizing human systems and subsystems. Characterizing assistive.

6)COMPUTER APPLICATION IN REHABILITION ENGINEERING

Interfaces in compensation for visual perception, Improvement of orientation and

Mobility.

7)REHABILITATION AIDS FOR MENTALLY IMPAIRED

Sleeping aids, Seating, walking & Postural aids.

The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

BOOKS :

Rehabilitation Engineering

-Robinson C. J.

Rehabilitation Technology

-Ballabio E.

Text Book of Bio-Medical Engineering

-R. M. Kennedy

Hand Book of Bio-Medical Engineering

-Richard Skalak & Shu Chien

704 - BIOMEDICAL SIGNAL ANALYSIS

Part I: Signal Processing Techniques

1. Random Process

Stationary and nonstationary random process

Ergodicity

Correlation Matrix

Stochastic Models

Asymptotic stationary of an autoregressive process

Selecting the order of the model

2. Eigenanalysis

Eigenvalue problem

Properties of Eigenvalue and Eigenvectors

Eigenfilters

3. Weiner Filter

linear filter

Principle of orthogonality

Minimum mean-squared error .

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Wiener-Hopf Equation

Error-performance surface

Linearly constrained minimum variance filter

4. Linear Prediction

Forward Linear Prediction

Backward linear prediction

Levinson-Durbin Algorithm

Whitening property of prediction-error filters

Cholesky Factorization

Lattice Predictors

Joint-process estimation

Burg Algorithm

5. Kalman Filters

Recursive minimum mean-square estimation

Kalman filtering problem

Innovation process

State estimation using Innovation process

Filtering

Initial condition

Relations between Kalman filter and autoregressive process

Squared-root kalman filtering

6. Methods of Steepest Descent

Steepest Descent algorithm

Stability of the Steepest Descent algorithm

Transient behavior of the mean-squared error

Effects of eigenvalue spread and step-size parameter on the Steepest Descent

algorithm

7. Stochastic Gradient-Based Algorithms

Examples

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Adaptive deconvolution

Instantaneous frequency measurement

Adaptive noise cancelling

Stability analysis of the LMS algorithm

Average tap-weight behavior

Weight-error correction matrix

Mean-squared-error behavior

Transient behavior of the mean-squared error

Computer results on adaptive first order prediction

Operation of the LMS in a nonstationary environment

Normalized LMS algorithm

Gradient adaptive lattice algorithm

8. Methods of Least Squares

Statement of the linear least-squares estimation problem

Data windowing

Temporal version of the orthogonality principle

Minimum sum of error squares

Normal equation and linear least-squares filters

Properties of the time averaged correlation matrix

Properties of least-squares estimation

FBLP algorithm

MVDR spectral estimation

9. Standard Recursive Least-Squares Estimation

Exponentially weighted recursive least-squares algorithm

Convergence analysis of the RLS algorithm

Example: Results of computer experiments on adaptive equalization

Operation of the RLS in a nonstationary environment

Comparison of the LMS and RLS algorithms

Relationship between the RLS and kalman filter theory

o

o

o

Adaptive Interference Cancellation

o Stimulus Artifact canceling in Somatosensory evoked potentials

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potentials

o Ocular Artifact canceling in EEG signals

Cardiovascular System

o Arrhythmia Detection

o QRS Detection

o ECG Signal Analysis

o Heart Rate Variability Analysis

EMG Analysis

EEG Signal Processing

o

The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

Books

1. S. Haykin, "Adaptive Filter Theory", Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, 1996.

2. S. Lim, and A. V. Oppenheim, "Advanced Topics in Signal Processing," Prentice

Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1988.

3. Papers from the literature.

4. M. Akay, (Edited), "Nonlinear Biomedical Signal Processing: Dynamic analysis

and Modeling," (Vl. II), IEEE Press.

705 - PROJECT PART - I

The student will have to plan his project out and discuss the feasibility of the project with

the faculty members. Faculty member will be their internal guide.

He has to submit a report on what he intends to do and how will he proceed to do his

project. He is supposed to give a complete outline of the project work and submit as term

work in form of the report.

The intended/planned project has to be continued in sem. VIII and complete it as project

Part-II.

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801 - MEDICAL IMAGING TECHNOLOGY

Physical Principals of Imaging:

1.

Radiographic definition and Mathematics review; Electromagnetic Radiation:

Photons, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Wave Particle Duality; Interactions between

Radiation and matters; Fundamentals of acoustic propagation; Interaction between

sonic beams and matter; concepts of ultrasonic diagnostics.

2. Imaging with X-Rays:

X-ray tube: The generation: Electron-Target Interactions, X-ray emission

spectrum: Characteristic x-ray spectrum, Bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrum, Factors

affecting X-ray Emission Spectrum: Effect of mA, kVp, added filtration; X-ray unit:

generators, filters and grids; Image intensifiers; X-ray detectors: Screen film detector,

Image Intensifier; Radiographic techniques, quality and exposure.

3. X-ray Diagnostic Methods:

Fluoroscopy: Fluoroscopy and Visual Physiology, Image intensifier tube and

Multifield intensification; Angiography: Arterial access, Catheters, Contrast media;

Mammography: Soft tissue radiography, Equipments: Target composition, Filtration

grids, Photo timers, Image receptors; Xeroradiography; Digital radiography; 3-D

construction of images.

4. Computed Tomography:

Operational modes: First generation scanners, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth

generation scanners; System components: Gantry, Collimation; High Voltage generators;

Image characteristics: Image matrix, CT numbers; Image reconstruction; Image Quality:

Spatial resolution, Contrast resolution, System noise, Linearity, Spatial Uniformity.

5. Imaging with Ultrasonography:

Piezoelectric effect; Ultrasonic transducers: Mechanical and Electrical matching,;

The characteristics of transducer beam: Huygens principle, Beam profiles, Pulsed

ultrasonic filed, Visualization and mapping of the Ultrasonic field; Doppler effectDoppler methods; Pulse echo systems[Amplitude mode, Brightness mode, Motion mode

&Constant depth mode]; Tissue characterization: velocity, Attenuation or absorption,

Scattering.

6. Developments in Ultrasound technique:

Color Doppler flow imaging: CW Doppler imaging device, Pulsed Doppler

imaging system, clinical applications; Intracavity imaging: Design of the Phased array

probe, Trans oesophageal, Tannsvaginal or Transrectal scanning; Ultrasound contrast

media:

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Utilization of micro air bubbles, galactose microparticles and albumin encapsulated

microairbubbles; 3-D image reconstruction; 2-D echo cardiography

7. Biological effects of Radiation and Ultrasound and its protection:

Modes of Biological effects: Composition of the body and Human response to

Ionizing radiation; Physical and Biological factors affecting Radiosensitivity, Radiation

Dose-response relationships; Time variance of radiation exposure; Thermal / Nonthermal

effects due to cavitation in ultrasound fields; Designing of radiation protections and its

procedures.

8. Advances in Imaging:

Introduction to Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Radionuclide Imaging, Longitudinal

section Tomography, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, Positron Emission

Tomography.

9. Nuclear medical imaging: Radionuclides. Interaction of photons with matter. Data

acquisition. Imaging: image quality, equipment. Clinical use. Biological effects and

safety.

10.Infrared imaging: Infrared photography. Transillumination. Infrared imaging. Liquid

crystal thermography. Microwave thermography.

The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

Books:

1. Principles of Medical Imaging.

2. By: K. Kirk Shung, Michael B. Smith, Benjamin Tsui.

Pub:

Academic Press.

3. Radiologic science for Technologists.

4. By: Stewart C. Bushong. Pub: Mosby: A Harcourt Health Sciences

Company..

5. Quality Management: In the Imaging Sciences.

6. By: Jeffery Papp.

Pub: Mosby: A Harcourt Health Sciences Company

7. Fundamentals of medical imaging:

8. Paul suetens. Pub: Cambridge university press

9. Introduction to biomedical imaging

10. Andrew Webb.

Pub: IEEE press series : Wiley Interscience.

11. The Physics of medical imaging

12. Steve Webb. Pub: Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol and

Philadelphia.

13. Fundamentals of digital image Processing

14. Jain A K.

Pub: Prentice Hall

15. Digital Image Processing 2nd edition 1987.

16. Gonzalec R. C.

Pub: Addison Wesley and P Wintz.

GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING

COLLEGE

Sector 28, Nr.Pashujaivik,

Gandhinagar-382028.

Tel: (079)29289540 ; Fax : (079)23243708

Email: Principal_gecp@yahoo.co.in

802 - FUZZY LOGIC & NEURAL NETWORK

FUZZY LOGIC

1. Introduction. Foundation of Fuzzy sytems; Fuzzy systems at work; Fuzzy system

design.

2. Crisp us. Fuzzy sets; Fuzzy sets to fuzzy events. Fuzzy logic. Practical fuzzy

measures. Fuzzy set operations; properties of fuzzy sets, Fuzzification techniques.

Relational inference. Compositional inference. Linguistic variables and logic

operators. Inference using fuzzy variables. Fuzzy implication.

3. Fuzzy systems and algorithms, Defuzzication. Adaptive fuzzy sytems algorithms.

Expert systems vs fuzzy inference engines. Basic fuzzy inference algorithm. Overall

algorithm. Input data processing. Evaluating antecedent fuzzy variables. Left hand

side computations; Right hand side computations. Output processing.

4. Fuzzy sytem design and its elements. Design options, processes and background

requirements. Knowledge acquisition. Principle of fuzzy inference design criteria.

Systems ontology and problem types. Useful supporting design tools.

5. Fuzzy sytems: Fuzzy information; Fuzzy neural networks; Fuzzy approaches for

supervised learning networks. Fuzzy generalization of unsupervised learning

methods. Reasoning with uncertain information. Preprocessing and postprocessing

using fuzzy techniques. Application in biomedical engineering.

6. Hybrid systems: Knowledge based and data based approaches; neural network

component; time series data; Use of complex data structures; Design methodology;

Applications; Automatic ECG analyzer. Diagnosis of heart disease.

Neural Network:

1. Introduction : What is a Neural Network? , Structural Levels of Organization in the

Brain ,Models of a Neuron ,Network Architectures ,Knowledge Presentation ,Artificial

Intelligence and Neural Network

2. Learning Process:Error-Correction Learning ,Hebbian Learning ,Competitive

Learning ,Boltzman Learning ,The Credit Assignment Problem ,Supervised Learning

Reinforcement Learning ,Unsupervised Learning ,Adaptation and Learning ,Statistical

Nature of Learning Process

3. Self Organizing Systems1: Hebbian Learning:Some Intuitive Principles of Self

Organization ,Self Organized Feature Analysis ,Discussion ,Principal Component

Analysis ,A linear Neuron Model as Maximum Eigenfilter ,Self Organized Principal

Component Analysis ,Adaptive Principal Component Analysis Using Lateral

Inhibition ,Two Class of PCA Algorithm ,How Useful is Principal Component Analysis?

COLLEGE

Sector 28, Nr.Pashujaivik,

Gandhinagar-382028.

Tel: (079)29289540 ; Fax : (079)23243708

Email: Principal_gecp@yahoo.co.in

Perceptron,Temporal Back-propagation Learning,Temporal Back-propagation Learning

with Adaptive Time Delays,Back-propagation Through Time,Real-Time Recurrent

Networks,Real-Time Nonlinear Adaptive Prediction of Nonstationary signals,Partially

Recurrent Network .

5.

Neurodynamics:

Dynamical

Systems,Stability

of

Equilibrium

States,Attractors ,Strange Attractors and Chaos ,Neurodynamical Models ,Manipulation

of Attractors as a Recurrent Network Paradigm ,Dynamics of Hopfield Models ,The

Cohen Grossberg Theorem,A Hopfield Model as a Content-Addressable Memory ,BrainState-in-a-Box Model ,Recurrent Back-propagation .

The Practical and Term work will be based on the topics covered in the syllabus.

Books:

1. Fuzzy systems Design Principles.

By: Riza C. Berkan and Sheldon L. Trubateh.

Pub: Standard Publishers and Distributors. Delhi.

2. Fuzzy Control Systems.

By: Abraham Kandel and Gideon Langholz.

Pub: CRC Press- Boca Raton.

3. Biomedical engineering handbook.

By: Joseph D Bronzino

Pub: CRC Press IEEE Press

4. S. Haykin, Neural Networks: A comprehensive foundation, NJ: Prentice-Hall,

1999

803 -HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT

Hospital Organization:

1. Various Aspects Of Hospital Services:

2. Outdoor Patient, Indoor, Supportive, Emergency, Dietary, Nursing, Medical

Supplies Etc.

3. Hospital Administrative Hierarchy

4. Typical Layout of a Hospital Shoving Various Departments.

5. Organization of Various Clinical Departments.

6. Organization Of Bio-Medical Engineering Department

7. Duties & Responsibilities Activity Planning Dept Layout, Staff Deployment ,

Equipment Deployment , Tools Requirement , Planning Of Document Such As

GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING

COLLEGE

Sector 28, Nr.Pashujaivik,

Gandhinagar-382028.

Tel: (079)29289540 ; Fax : (079)23243708

Email: Principal_gecp@yahoo.co.in

Operating Manual, Ckt Diagrams, Data-Book, Preventive Maintenance Schedule,

Data Bases Of Equipment Supply, Tech. Specification Of Equipments, List Of Users,

Spare Part List.

8. Patient Care Services Recovery Room , ICU, ICCU, PICU,NICU

9. Support Services: Central Sterilization Service, Kitchen, Laundry Etc.

10. Engineering Services:

11. Organization Of Operation Theatre

12. Blood Bank

13. Physiotherapy & Rehabilitation Center

14. Others

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Hospital Management:

General Management Functions: Planning, Co-Coordinating, Monitoring,

Controlling, Decision Marking, Motivation

Management Information System For Hospital : Information gathering &

acquisition, flow, storage, processing, hospital statistics, use of computer in

database management.

Material Management

Personnel Management

Quality Management & Audit

Maintenance Management

Waste Management

Cost Control & Financial Management

Books:

1. Principles of Hospital Administration & Planning

--Dr. B.M. Sakharkar, J.P.Brothers

2.Managing Administration Morden Hospital

--A B Srinivasan ,Response Book

3.Hospital Planning & Administration

--Clewelyn-Davis , J.P.Brothers

4.Human Resource Management In Hospital

--R.C.Coyal,Phi New Delhi

5.Hospital & Health Care Administration

--Shakti Gupta ,J.P.Brothers

COLLEGE

Sector 28, Nr.Pashujaivik,

Gandhinagar-382028.

Tel: (079)29289540 ; Fax : (079)23243708

Email: Principal_gecp@yahoo.co.in

The intended/ planned project has to be continued in Sem. VIII and complete it as project

Part-II.

of principal

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