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SALIENT ISSUES AND FEATURES OF USING

INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN


SCIENCE EDUCATION

PROF DR AFTAB AHMAD MALIK


Ph.D.(UKC-England); M.Phil. M.Sc.

CURRENTLY:
CHAIRMAN & DIRECTOR
GC UNIVERSITY, LAHORE PAKISTAN
dr_aftab_malik@yahoo.com

FORMERLY:

HEAD LEARNING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND


ACTING VICE CHANCELLOR,
UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION LAHORE PAKISTAN

• CHAIRMAN
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, LAHORE PAKISTAN

ABSTRACT
Salient issues related to Information Communication Technology in Science, Engineering
and Mathematics Education are highlighted. The standards and benchmarks are defined
along with the prerequisites such as competent faculty who could use effectively ICT
facilities outline in the paper and how the students capabilities can be enhanced and
improved using ICT. The effects of ICT are discussed in the area of Science Education. The
need how to effectively select, prepare, develop and disseminate the instructional material
to be used for students has been detailed.

University of south Asia Conference

PROF DR AFTAB AHMAD MALIK


Ph.D.(UKC-England); M.Phil. M.Sc.

SALIENT ISSUES AND FEATURES OF USING INFORMATION


COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN SCIENCE EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND:

The growth of use of Information and Communications Technology and its tools in the field of
Education has seen tremendous growth in the recent past. Technology has entered the classroom
in a dramatic manner to become part of a teaching and learning process in Education specially
the Science Education. Information Technology (ICT)[ is a broad subject concerned with the
use of technology in managing and processing information.

The major area of concern is effective use of electronic computers and computer software to
convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and retrieve information for learning purpose. An
international network first used to connect education and research networks, begun by the US
government. The Internet now provides communication and application services to an
international base of businesses, consumers, educational institutions, governments, and research
organizations. By Internet-based training we mean training delivered primarily by TCP/IP
network technologies such as email, newsgroups, proprietary applications, and so forth.
Although the term is often used synonymously with Web-based training or Internet-based
training.

In the United Kingdom education system, information technology was formally integrated into
the institution curriculum when the National Curriculum was devised. It was quickly realized
that the work covered was useful in all subjects particularly in Science Education. With the
arrival of the Internet and the broadband connections to all institution, the application of IT
knowledge, skills and understanding in all subjects became a reality. This change in emphasis
has resulted in a change of name from Information Technology (I.T) to Information and
Communication Technology (ICT). ICT in Education can be understood as the application of
digital equipment to all aspects of teaching and learning.

The information Communication Technology is actually Innovation Technology which is one


of things that is used throughout the world Technology [from Gr. technologia (τεχνολογια) <
techne (τεχνη) "craft" + logia (λογια) "saying" ] is an encompassing term dealing with the
knowledge of humanity's tools and crafts. Normally, it can be difficult to distinguish junk
information from good information obtained from internet because information is good, more
information is better, and that anything done using the internet is necessarily better than it would
have been otherwise.

We need to prepare technology-proficient educators to meet the needs of the day. Learning is a
critical educational challenge facing the nation. More than two thirds of the nation's teachers will
be replaced by new teachers over the next decade. Therefore, it is crucial to ensure that the next
generation of future teachers emerging from the nation's teacher education programs is prepared
to meet this challenge.
EDUCATION STANDARDS AND THE BENCHMARKS

This goal involves developing meaningful understandings of science that is connected to every
day life and decision making. The science education community as a whole has not clarified how
information technology complements and promotes the goals of science teaching. Educators
experiences with natural phenomenon. Before jumping on the technology bandwagon, science
educators want to consider the content and skills they want children to learn and the ways
technology can help children learn. In order to implement and convince teachers/educators that
appropriate use of Information Technology can make their jobs easier. We should encourage
teachers to teach in ways they have not taught before.

They must develop technology innovations that appeal to a large variety of learning styles.
Because educational research will follow practice, science education needs to find advocates
who are committed to developing appropriate uses ' compelling cases. Researchable situations
are necessary, and agreement on important research questions would be helpful. There is
currently no shared vision for education research, in general Technology must be an enabler.
Right now it is often an end in itself.

It is still not recognized for the useful means that it can be. Help teachers/educators develop a
vision for ways technology can help accomplish what we think is important to accomplish. We
need to determine what technology is needed to help science educators teach what they think is
important to teach. If they ask for it, may be they will get it from the management.

Science educators participating in the retreat look for information communication technology
that promotes inquiry learning and makes scientific views more accessible to students. Tools
science educators are currently using include equipment linked with computers such as Digital
microscopes, Simulation software, Weather stations, Electronics circuits, Web sites with
simulators and data collections, Spreadsheets, Graphing calculators and Presentation software.

Some uses of technology are employed in much the same way in every discipline. These generic
tools include use of video-conferencing to link students at different locations, use of
communication tools such as electronic mail and Internet discussion groups, and productivity
tools. In every case the degree of access to information communication technology, available
bandwidth, and convenience of use affects the extent to which it will be used.

Although some uses of this technology transcend academic disciplines, other uses are more
applicable in specific content areas. The widespread use of graphing calculators has transformed
secondary mathematics education. Increasing access to primary on-line sources has similar
potential to transform social studies and history. The use of simulation software enhances the
learning of complex concepts in science education. Access to audiences for written works could
potentially change aspects of English education. These uses are particularly suited for specific
disciplines ' graphing calculators were designed to support mathematics education. As a
corollary, it is often the case that teacher education faculty are most familiar with uses specific to
their academic discipline.
Technology should be used to support exploration, conceptual learning, and applications of
Mathematics and Engineering. Some specific tools would include Graphing calculators,
technologies, Spreadsheets, MATLAB, Dynamic geometry programs Probability and statistics
software, SAP the Statistical Application Software, Topic specific software, Computer algebra
systems, Mathematics related websites as well as Communication tools (e.g., e-mail, video-
conferencing). Presentation tools, Digital video. These shall help trainers and learner to facilitate
the process more easily and conveniently

As stressed by the 2005 World Summit and the World Summit on the Information
Society (WSIS), information and communication technology must be effectively integrated into
development activities if the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium
Development Goals, are to be achieved within the agreed time frame. The mission of the Global
Alliance for ICT and Development will be to facilitate and promote such integration by
providing a platform for an open, inclusive, multi-stakeholder cross-sectoral policy dialogue on
the role of information and communication technology in development.

The role of information and communication technology in economic development and


eradication of poverty, employment and enterprise in pro-poor growth scenarios, with particular
focus on health, education, gender, youth, disabled and disadvantaged segments of society.

ESSENTIAL PREREQUISITES

The following are essential ingredients and prerequisites for successful use of information
communication technology:

Faculty are technically competent, knowledgeable about online pedagogy, Technology is easily
accessible by faculty and they are motivated to teach online, technology is easily accessible by
students, students are motivated to learn online, Courses allow for interaction between students,
Content is logically arranged within the course, Courses allow for interaction between faculty
and students, learning objectives are known, Assessment practices are consistent with stated
learning objectives, Courses actively engage the learner, courses necessary for the degree are
available online, institution has the technical infrastructure to support digital library (DL),
Technical training is available to faculty and students, assistance is available to faculty in
developing content for their courses, the institution provides avenues for peer assistance and/or
mentoring, an orientation to DL is available and/or required of students, the institution provides
faculty assistance in adhering to copyright policies, the institution has a clear policy on
intellectual property right, Digital Library is included within the institution's strategic plan.

The connections between technology-based instruction and test scores, institution should focus
on the most obvious and compelling reason form implementing technology-namely, that students
need strong technology skills to succeed in the world of work. The most salient effects of
information communication technology on learning are that it enhances Student’s Achievements,
Connects Students to a Changing World, better Students Through Technology. Research work
is involved in learning.
ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

Through the use of advanced computing and telecommunications technology, learning can also
be qualitatively different. The process of learning in the classroom can become significantly
richer as students have access to new and different types of information, can manipulate it on the
computer through graphic displays or controlled experiments in ways never before possible, and
can communicate their results and conclusions in a variety of media to their teacher, students in
the next classroom, or students around the world.

Using ICT students can collect and graph real-time weather, environmental, and populations
data from their community, use that data to create color maps and graphs, and then compare
these maps to others created by students in other communities. Similarly, instead of reading
about the human circulatory system and seeing textbook pictures depicting blood flow,
students can use technology to see blood moving through veins and arteries, watch the
process of oxygen entering the bloodstream, and experiment to understand the effects of
increased pulse or cholesterol-filled arteries on blood flow. Properly used, technology can
enhance the achievement of all students, increase families’ involvement in their children’s
institution, improve teachers’ skills and knowledge, and improve institution administration
and management.

AREAS IN WHICH ICT IMPROVES STUDENTS CAPABILITIES:

Following are the areas:

Basic Skills Instruction, Computer assisted instruction to drill , Multi-media software - teach to a
variety of learning styles, Videodiscs - strengthen basic skills ,Video and audio technologies -
bring material to life ,Distance learning - at least as effective as traditional methods of
instruction. All forms - develop new skills related to use of ICT itself, necessary in work-place.
The Advanced Skills Instruction improves the interactive educational technologies, including:

Computer-generated simulations, Videodiscs , use of Internet and CD-ROM, Students learn to:
organize complex information, recognize patterns, draw inferences, communicate findings and
learn better organizational and problem-solving skills. Moreover, in the area of Assessment of
Student Progress it is more comprehensive with multimedia, assessments which require student’s
active participation and it is very effective in electronic portfolios. On the point of view of
student motivation, it well known that they like it better.

We know that successful technology-rich institutions generate impressive results for students,
including improved achievement; higher test scores; improved student attitude, enthusiasm,
and engagement; richer classroom content; and improved student retention and job
placement rates. The positive benefits from the use of technology, two are worth noting for their
comprehensiveness. The first, that the use of technology resulted in educational gains for all
students regardless of age, race, parental income, or other characteristics. The second, that
student provided with technology-rich learning environments ‘continued to perform well on
standardized tests but were also developing a variety of competencies not usually measured.
Students explore and represent information dynamically and in many forms; became socially
aware and more confident; communicated effectively about complex processes; became
independent learners and self-starters; knew their areas of expertise and shared that expertise
spontaneously. In the ICT oriented institutions the score rises, attendance is improved, students
comprehension and motivation is enhanced, attitude towards studies becomes positive and
strong.

NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF COMPUTERS AND ICT

One issue that the possibility of any negative effects from prolonged exposure to computers
needs to be mentioned. Some critics have worried that students who use computers extensively
will become ‘brain-dead’ or less social from looking at the computer screen all day. But
these worst fears are groundless. Rather the student perform well as they might have been
expected to do without the computers; some were doing better.

POSITIVE EFFECTS OF ICT

ICT is making a significant, positive impact on Science Education. Educational technology as


demonstrated a significant positive effect on achievement. Positive effects have been found for
all major subject areas, in preschool through higher education, and for both regular education and
special needs students. Evidence suggests that interactive video is especially effective when the
skills and concepts to be learned have a visual component and when the software incorporates a
research-based instructional design. Use of online telecommunications for collaboration across
classrooms in different geographic locations has also been show to improve academic skills.

Education technology has been found to have positive effects on student attitudes toward
learning and on student self-concept. Students felt more successful in institution, were more
motivated to learn and have increased self-confidence and self-esteem when using computer-
based instruction. This was particularly true when the technology allowed learners to control
their own learning. The level of effectiveness of educational technology is influenced by the
specific student population, the software design, the teacher’s role, how the students are grouped,
and the level of student access to the technology.

Students trained in collaborative learning, had higher self esteem and student achievement.
Introducing technology into the learning environment has been shown to make learning more
student-centered, to encourage cooperative learning, and to stimulate increased teacher/student
interaction. Positive changes in the learning environment brought about by technology are more
evolutionary than revolutionary. These changes occur over a period of years, as teachers become
more experienced with technology.

Courses for which computer-based networks were used increased student-student and student-
teacher interaction, increased student-teacher interaction with lower-performing. The
connections between technology-based instruction and test scores, institution should focus on the
most obvious and compelling reason form implementing technology-namely, that students need
strong technology skills to succeed in the world of work. The important point is how to how to
evaluate the effectiveness of ICT implementation. The uses for ICT are endless. Education
change and technology planning are state and local issues. The Federal Governments can assist
in the acceleration of technology plans.

INGREDIENTS OF EFFECTIVE LEARNING USING ICT

The important ingredients are :

Access: connectivity and interconnectivity, design for equitable use, Operability:


interoperability, open architecture, transparency, Resource location and direction: distributed,
user control of input, designed for collaborative projects, Capacity for engagement: provide
access to authentic and challenging tasks, interesting and useful databases or information sets
and powerful relationships, take charge of learning, problem solving and exploring, provide
information that is just in time and just enough, make explicit what is typically implicit, diagnose
learning problems, adapt the system output and learning opportunities in light of diagnoses,
customize learning for specific interests, levels of ability and learning preferences. Ease of use:
effective help, user friendliness, speed of processing and operations, user control, training and
support. Information Communication Technology is also empowering teachers as instructional
designers, authors, and presenters. The ease of publishing on the web has provided a new outlet
for those teachers who have always enjoyed creating original instructional materials and for
those dissatisfied with predigested pre-synthesized textbooks.

That these materials are now accessible to a vast audience beyond the classroom and that they
can provide one-click links to relevant supporting research and documentation has proven to be a
powerful lure for the authors among us. .

DEVELOP AND SELECT INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS


In this step you will use your instructional strategy to produce the instruction. This typically
includes a learner's manual, instructional materials, and tests. (When we use the term
instructional materials. we are including all forms of instruction such as instructor's guides,
student modules, overhead transparencies, videotapes, computer-based multimedia formats,
and web pages for distance learning. We intend the term materials to have this broad
connotation.) The decision to develop original materials will depend on the type of learning to be
taught, the availability of existing relevant materials, and developmental resources available to
you. Criteria for selecting from among existing materials are provided.

DESIGN AND CONDUCT TBE FORMATIVE EVALUATION OF


INSTRUCTION
Following the completion of a draft of the instruction, a series of evaluations is conducted to
collect data that are used to identify how to improve the instruction. The three types of formative
evaluation are referred to as one-to- one evaluation, small-group evaluation, and field
evaluation. Each type of evaluation provides the designer with a different type of information
that can be used to improve the instruction. Similar techniques can be applied to the formative
evaluation of existing materials or classroom instruction.
REVISE INSTRUCTION
The final step (and the first step in a repeat cycle) is revising the instruction. Data from the
formative evaluation are summarized and interpreted to attempt to identify difficulties
experienced by learners in achieving the objectives and relate these difficulties to specific
deficiencies in the instruction. The line in the figure on pages 2 and 3 labeled "Revise
Instruction" indicates that the data from a formative evaluation are not simply used to revise the
instruction itself, but are used to reexamine the validity of the instructional analysis and the
assumptions about the entry behaviors and characteristics of learners. It is necessary to
reexamine statements of performance objectives and test items in light of collected data. The
instructional strategy is reviewed and finally all this is incorporated into revisions of the
instruction to make it a more effective instructional tool.

PREPARATION OF LEARNING MATERIAL


When the systems approach is used, some form of instructional materials is almost always
created. These materials were initially referred to as programmed instruction. As the format
changed, they became learning activity packages and modules. We will simply refer to
instruction. A module is usually a self-instructional printed unit of instruction that has an
integrated theme, provides students with information needed to acquire and assess specified
knowledge and skills, and serves as one component of a total curriculum. While printed modules
are still quite popular as a format for instruction, more and more designers are choosing to use
computers, and specifically the Internet, as the mechanism for delivering selected modules, a
complete unit of instruction, or a total curriculum. Systematically designed instruction requires
learners to interact actively with the instructional materials rather than simply allowing them to
read the materials passively.

The learners are asked to perform various types of learning tasks and receive feedback on that
performance. Some type of testing strategy informs the learners whether they achieved mastery
of the content and what they should do if they did not. Based on the description of prior
paragraphs, how would you recognize a module if you saw one? In its most simple form, a
module might include a statement to students that says what it is they are about to learn and how
they will be tested. It would provide printed instructional materials as well as some practice
exercises. A self-test that might be used prior to taking a terminal test could also be included. A
more complex module might contain all of the items listed above, but might also incorporate a
number of alternative sets of materials from which the learner could choose the one
most appropriate.

Alternative media forms such as a web site or videotapes could also be included. In addition, the
learner might go to a laboratory to conduct an experiment or go outside the learning environment
to gather information. Keep in mind two important points. First, it is not possible to examine
instructional materials and decide whether they contain all the components of systematically
designed instruction. Many factors enter into the design decisions that determine what is and is
not included. Second, you cannot determine by inspection whether instruction has been
systematically designed. The systems approach is a process that is followed by designers, but it
is not necessarily apparent by reviewing instructional materials. For example, simply inserting a
set of objectives at the beginning of each chapter in a textbook does not mean that the textbook
has been systematically designed.

THE CONCEPT OF VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY

ILT (Instructor-Led Training): Usually refers to traditional classroom training, in which an


instructor teaches a course to a room of learners. The term is used synonymously with on-site
training and classroom training (c-learning).

The Virtual University, Pakistan’s first University based completely on modern Information and
Communication Technologies, was established by the Government as a public sector. It uses
free-to-air satellite television broadcasts and the Internet, the Virtual University allows students
to follow its rigorous programs regardless of their physical locations. It thus aims at alleviating
the lack of capacity in the existing universities while simultaneously tackling the acute shortage
of qualified professors in the country. Real-time text-based communication in a virtual
environment. Chat can be used in e-learning for student questions, instructor feedback, or even
group discussion. Chat room is place where a virtual meeting space on the Internet, an intranet,
or other network, used for real-time text discussions is used. Unlike one-to-one instant
messenger applications, chat rooms enable conversations among multiple people at once.
configurations. Several courseware are presented. A Courseware is a type of instructional or
educational course delivered via a software program or over the Internet.

E-LEARNING (ELECTRONIC LEARNING)

Term covering a wide set of applications and processes, such as Web-based learning, computer-
based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital collaboration. It includes the delivery of content
via Internet, intranet/extranet (LAN/WAN), audio- and videotape, satellite broadcast, interactive
TV, CD-ROM, and more. . IEEE (The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) is
an organization whose Learning Technology Standards Committee is working to develop
technical standards, recommended practices, and guides for computer implementations of
education and training systems. The IMS (Instructional Management System) Global
Learning Consortium: Coalition of government organizations dedicated to defining and
distributing open architecture interoperability specifications for e-learning products. ILS is
(integrated learning system): A complete software, hardware, and network system used for
instruction. In addition to providing curriculum and lessons organized by level, an ILS usually
includes a number of tools such as assessments, record keeping, report writing, and user
information files that help to identify learning needs, monitor progress, and maintain student
records.

DISTANCE LEARNING/ DISTANCE EDUCATION


The effectiveness of distance learning must be measured in results—quality learning. Learner-
center programs and competent instructors are two oft-cited keys to success in higher education.
Teaching online requires specific skill sets (competencies). Distance learning, sometimes called
e-learning, is a formalized teaching and learning system specifically designed to be carried out
remotely by using electronic communication. Because distance learning is less expensive to
support and is not constrained by geographic considerations, it offers opportunities in situations
where traditional education has difficulty operating. Students with scheduling or distance
problems can benefit, as can employees, because distance education can be more flexible in
terms of time and can be delivered virtually anywhere. DE is simply learning from a distance,
usually from home, or from a conveniently located off-campus site. DL allows adults to earn
college credits, even entire degrees, without ever leaving home. DL makes use of the Internet,
software, modems, TV stations, 2-way television using fiber optics, and digital phone lines,
satellites, videocassette and audio tape, and the ever-popular mailbox, to deliver instruction.

POPULAR DISTANCE LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES INCLUDE:

• Voice-centered technology, such as CD or Webcasts


• Video technology, such as instructional videos, DVDs, and interactive videoconferencing
• Computer-centered technology delivered over the Internet or corporate intranet

distance learning can be as effective as the traditional format when the methods are appropriate
to the teaching tasks, there is student-teacher interaction, and the teachers provide students with
appropriate and timely feedback

BROADBAND LEARNING

Broad base learning solutions act as the interface for world leading interactive learning
solutions and provides the support needed to successfully implement them within your
organization. We currently represent two leaders in their field and as we grow we will seek to
further extend our portfolio with the aim of only offering and supporting a complementary range
of world class learning solutions.

NEW ROLES FOR LEARNERS AND TEACHERS IN ONLINE HIGHER


EDUCATION

Zane Berge is Director of Training System, Instructional Systems Development Graduate


Program at the University of Maryland System, UMBC Campus. His scholarship in the field of
computer-mediated communication and distance education includes numerous articles, chapters,
workshops, and presentations. Most notably are Berge and Collins’ published books. First, a
three volume set, Computer-Mediated Communication and the Online Classroom, (1995) that
encompasses higher and distance education. Following that was a four volume set, Wired
Together: Computer-Mediated Communication in the K-12 Classroom. Recently, he along with
Dr. Deborah Schreiber, co-edited, Distance Training (Jossey-Bass, 1998). Berge’s latest book is,
Sustaining Distance Training with emphasis on the emergence of technologies that make it easier
for two-way communication, such as teleconferencing and web-based, computer-mediated
communication, the image of the independent distant learner is changing.

According to him historically, in higher education there has been a teacher-centered focus on
transferring knowledge from expert to novice. Today, the goals of education, demographics of
the population, and the lifestyles of students are converging to cause a focus on students being
transformed into self-directed, life-long learners who construct meaning, both individually and
socially. Taken together, these factors demand a cultural change within higher education that
both necessary and painful to teachers and learners.

CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH TO ONLINE LEARNING:

What does this mean for online learners? In general, online teachers seem to value involved
learners who often show a lot of self-direction. They also value, as a goal of education, the
development of students as lifelong learners and view learning as an active, constructive and co-
constructive process that depends on rich contexts, cooperation and teamwork. While there are
notable exceptions, most online teachers’ make statements that appear to model a constructivist
approach to designing a learning environment.

Constructivist instruction is based on the premise that the student is a naturally active learner
who constructs new personalized knowledge via linking prior knowledge and new knowledge.
Authentic knowledge provides the content for the instructional process, which involves an
interactive and collaborative dialogue between the teacher and the student. The teacher
orchestrates the instruction within the student’s “zone of proximal development”(Vygotsky,
1978) by providing assistance when the learner seems inefficient or frustrated. This zone refers
to the instructional area between where the learner has independence (mastery) and what can be
achieved with competent assistance (potential). Constructivists differ concerning the degree of
help the teacher should provide; however, some common instructional practices of the teacher
include modeling cognitive processes, providing guided instruction, encouraging reflection about
thinking, giving feedback and encouraging transfer. The teacher focuses on guiding the student
to achieve success and become a self-regulated strategic learner (Mercer et. Al., 1994:292).

The range of student-teacher interactions online can be very broad however, including teachers
who state student should discover new knowledge without explicit instruction from the teacher,
to others who engage in very direct instruction. Common teaching techniques, styles, and
methods used by online teachers are discussion, collaborative learning, authentic learning
activities, and self-reflection/self-assessment. By collaboration I mean the joint intellectual effort
by students in peer groups, or students and teachers together, with the emphasis on the students’
exploration of the course goals rather than the teachers’ presentation or delivery of course
materials and content. By authentic learning activities I mean teachers who promote inquiry
learning, problem-solving using real world problems, practice – or project-centered activities, or
case study.

USEFUL REFERENCES
1. World Summit on the Information Society, Geneva 2003 - Tunis 2005 Press Release
DEV/2572 PI/1707. UNO
2. Global alliance for information technologies and development to be launched, Press Release,
DEV/2572 ,PI/1707, UNO.
3. http://www.nsba.org/itte
4. http://www.aspensys.com/eric
5. http://www.ed.gov/Technology
6. Global alliance for ICT policy and development, Inaugural Meeting, Kuala Lumpur, 19-20
June 2006
7. Zane Berge , UMBC (Baltimore)
berge@umbc.edu

8. New Roles for Educators, by Margaret Johnson February 4, 2000

9. Mark Windschitl 1 *, Thomas Andre 2


115 Miller Hall, Box 353600, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195
Department of Psychology, W112 Lagomarcino, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-
3180

10. Berge, Z.L.(1999). Educational technology in post-industrial society. In J.G.Webster(Ed.)


Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Volume 6. N.Y: John Wiley
and Sons, Inc., Publishers. Pp. 187-197.

11. Berge, Z.L. and Muilenburg, L.Y.(2000). Barriers to distance education as perceived by
managers and administrators. In the Proceedings of the Distance Learning Administration
2000 Conference. Callaway Gardens, GA. June 7-9.[Online.]
http://www.gl.umbc.edu/~berge/man_admin.html

12. Mercer, C.D. Jordan, L.A., & Miller, S.P.(1994). Implications of constructivism for teaching
Math to students with moderate to mild disabilities. The Journal of Special Education,
28(3).pp.290-306

13. Renner,P.(1993). The art of teaching adults. Vancouver, BC: Training Associates.

14. Vygotsky, L.S.(1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

15. Harasim, L.M. (1987). Teaching and learning on-line:Issues in computer-mediated graduate
courses. Canadian Journal for Educational Communication, 16(2); 117-35.

16. Harasim, L.M. (1990). Online Education: An environment for collaboration and intellectual
amplification. In L.M. Harasim (Ed). Online Education : Perspectives on a New Environment.
pp. 36-64. NY:Praeger Publishing.

17. Kaye, A. (1989). Computer-mediated communication and distance education. In R. Mason


and A. Kaye, Mindweave: Communication, Computers and Distance Education.pp.3-21,
Oxford: Pergamon Press

18. Sproull, L., & Kiesler, S. (1986). Reducing social context cues: Electrical mail in
organizational communication. Management Science, 32, 1492-1512.

19. Waggoner, M.D. (1992). Empowering Networks: Computer Conferencing in Education.


Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

20 Zelmer, A.E., & Zelmer, A.C. (1993). Distance education: No apologies. Paper presented at
TELETEACHING ’93. Trondheim, Norway.

21. Berge, Z.L.(1996). Technology and the changing roles of students, teachers, curriculum and
institutions. In the Proceedings of the 4th Annual Leading Edge Training Technologies
(LETT) Conference. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. March 19-50, 1996.

22. Gunawardena, C.N. (1992). Changing faculty roles for audiographics and online teaching.
The American Journal of Distance Education. 6(3):58-71

23 Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to Use Technology , Edited by LYNN BELL


University of Virginia
HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION
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Email: slahmad@hec.gov.pk
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this space and
attach the 2nd with
this form)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION


H-9, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN, Tel: (051) 90406662/661, Fax No, 9040660
Email: slahmad@hec.gov.pk
Page 2 of 4
15. Name of your University / Institution ________________________________
16. Designation _______________________________
17. Year of completion of your PhD, or year of registration for PhD (In case if you have
not completed the PhD) ____________________________________________________
18. Kindly give details of the professional research/teaching experience in any
specialized field related to Social Sciences & humanities (No of years, your area of
Research & Experience etc. _________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
19. Kindly provide details of your published work papers/research articles in National/
International journals in the fields of Social Sciences & Humanities. ________________
20. Name & Address of University/Institute/DAI for visit / linkage __________________
________________________________________________________________________
21. Provide details of the existing link (s) of your University / Institution, and in what
area does the link exist? ____________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
22. What is the objective of the visit / linkage; the benefits to your Research /Teaching,
and the benefits to your Department/Institution? _________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
23. Do you have an invitation / acceptance from the host institution? ________________
(please attach the invitation)
24. Please provide your proposal plan with clearly mentioned time lines._____________
_______________________________________________________________________
(You may add on text here)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION


H-9, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN, Tel: (051) 90406662/661, Fax No, 9040660
Email: slahmad@hec.gov.pk
Page 3 of 4
25. ACADEMIC RECORD
26. Specialization in last Degree (if any) _____________________________
26. EMPLOYMENT RECORD
S.
No.
Employer’s
Name
Address of the
Organization
Scale
of Pay
Designation
Type of
Employment
(Regular /
Contract)
Period of
Service
from - to
27. UNDERTAKING BY THE APPLICANT
It is solemnly affirmed that I, Mr/Miss/Ms__________________________NIC
No__________________, working as _________________________________ of
____________________________________________________University/Institution/
DAI have read and understood the conditions of the award of this program / scheme
advertised in the press and that the decision of HEC would be final and binding.
And that in the event any information contained herein is found to be untrue, I shall be
liable to disciplinary action which may result in termination of service and recovery of
full amount spent on me in connection with this award.
Date: __________ Applicant’s Signature_________________
Office stamp________________________
Degree
Year of
Passing
Field of Study
Division/
Grade %
Board/
University
PhD
MA/ M. Sc/
M. Phil
BA/ B. Sc
HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION
H-9, ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN, Tel: (051) 90406662/661, Fax No, 9040660
Email: slahmad@hec.gov.pk
Page 4 of 4
28. ATTESTATION BY THE REGISTRAR/DEAN/HEAD OF THE INSTITUION
Certified that the statement made above has been verified and found to be true and leave
to participate in the National/International Linkage Programme for the mentioned period
would be sanctioned if he/she is selected for the above mentioned programme.
Date: _____________ Name & Signature: _________________
Designation: ________________
Office Stamp: ________________
Please enclose your CV and testimonials with essential information (Academic
/Employment record etc.)
Please send application form
along with attested copies of Degrees / Certificates to:
SULAIMAN AHMAD
Social Sciences & Humanities Department,
Sector H-9, Islamabad
Ph: 051-9040662/661, Fax: 9040660
Email: slahmad@hec.gov.pk

Mr. Tahir Naeem


COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Plot # 30, Sector H-8/1, Islamabad – Pakistan
Ph: + 92-51-9257135 – 37, 925715
Fax : +92-51-9257151
URL: www.init.org.pk
e-mail: init@comsats.edu.pk

Paper Submission
Academicians, practitioners, and researchers
active in IT and Education are invited to submit
technical papers in any of the above identified
focus areas

Prof. Dr. Izzet KALE


Dean, Faculty of Engineering
Eastern Mediterranean University,
Famagusta, TRNC, Via Mersin 10 Turkey
Tel: +90-(392)-630-1380 Fax: +90-(392)-630-2989
e-mail : izzet.kale@emu.edu.tr

Important Dates Co-Organized by


Submission
of Full Paper 30th September 2006
Notification of
Acceptance 16th October 2006
Final Submission 5th November 2006 COMSTECH INIT CIIT EMU