Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 504

. : . . - .: , 1998. - 688 .

: .

.................................................................................................................. 2
................................................................... 4
1. .............................................................................. 6
I. .......................................................... 24
2. ..................................................................................................... 24
3. .............................................................................. 44
4. ........................................................................................... 62
5. ................................................................... 87
6. ............................................................................................ 113
7. ......................................................... 132
8. ......................... 165
II. ........................................................................ 188
9. , ................................................... 188
10. ..................................................... 209
11. ........................................................ 229
12. ......................................................................... 253
III. ........................................................................... 274
13. ..................................................................................................... 274
14. .......................................................................................... 301
15. .................................................................................................. 323
16. ........................................................................ 346
17. .......................................................................... 365
IV. : ................... 384
18. ................................................................. 384
19. ............................ 410
20. ................................................. 433
.................................................................................... 452
............................................................................................................... 471
............................................................................................................. 479



. .
?
, ,
, ,
,

. ,
, , .

,
,
,
.
, /5/
,
. .
.

.
,
.
,
. , ,
. . ,
, ,
. ,
,
,
,
.
.
. , ,
.
.
,
, . "
,

- ",
. . ,
,
/6/ ,

.
2

,
.
,
, .
.
, , ,

. :
,
, .
, , ,
! ,
.
, ,
.
, , ,
.

,

. .
,
, ,
. ,

. ,
.
. ,
, ,

. /9/

, . ,
, , ,
- .

. , ,
,

. ,

, , ,
. /10/
..


.

, . , ,
,

, -
.
,
.
, , .
: ,
.
,

.
, , , .
,

. , , ,
, ,
.
,

. /11/
,
. ,
1985
,
, . , ,
, ,
,
,
.
.

. , ,
.
,
,
,
. ,
; , , . ,
, , , ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
(
)
.
4

,
: 1917
. ""
-
, , ,
. ,
.
, ""
"" -
/12/ XX . ,

.

,
: " *
(* , . (.)) ".
, . ,
, , ,
. ,
,
.
.
,
. ,
** (** . Gemeinschaft (.) ,
Geselischaft ) ,
,
. ,

,
, .
, ,
, .

,
. /13/
.
,

1.
, , .
, ,
, , -, ,
, .. , ,
. ,
.
, ?
, , , ,
. (
3- .)
, .
, , ,
.
. ,
? (

;
, .)
, ,
, ,
. 100 .
,- ,
. .

/14/ ? ,
, , ,
, . ,
, , ,
, ,
, .
, , , ,
, , ,
.
:
, ,
.
? ,
,
?
. , , -
. , ,
, , , ,
. : ,
,
.
. 1-1, , , ,
: ,
.
,
. . 1-2 :
6

, ,
. , ,
.
,

.
, ,
, ,
,
. /15/
1-1.

15 000 . (52 15 000 . (48


)
)

, %
87

13

42

56

1-2.


(53 )
(47 )

, %
75
25
32
68
,
. -,
. -, ,
(,
: 15000 . 15000 . ). ,
. , -,
, , .

?
: ,
, .
.
. ,
/16/ .
.
. ,
XIX . (
),
, ,

,
7

XIX .,
, ,
.
90- XIX . 20-
" ",
, ,
.
.
,
,
, ;
.
.


"".
: , , .. ,
, , , , ,
.
, . -
, , .
, , ,
.
.
.
:
, .
, .
/17/ ,
- . ,
, ; ,
, ,
. , -
.
, ,
- . (
.)



.
1. . ""
"", "" (""
). , ,
, . ,

,
, . (
8 18- .)
2. .
. , ,
8

, , .
,
. ,
, ,
,
, . (
4, 5 19- .)
3. ,
, .
, ,
, " ",
.
,
. /18/
,
, - .

,
.
, ? , ?
?
,
.

, ,
. , ,
,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
. ( 5, 6, 8,
9, 12 19- .)
4. .
,
, .
, ,
. ,

, .
, .
,
, , .
: , , ,
, , , , ..

,
, , , .

5. , .
,
( )
( /19/ ,
). ,
, ,
. ,
,
.
, : ; ;
; , ,
..
, , ,
. , , ,
. , ,
, ,
. (
2, 4, 5 15- .)


, :
, ; ,
.

. ,
. ,
.

.
, .

,
,
.
, .
, ,
,
,
. ,
,
/20/ "",
,
.
,
.
, , .

.
, ,
.
, , ,
10

,
. , ,
, ,
.
,
. , ,
,
;
.


.


, , ,
.
.
, ,
, ,
, , ,
.

; ,
, ..
.
, .
: - .
,
. , ,
,
.
, , , ,
, , , /21/

.
,
. ,
, , , ,
, , . ,
,
.
, ,
.


,
. (1973) ,

,
(,
, , ..).
11

(1967) ,
,
.
(1959), ,
" ".
, , , ,
,
.

. ,
,
,
.

, . ,
, , ,
, .
"" "-!", ,
, /22/ , ,
, .
.
,
. ,
. , ?
? ,
? ,
, ,
.

. ,
, , .

5- .


, ,
:
.
:

XIX . .
, .
, , ..
. ,
.
,
, , .

,
: , , ,
.. ,
,
.
12

,
. /23/ :

, ,
.
, (
), , -
. 7- , ,

. ,
, , ,
, .
,
.
,
, ,
.
.
1. , .
2. ,

.
3. , , ,
. ,
60- :
, ,
, , 20
, ,
, , , .
4. , .
5. ,
, ,
.
, ;

.

(, 1959). /24/
:

, ,
. ,
.
,
. ,
, .
.
,
. ,
. ,
13

. (
9, 15 20-.)
.

. ,
,
. ,
, .
, , , .
.
1. ,
.
2.
, ,
, ..
3. ,
;
. ,
, ,
,
.
4. ,
, /25/
, ..
5. , : )
, ; ) ,
, ; )
(, 1959).

.

, ,
.

,
.
,
,
; ,
.
,
,

.

, , , . , , ,
. ,
-
, .
14

, ,
, .
. /26/

, ,
. ,

, - , .
?
?


,
. , ,

.
(,
) .
, .
.
. ,
. ,

.
(, ),

, .
, ,
. .
,
. ,
-
.
,
, . /27/

, .

,
.
.
.
, ,
, .
.
,
, , -,
. ,
, .
15

- ,
. ,
. . : 6
, 18 , 47 ..
.

: ,
:

.
, (
),
(
).
. , ,
.
, .
/28/ ( )

( ). , , ..
, .
, , ,
, .
.
,
. ,
, ;
,
,
.



- .
.

XIX .
.
1790 .
.
, .
,
.

,
.
, ,
.
.
(
, ), ( ) . /29/
. ,
16

. :

20 , ,
. , , ,
.
,
. , ,

, .
,
.
,
, .
, (
) .

. ,
,
,
.

,
. ,
, 20-
" ", (
) 40- .
-
.

.
, .
.
:
/30/
, . , -,
,
, , , ,
.
, ,
, . ,
- ,
.

,
.



, ,
.
:

17

, ,

.
, ,
. ,
.
, .

, ,
, ,
. ,

. ,
,
,
.
,

(, 1962).

.

, , ,

.
/31/
, . ,
,
, , . ,
,
:
, .
,
, . ,
,
,
(, 1966).
, , ,
. ,
.
, , ,
, .
, ,
.
, , ,
,
. , ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
,
18

, ..
,
.


, .
, (XVI
.) ,
. ,
, ,
, .
,
. , ,
, ,
, ,
.

. ,
/32/ , ,
, .
,
, .
,
, .

XIX . ,
,
. ,

. ,
,
.
5- . ,
.
,
, .
, , ,
. ,
.
. ,
.

, .

.
. .
(, ),
.
. /33/

19


,
,
. .
, . ,
,
: .
, , ,
, , ,

. ,
(, ),
, ..
,
( )

,
.
,
.
.
:
, . ,
,
.

, .
, :
1. ;
2. .

, , , ,
, ,
,
. /34/

? ,
? , ,
,
? ,
.


, ,
. ,
.
, ,
,
.
, " "
20

.
,
.


, ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
.

.

. 30-
;

; 60-
,
. /35/
.
,
. , ,
, ,
.
, -
,
. ,
, 1944 .,
,
, , ,
,
.


.
-,
, , ,
(Bureau of the Census), ,
.
-, , ,
.
.
,
.
,

, .
,
,
,
,
21

, , ,
. ,
/36/
. ,
" ",
.
,
. , ,
. ,
, ,
,
, " " (, , 1980).
,
15-20 .


1. .
()
.
.
2. .
,
.
, , ,
.
.

,
,

, .
3. : - .

,
.
4.
().
, ()

, .
.
5. :
.
,
.
,
.
,
.

, .
6. ,
,
22

. .
,
, .
7. ,
.
- ,
, ,
.
8.

. ,
,
.

.
9.

,
,
.
. ,

.
10.
: /38/
)

) , ,
;
)
,
;
)
() .

[AUGUSTE COMTE] (1798-1857)


:
. ,
, .
, , "
".
1798 . ,
, .
,
.
,
. , ,
, ,
.
23

:
.
. , ,
, . ,
, ,
, .
,
,
.
.
.
.
. ,
. /39/

I.
2.
" ", - . ", ", "", ""!
"" - , - - , . "". ,
"", "", "".
1982 . "",
" " -
*. (* , . (.))
-
, ,
, .
. "" - ",
, - , " (Newsweek. 1982. Aug.2).
- , ,
. ""
, :
; , , ..
"" ,
: , ,
. "" ,
, , " " .
, :
-, - /40/ .
, , ("")
( " ").
""
: , ,
, (,
1962. ).
. ?
,
? ? ?

24


"" colere,
, , .
,
agriculture, . XVIII XIX .
, ,
, "".
,
"" . Kultur
. ""
, ,
(, 1977).

. ,
( ),
- ;
.
.
. 4-
, ,
.

, .
, .
, ""
. , /41/ -
, .
,
. . , -
. .
- , .

. ,
, , , ,
, , ;
.
. ,
.

, ?
. (1967) : "
.
"
" , ...
, , , ,
. ,
, , ,
, ...

, .
, ,
25

-
, """ (. 22,23). ,
.
,
.


, , ,
, .
, /42/
. .
, , ,
.
,
.


,
. (1973)
" , , , ,
... " (. 44-45). ,
: "
( )
,
,
" (. 46).
, ,
, .
4- , , ,
, ,
,
,
. ",
, ,
, ",
XVIII . ,
. Homoferus " , " (, 1943.
. 12). ,
, .
""
.
, ,
? .
( "")
/43/ .
, .
. ,
. , ,
. ,

.
,

26

, ,
.
, ,
.
.
.
,
. ,
. ,
, , ,
, . 4-
.
.
,
.
. ,
,
,
.

.
, , .
,
, ,
.


,
.
/44/ (1934) ,
: " ,
, ...
,
" (. 23).
. "
.
.
,
.
, ,

.
,
- , , " (. 24).

.
. ,
.
,
. .
.

27

" " . ,
(, 1934).


,
. ,
. ,
, , .
, , .
(1965) 60 .
, , , , ,
, /45/ , ,
, , , , ,
.
,
.. ,
. ,
,
. ,

.
, , -
.
? ,
. ,
: ; ;
, ; ;
. ,
. ,
.
, .
-
,
, ,
.
. . (1970)
. , .
,
. ,
,
, .
- , -
,
. , ,
. /46/


,
(, 1965)
" ". , ,
, , ,
28

"".
"" ,
.

.
,
"" . -
.
.
, .
"
", 1906 . ,
.
.
, ,
, (, 1965).
(1934)
:
. ,
,
. , 4
,
.

. ,
, . ,
. , .
, , ,

. ,
(, 1966). /47/


. ,

, ,
. ,
,
, .
, , .
,
.
, . ,
.
. - ,
.

. " ",
" " , (, 1975).
. ,
,

29

.
.



, .
1. (). .
. ,
, ,
-. essen
, fressen - ,
eat. (
, -: ", ".)
glas, /48/ ,
, .
( )
: , , ,
, ,
. ,
(, 1980).
,
, ,
.
,
,
, " ".
,
.
2. .
, , -
, (,
), (" -
"). , ,
, . ,
. - .
, , , ,
:
" , , ,
. - . :
, ? ,
,
. , ,
?" (
1981 .; 1913 .)
,
- .
/49/

,

. , ,
, .
30

3. . - ,
.
. , , ,
, (" "),
(" ") ("
").
(
, , ),
, , .
4. . ( )
. ,
, ,
. ,
.
, , ,
.
.
: "
, , (
), (), ,
(), ()" (1981. .
62).
.

. ,
,
, , .
, ,
.
.
.
. /50/ ,
(, 1968).
,
. ,
.
, , ,
.
" ":
8 10 .
, .
.
,
. ,

.
, , ,
.
, .
. ,
, , .

31

.
, ?
,
. .
(, ) ,
. ,
, . ,
,
. , , .
(, ,
, ) .
,
7- . ()
. , : " ?"
/51/ :
", ".

: " ?" -
: " , ".
" ?"
: " ,
" " ". , ,
,
, ,
.


.
- , , . ,
, .
,
, , .
- .
, .. .
32

- ,
, - .
,
, ,
,
.
/52/ ;
.
. , , ,
.
.
,
(,1965).
,
. ,
-, , : ", ,
". , ,
, , : " , ,
" (, 1972).
.
(1940) ,
" " , .
,
,
. ... (. 2.3).
.
,
-. ,
. .
,
: " , 18 -
".
(,1980).

. . , ,
.
, ,
. ,
, : "
, ?", " ",
..."
/53/ ,
.
.
.
, , ,
.
, , .
, ,
(, 1965). ,
(, ,
), , ,
33

, ,

(-, 1977).
,
. , , ,
, , , , - .
-
, (, 1972).
,
( - ). ,
.
( )
, .
.
1986 .
" ";
!
.
, ,
. /54/


. ,

. ,
, ,
.
. ,
.

.
(1944) , ,
,
.
, :
, .

.
, ,
.
, , ,
,
.
, ;
, ,
, .

.
. :

34

, /55/ -
, .
(1956)
: XVIII XIX .,
XX .
, ,
, ,
. , ,
"
":

,
, ,

.
, "",
, .
,
.
,
XIX XX .
. , "
",
,
" ",
. ,
.
,
-. 50-60-
, . ,
,
, .
.
.

(, 1954).
, ,
: , - -
- /56/ , - ,
- . ,
. ,
1917 . . ,
,
.
,
.

-
.


.
, ,
,
. ?
35

,
.
, .

,
,

, .
?
,
. , -
.
, , ,
.
,
.


XIX .
" ",
. /57/ (1934) XX .
,
. ,
- " ".
, , - .
, ,
, . .


.
-
. (1975),
, ,
. "",
,

.
.
, ,
. " , ,

; ,
,
, .. ,
" (. 74).
.

- , .


, , .
.
,
: , . /58/
36

"",
,
90- .

- .
, .
, ,

,
.
(1922)
. ,
(,
, , ).
,
,
. ,
.
.

. ,

.
20- .
, ,
,
. .. (1945),

. ,
,
.
.
,
.
, , .
/59/ ,
, , .
, .
, ,
, .

. ,
.
,
- .

.


XX .
.

37

- , . , ,
, , .
,
. (,
, , , )
.
, ,
(, 1966).
.
"",
. "
" - . (1961)
, , ,
, ,
. ,
,
.
.
, ,
/60/ "" "",
. ,
.
, .
, ,
.
, ,
, .
.
,
-.
,
.
.
. , (1970) ,

" ". ,
, ,
;
.
,
, . - :
" don't knew nothing" (" ").
.
: " doesn't know anything" (" -") " knows
nothing" (" "). .
, .
.

-
.

38

.
.
,
/61/ .
(, tote
like to - ), . ,
"Ain't nobody see that?" (" ?"),
.
,
. ,
, (, 1972).
. (1976) ,
"-" , "" : " ,
" ", , ;
, . ,
"" , ;
.
, ; .
, ,
" (. 11).
, ,
. , , , . "
" " ". ,
, - , , ,
, - .
,
.
, .
. "" ,
, .

.
.
,
.
. /62/ , - 60- .
, (1971),
. , ,
,
(, ,
).
,
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
.

.
. , ,
39

, ,
,
, , ,
, ,
.

:
.
,
. , ,

.


? 1960 .
.
.
1. . , "
", " ",
. /63/
2. .
. ,
, " " " ".
3. . ,
;
, ;
, ;
.
4. . , .
.
5. .
,
.
.
6. . ,
.


? ,
? : . ,
, , ,
.
, , (1950)
(1975). ,
" ",
" " (,
, ) "
" - , .
, ,
.
40

(,
)
. .
(, , )
. , ,
, .
" ", . /64/
, .
, ,
, . , 20-
, , 50- ,
, 70-

. 30-
60-
. ( 80-
, , .)
,
, .


.
,
, .
. ,
.
.
, ,
, ,
, .
,
.
, , ,
, ,
,
.


1. ,
, , .
/65/
,
- .
,
.
.
2. ,
. ,
, .
, ,

41

3.

4.

5.

6.

,
.
, ,
(, ).
,
, , ,
..
,

.
,
.
- ; -
.
, ,
.
,
- .
, :
) , ;
) ,
;
) ,
;
) ,
.
, .. /66/
, , ..
.

7. ,
, ,
. ;
;
,
. ,
.
8. , . . ,
,
, ,
.
.
.
.
9. ,
.
42

.
.
( ) ,

.
,
.
10. XX . : ,
, ,
;
- , ,
.
,
, .
11. ,
, .
, - .
,
. /67/
,
.
12.
, ,
, , .
,
" ",
" ".
, ,
,
" ".
13. ,
, ,
. ,
, , ,
.

(MARGARET MEAD) (1901-1978)



;
.
,
.
.
1924 . ,

. , ,
- . ,
, .
,
,
, .
" ", "
43

" "
". 20- - 30- .


.
,
. ,
.
" " ,

.
:
, /68/ ,
, , , ,
.
,
,
.
- " " "
" ,
* (*
. (.)) ("").
,
-, .
.

;
, ,
. 1944 . , , ,
.
70- .
28
;
,
.
,
, .
/69/

3.
, .
- ,
, , .

. ,
- .
- ,
. .
-
.
44

, ,
, ,
: ,
; .
,
(, 1951).

. , ,
.
,

. ,
.
60- , .
: " , ,
, ?"
,
. , ,
, ,
, .
(1972) , ,
, /70/ , . (
9- .)
, ,
. , ,
. ,
, , ,
- .

, ""
, , .

: " ,
".

. , ,
, " ", "
" " "? ,
,
. .
, , ,
, ,
, , , .
, ,
:
. ,
, , . 3-1. ,
, , ,
,
- (, , 1965).

45

,
,
( 9- ,
).
.
. , /71/
, , , ; ,
3-1. ,

, %
,
%
( ,
)
)
9 (128) *
16 (55)

12 (520)
12 (200)

15 (93)

(14)**

33 (73)
27 (30)

27 (139)
26 (80)

17 (613)
28 (26)

1971

1.
14
2. 21

2006
* .
** .
: Bradburn & Caplovitz, 1965. P. 14.

. ,
- .

. ;
.

. -
.
.
. ,
, , .
, ,
. , ,
,
. /72/ ,
, ,
, .
.

46

, : "
, ?"
. :
, , " " ..
. ,
. ,
, , ,
. ().
, () ,
.
; -
. .
.
, , . ,
,
,
.
,
(, . : , 1957).
, .

,
.
. ,
, - ,
, .
, ,
(, 1957).
? 4- ,
- .
, . (
) , ,
, /73/
. " "
, , ,
.

. .
, , ;
, .
,
. ,
, .
- ,
, , -
.
, ,
,
.
. ,
, 10 .;
11 , 15 .
47

. . ,
,
, . ,
.
, ,
.
, ,
. , .

- , , ,
(, 1960).


. ,
- , , , ,
, /74/ .
?

(1951). ,
:
1. . (, ,
)
, (
, , ).
.
2. .
- , , ;
, .
; ,
, ,
.
3. .
. ,
, .

;
.
4. .
. ,

, , .
,
. , ,
,
.
5. . . ,
,
-
. ,

, .
48

, -
. , .
. /75/ ,
, .
, .

- .
- .
5- .


,
.
,
.
. .
,
. , ,
. ,
;
, . ,
(. 5- ),
" - ". ,
(1972) , ,
" " .
(1972) ,
. .
. ,
. ,
"" "". ?
( ),
: ?
?
""?
?
, /76/ . ,
,
,

.
,

, ,
, .



( , , - , ),
. ,
, , ,
. :
, ,
. ?

49

,
, (, 1957). -
,
. ()
.
"" ,
, .
-
.
,
.
(1978) ,
, . ,
,

:
,
, ,
, .
,
/77/ . ,
.
.
,
.
.
.

? (1957) ,
. ,
, .
,
, : " ,
" " ,
, ".
, ,
.
, .
. -, ,
, . -,
, , ,
.
.
. , " "
,

,
, .
, - ,

. ,
.
, .
. ,
, .
, ,
. " /78/
50

;
, " (, 1976. .
178).

:

, .
, ,
.
,
.
. ,
. ,
.
.
- .
.
.
.


"
". ,
- ,
. , ,
,

,
.
2, 4 16- . ,
,
.
. /79/
" ", " ".
,
. ,

,
; .
,
.

. (1897),
, " " (
) " ",
, " " (
, ), (.. )
(..
).
, . . (1970)
,
.
51

1. .
.
2. ,
.
3. .
(,
), (, ) .
4.

.
5.

.
.
.
. ,
, ,
2- 3- , /80/
. ..
.
(
). ,
(, )
.



.
, . ,
,

, ,
. ,
:
1.
2.
3.
4.

;
;
, ;

.

. ,
,
:
,

, ,
( )
.
, ,

52

,
.
, ,

.
,
. ,
, , , /81/ , , , ,
, .
, () ,
: - , , - ..
: , , , , ;
,
.
- .
.

.

,
. ,
,
; "
", .

,
;
, ,
.
,
. , ,
. , ,
,
(, ),

:
.
,
,
. , ,
,
, - /82/ , ,
, ?
:
-
, ,
- ,
.
,
13-17- (
, , , ).
53

,
.


""
,
, ,
,
. ,
:
, .
, , ,
.
, .
, , , ,
. ,
.
; ,
, ;
, , .
, , ,
, - . , ,
"" ,
, - - ,

.
. ,
""
,
. , ,

. ,
,
, , .
" " " ",
/83/ ,
,
. ,
, , , .
,
,
,
, .
,
.
, ,
.
, ,
,
.

54

.
.


. ,
, , ,
. , ,
; ,
.


?
( "", "" ""
, , ),
, .
. " ",
, ,
. " "
" ",
, ,
. ,
" ",
,
. /84/

. , (1967)
, :
1. - ,
;
2. ,
;
3. -
,
( 2- );
4. -
() - ,
. ( ,
,
, .)
; ,
. " "? ,
,
, , ,
, ,
,
(. 2- ,
).
" " . ,
, ,
55

,
, .
, ,
.
(, , , , 1950; , 1966)
,

"". " ",


. .
. ,
, ,
. /85/ (.. )
, . ,
"" ,
.
,
"".
, "",
, " ,
- . ""
. ,
" ",
;
. , ,
, ,
, .
, " ",
"", ,
.
, , .


"" ,
.
, ,
.
, .
, , ..
,
.
(

,
,
,
, .)

(, /86/ )
( ). . . (1970)
,
,
.
1. ,
,
,
, ,

.
-
,
.
56

:
, , ;
, , .
; ,
,
.
,
, .
2.
;
;
, .

.
,
. ,
; ,
, ,
.
,
.

, ;
,
, ,
.
3. ,

.
/87/
, .

, .
(
),
,
.
,
.
;
,
.
- .
4. ,
XVIII ., .

, ( ), (,
, ); ,
, , ,
.
,

57

;
(
),
.

, ,
.
, .

,
.
. 13- ,
, /88/
-
.

"" ""
,
,
, .. - .
- , ,

. ,
,
,
.

(1855-1936).

"" (Gemeinschaft) "" (Gesellschaft) (


"" ""),
. , ""
, "" - .
"" ""?
1. , ""
,

. ""
,

.
2. ""
,
, "" ,
.
3. ""
,
- ,
58

. ""
/89/
.
4. ""
, "" .
5. "" ,
; ""
( , , ,
).
( )
. -, .
"" ;
, .
, ""
"", .. .
-,
, , ,
- .

. ,
, .. .
7- 9- ,
,
(20-
).


1.
. ,
, ,
. , , ;
, , ,
.
2. - , .
, ,
. .
, , , ,
/90/ , - .
,
( ).
3. ,
: 1) ,
; 2)
, ; 3) ,
; 4)
,
, ; 5)
.
4. ( )
.
59

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.


.

.

, .
, ,
.
: ,
; , ;
.
,
.
, . ,

,
.
" ", "
" .
. . ,
: ) ; )
; ) ; )
; ) ; )
.

: , , . /91/


.
,
.
"" .
,
. : ) ; )
; )
; ) "" . . .

:
, ,
.
,
""
"". "" ,
"" - .
: )
"" ,
"" ; )
"" ,
"" ; )
"" ,
"" ;
) "" , "" -
60

; )
,
.
10. ,
,
,
XX .

[ HERBERT SPENCER ] (1820-1903)


XIX .
, .
, , /92/
.
, 17
, ,
.
. ,
,
.
. ,
,
.
, (, .)
- (, ..),
. , ,
,
.
.
. , "
" , ,
.

,
(,

, , ).
, ,
,
.
(.. ) .
.
; .
,
.
-
. ,


(, ) -
" ".
;
,
61

. ,


.
. /93/

4.
1982 . " "
, , ,
. -
, .

.
, .
,
. ,
, .
, ,
;
, .
, .
.
, , ;
.
,
. , ,
:
.
(, ), ,
, . ( ,
,
, .)
, , ,
. - : ,
, .
,
. ,
: ,
/94/ , , , , ..
,
. ,
?
, .
,
.
; ,
, ,
. ,
.
, "" "",
. ,
.
62


.
. ,
, ,
, ,
(, , 1973).
, ,

. ,
, -
.


: ,
.
. ,
, ;
, , .
, .
, , ..
,
, . /95/ -
-
. .
,
. ,
. , ,
.
, ,
.
. ,
,
, ,
.
,
. (..
) ( ),
,
1968 . (, 1970).
.
, .
:
, . ,
, :
, , .

, ,
. ,
,
. ,
.

63




. :
, /96/ .


, !
,
, , ,
.
, (, 1972).
;
, .
.
, .
-
.
.
- , -
, .


,
.
, ,
.
, , ;

:
,
.
, , " ",
"Fortune".
,
(, ).
. 2-
, ,
. , ,
, ..
, , , .
/97/ , :
, , ,
, 55 .
.
:
; ,
;
. .
.
.
, ,
. , ,
.
64

, , ,
. :

, ;
, ,
,
, , , .
,
- , .
,
, , .

, ,
.

. ,
, ,
, .
, ,
. /98/
-
. ,
,
.
.
. (1975) ,
, .
, , , .
,
.
,
.
, , ,
, .
, ,
.
; ,
.
,
.
,
. ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
, : ,
.

.
, , .
65

, (
) ,
. .
, , /99/
;
;
. , ,

(
), ,
.
.
, (),
,
,
.
,
.

.
,
. ,

. ,
(1937), .
,
. , ,
.
, , -, -
.
,
:
,
,
.


,
, ,
. : /100/ ?
.
: ,
, . , ,
,
. : ,
,
. ,
.
;
- -
.

66

: ,
, , .
, ,
-
, , -
.
,
. 4-1.

.. ..
,
.
" ". " " :
1. , , , ( ,
);
2. , , , , ( ,
);
3. , (,
).

.
"". , , "" , /101/
. , ,
4-1.

(
,
)

-



,

67

.
, .
, ;
"".
,
. - . ,
. "" ,
/102/ .
,
: , , ..;
. , , o
, , ,
.
,
,-
"".
, "" : " - " " - ".
" - " -
. " - " -
(, ). " - " " " , . , " - "
, ;
, ; ,
. " - " , " - "
, .
, " - ". ,
- ,
.
, , ,
, . ,
,
.
"" - " ",
. ,
" ".
,
.
.

68


, , -
, ,
. ,
( ) /103/
.
.
: (""), ("") ("-").
("") - , .

. "" ,
, .
("") , -
, .
.
, , .
, ,
;
.
("-") - ,
.
,
.
.
, ,
, .
,
. ,
,
.
. ,
.
- .
,
, -.
.
, -
, ; ,
/104/ .
.
, ,
. ,
.
.
.
. ,
, .
-
; ,
, .
,
,
69

. ,
,
.

, ,
. ,
. ,
, ,
.
,
.
, , .

. , , ,
, .
,
, , , ,
, , . /105/
, ,
. .
, -
, .
, .
11 ,
.
. ,

, ,
. , ,
, .
12 15 ,
.
,
, .
, (,
1968).

, ,
. (1963),
,
, .
,

.

.
.
,
.
70

,
. ( )
( /106/ ).
,
.
,
, .
.
: ,
, , " ". ,

.

. ,
, ,
. ,
"" "". ,
, ,
. "
", .
,
.
; ,
. , , ,
,
.

. :
, -
. ,
: ,
-
? , ,
, . ,
, ./107/

:

, .
,
. -
.- (1966) ,
. ,
.
1.
,
.
2. ; .
,
, ,
, " ".
71

3. ,
" ".

, ,
..
,
, " " " ".
;
.
4. ,
;
. ,
,
, .
, ,
.
.
. /108/


,
,
. :
,
. ,
;
.
(1972) .
,
,
. "
", , ,
, " ".
. ,
, .
-:
,
. , ,
,
- ,
.


,
.
.
,
.
,
.
72

. ,
;
, /109/
. ,
,
( ). ,
, ,
. ,
().
, ().
, ,

.

.


1. - ( ).
, , , , ,
.
,
, , ,
.
,
.
2. - (1-2 ).
. .

.

.
,
;

.
3. - (3-5 ).
, , .

.
,
.
4. - ( ).
, , ,
, - ,
.
.
: , , .

,
( )

73

5.

6.

7.

8.

. ,
.
() -
(). .
/110/
;
.
,
, .

, , .
- ( ).
,
. ,
,
, .
,
,
, .
- ( ).

. :
?

? ,
? ,
?
- ().
; ,
; ,
- . ,
,
. , .


(1978) ,
.
,
; ,
. ,
, ,
, , .
,
, , ,
,
( ), ,
. ,

,
.
, /111/
, .
74

, , .
.

,
,
. , ,
. , ,
, .
-
.
.

.


:
.
.
-
, .
- ,
.
. ,
, , ;
" ", , -
.
(1974) ,
. , ,
,
, , ..,

.
, /112/
. ,
- , , ,
.

- , ,
.
, .
, , , -.
,
.
,
, .
. ,
,
.

, , ,
. ,
75

, ,
,
, .
;
. ,
.
,
. , "
", ,
. , DOA (Dead on arrival -
( ) . (.) ,
.
(,1967).
.
, , ,
. ,
/113/ .
,
(, 1966). ,
,
.


, , , ,
,
. , ,
, .
,
.


,
, ,
, . ,
, ,
.
.
, . ,
, ,

.
,
. ,
. ,
; .
, .
- ,
,
, (, 1947).
.
, . , /114/ ,
, . ,
76

,
. .
, .

.
.
,
,
- (, , 1939).
, ,
, , .
, .
. ,
.
,
. ,
,
(, 1947).
.

. ,
. (1945)
, ,
. , ,
, . -
, , .
,
.
.
;
.
.
/115/
;
. , ,
; . ,
,
.
,
,
.
("-") .
"" ,
; - ,
. ,
" ",
. ,
" ", ,
,
. , "", ,

77

,
(, 1958; , 1962).

, , , ,
, , .
.
,
, .



: , ,
, , , .
, .

; ,
. , /116/
, .
.
,
, .
, ,
,
.
,
, ;

.
27,6 .
15 .
( , , 350 .
18 . ). ,
, - (, 1977).
.

-
,

, , ,
, - ,
.
,
.

, .

, ,
,
.
.

. ,

(, 1977). ,
, . /117/
78

?
, ,
: ,
,
(, 1968). , ,
, ,
,
, .
. , ,
.
, , ""
""; ,
. , ,
, , , .
,
, .
-
;
,
;
,
( , 1978).
, ,
,
.
, ,
( , 1962). 30 40
, , .
, ,
- , . ,
.
. ,
; .
-
. /118/


?
,
(, , )
.

. , ,
, , , ; , 30
.
- ,
, .
, ,
,
, ,
. ,

79

. , ,
.
,
. ,
(, 1970). ,
, ,
.
,
.
, , . ,
, ,
,

( , 1975).
- ,
.
,
. ,
. , "
", ;
/119/ . ,
.
,
, . , "
" , ,
, - , .
,
. , " "
, , , , -
.

: ?
- , ,
- . ,
, ,
.


- ,
(1969), ,
.
.
,
.
, .
. ,

; ,
, .
, ,

. , ,
80

, , ,
.
, /120/ ,
, .
, , , ,
- .
.
:
,
.
, 30- ,

(, 1974). ,
,
, . , ,
,
. ,
: ,
.

.


(1969) , , ,
. ,
,
;
, .
- ,
.
(, , 1975).

: "
;
, ,
;
- , ,
/121/ . ,

. ,
" (, , 1975. .43).
,
,
;
.




, , .

? (1971)
81


. , ,
, ,
,
.
,
20-
30-.
.

1914 1918 . 750 . .
.
, ,
.
,
.
.
.

,
. , , ,
" ",
.
, ,
. .
, . ,
,
, 1929 .
. ,
, ,
, ,
. /122/
,
,
.
, . ,
, ,
, .
, -
,
,
.
. , ,
.
,
. , ,
. ,

,
.

82


,
.
.
,
,
. ,
, ,
. (, ,
),
.

. ;
, ,
.
. ( )
.
, , , .
, ,
.
.
.
/123/ ,
,
. ,
, (, 1946).
.
11- , .
,
,
,
. ,
, , (,
, 1973).
,
,
,

. ,
, ,
.
, ,
. ,
.
, .
.
, ,
, - ,
(, , 1973).

83

,
, ,
, .
,
. /124/
,
.
, ,
(, , 1970).
: .
, .
, ,
.
, .
. ,
: " , "
" . , ". , ,
, ,
. ,
,
.
(1969)
. ,
, ,
, .
,

. ,
,
. ,
, , ,
, ,
, .
"" "" ,
. , ,
,
( ., 1974). ,
,
.
(), /125/ ,
( ),
,

. , ,
,
-.
,
. , ,
.
100 .

. .
84

-
,
.
.


1. , .. ,
, , :


.
2. .
, ,
(, ). -
, -
.
3.
,

.
, ,
, , ,
, .
, ,
/126/
. ,

.
4. , ,
, ,
. , "
", .
,
: ,
; ,
, ,
.
5. , ,
: ,
; ,
" ", ,
.
: ,
, .
, .
6. ,
,
, .
: (
); ( );
( );
( ).

85

7.
, .
.
,
, .

, .
8. ,
,
: -
/127/ ,
.
, .

;
.
9.
. ,
.
.

,
. ,
,
, .
;

.
10. , ,

, , ,
.
11.
. ,
, .
12. ,
, ,
. (..
, )
.
,
. ,
,
,
.
13.
.
,
. ,
,
.

86

14. ,
.
,
. -
.
,
.
15. - . ,
,
. ,
,
, .

, .
. /129/

5.
1952 .
. .
, .
,
- . ,
.
. , .
, . 7 30
( 8 ), ,
, .
,
. , , .
, . ,
. , .
. ?
, ,
, .
, .
. " , ?" - .
" , , ", - . ", , , - ,
, , ".
"" "- ", ,
"",
. .
, "". ,
; ,
"" .
, , .
,
. , /130/
, .
, . ,
- . : ",
,
87

, ". ,
, :
, , " ,
". , ,
.
. -
, .
,
. ,
(),
, .
.

.
- ,
.
, .
, ,
.
, ,
. ,
, - .
- , -
. ,
,
.

,
.
. /131/
,
, ,
. ,
" ", ,
, , , ,
. ,
: ,
, . .
.
- , ,
.
.
. ,
; ,
.
; ,
, .

.

88


.
. ?
? ,
? ,
?
.
, .
. 5-1.

:
: " ?" - : ",
", - .
/132/ .
.
5-1.

,
,
,

,
. -
, -
, .
, ,
. ,
. , ,
, ,
. ,
,
.

89

. ,
(1973). ,
,
.
.
1. , ,
.
, , .
, /133/ ,
.
2. ,
, ,
. , ,
- ,
.
3. , ,
,
. , ,
.
4. , ,
, . :
,
.
,

. .
. ,
. - , ,
. ,
, . -, ,
, ,
, ( 2). ,
,
( 3). ,
, (
4). , , , ,
( 1).
. ,
: ,
, ..
,
.
,
. /134/
?
.
. ,
, .
90

, . ,
.
, .
,
( ) , - -
, .
, . ,

, .
,
. , ,
.
, ,
(, 1952, 1953; , 1979).
, ,
. ,
(1967), , , ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
,
. , , ,
1- 4- . , ,
,
.
. , ,
, ; ,
, - .
. /135/



(1934); 2-
, , -
.
, . ,
, .
, , : ,
, , -
, , .
"" ,
.
.
. ,
, .
.
. ,
.
, , , .
, .. .
. , ,
, .
91

.
, ,
. " ",
, , " ".
,
. ,
, . -,
, .. ,
, .
,
.
, . ,
/136/ - ,
. , .

,
.
(1969). ,
,
,
.
,
.
,
. , ,
.
,
- ,
(, 1962).
- . ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
, .
, .
, , .
, : ""
. ,
, . - , ,
. , ,
: " ?"
,
, , .
: " ,

... /137/
; , ,
,
. -
, . -
" (. 8).
92


, .
.
- .
: .
, , ;
, . ,
.
,
, .
,
, . ,
.

, .

.
,
.
,
. .
, (1978) ,
,
.
, .
.
/138/
, .
, ,
. , ,
. ,
, .
"" .
49 , ""
. : 1)
; 2) 3)
. , ,
,
. , ,
,
. , " - " ,
, . ,
, ,
.

,
.
, , - , ,
. , ,
, , " ". - ,
,
93

.. - "
".

-
, .
,
. , -
, ,
.. /139/
,
, . ,
-
, . (1972)
.
:
: ,
.
: ?
: , .
: ?
: .
: .
,
,
" ". :
,
.
: ,
.
- ;
,
; ,
, .
: ?
- , ,
.
, , - ?
: , .
- , , ,
.
: ?
- , , .
, ?
: .
- , ,
.
: .
- - , :
, /140/ .
.

94

,
, .
( ) , ,
. , ,
("
, "): " ,
, 10 , ".
,
-
-.
,
, .
.
, -
, .
,
, .. ,
, . ,
,
.
.

. ,
, , , ,
, , , ,
. : " ?
? , ? ?
?
?" (, 1977. . 9-10).
, ,
. , ,
: " ! !" - ,
.
, /141/ -
.
, .
,
; ,
(,
1987).
,
, ,
. ,
, .

, . ,
, ; ,
, .
: ,
.
(, ),
, .
95

:
, , ,
. ,
; ,
, . ,
,
, .
(1959)
. ,
, ,
.
.
:
, /142/ "" " "
.
, , ""
, . ,
, - , .
, , .
,
. "
, ,
, .
,
. - , , ,
, .
, ,
, , ,
, .
;
, ,
,
(1959. . 4).
, , ,
, ,
, .
. (1976) ,
- :
,
; , ,
" (. 8). , , ,
.
, "
", - .
;
,
: , ,
- . /143/
, (1956-1957) ,
.
"" .

96

.
, (. 7). ,
, .
"" ,
, . (1963) : "
, - " (. 5).
.
"" (.. ). ,
. ""
: , , ,
. ,
, .
- ,
, .

( )

. "",
, . ,
,
.
,
.
(1921-1951), ,
. ,
, - -
. ,
,
. , -
, , ,
, . /144/

.
,
. (1976)
, .
18 22 ,
- .
, .
,
. .
"", "" ""; ""
"" , , "".
"" ,
,
- ,
.




97

, .
,
, " " .
,
,
. 3- , , , - ,
.
,
. "
", " ", " " ..

. /145/
"" "" , ,
, ,
.
. ,
, . ,
. : ",
, ",
. ,
,
, .
, , "" .
, .
, .
, , .
,

-
""

), ,
"" " ".
- - ,
.


, .
,
,
.
.
.

?
80- , ,
,
, -, , . ,
"" "", /146/
"". -
, . ,
,
. .
- ?
98

(1968).
, ,

.
-
. ,
( ),
s .. :
,
"", .

. ,
, , , , .
- , .

, ;
, . ,
, ,
. -
: ,
.
.
(1968), , ,
.
. .
" " - .
, ,
.
, .
,
(, /147/ -) (,
), ,
,
. ,
, ,
.
.
(1978) ,
- . , ,
. ,
, ,
. , , ,
.
, ,
, .
, , ,
. , , , ,
. , ,
,
. ,
, . ,

99

, ,
.


, , - ,
- .
, ,
, , , -
. ,
, ,
, .
; - .
,
,
. /148/ ,
, .
(1909)
,
. , "",
, .

, ,
. , , ,
, , ,
.
,
,
.
, .

,
, , ,
, . ,
, , .

, .
, - .
, ,
. , .
,
. , ,
. ,
, .
,
.
,
.
, , .
, ,
, , . /149/

100



. ,
,
.
, " " " ".
,
, . ,
.

, .
.
.


, "Western Electric
Company" . ,
. ,
, . ,
.
,
, .
, . ,
; ,
.
.
, .
.
, .
,
.
. /150/
,
( ), .
, , ,
. , , ,
, "".

. .
: , ,
, ,
, .

, " "
. ,
, ,
.
.
,
, - ,
101

,
.
,
.
, , . , ,
.
.
,
. , (
""),
- , .
,
(, , 1947). /151/

, , -
, ;
.
,
, ,
- .
, .
:
? -
?
.
(1952) ,

. , ,
. ,

,
.
, , ""
, . "
, ,
. ,
. ,
, - .
, ,
, , " (. 312).

.
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
. ,
.
/152/ ,

, .
102


, , -
. ,
( ) 1974 ., (1976) ,

,
. , ,
, ;
.

:

,
. ,

.

, "-", 8 15 .
, , ,
.
"-" ,
.

, .

; ,
(, 1974).
,
.
, , , /153/
. ,
, , , ,
.

?
, , .

,
. , ,
( ),
, .
, .
(, , .)
,
.
. 4- ,
.
,
. , , ,
, , .

103

- . ,
.

.
,
. ,
,
.

.
,
. /154/
.
, ,
.
.
.
, ,
. ,
, -
.
; , ,
.


,
. (1959) ,
.
"" .

, . ,
, .
,
. ,
, ,
"".
, :
?
" "
,
. ,
: ,
.
.
, /155/
. (1961)
"",
, . , ,
,
. ,
. ,
104

,
, , .
.
.
-
, - ,
, ,
. ""
. , ,
,
. ,
. .
, ,
. , ,
. -,
, , ,
.



, .
, ,
( ) .
, ,
.
. /156/

, , (,
), .
, .
,
. ,
, .
, ,
, .

, .

, ,
.
. "
, ":
, .
XIX . ,
,
: , ,
, , " ".
, , ,
.

105

. ,
.


. , (
) /157/ , .
,
. , , ,
. , , ,
.
, , ,
, ,
. ,
, .
;
,
. ,
,
(, , 1965).
,
. ,
, .
.
:
.
,
. ,
.
, .
,
, , . ,
,
. ,
(, 1962).
- ,
, ().
,

.
, ,
, , ,
. , (,
, 1977). /158/



,
. , , ,
, .
,
(, 1965).
,
106

. ,
.

.
?
, ?
, , , ,
, , ,
?
(1951) ,
, .
.
, , .
.
, .
,
: "", "", "" "Y".
,
5-1.
, .
, "" (
), -,
; , "Y", "" "". ,
, ,
, , . ,
" ,
, , , /159/
, (
)".
5-1.

,

; ,
. , ""
,
. "" "Y"
,
. "", ,
.


,
.
107

, ,
.

,
? 40-
(1951)
.
(
, ) ,
.
/160/ .
, .
. ,
, ,
,
.
,
. ,
,
. .
,
.
( ),
.
,
? ,
. , ,
,
.
, ,
,
. ,
, .
.
: , ,
2 16 . ,
( 3 ) .


, ,
, ()
() .
?
, (1979)
, : "
/161/ , ,
. , , , ,
. :
. ,
, ,
, ;
.
108

, . 30
, ".

"", .
, , ..
"". ("") .
, . , ,
""
.

"" . ""
. ( ""
. ,
).



,
, ,
.
, ,
, , -
.
?
.
,
.
;
,
. , ,
,
. /162/ -
,
.
?
, ,
, ,
.
, . ,
,
.
, , .
, ,
. , ,
, ,
.
,
18-20 ,
. , ,

109

,
.
.

?
,
, ,
. , , ,
.
, .
,
,
.
, , ,
.



(1955) -
.
,
. 40 ,
" ". .
:
1. ? ,

. .
2.
? , .
. /163/
3.
? ( 0 7), 0
: " ", 7 : "
".
4. , ,
, , ,
?
? . (T.Parsons and R.F.Bales. Family, Socialization and
Interaction.- N.Y.: 1955.)

. ,

, .
.
.
.
, .
, .
" " "
" .
110

,

. ,
, .
, .
, .
,
. ,
.
(1965)
. ,
.
, ;
.
,
"-", /164/
"-". ( ,
:
,
.) ,
,
.


1. ,
.
: - .
2.
. ,
, , .
.
3.
;
. ,
: )
, ; )
,
; ) ,
; )
,
.
4. , ,
,
,
. ,
: , ,
, .

.
,
. /165/
111

5. - ,
.
,
.
6. " "
,
.
, ,
,
,
. , ,
.
7. ,
,
. , ,
- , ,
, ,
.
8. , ,
,
. ,
,
.
9. ,
,
.
,
, .
10. ,
,
.
, ,
.
,
;
. ,
. /166/
.
11. ,

, .

, ,
, , .
, " "
.
12. - ,
. ,
.
,
.

112

13. . ( ),
( ),
- , .
, ,
, .
14.
.
. ,
, ,
, .
/167/

6.
""
"" -. , ,
"" .
"" - ,
.
" " - , .
"" ( "") - ,
50 .
" " -
.
" " - .
" " - .
"" -
.
", " - ,
.
" " - , ,
.
" " - , .
" " - .
" " " " - ,
.
" " -
(, , 1975).
,
, , ,
. , .
? ,
, -
. ,
, . ,
, ,
, , , . /168/


- .
, , , ;
. ,
113

- , , , -
. ,
. ,
. ,
, , , , , ..

; ,
. ,
. , , ,
, .
.
, , ..
.
.
.


5-
. (, )
,
.
. , ,
, .
-
, .
, , , , . . -
. /169/


:
. ,
,
, .
. ,
, ;
.
- .

. (,
- ..), ,
.
.
, -
.
, .
,
, ,
.
,
, . ,
, ,
. ,
114

.
, .
, .
,
, , , ,
.
.
.
. , (1980) ,
,
. /170/
, , , , ,
. ""

. "",

; .
, "",
.

. ,
;
,
.

, , , .
, . -
, ; .


.
, ,
,
,
, ,

.
: 1)
; 2) (
)
(, , ).
,
, ;
3) ,
(, 1968). /171/
. ,
75
(, 1968). 1835 . ,
"
, " (1835/1945. . 148).
115

.
.
-
.
,
. ,
.
,
,
.


-
.
, ,
. - ,
..
.
.
, ,
. ,
.
, .
(1961), " ",
: 1) ,
, (, , ,
); 2) ( ), ,
; 3) , ,
, ,
; 4) /172/
, , .

.

.
, , "",
: "
. ""

.
,
. ,
.
, .
, .
,
" (.15).

. ,
. , -
.
. (1947) ,
116


,
. "
".


.
, .
, , -
, (

).

* (*
, .
(.)),
, .
,
.
.
, , , ,
. , ,

- ,
.

,
. ,
; ,
,
. ,
, ,
(, ,
..); .
( )
.
, .
.
. ( 15- , ,
, , - , ,
.)
.
1. ,
.
, , ..
2. -
, , /174/ ,
.
( ):
, ,

117

,
.

3. ( "") - ),
, , ,
.
4. .
,

.
5. ,
, .
6. , , ,
. .
;
,

, ,
.
7. ,
.
,
(, 1968).
, ,
, .
, - ,
.
,
,
..
,
, ,
, ./175/


,
,
. ,
.
, - ,
, .
, (pax romana),
.
,

(, 1979),
- .
XYIII XIX .
.
,
.
.
. -
.
118

.
? , ,
, . ,
,
. .
?
, ,
. ;
,
. ,
. , .

?
"" .
, ,
, /176/ ,
,
,
. ,
,
*. (* .,
, ,

, ,
. (A.Giddens. Social theory and modern sociology.
Cambridge. Polity Press. 1987. Pp. 22-29.) -
,

(.))

,
.
. ,
, . ,
, "

" (1946. . 214).
,
, .
.
,
,
, ,
" ".
, ,
, , ,
? ,
( )
,
119

? /177/ ,
. ,

,
.
. ,
.


,
.

.
, ,
.
. ,
. ,
(,
1964).
, ,
, . ,
" ,
, ,
,
" (. 162).
, ,
.
,
.
,

,
. (1970)
.
/178/ : "
?" .
,
,

.

. ,
.
? ,
, , , (1964), ,
. ,
" " ,
. - , "
"
(.7).
" ".
, .
120


, .

, .
, 9
,
. ,
.
.
. " , ".
(1954).
1. . ,
- . /179/
2. .
.
,
,
,
.
3. .

,
.
4. .
,
.
. , ,

.
,
, .

.
.

. .
. ,
1970 .
. , ,
,
.
.
, , .

? ,
,
- .
.

- /180/ .
. , ,
121

,
.


. , ,
,
(, 1977). , . ,
.
(1967) , , , ,
, .
.
1. , . :
10
. , , ,
,
,
.
, .
2. , .
,
,
.
,
.
3. , .

.
, , .

. /181/
4. , .
, ,
.
.
(1977) ,
, . ,
, ,
.
?
. ,
.
,
, ,
. ,
.

122

, ,
.
, (, 1967).
;
,
- .
.
, .
. ,
, ,
.

,
. (1980)
,
10. . ,
, ,
.
, .
: /182/
.
, , .
,
. , -
, ;
,
,
,
.
,
. , ,
. , ,

. ,

,
. ,
,
.
,
.
.
, ,
.
,
.
,
,
. ,

.
. 123

.

/183/

.
,

(, 1964).

,
,
, . ""
, .
: 1) , , ; 2)
- ,
, , .

, .
, ,
. ,
, , ,

(, 1968; , , , 1977; ,
, , 1974). ,
.
(1972) , :
.
, .
, .
- .
(1968) ,
,

.
, ,
, , .
(1978) , (
) ,
. ,
/184/ ,
, .
-
(, , 1967). ,
(, .),
.
,
.
,
.

. , (1967) ,

. , ,
.
124

,
.

.


, ,
. "
, " (1946, .228).
, ,
, ,
.
,
, , .

,
"
"
,

,
.

, , ,
(, 1952). /185/
.
, ,
,
- ,
"",
(, 1952).
, ,
.
" " (.. , 1957),
. ,
.
,
; , .
, , , .
? ,
, . ,
.
,
.
(, 1979).
. ,
, .
" " ,
,
. "
".

,
, .
125

, ,
, (1965).
/186/
"".
"", "" ( )
. ""
.
, ;
,
, . "" ,
( - ) ""
. ,
.
. , ,
, ""
"", . ?
? 65
"" ,
. , - .

. , , , ,
, ,
.

.
, , .
,
, .
, .
.
, ? ,
.

,
.
,
/187/ . ,
,
, ,
,
(, , 1978).
.
,
.
. ,
. ,
. , ,
, .

.
, .

126

, ,
(, , 1978).


, .

. , ,
.., "".
, ""
.
""
,
. .
. (1964)
, , " "
. , ,
, .

(, /188/ ,
),
.
""

. "",
, (1964) :
1) ; 2)
; 3)
.
( , ,
) , , .
, ,
,
( ), ,
, ( ,
,
), . ,
,
, , .

,
. ,
,
"",

(, ,1962).
, ,
.
,
.
.
, ,
,
127

, /189/ .
, - .
,
, , ,
.
- .
,
.
.
: " .
,
-
, , ".
: "1)
2)
" (, 1964).
""
. ,
, , ,
, . (1954) ,
, . ,
", " .
, ,
. , .
: " ,
... , ..." ,
- .
" , -
, - ".
,
, , ,
. /190/

? ,
.
.
. , " ,
", . ,
, , ",
". , , : "

. ,
" (, 1954. .161-162).
,
,
(, 1964). ,
, ,
, .
.
, .
.
: ,
128

, ,
. ,
.
, .
,

(, 1949).
, , , ,

.
,
(, 1964). /191/

.
,
. ,
, .
. , ,
.. .
.
, , , ,
: , , ..
, (1977),
. ,
.
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
, .
", ",
, .
" ... -
, .
(), " (,
1967. .67).
,
.
.

. " ".
, .
.
,
.
, .

. /192/ .

. ,
,
.
129

: " "", ,
, . ,
.
,
"". , . ,
, .
, - , , .
, , ,
. , - .
, . -
" (, 1977, . 105).
, ,
, .

:
XX . ,
.

. ,
. ,
.
" , - , - , " (1946.
.48). , , ,
.
.
, .

, .
, . /193/
.
,
,

(""). ,
, , .

(, 1979). ,
,
, !
?
?
, ,
?
- . -
, .
-
, ,
.
- . , ,
.

130


1.
,
.
2.
.
.

.
3. .
, : ,
.

/194/


.
4. : )
; )
; ) .
, ,
, .
: ) ,
, ; ) ; )
, , ; )
, .
5. ,
(
)
. , ,
, ,
,
, ,
.

.
6. ,
.

.

; ,
.
7. , ;

.
,
, ,
.
8.
. ,
, /195/ ,
.
131

9. ,
, ,
.

.
10. .


.
11.
.
,
.
12. ,

- .
;
: )
; )
; )
, .

: ,
; ,
;
.
13. .
, , ,

, .
14. , ,
, , .
. /196/

7.

5 1986 .
( ). 42-
, , 37- ,
. ,
"", .
. .
, , ,
. ,
.
10 .
.
, ; ,
.
, - : ,
, .
132


.
, ,
"" .
, ,
. ,
, , .
.

; " ",
- , , .
, ,
, , "".
- , , ,
? /197/

?
, , ,
,
. ?
, , , ,
. , ,
, .
, -
? ,
.
" " ,
? ,
,
. ,
, ?
,
,
. ,

; , (, ,
' )
, , ,
.



, ,
. ,
, ,
- , .
.
: ,
. /198/
7-1. ( %)

133


23


52
21
4

22
23

54
50

19
24

5
3

24
18

53
47

20
29

3
6

35
19

50
55

14
22

1
4

12

42

37

29
16
20
30

53
57
48
49

14
23
28
19

4
4
4
2

59
52
49
51

18
16
20
26

3
2
3
6

55
49
52

19
25
19

2
5
3

20
13-24
30
25-29
28
30-49
17
50+

24
21

26

: Gallup, 1981.

,
, . ,
,
, , -
. . 7-1 ,
- . ( ,
,
. , ,
, .)
, , ,
. , .
,
. XX . ,
, , 14
, .
,
. 1957 ., ,
, ,
(, , 1974).
134

,

,
.
. ", ,
" (, , 1979.
.622) - . :
" ?" - : " ,
?" - : ", !" (,
1978).

, ,
, .
.
? . , /200/
,
.
, ,
, .


, ,
,
. , 1919 1933 .,
,
, .
.
,
, :
, ,
(, 1969).
,
. ,
,
, , ,
.
62 , 55 ?
. .
, , ,
,
- ,
65 , -
"" .
, .
, ""
- , ,
, . ""
, .
, -
/201/ . ,
135

, (,
1971).
( , ,
) ,
,
. , ,
. , ,

( ),
.
, 110 ,

(, 1952).


,
, . ( )
.
(
"" , ""
, , , "",
), "".
, ,
"", "" , , ,
. , () ,
, .
, , .
,
. , (1938)
, :
" , ,
. ,
, ,
, /202/ ,
(.38).
,
, ,
- . ,
- ,
. ,
, ,
(
: , 1971).

: , ; ,
, ,
, , .
,
. ,
, , ,
. ,
, .
136

, ,
.

?
- ,
? , ,
.

; ,
. ,
: , (. 7-2 . 215,
).


XIX .
. ,
/203/
. , " "
.
, ,
.
,
-
.
X. (1940), ,
. ,
.
.
( )
,
. ( )
, . ,
, , ,
.
,
, ,
.
XX .,
. ,
, ,
. ,
.
, ,
.
,
.

.

(XY) .
X,
/204/ X Y.
137

X Y (XXY, XYY ,
, XXXY, XXYY ..).

(1966, 1967) ,
Y
, .
(1976) ,
YY
, ,
. ,
XYY, . ,
, XYY,
, ,
.
,
XYY. ,
(
).
, ,
, , XYY,

, XY. ,
, -
, ,
(, , 1973).
, ,
XYY ,
, .


, ,
, .
, ,
: " /205/
", "", "" "".

. ,
.
, - " " -
, , ,
- " ", ,
- .
(, 1916-1957). ,
, ,
. ,
, , , .
,
. 1950 .
,
,
,
. , ,
138

, ,
(, ,
1950). ,
, ,
. , -,
- , ""
.
,
.



.
,
. /206/


, .
.

(
""). , ,
.
, , .
(.. )
, .
,
,
, .
.
,
,
, , . ,
"
". , -
(, 1897).
, ,
,
. " "
, ,
, .
, , , ,
, ,
, - ,
.
,
.
(1942) ,
,
.
/207/
( ),
,
139

(, , 1961).

.

" ", (1969). ,
, , (,
), ,
(, )
, ,
, . 1300
( 12 18 )
. , ,
" " (
), 64 ;
, ,
41 . ,
(1973), ,
. ,
,
.

. (1938) ,
. ,

.
.
,
.
,

. /208/
, ,
.
,
. ,
, ,
, ,
, , .
.



, ,
. ?
, .
, ,
.
?
, , ,
.
. , ,

140

, ,
.

. ,
, ""
, .
- ,
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
,
.
.
,
. , ""
. -,
,
.
,
.
. 1966 .
/209/

10 000 , - .

.
. ,
, .
3,5
. 3-10
, ,
. ,
10 000 24 000 100 000
. ,
-
400 , .
, , -, .
,
. ,
. .
, ;
.
, .
, .

(,
), (
)
. , ,
.
141


-

.
,
, .
.
,
.

. ,
.

, ,
.
, .

,
"" .
,
, , /210/
, , "" .
(1938) ,
. ,
. ,
. ,
,
,
.
, ,
.
(1958)
. ,
,
.
, , ,
"".
, ,
, .
, ,
,
.
"" , ?
(1939)
. , ( ,
) . ,
, .

, ,
.
,
, - ,
142

.
. ,
,
. ,
(,
/211/ ),
, " ".
, ,
,
, ,
.
,
.
. ,
, .
(, 1959; , , 1960) , ,
, ,
. ,
, .

- ,
; ,
.
,
. ,
.
( )
, ,
, ,
. 20
,
, , ,
, "".
, .
"" (1963)
,
" ", ,
, "". /212/
. ,
(
, , .)
. " , - , -
, ; ,
, " "
. ,
,
"" (.9).

( ), ..
"" .
, (
), ,
143

, .
.
. ,
, " , ,
( , ), , " (. 14).
.
. , .
, , , ,
. (1951)
. , , ,
?
, :
; ,

.
, ?
,
. , ,
/213/ .
" ",
" ". ,
( ).
,
, " " (,
1963).
,
, , ,
, .
. ,
" ",
, .
(1981) ,
-
. ,
, , ,
.
, ,
, , .
,
, .


, " ".
,
; ,
. ,
,
. , (1969)
:
,
144

. ,
, (, /214/
), , (,
). ,
, , ,
, .
(1977) .
, -
, ( )
, . , XII .
, ,
, ,
(,
1964). , ,
(, 30- 40- . XX .
, ),
. ,
,
.
, " " ,
,
. , ""
, ,
, "
,
, " ( .,
1973..269).
,
, .
(. . 7-2). ,
10- 18- .
, ""
. , "
", ,
.

, ,
. /215/
7-2.

,
,

,
,

145


()

,
,

, , ,
,


, ,
,


,
- , ,
.. - ,
; ,
. , ,
,
, , (
) .
?
-, , ,
.
- ,
.
.
. 7-3.
,
. ,
,
146

, - ;
(, ),
. ,
.
;
,
. "" ,
- ,
" " (
).
, ,
, ( )
. , ,
, ,
.
.
, -
. /217/
, (),
, ,
.
: , , ,
..
, , ,
, .
:
( ). ,
, ,
, .
,
, .
,
,
.
.
, ,
. , ,
, ,
. . /218/
7-3.

+
+

)
+
+

. , . ,
, ,
.
: R.K. Merton. Social Theory and Social Structure. N. Y., 1957, p. 140.

147



, .
, .
(
) .
"":
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

;
;
;
;
;
();
;
.


,
" ".
. ,
,
;
. ,
, ,
, .
; ,
"" , , "", ,
"" . ,
""
,
. , ,
, " "
"" ""
.
"",

. /219/


. ,
.
, -
, . , , ,
,
.
- ,
.
; (
). . ,
.
. , ,
148

, ,
, .
,
.
, .
, ,
. ,
- , .
. ,
,
, , .
, , . ,
, .
, "
", ,
. ,
, .
- -
- -
.
- ,
, /220/
. -
. - ,
, .
-,
. -, ,
,
. ,
-
-. ,
-.
- ,
-, (, ,
)
-.
, .


,
.
,
. - 99
, ,
, .
(,
,1947).

? 2000
,
( ) -
( , ,
149

)
(, , 1977) (. 7-4).


, .
" " ,
" /221/ " .
,
"" , . (1964)
.
, , ,
, ,
.
7-4. .
,
( %)


(5)

(1)

(5 .)

19

36

29

31

25

(50 .)

38

10
54

8
50

12
48

7
36


16
22
19
13
7

14
17
17
12
14

16
25
19
13
24

,
. ,

.
: Ch.R.Tittle and W.J.Villemer. Social class and Criminality. Social Forces, - 56, 1977, .
474 - 502.


""

. , "" -
. ,
, ,
, .
: " " /222/
, .

.
, .
,
. . (1973). , ,
.

, " - ".
150

( ),
"". ,
. .
19 ,
. .
35 (
118 ) ,
. " .
. (
.) ".
, ,
,
.
,
. ( ,
, , , ,
.)
(,
..) ,
.
, ,
. 193 , ,
41 .

. , " /223/
, ,
" (.252).

. ,
, ,
, , ,
(, 1971).
.
" ". ,
- ,
XIX .,
, " " ,
. " "
, (, 1978).

.
1974 .,
,
.
, ; -

, " ",
.

- , ; ,
, ,
151

. , -
. -
;
: .
. ,
, ,
. , , ,
, /224/ ,
: " , ,
. ,
, " (, 1963, . 16).
,
, . , ,
.
, (,
1963). , ,
"".



, ?
, ,
? ,
. (1971) ""
. ,
.

, .
(1963) , , , -
.
: ;
; ; ,
, .
, , , ,
.. ,
, ,
. ,

,
.
, ,
, , .
, /225/
.
"" .
, -
(, 1964). , ,
, : ", .
. , ". ,
, ""
.

152

- ,
,
,
(, 1971).


(1964), ,
,
:
,
. ,
" ".
"
, " ".

, " (, 1955,
.28).
, "" ( ).
, , . -

" " ,
, , ,
. , ,
.
,
, /226/ ,
. .
-,
. , ,
" " " "
, .


, 99 ( ,
) , ,
,
,
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
. ,
.
. , , .
,
. ,
,
, .
(1951) .
153

,
.
.

, .
, .
, , ,
. /227/
,
.
, " "
, .
, ,
.
.
""
. "",
,
.


. , ,
, .
.
, , .
, ,
, . ,
. ,
. , ,
, .
, .
, , , ,
, , , ,
. ,
, .
. ,
, .
, .
, ,
.

"" .
/228/ . ,
. ,
,
. ,
, .
(1975) .
, ,
(, ),
.

154

- ,
-
.
- .
, ,
.
,
- , ,
. , , ,
, ,
.
( )
,
.


, , ,
.
. , , ,
, , , .
,
, .

, .
, , .
/229/ .
, ,
.
,
, , , ,
.
- ,
,
. .
, ,
. ,
,
( 7-1 ,
).
7-1. ,
.

155



, .
, ,
156

.
,
. , ,
,
.
, , -
, ,

.

(, 1966). ;
;
.
.
,
-
; /231/
.
, ,
,
.
, . ,
,
, ,
, , . ,
,

.
. ?
, , ,
. 7-2 ,
,
, .

. ,
,
, .

.
(, 1966),

, . ,
"" (, ),
. ,
.
,
-
. ,
. ,
" ".
, ,
. -
157

, /232/
, . ,
,
.
7-2. ,
1984 ., , .

.
, ;
,
. .

,
, ,
. /233/
" " (,
1975), " ,
" (.348).
90 98
(, 1979). 1640 ,
, ,
.

158


,
. ,
,
.
,
.
. ,
-;
"Chicago Bulls".

,
.
,
, , - , , ,
? (1979) ,
.
, ,
; ,
, ,
; ,
. ,
; ,
,
, .
,
; /234/ ,
.
(1975) ,
,
,
. " , - , -
, (, ),
, . ,
, " (.25).
,
, ,
.
, (1979),
, .
, "
" (
),
, ,
(
,

), " " (
), .
,
159

,
, .
, ,
,
.


. , , ",
, ,
" (, 1975). /253/
,
. (, 1963)
:
1. ""
,


;
2. " " -
;
3. "" -

;
4. "" - ,
,
;
5. "" - , ,
,
.
, :
" ", " " .. ,
,
.
"" ;
, , , ,
(, 1963).

.
, :
, , (1974),
, : ;
, ; , ; ;
; ; .
, , ,
: 1)
; 2) , ; 3)
, .
.
, , ? /236/
(1974), ,
,

160

"", " "


(.31).
(1990) ,
,
,
. ,
.

. (1977),
-: "... ,
- "".
, ""
. , *
(* ) .
, ,
. , .
10 ;
,
, " "
. , ,
.
, ,
" (.20).

, (, ),
:
.
.
, ,
.
/237/ ,
.
, ,

.


" , ".
, .
, ,
, ,
() . ,
.
, "
" ;
.
.
.
,
.
.
,
161

.
,
. (,
)
, .

, ,
. ,
,
. , ,
( , ),
10 , .
-, /238/
.
,
, , .
. - ,
. ,
""
, .
.
,
. -,
,
, -
.


1. ,
, .
, , ,

. ,
,
, , .
2. :
) , ;
) ,
;
)
.

3. ,

, ( )
.
,
Y, ,
162

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

, -
. /239/

, ,
.
,
. ,
,
,
.
,
, ,
.
.
,
. ,

.
,
, .

,
. ,
, ,
.

" ,
".

,
""
. ,
,
, .
, ,
, , ,
.

.
,
, ,
/240/ .

,
"" .
,
,
,
. ,

; ,
;
163

;
,
;
,
.
9. ,
: ) ; ) ; )
; ) ; )
; ) ; )
; ) .
10. (
) ,
" ".
( );
( );
(
).
: , ,
. ,
.
11. , ,
, .
, ,
, .

; ,
;
.
, /241/
.

.

[EMILE DURKHEIM] (1858-1917)


.
, ,
. .

.
, 1887 .
.
. 1902 .
.

.
?
? ,
,
, .
, (
164

)
.
, .

, ,
.

.
,
, , , ,
. , ,

. ,
, ;

, , "
".
,

.
,

. " , -
, -
". , ,
,
,
.
,
, .
,
. ,

;

.
. /242/

8.

. ,
.
, . ,
. .
.

165

,
. ,
,
. ,
.
, , .
, - .

.
.
-
; - Kodak, IBM Philips - ,
,

.
, .
,
. .
,
. ,

.
, , ,
, -
, , ,
/243/ .
, ?
.
"". ,
, , ,
.

,
.



. -
-
, .

, -
.
,
"" , .
. ,
,
.
,
, , ,
. ,
-
166


.
,
.
.


,
. ,
/244/
(, 1950). , ,
. ( )
-
(,
).
, .
,
, -
" ".
,
.
,
, (1973).
, ,

.

, . ,
,
.


.
(
). -, ,
.
, (
) .
,
. ,
. ,
. /245/
, , ,
, .
, .
,

.

.
5 10 .
167

, .
, ,
.
,

(, 1980).

. ,
. X . ,
, .
, , ,
1348 1350 . .

,
: . 1657 .
( ) 108 . ,
.

, .

XVI XVII . : , ,
, , -- -.
, /246/ . ,
. ,
, ,
.
.

.
,
.
.
- , -
,
. ,
, 22 1801 1811 ., 40
1811 1821 . 47 1821 1831 .
228 . .

.
.

.
- . ,
,
, 15 .
. 30 .
(, 1983).

168


.
8-1, (
2500 ) 15 1850 .
74 1980 .
- . ,
-
1850 1900 .,
. /247/.
1900 .
XX .
.
. , .
- I- XX
. .
XX . ,
.
-
.
.
, ,
. XX .
.
,
(
, , ).
8-1. . 1850-1984 .

169


?
.
/248/ . ,

,
.

.
(,
), (
, ).
(1973) ,
. ,
,
, . ,
. ,

.
, .. .


. , ,
, ,
170

.
, ,
, .
.
,
; .

,
. , ,
.
""
.
.
,
, .
.
: -
.
. ,
;
.
;
, . ,

(, 1965).

,
.
,
-
. , , " "
" ",
. /249/
, ,

- " ".
:
,
?



. 8-2, 32
, 44
. 24
.
: .
8-2. ,
, , , 1984 .

171

. U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1986.



. ,
.
,
, ,
,

. 1973 . ,
. ,

,
, (, 1973).
30-
. 1980 . 58
25 . 70-
/250/ .
:
, ( 8-3).

.
. (1962)
, ,
.
. .
. ,
.

172

,
.
, .
. ,
,
.
,
.
. : ,
, , .. .
,
, .
(
), .
. , , ,
. .
/251/ ,
. .
" ". .

.
,
. ""
.
,
. ,
( , ),
- ,
.

173


.

. (1952)
.
XIX .
.

. 1900 1920 .
, 20- ,
.
;
, , .
( 1930 . )
. 1929-1930 .
, .
, ,
;
.
,

. ,
.
,
.
,
174

,
.
,
. 1981 . 59
, , 20 000
. . 42
. 60
50 .
. (1976)
, .
, ;
/252/ .
,
.
,
, ,
. , ,
. (1962) ,
" ".
: ,
, , .

70- - 80-
" " ,
.

( );
;
.
- -,
, , , - .
,

; ,
, .

, ;
(. 13).
,
;

.
, " ,
,
" (, 1979. .31).
316
(1980) , (.. "")
,
,
,
175

. ,

" - ,
" ( . .648).


XX . , .
. XX .
,
. /253/

, .
, -.
,
,
, , "
" ().
50
000 (
50 000 ).
,
, , .
- ( ),
( ) ( ).
.

. ,
.
1. 400 ,
( ) -

,
-,
-,
,
.
,

, ;
,
.
.
2.
- ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
,
, -. (
) .

176

3. , , , ,
,
. ,
.
,
. ,
,
.
,
.

. , ,

,
,
/254/ .

,
,
,
.



20- .
. ,
,
, .

,
, , ,
: . ( invasion - ,
succession - - .)
,
. .
,
.
. ,
.
"" ,
"".
, ""
. ,
.

(), , , ,
. (1945)
. . 1800
1900 . .
1900 .
. , /255/
177

.
.
.
. , ,
.
"".


,
.
.

,
, ,

.
(1966).
, ,
. ,
.
.

.
.
(,
) .

.
,
, , ,
,
. /256/


. ,
. ,
(1925). ,
, .
.
, .
1. .
, . ,
, .
2. . .
: "
", " " ..
3. . .
, .
, .
4. .
.
178

.
.
.
5. .
- ,
.
, .
.
6. , .
7. , .
, .
,
. (1945) ,
" ",
. ,
. /257/

, (1939),
, .
,
,
, .

.
30
.
.


.
.
,
. ,
(1945) ,
.

.
. ,


.
. ,
. ,
,
.
.
.
,
, /258/
179

.
.
, ,
(, , 1978).



. ,
, , , .
, , .
.

2500 ,
.
, ; ,
.


" " (1938)
:
, .
,
. , ,
,
.
: 1) ; 2)
( ,
).
, ,
- ""
. " ",
, -
. ,
, /259/
"". ,
. -
.
" ".
.
, ,
.
, .
, ,
.

,
. ,
, .
, , ..
, .
, , , ..
180


.
, . , .

, .
, . ,
, , ,
. ,

.
.

, ,

(, 1976). /260/


, , ,
,
,
.
, (1962), .
,
.
: , , ..,
. ""
,
. , ,
,
, .
, ,
, ,
, , .


,
(1976). ,
. ,
.
.
,
.
.

,
.
, ;
. ,
,
. ,
/261/
181

; ,
- ,
,
.
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
.
, .
,
(1968). , (
, )

- , ,
; "
" .



.
.
,
, ;
, ,
. ,
, (1972) ,
.
, .
,
,
. , ,
/262/
. .
,
. (1973), ,
,
.
,
.
,
, .
,
, . ,
,
. , ,
,
- .

, (, 1970).
182

, ,
- .

. (1981),
, , (
, ,
), ,
, .
. , ,
-
.
.
,
. .
.
,
, /263/
.
( )
(, 1976).
, , ,
, ,
. (1957)
.
.

. ,
, .
, , , ,
.
, ,
.
,
, .
(1939) ,
,
. ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
.
(1958), ( ), (
)
,
.
.
, ,
. ,
, .
, , , /264/

183

,
.



. ,

.
,
, .
, ,
.
: , ,
,
.


-
,
.
,
. -
. , ,
,
, . ,
" ".
, ,
-
. - -,
, . ,
,
. /265/

,
.
. 1973 .
, (
" "), ,
. -
.
-
80- , ,
. ,
,
.


- , , ,
.
,
,

184

,
(, 1972).

, ,
, ,
. ,
.
, .
, ,
. , ,
. /266/

. ,
, ,
. ,
(, 1972).


,
.
, , .
, ,
. ,
, , ,

.
.
,
.
,
.
- ,
, .
,


. , , , ,
.
, .
30 .
,
: , .

. /267/
,
. ,
. ,
,
.

185


, ,
- . ,
,
, .
,

.
,
, ,
, .
10
( ), .
,
, ,
.
,
.


. ,
, ,
;
.
, .
, , -
,
/268/ ,
.
,
,
. , : ?

, ,
-
.
, .
, ,
, ,
, ,
, .


1. ,
,

.
2. -
-
,
186

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

.
-
.
.

.

.
. XVIII XIX .

-. XX .
.
. /269/

, , ,
, .

,
.

. ,
,
,
.
,
: ;
, ;
; ; .
;
.
: (19001920 .) ;
(1920-1930.);
- (1930 . -
); -
;
. ,
, - .
,


.

,
.

.
,

. /270/ ,
; ,
.
187

10. (
), ,
, ,

.

, ,
. ,

.
.
11. , ,
.
,
:
. ,
,
. ,
, ,
.
12. ,
.
, ,
,
. ,
; ,
.
13. ,

,
.

, .
,
. /271/
14.
.
, , ,
.

.
,

,
. /272/

II.
9. ,

. " "
188

" -". ,
- ,
.
"- " (1982)
, : "
, ; ,
. , , .
, .
"" ; ,
,
. , ,
, ,
. ,
, .
.
-
,
, ,
. - ,
, , - " ",
, - "". /273/
80- -
. : " .

.
. ,
, ,
.
.
,
".

"" "".
, .
: , .

,

.
; ,
.
.
. ,
.
, .
.
.
,
; ,
, .
189

.
- ,
, , .
,
;
.
,
, ; , ,
. /274/
,
, :
?

?
,
.
( ),
,
(, 1968). , ,
( ,
, ),
- . , ,
, ,
" ". ,
. ,
- ,
, . ,
" " ; , ,
(, 1968).
""
. :
, , .
.
,
. ,
, ,
, , .


.
(1970)
. ,
(, ) .
/275/ .
;
, ;
.
,
, .
.
, - ,
.
190

,
; .
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
,
. (
)
.
;
. , ,
, ,
, .
.

,
.
, ,
, .
,
, , .
, .
, ,
,
. /276/

,
( ).
, , .
, ,
(, 1979). ,
,
.

...
.
. 9-1, ,
1950 1984 .
- ,
( 5 ). ,
10 . ,
, 20
. , , ,
, 40
. ,

/277/ .

9-1. ( %)

191

4,5
12,0
17,4
1950
4,8
12,2
17,8
1960
5,4
12,2
17,6
1970
5,1
11,6
17,5
1980
4,7
11,0
17,0
1984
: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1984, p. 37.

23,4
24,0
23,8
24,3
24,4

42,7
41,3
40,9
41,6
42,9

5%
-
17,3
15,9
15,6
15,3
16,0

.
,
, 200 . (1978)
,
1789 .
1949, 1959 1969 .,
. ,
,
.


,
, - .
.

:

. " " (1893)
,
, .
,
.
. - , , , ..
, .
,
- , .
. ,
.

.
1954 . ,
. , ,
/278/ ,
.
;
, , .

. , ,
. , ,
, ,
, .
. , ,
- .
, .
192

-
, , .
,
, .
,
;
.
- .
, , .
- ,
, , .
,
. "" - ,
.
,


,
(, , 1945).

:
, .
/279/ ( ,
, , ,
?), ,
-. ,
: , ,
(
), (, 1953).


. ,
,
, - .
:
, .
,

.
.
.
, , , ,
.
.
,
, (,
..) .
, .
,
( ) -
(). : -
( ),
193

, .
- . ,
- ,
(, ) /280/ (, ).

. ,
, .
, - ,

(
). , - , .., .
,
,
. .
.
. ,
, ,
. ,
:

+ + ( ).
, :
,
. , , .
,
. ,
, - . ,
. ,
.
, ,
. -,
. ;
,
. (1981) ,
, (" ") -
, :
,
. /281/ ,


.
, , .
: " ,
. . ,
!"

,
,
.
XIX - XX . ,
( ) ,
194

(, 1000
10 000 ). " " (,
1959).

, , .
,
.

" " ,
. (1959) ,
.
,
.
; (
, , ),
. /282/

: --
,
(1922-1970),
. .
.
- .
, ; ,
, ,
. ,
- , ,
.
.
, .
-
; .
.
. ;
, ..
(, 1980)
. - ,
- , .
;
.
.
, ,
. , ,
, 40 000 . , ,
, .
, (
).
, .
, .
,

. /283/
195

, ,
.

:
, ,
.
. (, , 1941). 30- 40-

, "-".

. ,
. ,
, " ".
"" ,
,
.. .
"- ":
1. . ""
;
2. ,
.
,
, ;
3. ,
, ,
: , , ;
4.
" " (, ,
);
5. " " -
;
6. ,
, -,
. /284/


, ,
,
. ,
1956 ., ( )
.
(, , 1956). , ,
,
: , , ..

.
,
. 1966 . , 1925
.
- ,
196

- (,
, 1966). 1977 . . 85
53 ,
. ,
, , .
.
, ( , )
. ,
, , .
, , .

.
,

,
. ,
-
,
, ,
.
,
. , /285/ ,
,
. ,
, ,
,
.

. ,
.
.
,
, , ,
. ,
, "
" . ,
, - , , ,
.

, ,
, .
, , ? ?
-
.
; -
, -.
: ,
,

. /286/
197



,
. ,
.

, .

,
.
.
, , ,
, .

.
-
.

,
,
. .
.

, - ,

.

, -,
.
(
, /287/ ..), (,
, 1960).
. ,
, (1976) ,
,
.
;
.
. (1963), , , ,
,
, ,
.
,
, .
(1963)
-. ,
, , .
. ,
.
. 9-2,
,
198

. ,
,
.

.
,
, . (
-
,
,
.)
, -
.
/288/ , ,
,
9-2. ( %)

, .
10 000

10 000
14 999

15 000
24 999

25 000

1.

?
52
56
51
, 42

20
22
27
, 12

11
6
6
19

9
8
7

14

9
5
5
5

4
3
3
6
,

2.

?
19
13
10
11

28
25
23
25
5-7
30
35
40
32
3-4
13
18
20
23
1-2
6
7
5
6
2-3
2
2
1
2

0,6
0,3
0,6
0,3


. ,
4066 .
: Pietropinto &Simenauer, 1977.

(, 1965; , , 1941).
.
(
, ) , . , , /289/
199

. ,
.
;
,
. , .

,
.
. , ,
.
" " (1978)
,
,
. .
, , ,
.
.
"" , ,
, .
,
. ,
.
,
? (1978) .
..
, .. ,
:
, .

, , ,
. /290/
.
,
.
, , .
,
, .

. ,
, ,
(, , 1978).



. ,
.. .
: 1)
; 2)
3) .

200

1.

,
.

;
. ,
,
,
.
-
, .
, ,
, ,
.
2. .
. ,
- /291/
, .


.
, , ,
,
.
3. . .

- ,
.

; ;

.

.
-
. (1959) ,
.
, ""
.
,

. ,
,
- ,
.
(1967) ,
( "
" - "") .
,
.
, .
, /292/
201


. (1965)
, (
) , , ,
. ,
" ", ""

.


.
.
" ", ,
. , ,
, /293/ ,
, , , , ,
,
9-3. , 1984 . (
%)

- 91,2

5,7
3,1

8,0
5,0
87,0
,

17,5
8,0

74,5

7,2
7,2

85,6

,
,

14,3
9,5
,
, 76,2

7,7
10,2
82,1
,

: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1986. 1984 .

58,4

41,6

35,6

64,4

39,2

60,8

91,5

8,5

74,0

26,0

84,4

15,6

(. . 9-3). 20 (

), (1967) , ,
, , , ,
. (1978) ,
1962 1973 .
.



.
, ,
-.
,
202

,
.
, ,
, .
, XIX .,

, , - .
,
. ,

, (, , 1954).

.
60-
. ,
(,
)
; ,

.
:
,
. .
: 105 , 1954-1955 . 20 60 ,
.
, , : ,
, , , ,
, . ,
. ,
. /294/
.
, .

, , , .
, ,
;
.
,
, . ,
, .

. ,
.
,
.
,
"" ,
,
. ,

.
203

, .
,
, .
.
,
,
. - , ""
, - ,
.

(, 1963).

1979 .
, - (
), , , ..
-
.
,

. , ,
, ,
.
,
,

. , (1978) ,

, .
;
,
"
" (.817).
, ""
( )
.


,
.
.

.
, .. ,

()

.
()
, , , ,
. ,
, .
, , (.
3).

204

,
.
- . ,

-
.
.
, ,
. /296/
,

. ,
. ,
( - ) ,
: , ,
. ,
, ,
(, 1963).
. ,

,
.
, ,
. ,
.
, ,
,
.
- ,
, ,
.
( , ,
) - .
,
,
.
, ,
, " ".

( - ) .
/297/


, , , ,
,

. ,
.

.

.
205

, , ,

. , , ,
, ,
;
, .
,
, .
, .

, ,
.
(,
),
, . ,
(1978) ,

. ,
(
), ,
, -
.

, . , ,
,
/298/ (, ,
1977). , ,
, ,
. - , , , , ,
. , ,

.

-
,
. ,
,
.
, .
.

. 1981 .

,
(, 1982).
,
, . , (1982) ,
,
.
206

- ,

. (1968) ,
.
, ,

, ,
, . /299/

*
(* . .)


- ,
, (. 7). ,
. ,
: ,
. ,
, " " (,
- )
. , ,
, " " , ,
, " " (, 1972).
,
, ,
(, 1976).


60- " ".
"" ,
,
. . ,
1965 1975 . , ,
5 (, 1977).

.

- .
.


,
.
, /300/
. , ,
.

1832 . 1863 .,
1920 ., 1954 .
,
- -
207

( )
,
. ,
, ?
,
, .
. , ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
, (,
1980). , ,
, .


1. ,
. ,

, .
,
,
.
2. ,
.
, .
/301/ ,
.
3. 200
.
4.
. ,
,
. , ,
,
; .
5. ,
,
.
, . ,
,
.
6. : ,
. , .
7.
. ,
.
8. .
: )
,
; )
208

, ;
) ; ) ,
, .
9.
, .

, . (
, , ,
, .)
10.
.
/302/ ,
(.. )
(
).
11.

.
,
,
,
.
12. .
.

. -
. /303/

10.
1982 . ,
, ?
,
40 (. 10-1). /304/
10-1. , ,


51,6
43,7
40,0
16,0
14,2
14,0
12,5
11,7
9,9
8,4
8,1
4,9
4,1
3,5
2,6
1,7

209

: German Ancestry, 1982 .

1,6
1,2
1,1
1,0
990 000
946 000
832 000
764 000
722 000
705 000
680 000
616 000
609 000
525 000
467 000
448 000
340 000
335 000
322 000
265 000
198 000
193 000
184 000
182 000
118 000

,
. ,
, - (,
, ) ,
. , 40
11 "
", -
. , , ,
, 7,7 .
, 5,1 .- , 4,1 .- , 2,5 .-,
2,4 . - 1,2 .- . 18 . ,
,
"" (" ", 1982).
. 10-1
,
. ,
, , , ,
.
: ,
, ,
.
, ,
?
?
?
210

?
.


" " . , ,
()
,
. , ,
, , ,
, /305/
. . (1976)
. , -
,
( ). ,
, .
.
1. ,
: , ,
. , , ,
, , , .
.
, ( )
.
2.
.
: .
3. ,
, -
"", ..
,
. ,

, ,
. ,
, . ,
. ,
,
.
.

: "" ,
; "" ,
, "" ( ) -
, , .
/306/ XIX .,
"" ,
.
.

; ,
211

,
. "" () ,

.
. ,
; ,
.
,
,
, "", .

. :
, ,
, .
, "'".


, ( , )
.
, .

. , , , ,
, .
,
(, ) ,
,
.
: /307/
, ,

. , ,
"".

,
: , , , , .
. , ,
, .
,
. ,
: ,
,
;
(, 1945. .347).

- ,
, , ,
,
.
,
- "".
.
,
212

,
,
.
. , :
, .
-
. -
, -
. ,
; /308/ ,
,
. ,
. ,
,
, .

,
. ,
, .
.
,
, .
,
, .

, , ,
, .
-
XIX XX .;
, ,
;
(); 6 . ,
.

, ..
. XIX .
,
.
, ;
, ,
; "Mein Kampf"
, "" . /309/
,
.
(1972) ,
.
,
, , ,
.
:
213

1. ,
, ;
2.
;
3. ;
4. ;
5. , .
,

.
, , ,
.
(,
), .
, (
) . ,
, ,
(, 1971; ,
, 1967; , 1968; , 1970).
.
.

.
,
(). /310/


-
. (1972),
.
1. .
,
, -
(
).

.
, (1961) ""
, .
,
;
, ,
,

.
2.
.
.

214

,
.
3. .
""
,

.
(13-, 14- 15-),
,
.
4. .
.
, ,
;
.
,
/311/
, .
5. ,
- ,

"".
, "" (
),
.
, ,
,
.
.
.

,

(, , 1970; , 1968).
,
, ,
. ,
(, )
:

.



, .

. , ( ,
), , .
,
. (1971), (1966) (1967)
, ,
. /312/ ,
, .
215

(1971) ,
,
.
.

(,
1959). ,
.
""
. " ".
,
,
. ,
(,1971; , 1972; , 1972).
XIX XX .
,
.
(1976) ,
-
, , .
, 1910 1940 ..
, .
. ,
,
,
.
,
; -
, ,
( ) .
,
. ,
. /313/


, ,
30 000 ,
.
,
.
-
- , .

,
. ,
(,
), ,
, ( ,
).
,
216


(, , ( "" , ,
-. ,
-" "
(. .)) , .

.

,

.
, .
,
.
, ,
,
.
. ,

;
.


. , , , , ,
, .
XVIII .

.

,
. XIX .
/314/
.
,
.
. ,

.
40-
.
, , ,
. 60- ,
,
.
, ,
. , ,
.

, .
217

1969 ., 1973 .
(, )
.
, 1981 .
30 .
. 1981 .
- 5800
. . 9
(U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1981).
,
.



,
. ,
, .
XVI . .
,
; .
, , , .
, ,
, ,
.
.
.
,
.
"" ,
, .
.
" ".
,
.
. /315/ -
, 250 ,
.
" " - ,
,
. ,
.
. , 30- 40-

, , . ,
, ,
.

.
1876 .
, ,
218

, . XX .
,
.

.
,
,

, ,
.
.
30-
, " "
. 40-
, " ",
, .
. 50- 60-

.
, .
60- - 1967 .
, " "
,
" ",
. 70-
80-
(, , , 1979).
11,7
. 1980 . 32,5
13 ;
, ,
.
13,1 , 6,5
, - 7,4 . 51,2
,
70,5 (U.S. Bureau of the
Census, 1981-1982). ,

, (. 10 - 1). /316/



1962 . 1963 .
. ,
, ,
, ;
. ,

- , ,
, . ,
.

219

.

(, ),
" " ,
. ,
. ,
,
.
,
; ,

.
1967 . ",
: ".
,
, - , .
, , ,
- .
, ,
. ,
, (
).

.
, .
"", ,
.
. - ,
, .
,
.
- , .
,
, , . ,
, .
? , ,
, , "" ,
, ?
"" , /317/
,
?
,
? ,
,
, ?
, , ,

.

220


1820 . 1936 .
38 . (,
, 1939).
1820 . (
, , ) ,
1880 . 80-
,
- , , ,
. 1905 1914 . .

;

. ,
.
,
(, )
.

.
,
.
,
: , .
,
.
80- 1900-
.
.
, .
,
,
. ,
, ,
- (, 1966; , , 1963).
. XIX .
4 . ,
.
,
,
.
, .
. /318/
,
(, 1966).
XX . " "

,
. 60- - 70-
( ,
)
, ,
221

, .
, " "
", " -
,
,
. , " "
,
.
( ) " "
( ., 1979; , 1973).


, , ,
40- - ,
, "" . "
" ,
. /319/ - ,
.

10-1. , ,
, 1984 .
16.8 .

,

.

.
.
.
,
, .
222

1845 . ,
" ", "
",
(, , 1970 . 37).
,
. ,
, .
70- XIX . .


. ,
. ,
, .
,
,
. ,
" ", .

.
, , , .
" " ,
1882 . .
, ,
, , .
.
,
.
.
, .
, ,
,
, - ,
, . ,
.
, ,
,
, , .
"
", .

.

,
, ,
/320/ ,
.
, ,
,
,
.

223


1885 ., , ,

. ,
,
. . - ,
,
. 20

"
"

,
,
,

,
(, 1976).
,
,
.
, ,
, .

, .

(, 1974).

. , ,
. ,
.
,
.
,
.
,
,
, , (, 1976;
, 1969).

. ,
, 1941 . .
, ,
, ,
", ,
" (, 1974). 110 000
" " (
) .
,
/321/
(, 1974). 1945
. ,
, .
,
(, 1963).
224


(, 1974).
,
.
.
,
.
,

(, 1969, 1974).


1836 1848 . .
,
. ,
200 , -
.
,
. .
1846 .
.
. ,
-, ,
, . ( )
; ,
,
. -
.
,
(, 1976).
-
. XIX XX
. .
, (, 1974).
,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
,
(, 1976).
XIX .
.
, .

.
,
, /322/ . 20-
30-
(, 1976).

, 1942 .
225

.
.
,
. ,
(, 1976).
1974 . .
,
1965 .
120 000 .
. 1965 . 1970 .
3,8 ., ,
, . 1971 . 1979 .
6 . (U.S.
Bureau of the Census, 1981).
,
,
.
1 . 1930 . 8,5 . 1980 .
,
, , . 5
4 ,
.
.
; 1980 . 24,1
(U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1980).
,
.
( )
; , -,
.
. ,

.
20
,
. -
,
(, 1978).


. -
, , , ..
. 60-
, ,
.

- ,
, .
/323/,

.

226


60-
,

, ,
.


, , ,

. ,
,
50 ,

. ,
,
.
, ,
- , - .
,
. ( ""),
, , ,
"" ,
. ( "
") ,
.
,
" ".
( ) -
, ,
, ;
,
-
.
,
,
, . , ,
,
,
.
?

, , " " (1978).
.
.
,
( 50- 60- ) ,
/324/ ( 16,4 1950 . 35,3
1970 .). -
,
227

;
, , .
,
.
,
" " (, 1980; ,
1980). .
, ,
,
, ,

.


.

, ,
. ,

.
, , , ,
,
.


1. ,
( ) .
,
.
, , ,
"" ,
.
,
,
.
2.
. " " ,
, -
.
,
. ,
, ,
, . /325/
3. , ,

.
: )
; )
; ) ; )
; ) ,
.
228

4. ,
, : )
,

; )
, ,
; )
, ""
; ) ,
; )
, ,
.
5. , ,

. , ,
.



.
6.
. ,

,
, .
7. .
, ,
.
.
- , , ,
.
.

.
8.
.
(, )
.
/326/ , "
" ,
- .
9. ,
. .
,
,
.

. -
. /327/

11.
600 000 . 60
.
229

,
?
(
). X.
: ,
. , ,
, " ".
: ,
, ,
. " " ,
, .
,
, .
, ,
"".
, .
" " , .
,
: "
; .
; .
;
.
;

. , ;
, , , .
- ,
, ; /328/
" (...
. 1982).
,
,
.
, " "
, ,
.
" "?
, , ,
.
1. ;
, , ,
.
2. ;

.
3. ,
.
4. , ,
.
5. .
230

6. .
7. ,
.
8. ( )
( ,
, ).
9. , , ,
.
10. , ; .
;
" ".
, , " "
: H.G. Whittington. Time Pressure Takes its Toll, N.Y., 1982.
, ,
, ,
.
" "; ,
/329/ .
; ,
" ", , "".

, ,
. ,
: , ,
.
.
, :
, ..
.
.
, ,
,
.

. .
.
,
.. 20
- .
,
, .
: ,
; -
.
.
,
. ,
231

,
. /330/,
, .

. .



, , ,

, ,
,

.
,
. ,
.
. , , ,
.
,
, .
- ,
.
, ( )
. ,
, ,
- .

(, ), ,
. /331/

: /
, ,
,
. , , ,
. ,
.
. ? -

- .
.

, .
, , ,
, ; , ,
(, 1972). 18-
232

50 , (, 1978).
, , , ,
;
- , .
;
,
, .
, ,
, , ,
.
, , .


,
. , ,
. , /332/
, ;
,
, , . ,
- ,
, ,
.
""
, .
(1974) , :
, .

.
, , -
( ), , ,
. , ,
, ,
, , ,
, .
, , ,
.
, ,
, "" ,
, ,
, . ,
, ,
-, ,
(, , 1974).
(1974) ,
. ,

. " ,
, ,

./333/ ,
233

... ,
,
,
" (. 208)
,
.
;
.
, ,
,
. (1970) ,
.
, ,
.

.
, ,
: , 50
; ,
. , , .
, ,
. ,
, .
,
.
,
, ,
, (,
, 1972).
(1974) , ,
,
.
. , ,
, " " " ". /334/
11-1.

(
)

2 2,5
, ,
,
, . ,

,

,
-
.

. 11

234

.

, ,


12 13

,
.

, ,


: Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974, .132

, (1966), ,
" ",
. ,
, ,
.. -
. , ,
,
.
,
.
,
.
. 11-1
.

(,
) ,
"" "".

. "",
.
,
,
,
.
,
. , ,
,
235

.
- , -
,
. ,
/336/ -. ,

.

: " "/" "


,
- .
. ,
.
, -
,
.
,
, .
-
, .
,
.
(1935) ,
" " .
" ",
.
, .
,
,
. .

, ,
"" .

- ,
, ,
. " ,
,
" (.
15). /337/
, " "
.
, .
", ,
,
, , "
(. 134).
, , , .

. .
" ", , ,
.
236

, , ,
,
. "
, ;
... ,
, "
(.30). - , ,
: " ? --.
" (.39).


.
;
,
.
,
,
- . ,
.
. ,
, .
, ,
, . "

, .
" (. 194).
.
, .
,
.
, ,
.
,
, - .
, . /338/

, ,
, . , ,
,

. : ,
, , ,

.
" ".
,
" ".
, ,
.
,
, .

237

, ,
"" . ,

; , " -
,

" (.I).

. ,
( ),

. ()
; 1960 . ,

. ,
, .

,
. ,
(, 1972).

,
/339/,
.
,
, ,

, " ".


, , ,
, - ..,
.

.


,
, (, 1970).

.
, ,
. .
,

,
: , , , ..
.
, , , ,
. " ,
,
" (, , 1978. .).
238

: "
,
...
, , ,
5-6
" (, 1977. .61).
1813 . .

.
; ,
.
, , ,

: ,
.
XIX . .
; /340/
.
;
, . ,
" " .
(,
1976):
1. (
);
2. ,
,
;
3. , ,
. ,
.
(1978)
" ". ""
1820 1860 .
: " ,
, ,
, :
, , .
- , , , .
, .
" (.313).
XIX . ,
, , ,

.
,
-
XIX . , ""
, - ,
. , ,
239

- " " (
). ,
, ,
" ". /341/


? "
" , ,
,
. ,
(. 11-2).
, ,
, " ", " ",
"" "",
" ", " ", "
" (, , 1962). ,
. , ,
?
- -
.
, "" ""
. - -
, . /342/
11-2.


1) ,
1) ,
2) 2)

3)
3)
4)
4)
5) ,
5) ,
6) , , , 6)
,
,


7)
7) ,
8) ,
8) ,

9)
9)
10) ,
10) ,
: Chafetz, 1978, .38.

.
, ,
, "" ""
, ,
. ,
- "",
.
,
. ;
,
.
" "
.
240

, ,
.



. ,
: , .


, ,
,
.
.
, (. 13).
, " ",
" ".
.
, ,
- .

/343/ ,
.
, , ,
, .
, ,
,
. ,
,
(, , , 1979; , , , 1978).
:
, ,
, (,
1974).
, ,
, , .
, ,
, , .
, , ,
(, 1976).
, 1982 ., ,
, 1975 . 25 . ,
, 1975 1982 . 27
(San Francisco Chronicle ", 1982).

,
. ,
,

(, , 1974). ,
, ,
241


, .

. ,
/344/ ,
; .
, , -,
, (, 1978).
, ,
,
(, , 1972).
, , , .
, "" ,
,
. ,
, .

, "" .
"" , ;

.
, ,
,
, 30 .
1950 1980 . , .

"" , , , ,
, , ,
. ,
, .
,
, , " ".
(1969) ,
"", ,
- , .
,
: "
".
,
/345/ . -
, 80 .
, , 65
" ". ,
.
.
, " ",
, ,
; , ,
. ,
,
.

242

(1974) ,
(77 ), (65 ),
, , , .
(
,
, /346/
),
11-1. , ( %)

- ,
45,6 - 22,5 -
18,7 - , 9,6 , , 2,4 ,
1,2 : U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1986
, -
,
. , ,
, ,
.

1985 . 45 .
58,6 60
10 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1986).

. ? 11-1
, .
"" ,
. 1980 . 54
- , 71
-
(U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1981).
,
- "",
,
,
.
, ,
,
. ,
, . ,
66

243

, 7
(, 1968).
( )
.
1970 . 40 ,
8 ( /347/ ), 4
2
11-2. ( %)

(, , 1974). 1980 .
13,4; 12,8 4,3 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1981).

, , ,
, .
. ,
, ,
, , - "",
, .
/348/ ,
. (1976)
, -
,
. ,
.
25 -, ,
. :
1.
;
1. "" . /349/
244

11 -3.

,
.

.
, ,
. , -
: " ,

; , ,
" (, 1976).


.
. 1980 . 322
. , 204 . (U.S.
Bureau of the Census, 1981) (. 11-3).
, ?
. ,
245


. ,
" " ( ),

, .
.
,
;
, .
, .
,
, ,
, , .
, -
/350/ ,

.

, , ,
, .
11-2
. " "
6 (64,1
1,5 ). , 1970 . (
,
), , 74,4 28,1
. ,
- 29,1 3,1
,
. ,
, , , .
, 15
(U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1985).

(1977) ,

.
,
, .
70- : "
, ".
,
,

. ,
, ,
, /351/ (
).
, ,
, . ,
, , ;
-
246

, -. ,
. , " "
" " (
), " ".

" "
, ,
" "? , "
". ,
-
, ,
, , ..
, ,
.
; ;
(
);
, ; ,
.
.
.
- ,
.
" " (,
1973).

,
. " " "
", "" /352/ "" , "" ""
.
.


(1955)
.
,
. ,
.

- ;

, .

? ,
; ,
,
.
. -
, ,
.
,
. ,
247

,
( , )
"".


,
. (1975)
. ,
()
().
,
, , /353/ ,
.

, "
". ,
.

. ,
. ,
" ",
,
.
,
:
1) ;
2) , .
, ,
? , ?
( )
; ,
. : "
,
;
,

;

.
,

" (.250).


,

. , , -
, .
(1976) ,
( , /354/
) . .
1. , ,
.
248

, " "
- .
2. .
,
,
, .
3. ,
. " " - , ,
, , , , ,
, . -
. - ;
,
, ,
, .
4.
. ,
(, ),
.
.
, (1976), ,

.
.

,
( 9).
(, , )
; ,
, ,
.
, ,
. , - , ,
/355/ "" . ,
,
;
. -,
; ,
. -, ,
,

. (
,
- .)
,

,
.

249


,
, .
, ,
, ,

. , ,
" , ,
" (.43).
,
,
. ,
;

.
,
,

. , /356/ ,
"".
, , ,
:
, ,
"" .
,
.
, ,
,
,
, ,
.

:
, , ,

,
,
80- . ,
,
.
, ,
. ,
, , . ,
.
"" .
:
1. ,
;
2. - ,
(, 1975);
250

3. ,
/357/
;
4.
;
5. ,
.
,
.
, .


1.
:
<
) ,
,
;
) , ;
) , ,
;
) , ,
.
,
,
.
2.
,
, . ,
, ,
, . ,
,
:
; ,
.
3. ,
,
- .
,

. /358/
4. ,
: ) ,
251

; ) , ,
, ; )
,

,
.
5. ,
( ),
,
, .
, , .
,
.
, ,
.
6. ,
,
, .
. XIX .
; , - .
7.
, ,
. ,
.
8. ;
,
. , ,
"" ,
. ,
,
, , " ", ,
"".
9. ""
. ,
, ,
, ""
/359/ ,
.
10.

, ;

. ,
,
.
11. ,
()
(). ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
.

252

12. ,
, .
.
,
.
, .
13.
,
,
, ,
. /360/

12.
- ( )
,
, . 86 ,
( 257 )
.
" ? -
", - . : "
. - .
, .
".
, , .
,
. ,
, , .
- ,
, .
( 61 ). ,
, ,
. " , , , . - ,
, .
" (, 1 , 1982. .58).
, ,
. ,
,
, .
,
, .
, 1981 .,
, "
, ,
, " (.
60). /361/ -

. ", ", " "
" " , , , .

253

12-1. 65
1900-1980 .,
1990-2030 .


65

1900

4,1

22,9

1910
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
*

4,3
4,7
5,5
6,9
8,2
9,3
9,9
11,2

24,1
25,3
26,5
29,0
30,2
29,5
28,1
30,2

1990
12,1
32,8
2000
12,2
35,5
2010
12,7
36,6
2020
15,5
37,0
2030
18,3
38,0
* 1 1976 .
: U.S. Bureau of the Census.

""* (* . age () . .)
,
(, 1969).
,
,
. ,
, "
-
, ,
, "" /362/ " (.244).
, , ,
.
,
, .
.

, .

( ).
,
,
. , ""
.


(, )
, /363/ ,

254

12-2. 65
, 1960, 1980, 2000 .

65
1960 .
1980 .
2000 .
5,2
5,8
6,3

8,5
11,4
13,2

9,1
11,0
12,1

9,7
13,0
14,3

7,4
7,9
8,9
*
6,8
10,0
12,0

3,9
4,6
3,7
3,0
3,0
3,3

3,5
4,1
4,6

4,8
5,9
7,8
**
3,2
3,0
3,7

* : , - , ,
.
** .
: United Nations, 1980.

65 (, 1977). 1890 .
"" , 65
4 . 1940 . "":
7 . 1980 . (11,2
) 65 . ""
, - , ,
, 15 . . 12-1,
;
, 2030 . 65
18,3 , , 30
, 38 (, 1980).
.
,
;
, .
""
.
(. 18,
).

. ,
.
. . 12-1, , ,
, . 65 2030 .
1960 . ,
, (
40- - 50- ), 65 .
, 50- "
" (, , 1975).
.
,
(32
16 1000 ),
255

(12 9 1000 ). ,
/364/
12-3. ,
1980-2030 .

18 64 100

1980 .
1990 .
2000.
2010 .
2020 .
2030 .

64,3
63,5
( 18
65 )

18,4
20,0

(65 )

45,8
43,5
(
18 )
: U.S. Bureau of the Census.

63,2

59,4

67,2

73,8

19,9

20,2

26,0

31,8

43,2

39,2

41,2

42,0

15 , (57 72 ).
,
, , , ,
(. 122).


,
.
150 ,
. XIX .

.
, 20 ,
, 30 .
,
40 . , ,
, , , , " ".
,
.
,
/365/
,
(. 12-3).

1980. 2030 . .
, 2030 .
,
, , ,
. ,
(1978),

18 . , ,

.
256

12-1. , 19402030 .


, ,
,
.
/366/ ,
, 20
-
,
.
, ,
,
.
12-1,
,
.
25-45
257

( 13,3 ). ,
- ,
.
,
65 (, 1980).

.
,
.

.


3- 9- ,
, ,
().
(, , )
,
, .. , . (,
""; ,
, ( )
, , , ..) ,
,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
; (
), 5 16 ;
, 19
20 ( ) 65 .

, . /367/


,
. 4,

.
,
;
,
.
, ,
, .
.
.
,

. ,
!
20 ,
258

.
(, , 1981).
, ,
- , ,
, . ,
, , ,
.
; ,
,
. ,
:
,
(, 1981).
,
.
,
. , /368/
:
. , ,
- .
,
,
(, , 1980).



, ,
. , ,
.

, "".
17 , 18.
,
21 .
65 ( 67 70).
.

(
).

.
, ,
.
, (, ,
1965). , , (..
18 )
. ,
" " "",
, /369/ . ,
, . , "
", (, ,
1973). ( 30 ),
259

(
"" ),
, .
" "
.
: (,
),
, " ". "", ,
,
. : "
" - (, , ) ,
.
.
,
, .
,
, .
,
, . , ,
, ,
. (1974)
: " ,
-
, ,
" (.441).
,
, . ,
1975 . ( 18
64 , 65 ), ,
, 65 ,
,
/370/ . ,
,
, .
,
(,1980).
, ,
. , , , .

. ,
.
, .



? 18- ,
21 ? ?



: , , , , , .
260

"" .
,
.
(, 1965). XVII .
"" () ,
, ( 5 50 ).
,
7 16 . ""
(, 1972).
(1982)
,
"", . ,
, , ,
, , /371/
( ),
" - ".
, ,
. ,
"" ,
,
, ,
.
"" .
,
, .
, -
(, 1970). ,
,
. 1930 .
" " 65 ,
,
.
, ""
. , XIX XX ., , ,
, .

. -,
,
.
-, ,
.
, - .

..
.
, . ,
. ,
/372/ "" ,
- , -

-
,

-, .. (, 1965).
261

, ,
- ,
.


-
- , , ,
"" ( ) .
. ,

, ;
,
. " "
, .

.
, -,
, .
, ,
.
, , ;
.
. ,
,
, .
, , ,
. ,
, .
, ,
. /373/



, ,
.
.


.
275 - 50 90
(1961) ,
, ; ,
- ,
, .
,
.

.
"",
262

. ,
,
-
, .


.
""
;
.
,
.
,
, , ,
;
/374/ .

, , , .
, , ,
(,
),
.

.
,
, (, 1973).
, , 40
, , ,

30 , 70 .
, ,
, 30 ,
(, 1977).


(1965) , ,
" ". 2-
,
, .
,
,
. ,
, ,
( ) ,
(, 1973).
, " "
,
.

, , , /375/
, .
263


5-
- ,
. (1976)
, .
, ,
, , ,
- .
, ,
, (.. ),
(.. 18 60 ,
),
( ) (
,
).

, .

,
,
, , . ,
,
, (
), ( )
(, 1976). " "
, ""
, .
.

. ,
, /376/
, .
.
,
. , 60 , ,
-
. , -
, , ""
"". ,
, .
,
, ,
,
(, , 1973).


,
. ,
. , 264

.
,
, .
, ,
,
. , ,
.
, ,
, .
,
,
.

, ,
, . /377/


, ,
. ,
, ; ,
,
. , ,
.
,
.

,
.
. (1980),
,
, (
) .
, ,
. , - ,
, , , , ,
, , , .
- ,
- .
, ,
. 4- , (1973),
,
. ,
;
.
. ,
,
. ,
, . (1980) ,
, /378/
, .
,
, .
265

. , ,
, , ,
; ,
;
(, 1976).

, -
, .
, ,
,
. ,
- ,
, . "
( )

, , ...
, ,
; ,
, ,
, " (,
1972).

,
. 65
, .
. ,

, ,
(,
, 1976). /379/
. 20
65 , - ,
, , 5
(, , 1976).
, 75 65
74 , ,
.
.
.
;
, . ,
1980 ., , 60
" ", 30 "
" - , .
20 "
" - .
, , ,
,
(American Healthcare Corporation,
1980).

266


? (
) .
, , , .
, , .
,
,
.
, .

,
, .
/380/
, . ,
,
,
,
65 . 1870 . 24
65 . 1980 . 81,4
(U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1981).
, XIX .
.
.
, 1935 .
, 65
.
,
. /381/

12-2. ,
, 1984 .

267

. : 60 70
, ,
(, 1977).
, 1979 . ,
65, 79 . ,
,
,
. ,

;
,
;
(, 1977). , ,
, - :
.

. 1981 . ,
65 , 14 335 . .
,
( 55 64 ), 25 168 . .
. 1981 .
65 , , 15,3 ,
11,4 65
(U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1982).
268

, ,
, ,
.
. 1970 .
,
.

,
.


. ,
,
. 1978 ., (1980)
, 21 /382/ ,
, ,
8 . ,
, ; - , .
- ,
, ( 12-2).

. , ,
. ,
, , ,
, .
, ,
; ,
;
(,1977).

, .
. " ,
" .
-
.
, ,
. (1978) , " " (
75 ) , "
".
, .


,
, . 13-
.
, . 25
65 .
.
, ; ,
; ,
,
. /383/ ?
269

.
65 18,1 ,
13,7 , 2,6
, - 7,7 .
, - . "
" ( 75 ) .
, , ,
. , ,
, . 65
10 ,
, 75 30
;
(, 1980).
, ,
, , 30
, (U.S. Semite Committee
on Aging, 1977). , , 2,8 .
( 35 )
.
(, 1981).
60 65 .
.
,
, ,
.
, .
,
.

( ) . ,
( ), "
", " " "".
, ,
.
,
, ?
,
,
. , ,
.
, , ,
.
. , , /384/ ,
, , ,
. ,
, , , ,
.
, ,
,
(, 1970).

270

""

. 60-

.
. 60- " "
20 . ""
.
(
)
. 20-
,
. 20-
, ,
.
, .
" ",
1936 . 1,5 . . " "
220 . ,
.
" "
, ,

. /385/
, ,
,
.
1980 . 15
. , "
" (, 1978).
,
.
,
,
, ,
, ,
(, 1976).


.

( ).
,
,
,
(
)
(, 1980).

1970 . " ".
,
, .
271

, ,
: "
, :
;

,
10 000 .; ,
, " (" ",
1977. .79).
,
,
, " " ,
.

(,
1980). /386/

?
, ,

.
, , , ,
,
. XX .
.
.
, , .
, ,
. ,
,
. , ,
, ,
.


1. "" ,

. ,
,
.
2.

.
.
.
, ,
.
3.
, " "
( ) 30 .
272

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

/387/

, .
,
.
.

.
,
.
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
"",
. ,
.

.
( )
. ,
,
, .
,
.
, , , ,
,
; .
,
.
, "
"
.
,
/388/, :
- ,
.
,
,
. ,
,
, .
, ,
, .
,
. ,
.
273

.
, ,
, , ,
. ,
.
10.
20- , .

, ,
, . ,
" ",

. /389/

III.
13.
1980 . , - "
" 1- . ,
679 000 (53 )
"" - ,
. -
. , 48 ,
( ) - 45, - 44, -
- 39 - - 37 . 27
.
"" -
, :
1. ;
2. ,
;
3. ,
.
-
. ,
(. 7), ,
100 000 , .
, ,
, . ,
,
- ,
, /390/ , .
: "
...", , ,
, .
, "" " ", ,
. , -,
.
274

" " 1982 . -


: " ,
,
".
, - " ",
. ,

- , ,
, (, 1982).

-. 1982 .
-
.
, .
-
,
.
,
,
. , ,
, -
.
- , ,
,
.
"",
. 1980 ., 97,5
,
/391/ ,
"" . ,
"" "" .
"" ,
, .
, .
"" ,
, , .
,
, -,
.
1981 . 73 "" 27
"" . 1970 . 82 18
.
105 , - 60 . ,
. 1981 . 21
10 1970 . 1970 .
, , 349 ,
!
111 (U.S. Bureau of the Census,
1982).
, .
,
, ,
275

.
;
, : ",
!" (, 1982).
.
.


, ,
,
,
; /392/
.
, .
, ,
;
, .
,
:
,
.


(1948) .
,
, , ,
. "
, . ,
.
.
, .
, ,
, .
,
, -
, .
, " (. 124).
. ,
. ,
. ,
,
, .
"" , .
. "" 45 50
,
/393/ . , "
, " (.56). ,
, , ""
""
. 7
, .
, .
276

6-7 ,
.
.
.
,
.
.

. -
"", .

.

. "",
.
.
"" ,
. "
. ;
;
"
(.77).


, ,
, .
, , , ,

/394/ .
.
,
.
. ,
, , ,
. , (1929),
.
,
.
,
, .
,
.
. - , ,
. ,
, , .
,
. , : -. (1971)
: "
, " ", ,

. ""
277

,
, . ,
, , ,
, .
,
, , -
. , ,
,
!" (.85). /395/


,
(), ,
. ,

, . ,
, ,
, .
, ,
, .
, .
, ,
. ,
. ,
. "
,
.
,
, ,
... ,
" (, 1972. .308).
, , ,
,
. ,
, .
.
,
.
,
.
.
, , , ,
. ,
,
/396/ . .
, . (1972),
,
.
, ,
.

. ,
278


. ,
, , ,
,
.



, ,
.
,
.
. .

. 13-1.


"" ,
. ,
, , , ..

.
,
. .
( )
, , ,
, , .
/397/ , ,
.

.


,
.
- .
.
.
;
.
- .
, ,
. (1949)
, 145 , 40
.
.
1:1,
,
.
, .
, ?

279

. ,
- -
.
, , , .
. , ,
. ,
, .
(, 1977). /398/
13-1.

,

47
92 *

40
145
2

70
33

24
101
13


23

61

2
* ,
.
: G.P. Murdock. Social Structure, 1974.

,
. . ,
,
. (
,
) (
).
, .
.
, ,
.
. /399/

(,

),

.
.
280

, , , , .
.
. ,
,
.
, .

.
- .
.


, (,
), .
, .
, .
(),
,
.
,
.
.
.
.
?
. ,
. ,
.
, , /400/
, ,
. , ,
-
. , ,
. , ,
,
.
,
(, 1967).

(, ), (, )
(, ,
).
. ,
.
"",
.
, ,
. ,
. ,
.

.
281



.
- , .
, ,

. , ,
.
, ,
. /401/
, ,
. 17 250 ,
(1949), .
,
, ;
.
,
. ,

.


,
( ),
. ,
.
.
.
,
, . -
-
, .
, ,
.
. . ,
,
. ,
.

.
,
. 40
.
.
.
, , /402/ ,
,
. , ,
, ,
.

282



,
: ,
, . ,
,
.

1- ,

.
,
.
;
,
(, , 1955). .

.

.
. ,

.
, ,
. ,
. /403/

,
,
.
.
, ,
.
;
.
, XIX XX .,
.
, . ,
, .
,
.
,
.
,
, .

"", .
,
, .

283

.
, .
-
.
. 4 5
, .
(,
) ,
. /404/


"" ,
.

.
, ,
. ,

.
,
.
,
, .
, (1955), ,
.
, ,
, ,
. ,
(1955), , ,
,

, , ,

.



50- 60- .
,
. ,
,
. (1981) .
, /405/ - "
" , ..
",
;
" (.368).

.
, .
, ,
284

, . - (1976)
,
. , ,
. ,
, .
-,
,
: - ,
.
, ,
"" .
. ,

. ,
.
.
,
, .
,
, .
, ,
(1981). "-". ,

; - " ".

,
. /406/
? . 13-2.
, ,
, ..
,
.
(.. )
.

,
, -
. , ,
,
,
. ,
,
- .
, ,
.
/407 ,
,
13-2.

285

? ?
? ,

:

?

,
?
:

:

?

? ,

?
?
: Hartmann,1981, p. 370.

,
. -
, .

,
,

, ,
. ,
.

.


"- "
: " ?"
: " .
,
- . ,
. ,
, ,
" ("- ". 12 1980
.).
, .
- , , .
"" , ,
,
... .
, ,
, .
. ,
.
. XI-XII . 900
/408/
(, 1980).

286

XVIII .
. .
, , ,
" , ,
: ,
, "
(.123).
.
, .
"":
, ,
.
.
,
. , ,
,
.
" (. 124).
, .
( )
. , XVII .
, ,
. ,
(, 1980, .
179). .



(10,6 1000 1981
.). (10,7
1978 .), (9,5 1979 .) (6,8
1979 .). . 90
1800- .
40
.
/409/ 20 24 . 13-1,
, ,

1960 . , ,
22,5 , 20,2 (, ,
1979). 20
, 1984 . 20 24
.
(1979) .
,
.
, ,
. , 60- - 70- ,
,
.
,
-
287

, -
.
13-1. 20 24 ,
.


, , .
1975 .
. 1960 .,
.
70-
(, , 1979).
. -,

,
.
/410/
.
,
(, ,
, 1977).

, ,
, , ,
.

. 1973 1978 . 92,6
.
82 88,2 (, 1982).
, 1957 .,
,
. 14 ,
(U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1958).

, ,
6,4
( ) .
288

, 55
. 72
, 12
(, 1960; . : ,
, 1973).
,
,
, , .
, ,
. ,
, ,
"" . ,
,

, (, , 1973).

. ,
3 , -
0,1 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1982).
, ,
. , ,
, .
. ,
( 1967 .),
, ,
.
, , ,
. ()
/411/ , ,
, .

(, 1966).
- , ,
. , ,
,
. , ,

(, 1974).

, ,
.
" " (1976): " , ,
. . ,
, ,
, 1,5 . ;
" (.71). :
" , , -
, ... ,
. , . ,
289

, . .
, ,
" (.77).

. , ,
,
.
(1960), ,
, .
.
,
, .
(
. , ,
.) -, /412/
,
. , ,
, .
.
: 1981 .
5,3 1000 . 1965 1978 .
. 1977 1978 .
5 1000 (, ). 1979).
13-2,
. XIX .
XX .
. (1920 .) (1946
.) ,
. 30- .
, ,
. , ,
1965 . 70-
.
.
. ,
/413/
.
13-2. , 1860-1984 .

290

, .
, , 20
. ,
,
. ,
, ,
. , , -,
291

,
(, , 1979).

, , .
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
, .


, 11- ,
,
.

.
,

, (. 11).
,
, , ( ).
,
, , . ,
, .
. ,
/414/ , 6
(, 1979).
, , ,
(1976) .
, , :
, , . ,
. , ,
-
. ,
-, ,
, ,
. , ,
, , , ,
, .
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
.
, ? ,
(1976) (-), :
,
, . ,
, ,
, ( )
, ( 133).
292


(, 1981). ,
,
, .
,
. (1970) ,
,
,
. /415/
, .
,
, . ,
,
" ". /416/
13-3. ,

293


,
, .

, , ,
. " "
60- ,
,
.
294




. , ,
,
, ,
, (, , , 1975).
, .
, ,
.
,
. ,
,
.
, .
, (1973) 18664
. , , ,
, ,
. ,
, .

1956 . ,
,
. , /417/
,
, ,
.
.
,
.
.
,
, ,
, .
-

.
, ,
, .

. , 70-
, ,
, 16
(, , 1978).
,
. .
, .
, .
15 .
, ,
, .
( 40 )
295

,
(, , , 1974).

, .
. - /418/
,
.
,
-.
, .


(, 1979).
, , -,
.
,
.
, ,
.
,
, ( ).
, ,
.
.
.

.


. ,
.



,
.
.
. /419/

,
, . 1970 1981 .
523 000 1 808 000 , .. 246 (U.S.
Bureau of the Census, 1982).
,
,
, , ,
. , ,
, 2
.
.
.
,
296

, . ,
, ,
, ,
"". . , ,
, ,
.
, , .
, , ,
, . , ,
, (, 1979).

60-
. ,
, .
.
;
; .
. /420/

70- ,
(, 1980). 70-
, ,
. ,
,
(, 1981).
, ,
,
. 31
, 1972 ., , , ,
,
, .
, ,
,
. , -
"" .
, , "" ,
.

(, , , 1972). ,
,
, (, 1972).

: ,
,
(, 1975).
, ,
, .
,
, .
, , ,
. /421/

297



; ,
.
:
1. ;
2. , ;
3. ,
;
4. , ;
5. , ;
6. ;
7. ,
;
.

, ,
" " (, , 1978).
,
, , ,
..
1973 .

.
,
.
" ".

.
,
. ,
, ,
, , (),

. ,
-
. , ,
, -
. /422/


, ?
. ,
" ". ,
, .
,
.
.
. ,
298

,
.
. ,
(1979)
. ;
; ; (

,
..) "" ,
.
, , ,
. ,
. " "
, .
.
,
.
, .
,
. ,
,
.
. ,
, .
, ,
( ,
).
. , /423/
, ,
.
, - ,
, , .


1. ,
,
;
. .
,
,
, ,
.
2.
: , ,
, , ,
.
3.

:
.

, . 200

,
299

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

.
,
.

.

; , ,
,
. ,
.

,

; /424/
,
.

,
.
, ,
,
.
. ,
, ,
,
.
- .
XIX .
1965 1970 .
. ,
, ,
, .
, ,
, .
, ,
,
.

, ( )
.
,
, .
,
.
, , , ,
-, .
, ,
.

. ,
, .
/425/ , .
60-
300

.
,
.

.
10. , " ",
,
.
.
, ,
,
, ,

.
11. , -, ,
.
. /426/

14.
" , ,
, , ,
.
, ,
, ,
,
. .
,
"" , .
, ,
. - ,
" (, , 1970, .20).
, ,
-, .
,
. -, ,
- ,
. -, ,
, .
-, ,
, . ,
,
;
.
4- ,
.
, ,
. - .
,
, . ,
,
,
. /427/
301



.
, -
.
( )
, .

,
.
,
.
- ,
. , .
,
,
. . ,
,
.
.
,
, (,
, 1978). ,
.
,
.


, ,
,
. .
, ,
, .
. /428/
-
, .

.
, ,
, . , ,
,
.



.
, ,
.
, , ,
. , ,
, ,
302

.
.
,
,
.
, ,
, . (1962), "

,
" (. ).
(1978) ,
-
. ,
.
,
,
/429/ ,
.
, ,
.
,
.
,
.
" "
"
". , -
,
. , .
(1978) : " ,
-
; ,
,
,
" (.8).
,
"",
.
" " " ",
, , ,
, .
,
.
, .
" " ,
. /430/



:
, .

303

? , ,
?
, ,
, .
, ,
, .

, , ,
, , ,
. 60-
-
; ,
, . ,
, .
,
. ,
" " (
" ") "365 " ( ,
;
) (" ?" 1982).
,
.
. 1925 . ""
. "" .
,
. ,
, "
".

.
,
/431/ " ".

. ,
;
,
. " "
,
, .
60- ,

( "" , , 1978).
,
. ,
.
, ,
,
. ,
,
.

304

" "
1971 . , ",
",
.
,
. ,
, ,
" ".
?
,
, .


.
,
/432/ .
? ""
, , ,
.
.
, - .

, , .



, .

, ( ,
).
,
. .
, ,
.
. ,
, .
(1971, 1974) ,
,
" " ,
. .
, ,
. " "
"". -
.

" ",- ,
.
, /433/
"", "" .
,
.
305


"
", (. 9),
, (1976),
.
,
, .
, , ,
,
.
,
, -,
, ,
, .
-
. ,
, .
,
(, 1971). ,
.
, , ,
. , ,
.

? (1977) : "

,
, ,
, ,
. , /434/
,
;
" (.35).
,
. ,
, . ,
,
,
.


,
.
. , -
.
. ?
,
.

306


.
(1739-1792 .),
(, ,
) .

:
" ". 30-

,
.
,
1867 .
. /435/
, , , ,
, " ".

1870 .
.
.

,
. ,

. , ,

.
;

(, 1976).



. ,
, ,
.

, ,
- , .
, ,
,
.
.


, ,
.
, ,
/436/ , ,
307

.
. ,
,
.



,
. ,
XVIII ., .

(, 1958). , ,
,
. ,
,

(, , 1978).
,
. ( 2 5 )
.
, , .
( 5 12 )
, .
( 12 16 )
, .
,
, ,
.

.
. , ,
, .
,
. /437/
.
, .
:
, ,
, .



. (
1 5 ) - . ,
, , -
,
, "".
,
. ,
10
.
,
308

,
.
XX . .


.
: , , . ,
, ,
,
.
.
60- - 10
( )
(, 1968).

.
25 /438/ .
-
- ,
,
.


,
. ,
.
. ,
.

XIX . .

.
- , ,
.
, , .
16 . ,
.
, ,
" "
. ,
, :
,
(, 1968).
.
, ,
.
.
.
1944 . ,
,
. /439/
, .
309

"" ,
(, ) .
,
;
.
,
,
.


. XIX .
, .
.

. ,
( ),
,
.

, .
XIX . ,
. ,
() . XX . -
,
(, 1976).

. , ,
.
, :
"" .
. , ,
. ,
. /440/
, 1954 . "

",

-
(), .. .
. - (),
, , ,
.

.
,
(, ,
1976). .

- , ,
.
,
- , ,
.
, (. 14-1).
.
310

,
,
, ,
. /441/
14-1. ,
, 1984 .

25


0-4
5-7
8 1-3 4 1-3 4

2,2
4,5
6,6
11,7
39,1
16,1
19,8

7,0
8,7
6,7
19,0
34,3
13,8
10,4

*
13,9
15,9 8,5
14,6
27,3
11,6
8,2

2,8
5,0
6,6
12,4
38,4
15,8
19,1
*
: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1986.

,
, ,
.
, -
.
.
(
).
, ,
. ,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
" ". - ,
.

,
(, , 1976).


, ,
.
,
, (.. ).

.
311

.
:
.
,
(, 1978). ,
(, 1979).
,
/442/ -
.
.
, ,
,
. , , ,
.
" "
70 . ,
.

( ., 1978).
.

- .
.
, ,
,
. ,
.

. 1979 .
42 .
,
. ,
, .
1979 .
, .



. ,

, . /443/

, .
, ,
, .

.

, . ,
,
. ,
312



, . ,
.
6- , "" ,
,
.
. .
(, ,
- )
.
: ,
.
, ,
. :
, , ..
, .
, (1, 2, 3- ..)
( ),
. ,
, .
/444/
. .
,
,
, , , ,
.
.
, ,
" ".
,
.
,
;
.
- .
,
, .



.

.
. ,
:
.
, ,
. , "
313

" , , ,
,
(, 1968).
.
,

. , /445/
,
. , ,
,
.
.
-
.
.

. ,
.
(, ),
, . ,
, -
(, -, 1968).



.
,
, 50- .
10 ,
. , ,
, ,

(, 1961).
.
. (1966)
"", ;
.

"",
"",
""

"". ""
; .
"" ,
"" , /446/
. ,
;
.
"" , ;
. ,
"", ,
, ;

"" .

314

, , ,
.

(, 1976).
20- 80- . 20-
"" .
,
. 30- .
,
, . 50- ,
, ,
,
.
60-
.
.
, 70- ,
,
. ,

. 60-
! ,
90- , , ,
. , ,
- ,
,
. , , ,
,
60- .


- .
, ,
, ,
/447/ , .
, (, 1968).
.
?
,
,
(,1968).
, , ,
.
,
, , ,
.

(, 1968).

.
- , ,
315

,
. ,

(, 1972).
,
,
. ,
, , ,
,
,
. , -

, .
.
;
(, 1968; ,
1976). /448/


, ,

,
.
.

,


, (, 1949).
,
,
, .
, . ,
,
.
(, 1968).
, ,
.

,
.
,
, .

, ,
.
: , ..
, , .. ,
(
, , ).
. ,
1971 . , /449/ , , 15

316

: " ?"
" ?" ( , 1971; . :
, , 1979).
.
,
: , ,
, ,
(, , 1979).

,
,
(, ,

) , - (..
). ,
.
"", ,
"",
, ,
.
""
. ,
,
(, , 1979) (. 10).
,
. , 1982 .
, , 100
.

, . "
. ,
.
" (, 1982. .31).
, ,

( ) 1978 . (, , 1978).
, 1972 1975 .,
, ,
,
,
, , (
). , -
,
. ,
. /450/

.

.
"", .
.
" " (,
317

),
. ,
, , - ,
.
. , ,
,
.
.
? , , ,

,
.
; ,
,
(, 1978).
11- , ,
.
,
, .
. .
, ,
,
. , , .
,

(, 1978). /451/


.
.


.
.
.
, - "
" ,
.
, ,
.

. 1900-

, .
-
.


;
. ,
,
,
318

(, 1968).
.
,
.
, .

,
, ,
. ,
,

, - ,
/452/
.
, -,
"".

.


. ,

. , ,
, ,
, . ,
,
-
,
,
, .


: ,
. ,
,
. ,
,
.
,
?

(
)
, , ,
.
,
.
, ,
, ,
, .
, ,
319

, -
(, , , 1970). /453/
, , ,
, ,
.
.
,
, .
,
, : ,
, ,
(, 1958).
, ,
, ,
. ,
(1972) ,
, ,
. (1976) .
, ,
, .
,
, , ,
.
,
, , 4
, 30
, . ? ,
, , ,
, . ,
"
" (.35).


, ,
?
, , ,
? /454/
.
,

. . 1966 .
"
". , ,
.
, , ,
.
,

(, 1966). ,
.

. ,
320


.
.
, , .
. ,
, .
. ,
.

. ,
,
.
- ,

(, 1970). " ?" (1979) ,
" , ,
"
(.295). , ,
,
, ,
/455/ .
,
. ,
. ,
, .
,
. , ,

(, ,
1978). ,

, .
. ,
, ,
,
, , ,
. , ;
, ,

(, , 1977).
, ,
(- , ,
),
, .
,
, -
. , "" , ,
,
.
. , ,
,

321

;
. /456/


1.

,
.

. "
" ,
.
2. ,
.
, .
,
, .
, ,
, .
,
, .
3.
. ,
, ,
, ,
. ,

, ;
,
.
4. ,
, .
, ,
:
.
,
,
.
5.

. , ,
.
: ;
; /457/
, .
6. .
,

.
7.
.
: "", "",
322

"" "".
,
.
8.
.
, ,
,
.
9. ,
, .
,
, ,
, .

,
.
,
.
,
.
10. .
,
.

. , -
, ,
.
11. .
.
,
- .

/458/ . ,
,
; ,

. /459/

15.
, -
, , ... , ,
-
.
, .
- ,
( ), ,
, : " , ,
, , , , , , , ".
, .. - , -
1966 . ,
,
323

, (
,
: "
").
, - ,
, ,
,
, .
:
? ,
. " "
? ,
, ?
, ,
( )
. ,
. /460/

:
, ,
. ? ,
, - ,
( - ),
. .
,
.
, - ,
.
, .
, , .

- " ".
- ,
, - " ".
, .
, ,
.
. , (
, ).
,
. , ,
. , ,
:
, ..
, , .


?
" ,
, ,
/461/ " (, 1961).
324

; ,
, , . ,
,
. .
: "
, ,
" (, 1975. .20).


,
. -,
.
. ,
.
, ,
, .
-, , .

- ( ,
,
).
, - - -
, .
.

, :
( ).
-, . ,
, . ,
,
,
, . /462/
-, .

(, ,
), ,
,
. .
,
. ,
.

.
, .
, ,
. ,
. ,
, , .
, - ,
, .

325


? ,
?
, ?
,
: , , , ..
. 15-1 ,

, ,
;
20 . , ,
( 2,5 .)
( 4,5 . ) (.
18). /463/
15-1.


.
- .
XIX .
XX . , ,
.
,
: , , , .
"" - ,
, .
. ;
;
, .
,
-
. . 15-2
.



. ?
?
, :
1. ()
()
2. - (
, ) ?
,
- ,
.
,
326

.
( ), . /465/
15-2.

, , ,
. ,
, -
. , ,
,
.
, .

. ,
- .
- .

. ,
; - ;
,
(, , 1969).


: , ,
(. 15-3).

,
.
, .
.
" ". ,
/467/ ,
, .
, ,
""
. ,
,
.
, ,
. ,
, , ,
. ,
" "
, , , ,
, ,
.
* (* "" - ,
.
-
. (.)), ,
.
,
, .
327

,
, ,
.
,
,

,
,
.
.
, 95
1517 . -

. 6- ,
. -,
. -,
,
, /468/ .
15-3. /469/

. -,

,
.
,
. , (
) .
- . .
, ""
,
,
.
, (""), " "
" ",
. ,
, ,
, "",
.
" ",
. ,
, ,
.

:

, , ,
. ,
. ?
? ,
; ,
,
. /470/

: " ?"
,
. ,
328

(.. ),
, ; ,
.
,
" ",
. , ,
, . ,
.
( ,
),
, .. . ,
.
, (, 1955).
. ,
, .
:
, .
, .
,
. ,
,
. ,
. ;
. , (,
" "
), , .
,
. ,
: " ?"
, , ,
. " "
. /471/ : "
?" ,
. ,
, , , . ,
, . ,
; : " ,
". ,
.
. , ,
, .
,
. , ,
, ;
, - .
, ,
, .

:

. "
" (1912) ,
329

, ,
"" . ,
. " ,
, , ...
", - .
, ,
, , , ,
: ", ,
,
;
, . ,
, ,
" (.212). /472/

. - (,
), .
.
, - , .
.
, .
, ,
,
.
. (
) , (
, ). , ,
, ,
,
.
. - .
. , , .

.
,
- . -,
.
. ,
. ,
.
,
.


, .
;
/473/ , ,
.
,
, .
,
330

. .
, ,
. , ,
, ,
.

.
, ,
. ,

- ,
, ,
, ,
.

; .
, , ,
, . ,
,
. ,
, ,
,
.
: "

. - ,
, - .
o " (, 1844).

: ,

50-
.
, ,
. ,
, .
"" , ,
,
,
.
. ,
. ,
,
.
? ?
?
,

. , , "
".
, "". , ,
331

,
.
", ,
, ,
" (, , , 1956. .237).
.
, .

. ,
,
. -
. -,
, . * (* ,
"" ,
. "": "
, ".
. .
. .).

- " ".
-, .
, ,

,
. ,
.
",
" , .
, , "
. /475/
, ".
,
" " (, 1977).
,
,
.
, " "
.
.
.
,
, .
? ,
,
?
,
, .
,
,
""?
?

; ,
332

, ,
. ,
,
.


,
.
, .
XX ., ,
,
"".
, ,
, ,
, ( ,
). ,
, ,
, .
, (
), : ,
, .
/476/
""
. (1950) ,
,
,
. ,
, ,
.
, "", -,
.
, .
, .
(1959) (1957) ,

. .


, - ,
.
. - -


.

.
( ,
XVI . ). ,
. ,
, .
, . , ,
, ,
333

"", .
, :
, ,
, ."
, , ,
/477/ , "
", - .
,
, .
, ,
:
, . ,
.
,
, .
, ,
-
. ,

, , ,
. , ,
.


- , .
,

,
.
,
,
. "
",
, ,
. ,
,
. 200
, (230
, ). /478/


?

? ,
50- , ,
(, 1961) ,
, ,
, ,
?
.
, ,
334

.
. ,
, ,

.
.
,
. ,
, .
, . ,
, ,
. -
, ;
.
, ,
"" ,
. , 1968 . 74
, ,
37 (, 1972) (
.) 60-x 70- (, , 1977)
.
,

. /479/


,
, . ,
, , ,
.

.
,
70- (, , 1982).


.
. ,
(
),
. , ,
, , "
, -
" (.875).
,
.
(,
, - ),
. ,
(1966) ,
.
335


, , ,
, , -
- ,
. ?
, . ,
. 15-1 , /480/
,
50- ,
15-1. , 1955-1980 .
( 18 )

40 1971 .
? ,
, ,
" ". ,
, , ,
. , ,
.
-
.
. , , ,
(. 15-2).
94 , 71 -
.
(, /481/ )
? (1979).
81 : "
336


",
.
, ,
,
(, 1968). /482/ , " ",
, . ,
, " ,
" (.9).
- , .
" , ",
,
, " ".
-
.
15-2.

337

",

" (, 1978).
. .
1. .
.
;
""
1920 .

338

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

. . 100
,
20 . ,
, , -
,
.
. .
-
,
. ,
,
/483/ . , ,

, ,
.
, ,
,
.

,
,
,
, . ,
" "
" ",
-
, , , ..
.

.
. ,
,
.
,
- -
, .
. , ,
,
, .
-
.
,
.

,
. ,
, ,
,
. ,
,
/484/
( 1969).
, ,
, ,
339


; ,
(, 1969, 1970; , 1987).

-
.
,
,
.
,
. ,
.
, -, ,
. ,
-
, ,
, . ,
.
,
. -
,
, ,
.


,
,
.
, /485/
.
,
, .

,
.
,
.
, ""

,

(, 1982).

.
,
.
,
,
. .
, ,
340

,
; , .

.
, - .


.
, 60- 70- .
, ,
,
.

/486/ - . " , , - ,
" (, 1978. .124).
,

. -,
, " ". - "", " ",
" ". ,
" ".

. ,
,
. ,
, "" "",
" ", " "
.
,
,
. , 1973 ., , 79
13 . 52
, 21
(,
1976).
,
. , ,
, . ,
"" -

. ,
- ,
"" * ("" - . Erhard Seminar Trainings
- (. .)) 6
, , ,
, . ,

. /487/
, .
, (
341

,
), ,
.
. , ,
,
.
, , .
, ,
, (
), ,
,
.
?
, . ,
,
,
(, 1978). -

. , ,
:
;

. 60- - 70-

.
",
".
" ". ,
,
(, 1967). ,
,
.

. /488/
(1978) -
. , ,
, ,
,
, ,
.
.

, .
,
. ,
40 .

, .
-
. ,

342

, ,
.
?
"".
, .
, .
.
,
,
(, 1976). ,
, .
,
.


1. " ,
,
". :
) ; /489/
) ,
;

) , ;
) ,
;
) "" .
2. .
,
(, .). (
)
.
: , , ,
. , ,
-
() ()
.
3. , ,
. .
, ,
""
. -
.
,
. , ,

.
343

4. ,
,
- .
.
5. -
, .
6. , -
.
.
7. ,
.
/490/ ,
.

.
8. .

, .

, .
9.
.
,
.

, .
10. , .
,
.
, . ,
, ,
.
11. ,
. ,
, ,
,
.

-
.
12.
.
, ;
,
.
13. 60- 70- ,
.
: (" "),
,
( /491/ " ")
(, ).
344

,
.

[MAX WEBER] (1864-1920)



. .
,
. , ,
,
.
,
.
.
, ,
. .

- .
1891 ., ,

. 1886 .
,
.
.
,
.
, , ,
,
. , ,
,
.
,

.
,
, ,
. , ,
;
. ,
, "
", .
, ,
, , .
.
,
. ,
,
.

,
,

. /492/

345

16.
, ,
, , .
- , ,
, .
, .
,
,
, .
1919 .
,
, .
, .
2025 . ,
, .

. ,
. ,
, .
1921 1923 . . .
.
. 1922 . 180 ,
219 , 1914 .
.
, .

( . 16-1).
1923 . .
.
.
; , .
/493/ ,
,
. ,
.
1923 . ; 5 .
. ,
. ;
.
. ,

,
, .
?
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
100 (, 1975).
, ,
.
346

70- .
10 .
,
, , ,
.
,
/494/ .
16-1. , 1923 .

( )

,

,

50 000
4 000 000
12 000 000
600 000
115 000
80 000

,
; , ,
.

. :
, "" * (*
. (.)) .
, .. , , ,
:
.
. 9-12-
, 20-
.


, ..
.
.
, -
. .
,
.
,
: ,
.


,
,
.
.

.
. /495/
347

, ,
. , ..
.
- .
, -
. ,
.
.
, ,
, .

laissez
faire
, . . "
". -
.
XVIII XIX .
.
, ,
,
,
, .
. ,
.
,
,


-
, , , .
, , ,
, , .

,
. , ,
,
, . /496/
,
,
.
. , , ,
, ,

, .



,
- .
- ,
( )
.
- ,
348

(, ), ,

.

XVIII- XIX .

, , ,
.
, . XIX
.
:
, , .
,
.
XIX - XX . .
,
. , /497/
, 1917 .
.





(). -
, (
), .
,
.

,
. , 100 ,
. ,

(
), .
, , .
,

. , ,
,
( )
.
,
.


. " ,
", , (1956)
(
), ,
, . ( XIX .
349


) (, 1978).

, .
.
. ,
,
.
" ,
,
,
.

.
,
,
/498/
" (, ,1962. .).

.
(, )
. ,

.
,
. , ,
,
,
(, , 1966).
,
, .

*
(*
"" ,
. (.))
,
,

,
. ,
; ,
.
"" (, ) -
, ,
, .

, "" ,
.

, , ""
350


. /499/


-
.
.
-
,
. , ,

.
, "",
"" "", . ,
(1960)
: .
.
.


( ).

( ).
, ,
.
, ,
:
1. ?
2. ?
, . -,
(
),
. -,
- ,
. ,
.

.
-,

(, ),
. -, /500/ ,
.
. .16-2.
16-2.
,


(

)

351

1.
2.
,

3. - 4.




: Lindblom, 1977. P.100.

, ,
, ,
. ,

,
.


,
.
,
.


.
,
. /501/
. .
,
.
60
.
,
.
,
, -
. .
,
. , " ... ...
. ,
. , ,
.
. ,
, ,
" (. 160).
352

, ,

. ,
. ,
, .
,

, .
,
. ,
, , . ,
- , .
(, ,
, )
(, ).
, .
,
/502/ .
.
, ;
.
.
,
.
. ,
,
. , (,
, ,
, , )
,
.

-
- ,
, .
,
. ,
, .
, 8 ,
.
,
.
,
.
, (,
, , ..)
, ,
. ( . 16-3, ,
, .) 1995 .,

/503/ ,
.
353

, , ,
,
. , ,
;
.
?
.
. /504/
16-3.
1984 1995 .
,

, %

,


, %

97,5

71,7

68,7


62,0
56,2

52,8

50,7

46,1

45,0


43,9

42,2

40,3

,
39,1

36,6

-40,3

-31,5

-26,4

-2

-20,9


-18,6

-18,3

-17,4

,


, -16,7

-15,7
,
,
,

-14,8
,

-12,7

-11,9

-11,5

354

35,5

34,9
( )

34,8

34,0

32,8

-11,2

- -10,6


-9,6

-9,1

-8,8


-8,5

31,7

. , 1984 . 25 000
. 1995 .
.
: U.S. Departament of Labor, 1986.


,
, .
, .

, .
,
( ).
,
" .

.
,

( , ,
).
,
( ).
, . ,
,
" ". , ,
,
(, 1974).

.
- , : 1)
- ,
,
; 2) -
(,
355

)
; 3) -
,
;
. /506/
(1964) .
,
, ,
.
, .
,
: , ,
. , ,
.
, .
,
, -
.
;
, .
,
.
, .

.
,
.
. ,
, .
, .
, , ,
. , 1979-1980 .
, ,
, .
,
.
, ,
. ;
;
,
. /507/
, ,
.
, ,
, .

, .
, .
,
. -
,

356

.
.
(
15- )
,
,
""
( ). ,
,
,
.

( , " "),
, . ,
, . ,
, ,
.
:
. ,
,
.
.

, /508/ (1965), ,
.
,
.
,
. ,
,

. ,
(, ),
. ,

.
, ,
. ,
"" , (1970) 6000
.
,
.
.
,
, , . ,
.
(,
1969).
,
,
.
,
. ,
357

.
:
.

.
, /509/ ,
, . ,
.
,
.
, .
.
.
, ,
(,1964).
,
. -,

. -,
, . -,
. ,
, .
,
. (, 1969;
., 1956).
?
?
,
.
. , "
", ,
"". .
,
. ,
.
,
. ,
, ,
, "". ,
- ,
. /510/
"" . ,
, " "
" " . " ",
(, 1965).

-
.
, ,
..
.
,
358

. (1974) ,

.
"" , .
, ,
, .
" " .
(, )
,
.
,
. ,
, , ,
.
,
(, 1972). (,
-) ""
.
.
.
, ,
,
. ,
. /511/ -, ,
, ,
, -
. (,
1964). " ,
. ,
,
" (,
, 1972).
, ,
. ,
.
, .
. -,

, .
,
.
.
, ,
,
.


.
.
, ,
, . .
,
359

.
, .
, ,
. ,
.
(, 1956). .
16-4 . /512/
16-4.

, %

54

41

40

39

39

36
, , 25
,

25

23
, , , 21

, , . 20
: , ,
19

17

15

14

14
, ,
.
: ABC New Harris Survey, 1979.

, ,
, .
. , (1953)
, .
, ,
-.
, ,
, .
. ,
, .
,
. /513/




.

, .
- ,
360

, , ,
( ),

. ,

.

20 , ,
. "" .

. , ,
:
, .
" "
- ,
(, 1970). 70- 10
: "General Motors", "Exxon", "Ford", "Royal
Dutch/Shell", "General Electric", IBM, "Mobil Oil", "Chrysler", "Texaco", "Unilever".
, "Royal Dutch/Shell" "Unilever",
, (, 1975).
.

. ,
. ,
.
/514/ .
.
,
, .

. ,
, . ,
,
.
,
.
. , IBM "Texas
Instruments"
;
.
?
, . ,
, ,
.
. ,
, . 50-
, .
, .
,
. ,
.
361

.
,
.
/515/ ,
. , .
, ,

. , ,
, ,
, ,
. , .
,
.
,
.
,
. , ,
,
. ,

,
(Multinational Enterprises, 1973).

. ,
, ,
, .

. ,
,
. ,

(, , -, 1975).

. ,
, - (1978) ,

.
, ; ,
/516/ , , .
,
, .
.
(1969) ,
. ,
. ,
.
,
" " , .
,
362

,
. :
-
.
, .
,
.

.

. ,
. "
.
"
(, 1975. . 196-197).
1943 . , ,
, " ".
, ,
.
, - -
.
.
,
,
. /517/
.
, .
,
,
.
,
.


1. , ..
.
. - ,
"" (.. . - .).
2. - ,
,
. .
, ,
.
,
,
.
,
. ,
.
363

3. -
, -

.
,
XVIII - XIX . ,
.
4. , - ,
,
.
/518/ .
, .
,
. ""

.
5. ,
,
.
: )
; ) ,
,
; ) ,
; ) ,
.
,
.
6. ,

;
;
.
7.
; ,
.
- ,
: ) ; )
; ) .
,
,
.
8.
: ) ; 6)
,
; )
.

"". /519/

364

9. .
,

.
10. - ,
.
,
. ,

.
11.
(
);
;

.
,
.
12. , : )
,
; ) ,
" " ; )
,
. ,
,

.
,
,

, , , . /520/

17.
-
,
,
. XIX . ,
..
"" .
. ,
" ". ,
* (* -
. (.)), .
" " 70- ,

.
1974 . ,
. ,
5000 .
. ,
.
, 10 .
365


. 113 1972 . 2551 1980 .
3149 1982 .

, , ""
, , ",
", "
". ,
10 . . 1972 . 80 . .
1982 ., 1982 .
240 . .
- ,
"" .
,

.
,
.
. .
,
( , 50
). 50 000 .
/521/ .
(33 - "", 0 - ""),
(350 -"", 33 - "");
40 (, 1982).
,
, ,
.
-,
; ,

. -, , -
,
.

.
,
.

- .

.
( versus * (*
"versus'' - . (.)) ,

versus
,

versus ),
. ,
.

,
,
366

- ( versus
versus ), ( versus
), ( versus ), /522/ (
versus ),
( versus )*. ,
,
. ,
, ( ,
), ,
.
, ,
, .


, .
,
(.. ).
,
. , " "
60-
.
,
, ,
.
,
,
" ( ., 1979). (*
" ". ,
, ,
. -
. ,
,

. (.)) /523/

?
.
: ,
, ,
. .
,
. ,
, -
;
,
.
.
.

: , ,

, .
367

,
, .

, - . ,
,
.
, ,
.
: "
"
(1925/1968, .1, .53).
. , .
,
,
, /524/ ,
.
, , ,
, ? (1969)
"
". "
" (.204).
, " ". ,
- , ,
, .
.
-;
,
.
,
.

.
- ,
. , ,
.
, , ,
" (, , 1950).
, , , ,
.
. ,
.
, - .


. - ,
. , ,
. /525/
. ,
,
. , -
. , ,
368

.
, ,
( )
, .
?
,
?
.
*
(* .- .)
- , .
" ,
" (1925/1968, .1, .53).
, .
, ,
. ,
,
. , .
,
. ,
, . ,

.
6- .
, .
-
. ,
, .
, , , ,
, /526/ , .
.
. -
( - .)
.
, , .
, ,
, .
1. ?
.
, ,
.
,
. -
, ,
, .
2. ?
,
. ,
. ,

,
369

.
-
, :
; - ;
.
3. ?

.
. ,
, .
-
.
, .
, /527/
- ,
.
.
, ,
.
- , .
,
.
.
. - .
, ,
.


,
,
. , , ,
, , - .
, , , -
.
XIV
, ,
, - .

, .
;

. ,
. ,
.
,
. /528/



. ,
.
370

; .
, -
.
,
(. 9). ,
, , .
,
, .
,
. , ,
. ,
. ,
,
, .
,
. ,
. ,
,
(. 15).
.
,
, .

: , , , .
, , ,
. ,
, .
- ,
,
" ". /529/


,
. ,
.
,
( ),
, .

,
. ,
, , ,
.



, .
,
,
. ,
371

,
.
, , ,
. ,
,
, .. , . ,
.
. ,
,
,
.




.
/530/ .
-
.
- .
. (1965)
.
1. .
. ,
, ,
.
,
.
2. .
,
.
, .
,
, , .
3. . .

.
4. .
,
.
, ,
.
5. .
.
6. .
.
,
.

372


. ,

, ,
.
, ,
, , .
/531/ "
", "1984".
,
.



,
, . ,
I XX . , ,
, " " ()
,
, .

, ,
.
,
. ,
.
. ,
. ,
,

, .

" ",
.
,
,
.
, , , /532/ , .
.
1. . -
. ,
.
2. .
, ,

( ), ,
.
,
.
. ,
373

.

, , ,
.
3. , .
,
.
, ,
.
4. . ,
.
,
.


.
.
-
" " (, )
(, ).
, , . ,
, , ,
. /533/


XX .
. " ,
,
". ,
.
,
.


, 35 ,
30 , 25 .
21 , 18 .
,
.

,
. -
, ,
.
: , . ,
,
,
(, 1975).
9 13
.
.
374

, .
.
(, , 1967).

(, 1965).
- (,
, 1967). /534/
- , .
, , .
,
(, , 1974).
, . , ,
,
.
, , ,
.

. 11 , (1974) ,
,
. ,
,
, ,

.
, .

. , .
, (1961) :
,
.
(1958)
, .
,
. ,
.



.
60 . ,
/535/ , , ,
, , (, , 1975).
, ,
,
. , .
, 1921 .
, 55
90 ( ).
- , 18- 1970 . , -
,
.
375

- (
), .
-
- . . 17-1 ,
. :
,
. 72 ,
8 ,
.

. . 17-2
. , ,
, .
. ,
.

. , , (
)
. , ,
. ,
( ),
, ,
. ,
, ,
,

/536/
( ) (, , , 1984).
.
, .
,
,
(, , , ,
1964).
, -,
. ,
.
( )
.
,
/537/. 10
, , ,
4 1975 . 12 1980-1981 .
(. 17-3);
,
.
, ,
. .
,
,
.
17-1. ,

376

1.
72
2.
47
3. , 32

4. 30

5.
28
6. -
26
7. 20
-
8. 19

9. 18
-
10. 14

11.
13
12.
8
: . 2-1 (.31), : S. Verba, N.H. Nie. Participation in America: Political
Demogracy and Social Equality, 1972.

17-2.
, * /538/

,
**, %
1.
94,0
2.
89,3
3.
88,7
4.
86,8
5.
85,9
6.
84,9
7.
84,7
8.
83,1
9.
82,1
10.
81,8
11.
81,1
12.
78,5
13.
78,0
14.
76,0
15.
74,4
16.
73,0
17.
67,4
18.
63,0
19.
62,3
20.
52,6
21.
39,4
* 1981 .
** . 17-1 ( . 1 2)
: , , , , .
, ,

377

. , ,
, . ,
, .
,
. ,
18 1971 1970 .
: Statistical Abstacts of the United States, 1982-83; The International Almanac of Electoral
History, 1983.

17-3. ,

1975 .
1980 . (1981 .)

19
21

30
34

610
908

450
1144*

4650
14176*

* 1980 ., 1981 .
: Avery, 1981. P. 55


1952 1956 .,
(1964) , .
: , ,
. ,
,
. 1972 1976 . (1980)
, ,
(

), .
*.
(* ,
,
. (.)) /539/


. , ,
,
. ,
.
.
, ,
. , ,
XIX ., . 30-
,
.

.

378

- .
.
,
,
.
: 1)
; 2) ,
; 3) , .
"" "".
,
,
. ,
, ,
.
, , ,
,
.
. , ,
,
,
. /540/


,
,
.
(1960) ,
, . 50 4
: 1) ; 2)
;
3)
; 4) .

(
,

, ),
.
( )
,
(, )
.

.
.

, .
. ,
,
, .
, ,
. ,

. ,
379


, - .
.
, ,
. /541/



.
, ,
: " ?"
. ,
" ", .
, , (1956) ",
,
,
". , ,

, . -
,
.
.
, .
,
.
, .
,
. , ,
,
.

. ,

. , , (1950)
" ": ,
(, 1961). ,
,
.
, ,
, /542/
,
.
, .
, , , ,
. , ,
,
- . /543/
17-4.

380

,


,

(,
,
)

,
,

: S.M. Lipset, L. Lowenthal. Culture and Social Character, 1961.


. , , ,
, ,
.

.
,
. ,

. ,

( . 17-4 ).


1.
, .
.

.
,
381

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

. ,
,
- -.
-

.
: ( ,
, );
( ) (
).
- , ,
, ,

, ,
,

/544/ , .
.
,
. ,
,
.

.

.
: ;
; ;
; .
,
.

.

, .
,

.
- ,

, .
: ;
; , ;
.

,
, .
- , .
.
(
) , .
382

,
. ,
. /545/
9.
. ,
, ( ) ,
.
.
: 1) ;
2) , ; 3) ,
.
.
10. ,
, ,
.
,
,
, .
11. ,
" ". , (
, )
,
,
.
. ,

.

[ALEXIS de TOCQUEVILLE] (1805-1859)



-
XIX .
.

, .
, ,
. , ,

. ,
. 1835 .
- " ".
,

, /546/
. ,
,
, . , ,
" " (..
) ""
"" ,
.
, , . ,
383

, ,
. ,
( ) .
,
:
. " " (1856)
.
,
, .
,
,
XIX . /547/

IV. :

18.
, , ,
, . ,

. ,
.
( )
. 40-
. 50-
, ,
.

,
. , ,
50-. , 50 .
60- ,
, ( ).
, 60- .
1957 1967 .
8 , 1967 . - 4 .
.

, .
;
,
,
. /548/
, , .
* - : , ,
, . (**
.: :
, , . ., , 1987; . , ,
1989; . ., . ., 1985;
. . " ''". ., , 1985. (.)) ,
384


, , .
, . ,
.
, ,
,
60- . ,
, ,
, .
, ,
. " ", 60- ,
. ,

.
,

.
. ,
. ,
.
.

4,8 .
( 18-1). ,
. 1960 . /549/ 3 . ,
1930 . - 2 . ,
2 .
18-1. 8000 . 2020 .

385

,
.
.
, 1 . 125 000
. ,
. 300 000
1 . . 285 .
(, 1960).
386

,
.
. 1000
, , ,
. ,
. " ",
XIV . 27
.
XVII XVIII . ,
500 . /550/ . ,
,
,
.
, , (, 1973).
" " XIX .,
.
?
, . 18-2,
. ,
2025 . .
, .
,
1900 1950 . 160 .

. .
, 20
1000, 2400 .
(. . - .).

*
(* .:
" ", " ", " " ..
(.))

.
,
.
18-3.

. 1790 1850 .
600 .
( ,
) .
,
.


. XX . 1850 .
/551/ , ,
XIX .
1790 1984 . 18-4.
387

18-2.
1990 2025 . /552/

388

389

18-3. , 1830 1944 .


( ) ,
. ,
, , .
,
(, ,
).
(, -,
-, - ).
,
.

,
.
(.. ,
),
. /553/
18-4. , 1790 1984 .

390

: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1986.


. " ",
1870 1984 . ( 18-5). 1870 .
. 1984 .
, .
1870 . , - .

391

. XIX . ,
, , .
.
, .
, .
1984 . (
) ,
. ,
20- 30- (
).
(, 40- 50- ), .

. ,
.
. ,
, 60-
.
.
,
, .
/554/
18-5. 1870 . 1984 . 1870
/555/

392

393

18-1. 15 ( %)

: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1981-1982.

23
25
22
44
45
46
41
44
42

? ,
, , .
.

, , .
, .
, 25 (
),
,

394

. . 18-1
15 .

( 18-5) , 1980 .
. . 18-2,

1984 . .
(, 2 100 000)
(, 1 900 000) 100 (2,1 1,9 100 = 110,6). , 10 10
- 100. 100,
. 100, ,
. ,
.
, , .
/556/
18-2.
, 1984 .
100
,


94,5
14
104,8
14-24
102,2
25-44
97,9
45-64
91,4
65
67,5
: Statistical Abstracts, 1986.

.
- , .
, ,
.
50- . . -,
10-19 . , 30 ,
.
,
.
30 .
, ,
"" (, 1975).
.
,
.
, .
.
( ) , .



, .
395

, /557/ ,
. ,
. 8 -

. -
. - ,
,
. ,
. , ,
.

. , ,
, .
, ,
.
"" ,
.


,
, , ,
.
.
.

, , ,
- ,
. ,

.
8- , 50- 60-
, 70- .
, -
. /558/ ,
, , . , ,
. ,
. ,
-
.
.
, .
, ,
, , , ,
.
(, ),
.

396

"" , .

.
,
.
, .. ,
.
- ""
- 1000 .
,
15 44 .
-
. 1000 15 44 .
, ,
. 15
45 ,
, . 1980 .
68,4 ( 18-6). /559/
18-6. , 1920 1984 .
1000 15 44 .

397

398



.
, 60- .
,
, . ,
20- 30- , .
. . ,
.
.

. ,
200 50 . 18-6
1910 1984 .
, 1910 1940 .,
. /560/
60- . (
70-, 80- .
30 .)

150-200 ,
.
,
. , ,
, ,
.
, ,
.
, , ,
.
, .
- , , . ,
,
(, 1975).

. , ,
, , ,
.
.
, ,
. , , .
, ,
. ,
, .
- . ,
, ,
,
.
. -, , ,
, -
. /561/

399

,
.
. , ,
. 11- ,
, -,
. ,
. , .
.
. ,
, ,
.
, .
(1966) ,
. -,
, .
" " .
- " " -
. ,
, , .
, , - ,
. , ,
, ,
. , -,
,
, .
(1981)
. "",
. , ,
. , ,
, ,
, .
, .
.
,
. /562/


, - .
(
, ), .
().
, ,
. ,
. ""
, ""
1000 .
"" , .
,
, - .
, .
, , ,
400

.
,
(, 1975).
18-7
.
50- .

, .
.
1 ,
1000 .
, 1
, .
,
. ,
.
,
.
10 14 .
/563/ .
18-7. : ,
1954-1957 .

401

,
- ,
. 10- (
) , 60
.
- ,
. ,
. . 18-3
,
.
70- .

.
/564/ . ,
, (, )
1950 1980 .
18-3.


, 1950-1955
.
37
39
38
43
45
40
34
31
44
39
72
69

62

57
: United Nations, 1982.


, 1980-1985
.
47
52
50
62
62
56
43
50
62
49
77
73

, %

10
13
12
19
17
16
9
19
18
10
5
9

+27
+33
+31
+44
+38
+40
+26
+61
+41
+26
+7
+6

70
71

8
14

+13
+25


,
.
(, ),
, , ,
, .
, ,
,
,
. .
.
, /565/
, .
, 1935 1939 .
402

23,3. 1981 . 6,0.


23 1950 . 10 1980 .
1950 1980 . 28 13 (, 1980).

.
. ?

,
.
- . .
300 000
, 6 . "" .
. ,
.
53. 3 . 1 .
, 1941-42 . (, 1975).
.
, .
- - ,
- ,
. 25 64
, ( ), ,
.
,
(, 1971).
- . , "".
. 1980 . ""
69,9 , - 74,4 , - 4,5 . 1920 .
45,3 54,9, - 9 . (U.S. Bureau of the
Census, 1981.) ,
(, 1973). "" ,
, . /566/


.
, .
,
.
,
.
( ,
) .
,
.

,
. ,
. 1850 1875 . /567/
18-8.

403


.
.
100 . ,
, , .
,
. ,
,
.
18-8.
, ,
,
. (,
)
.
.
, .
, ,
. ,
.
,
. ,

. ,
, .

404

,
(, 1979).


. , ,
. -
.
- , - ;
, XIX .,
, /568/ . ,
.

,
. ,
.
IV - VI . - .

, XIX -
XX . (, , 1958). 1776 . ,
3 . . 1819 (
) 1979 .
49,1 . ; 36,3 . . (U.S. Bureau of
the Census, 1981.)

- .
, .
,
, , .
.
.
150
. , ,
.
. 18-3
1810 1984 .



. :
? /569/
:

, , 1766-1834 . 1798 .

"

". ,
. ,
. ,
, .
" .
"" : , ,

405

. ,
.
, . ,
.
,
,
. ,
.
, .

( ),
.
.
.
, .

, .
( 70-
), , 50
- 5 ,
, . .
, .
, ,
, .
/570/ ,
.
? - .

. ,
,
(, 1980). ,
, , , .

60- " ".




.
,
. ,
.
. ,
.
,
, .

, " "
.
,
. ,
406

,
, (, 1980).
,
,
. , -, ,

. /571/
" "
, - . :
(, 1975).
, . ,
(, , 1971).
,
.
, ,
, .
,
,
(, 1980). ,
.
6,5 .

, , (, ,
1971; , 1980).

?
. 65 ,
.
. ,
,
. (,
1971).
( )

. , ,
. , -
.


, .
, .
/572/ ?
. 60- ,
,
.
.

. ,
,
.

407

.
,
. ,
,
. ,
(, ). ,
.


1. - : ,
. ,
,
.
, ,
.
2. -
: .
,
,
.
, , .
3. , ,
,
.
4.
,

. /573/
.

.
5. - ,
. 1870 .
, .

.
6. .
,
, , ,
, .
- ,
( , , ).
7. - ,
. -
, .
""
1000 .
( )
1000 , ( 15 44 ).

.

408

8. ,
: 1) ; 2) "
", ,
, ; 3)
. , , :
, .
9. "" - 1000
. :
(
1 , , 1000
).
,
. , ,
/574/ , :
,
( "" , ).
10. ,
: 1)
, ; 2)
,
; 3)
.
,
. ,
,
.
11. , ,
,
. , - .
.
,
-
, .
,
.
12. , ,
.
" "
(, ) "
" (, ).
,
,
. ,
" ".
13.
. ,
,
.
,
.
. /575/
409

19.

7 11 1965 .,
. , 21 ,
- . ,
. ,
. ,
.
- . .
, .
, , ,
. ,
. ,
, ,
. .
, ,
. , "
, , , . ".
. 7.25 ,
, ; .
.
, ,
, .
: , .
,
. ,
. : "
, .
!"
, - .
,
, .
/576/ , ,
. .
, .
( ), ;
. ,
150 .
, .
,
.
-.
. .
.
. 6 , 34 , 1032
. 4 . ;
40 . . (, 1968;
, , 1969).

410


, ?
1. . .
2. . -,

, .
, , (
, ).
3. , .
; - .
4. .
, ,
.
5. .
,
.
6. " ".
.

. /577/ ,
, : 20
4000 . (, ,
1969).

,
, (,
1968). , ,
.
, , :
, .. .

,
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
.
. ,
,
, , .
, 1966-1968 .,
, . ,
.
- , "" .
- ,
.

411



.
.
.
(1981),
. " ,
( )" /578/ (.416).
" , ,
" (.416).
,


1929 . ,
.
,
. .

1979 . 60
, .

, .
,
: , .
. , , . , 1969 .
, -
. , , ,
. ,- ""
, , ,
, , , , ,
(, 1981). ,
,
. (
. 19-1.)
19-1.

412


: M. Rosenberg, R.H. Turner. Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives, 1981.


- , ,
. 3
1979 . . 13 30
. , 8
- "The Who",
/579/ , ,
. 0
, 18.30 8000
.
"V".
, ,
, . 19.05
4 16 , .
, , : ", , , !" ,
. , ,
. 11
(, 1980).

27 1978 . -

.
, - . /580/
,
. ,
, - .
, , , ,
" ".
,
. 21
:
- 7 8 .


. 20 , 5000 ,
; , ,
. ,
, . ,
,
. ,
. " , ! !" - .
, .
; ; 12
, 119 , 59 (,
1979; , , 1979).

15 17 1969 . ,
"".
- (-) 300 000 400 000
413

, 30 ,
-
- . "
. - ,
, ,
, ,
, , , ,
-" (, 1969). /581/
, , ,
,
, . , ,
. . 19-
: " , ;
, ,
, .
. ,
, .
" ("The New Yorker", 1969,
Aug.30, p. 19).

13 1974 . - .,
()
- ,
: -
. ,
.
-11-
. 9 175
( )
. ,
, .
.
. 7 , 25
, .
, -
. :
, , , ,
, . -
. ,
, ,
. . /582/
- ,
.
, ,
, .
, ,
. -, ,
9 .
. , ,
. ,
"". . ,
, ,
414

,
. , - , - .
.
(, 1978).

28 1942 . (, )
. , , ,
.
, .
, . ,
. .
491 .
.
.
,
, , ,
. , ,
,
, ,
.
, ,
(, , 1943). /583/

- , , ,
, . , 60-
"The Beatles".
, ,
, : " ".
.

- (-, 1980).
, : " !" ,
20 ,
.

. .
"- " " ".
, ,
. , ,
,
. .


. ,
, . ,
,
.

?
. , -
, , ,
415

.
. , , , /584/ ,
.
, ,
. , ,
,
.
, .
, , .
, 1967 .,
.
. -,
- , .
, ""
, (-,
, 1973).

- , ,
: " ?". : "
;
".
.
,
.
(1947)
. , .
.
, , ,
.
- .
, ,
(, 1940).
,
. ""

. .
/585/ , , .
,
. .
, , .


(, 1951; , , 1972).
,
, (), .
,
. , .
, " ".
4 .
4
416


.
,
.
. , 4 ,
, ,
, .
,
.


,
.
"".
? ?
, . 19-2. /586/
19-2.



. XX .,
.
" " , ,
. ,
.
, .
,
, .
, , .
, .
:

417

1. , ;
2. ( - .) ,
(
- );
3. , .

. /587/
, ,
.
.
, ""
. , ..
,
(, , 1969).
, .
. ,
,
, , .

, .
,
, .

( ),
,
,
.
, - "", ""
. , ,
, .
, , ,
, .
,
.
(1972) , -
.
- , ?
, ? ,
,
/588/ , .
,
.

.
, , ,
.
,
.
-
.

418


(1964) ,
. ,
(, ),
. ,
, . ,
,
.
, .
,
. (1980) , , ,
.
.
,
. ,
, , . ,
- , .
, ,
, .
. : "
- ,
, ". /589/
, , ,
. -,
. " :
- ". ,
"".
, , ,
,
. ,
- .

. ,
, ,
, ,
.

"" ,
, (
) , ,
. , ,
, :
, , ..
. ,
1967 .,
.
-,
, . ,
.
, , .
419


. ,
.
, ,
. /590/
.
,
.
, -
, 60-
.
, "" , -,
. (1969) ,
60-

.
( )
"" . , . ,
,
. , ,
"".
,
.
, ,
, , .
,
"" .
()

,
, .
, ,
, .
, ,
, ..
.
, (,
). /591/

.
(, 1975). , ,
- ,
.
.

, .
. , , ,
, ,
, .
.
. ,
420

.
(, 1962). , , ,
, - , .

. .
.
1. , .
,
.
,
.
2. .
.

,
.
3. .
,
. ,
.
. /592/
4. .
,
, .
.
5. . ,
.
, .
.
6. . -
,
. -,
( ) ,
.
,
.
(, 1962). ,
, ,
, -.
.
. ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
, . ?
?
- .
(, ,
1969).
421

,
XIX . .
. , ,
. , ,
, . , ,
,
,
1978 . /593/
, ,
, ""
. ,
. ,
.
-
.



1789-1794 .
, 200
.
1789 1794 . ,
, ,
XVI
?
- ,
. ,
: , ,
, .
,
, ,
.
.
50- (1959) -
,
"". ,
. ,
.
, , ,
. ,
.
, ,
, , , ,
(
) .

. , ,
.
-
. ,
, .

422


-
, /594/
. ,
?
, . ,
( )
, ?
, ?
,
. , ,
. -
,
.


-
. , "
".
. 50- - 60-
,
. 1961 .

,
.
,
,
(, 1978).
, ,
.


, ,
. , .
.
. ,
. ,
, .
/595/ .

,
. - ,
.
, ,
, , .

, 15-
.
,
.
, .
423

(, ) ,
( )
. ,
. ,
, ,
.
.
, - ,
, ,
(,
, 1972).
.
,
. (, ,
),
-, (
) .
"", "", "", "", ""
,
. -
"" "".
, .
/596/
, .
,
1978 .

. ,
,
.



- .
. -,
, ,

. -, ,
.
, , , .

, .
, ,
(.. ,
)
. ,
. , ,
,
, (, 1970).
.
(1973), "
,
424

".
, , .
.
. ,
,
/597/ . ,
, ,
. ,
. , ,
(,
1969).
.
, ,
.
.
, ,
.
, ,
. XVIII .
, ,
.
,
,
.

. , "
"
; ,
.

. ,
(, )
.
,
.

,
. , ,

( " "). /598/


, ,
, . ,
,
.
, .
,
(, 1969),
.
425

,
,
. ,
;
, .

. ,
, ,
. ,
.
, ,
. , ,
.
.
,
, (, , 1935).
, ,
- , " ".
-
, .
,
,
, ,
/599/ . .
,
- , .
.
,
. ,
.
, .
,
.
.
.
. , 60-

, -,
, .

;
. ?

"" . (1951) ,
, :
" ,
. , " (. 116).
,
.
.
,
, (, 1975).
426

. ,
,
. - .
, /600/
, , " " (, 1975).
, ,
. ,
,
,
, . "
,
;
.
(1973) , " ,
.
,
" (. 125). ,
, , ,
.
, .
( )
"" .
. (1977) .
209 .
70- ;
, .
(,
) . ,

. ,
? ,

. ,
, .

, .
,
. /601/
, ,
.


,
. ,
, ,
(, ,
1961). . ,
, .
, ,
. ,
.
, . ,
427

, ,

.
, , 50- 60- .
1954 . "
" (
),
( )
, . 1954 .,
( 1958
. , ),
. ,
.

. ,
.

. ,

(, , 1966).

.
, .
, .
.
.
. /602/

. , ,
,
. ,
. 60-
, ( ,
, ..) ,
, ,
.
,
.
. , ,
, , .
, , .
, ,
(, 1977). -
.

.

.

, ,
? ,
,
428

,
.
.
.
.
.
, ,
.
.
. ,

. /603/ ,
. ,
, ,
. -
.
(
, ,
).
(, 1976).
,
. ,
.
. ,
.

.



, . ,
, , .

. :
,
.

. , , ,
. XIX .,
(
), .
, (,
),
.
, ,
, . /604/

.
.
.
-. , 429

,
.
, .
.
, . .
,
. , ,
-
- , " ",
,
"".

, ,
.
.


1. 1965 . .
: ,

;
, ,
. .

,
.
2. (1981) "
,
" (.415), /605/ " ,
, ".
(.416) *. (* ()
.. (.))
,
: , . ,
: , , ;
, .
3.
, ,
.
- , ,
.
, ,
. - ,
, .
4. - (
) . ,
,
,
430

, .
, :
) , ;
) ,
;
)
.
, , ,
.
.
5. ,
,
,
. ,
.
6. ,
, /606/
,
.
7. "" (, )
,
, .
,
. , ,
.
8. , ,
.
,
:
) ,
;
) ;
) ;
) ;
) ;
) .
9.
, .
.
431

,
.
10.
.
: -, , -,
, , .
,
,
. ,
, ; ,
. , - .
,

.
11. ,
/607/
.
, .
, , , " ".
,
.
,
. , ,
.
12. ,
, .
( ,
,
) ,
, .
13. ,
. ,
,
, . ,
.
-
.
.
14.
,
.
, .
, ,
,
.

[GUSTAVE LE BON] (1841 1931)



,
,
432

( )
. /608/
,
. ,

, . ,

,
.
.
, ,
,
. ,
,
.
1789-1794 .,
.

, ,

, . ,
, , , , ,
. ( ,
, .)
,
. ,
, , . .
. /609/

20.
,
.
,
. , ,
, .
50- .
, .
,
- . ,
, , ,
. ,
: , ,
. , ,
, 75 .
,

.
,
, , .
:
433

,
. ,
, .
.
, .
"" "".
. , ,
,
,
. , ,
. , /610/ ,
, .
.
, .

, .
.
, ,

, , .
,

.
. ,
,
. ,
. , -
. ,
.
, - .
,
(, -, 1972).



. ,
,
.
, ,
- . ,
,

, , ,
.

. ,
/611/

.
.
.
(, )
.

434

, .
,
.
,
.
.
, . ,
: , ,
, .

,
.
. , , ,
10
000 .

.
, .

.
. ,
.
,
,
. /612/

(, , )
. 30-
.
,
. ,

,
. , ,
, ,
.

,
. ,
.
.
- ,
, , .
- , .

.
(, ), ,
(, ),
, ( ,
).
435


, ,
.
. ,
XIX . .
, -, . 15-
,
. /613/

.
.
( )
. ,
, 2,6 . .
,
, .

19-, , , ..
. ,
60- ,
. "
", ,
, .
.
, , ,
- ,
150 .


,
.
. - ?
.
1. . ,
,
, , ,
.
, , ,

.
. /614/
2. . ,
,
, .
3. .
.
,
.

436

4. . , ,
,
, .
, , ,


.


,
. ,
. ,
, , ,
,
. ,
.
XIX .,
.
, , ,
, ,
.
, .
,
. : ,
, ,
. , ,
. /615/ .
,
.
. XIX .
,
.
, -
. ,

, - .
. ,
;
,
.
.
,
, .
. , ,

.
( ), ,
. ,
-
, .
, , ,
437

. . ,
366 150 . ,
, 27 000 .
150 ,
27 000 .

.
.

. , ,
. /616/

. " ".
, .
,
, , ,
. ,
, .

.
XIX . ,
;
(..
).
, ,
, ,
.
. 26 ,
.
.

.
. .
, . ,
.
,
. " ,
".
, .


.
.
,
.
.
/617/ . ,

.

, ,
, .
438


, ,
, ,
, .

, .


,
.
(, 1922)
.
: .
, , ,
- , ,
. ,
, , , , ,
(, , , )
(, , ).
: ,
. - (,
),
.
.
. -
. ,
(, , )
.
. /618/
. - ,
.
, ,

() -
.
, (
) .
, ( )
.
- .
, .
,
, .
(, )
,
,
-
.
, " "
.
.
439


. ,
.

,
,
.
. -,
, , , -
,

.
,

, ,
. , ,

/619/
(,

), ,
?
-,
. , " "
. ,
, .
, , -,

. -

. , , -
;
,
. ,
.

25 ,
,
. ""
,
.
, , ,
.
, .
, ,
XVIII - XIX . - ,
, - .

( XIX .), ""
"". , ,
. , (1968)
" ,
, " (.386).
- ,
. /620/ .
. ,
- . ,
.
440


,
.
. ,
, .
1.
(, )
(, ).
2.

.
,

.
3.
, . ,
,- , .
4.

.

. .
, .
.
.
.
, .

.
.

. /621/
, ,
, .
. (1974) 6000
, ,
, " ". ,
?
, , - "
, ;
, ,
, ,
;
;
" (.290).
,
.
,
.
:
.
441

, -,
.
, ,

. ,
, .


? ?
,
, .

.
, .
/622/
, .
. (1961),
,

. , ,
,
. , ,
,
-
.
.
,
. ,
.
, .
,
.
. ,
, ,
.
. (,
)
. ,
,
(, , 1963).

.
, , ..
, .

.
(1951), , ",..

,
, ,
/623/ ,
" (.24).
442

,
. ,
.
.
-
. ,
,
, .
(, ,
)
, .
,
,
(, 1968).


,
? .
, (1964), ,
, , .
, ,
, .
: 1) ; 2)
,
- .

.
, ,
,
.

. /624/
"" .

, ,
. .

.
( )
.
.


.
.
.
,
. , ,
.
- ,
. ,
443


.
( .,
1960).
,
. (1963)
, , . ,
, . .
,

. ,
.
,
. /625/



. , (1967) ,

. , ,
. ,
.

. ,
.
,
,
.
,
. ,
. . ,
,
, , ,
. ,
. ,

, . ,

.

, , ,
. , ""
(, ) "" (,
). ""
, .
, (, )
- . ""
,
"" (, 1965). /626/
"" "".

444

, ,
"" ,
, , ,
, .
, "" .

(, 1967).
(1973)
. ,

)
(, )
( ),

. , "",
,
, "".


"" ""
,
. , ,
""
. ,

.
(1966)
. , "


( ),
" (.4). , , ,
/627/ "", -
, .
, (
). ,
, .
.

(1979). ,
,
,
.
, . -
.

.
, .

(, 1976).

445

,
.

,
, .

. ,
, ,
. ,
.
, ,
, -
.
,
. /628/



(1976). ,
.
,
.

.
, .
- .
,
, .
- .
, ,
,
.
,
.
. ,
- 500 ,
.
. ,

,

.
,
, .

,
.
. ,
, , .
- -
,
. /629/
446

,
. 1450 1640 .
,
. ,
, , .

, .
,
.
.
1600- 1700- .

. .

.
- 1750 .
.
.
.

. ,
.
.

, .


,
, ,
,
. ,
,
. ,
,
. /630/
, , .
.

,
. , , ,
, .


.
.
- , , .
,
.

(, 1972).
447

.
. ?
. ,
, ,
.
( )
.



. ,
. " " XIX .
,
. ,
. 1853 .

. ,
, , (, 1972).
/631/

.
, ,
.
,
,

.
, . -
, . ,
, ,
. .

, , .
,
, . ,
, , ,
( - - .)
.

. ,
.
, . ,
(,
). , .
,
.
.
,

.
. ,
448

,
.
, /632/
(, , 1979).
" ". ( )

, .
, .
, "",
"" "" (,
1979).
.
,
. (, ,
.), , .
, .

, (,
1971). .
, , .
.
, ,
.
, 1800 .,
.
; 1856 . ( "
")
(, 1978).
- , 1957 ., ,
25 . 60-

.
.
. ,
. , ,
. . /633/


. ,

. .
-
,
.
. ,

,
.
. ,
, ,
. , -
449

, , ,
,
, .


1.
.
, .
,
(, ,
) .

, ,
, .
2. .
, -
. ,

. /634/
,
, . ,
.

,
,
.
3. ,
, ( , ,
) ( ,
). ,
, .
" "
.
4. - ,
.

.
,

, ,

,
.
,
.
5. , ,
- , ,
.
.
,
450

,
.
6. ,
. ,
, /635/ :
, ,
.
,
. ,
.
7.
. ,

.
""
(, ) "" (, ).
8. ,

. ,
- .
,
, . , ,
, ,
.
9. , ,
.
.
(
,
) ( ,
,
).
10. , , -
.
.
,
,
(, , )
.
,
, . /636/

[KARL MARX ] (1818-1883)


XIX .
, .
(, ). ;
, , " ". 23
.
,
,
. ,
(
451

).
.
,
,
.
1867 . "".

, ,
-
. ,
, .

.
, ,
,
: , ..
,
- .
, .
,
.
- .
,
.
.
,
,
, .
/637/


- , .
- ,
- , .
- , ,
, ,
, .
, , .
- , -
.
- ,
,
.

452

-
.
- ,
.
-
.
- .
- ,
,
.
- ,
,
.
-
.
- , .
- , ,
,
(, ),
.
- (),
( ).
( ) - ,

( "") , , "",
. /650/
- ,
"",
.
- ,
.
453

- ,

.
- , ,
( )
.
- ,
.
- ,
, .
( . "Gesellschaft" - ) - ,
- ,
,
;
.
( . "Gemeinshafl" - ) - ,
,
;
; .
- :
.
- ,
.
-
.
- ,
, .
- .
-
.
( ) -
, .

454

- , ,
.
- ,
, .
"" -
.
"" -
.
- ,
, ,
.
- ,
,
. /651/
- ,
,
, .
- ,
( , , )
.
- ,
.
( ) - ,
, ,
.
- , ,
,
, .
- ,
.
- ,
, .

455

- , (
) .
- ,
, , .
- (,
) , .

.
- (
) , ,
.
- ,
: 1) ;
2) ; 3)
.
- , , ,
.
- ,
,
. :
, ;
, ; .
- ,
;
.
-
( ).
- .
- -
"" .
- ,
, , /652/
, .

456

-

, .
- ,
: 1) ; 2)
; 3)
.
- ,
.
- ( ),
.
- ,
,

, .
- -
.
- .
- ,
, .
- ,
,
.
() - ,
,
.
- , ,
,
.
- ,
.
- , .

457

- , "",
, .
- .
- , .
- ,
,
.
- ,
,
.
- ,
( ), ,
.
-
.
-
. /653/
- , .
- ,
,
, -
.
- , ,

.
- 1) ,

. ,
, . 2)

.
- ,
.
458

-
.
- ,

.
- ,
,
.
- ,
.
- ,

.
- .
-
.
- , , ,
.
- ,
, ,
.
- ,
, ,
.
- ,
, .
- , , ,
.
-
.

- , .

459

- ,
.
-
,
. /654/
- ,
, ;
- ,
.
- ,

.
- ,
( ) ,
.
- - , ,
(, ..).
- ,
.
-
.
- , ,
.
- , .
- ,
.
-
.
- ,
.

460

-
.
-
.
-
.
- ,
.
-
.
-
,
; , ,
.
- ,
.
- ,
.
- ,
.
-
.
-
.
() -
. /655/
- , , ,
,
, - .
- .

461

- ,
.
- ,
.
- ,
.

- - ,
.
.
- ,
, .
- () ,
, ,
, - .
- ,
.
- ,
.
- ,
, () .
- , ,


.
- .
.
-
.

- ,
, ,
,

462

,
.
- ,
, , , ,
.
- , .
- ,
(, , , ,
, ).
- ,
(, ).
-
, .
- ().
-
. /656/
-
,
.
- ,
.
- ,
, .
- .
- .
- ,
, ,
.
- ,
.
463

- ,
, .
- , ,
; ,
.
- ,
, ;
.
-
.

- ,
, ,
().
- , , ,
,
, .
- ,
.
- ,
,
.
- , , ,
, .
- , ,

.
- - ,
.
- , .
- .
- ,
, .
464

- , ,
.
- ,
. /657/
- .
- ,
.
- .
- ,
.
- ,
, (, ..).
- ,
.
- , .
- ,
.

- ,
.
- , ,
.
- , .
- ,
, .
.
- ,
.

465

- , ,
.
- .
-
.

- , , ,
, ,
.. .
- , ..
, (, ) .
- ,
""
.
- ,
.
- ,
,
.
- ,
,
; .
- ,
, .
- ,
( ) , , ,
, , . /658/
- ,
.
- ,
,
, ,
.
466

- , , ,
.
- ,
.

- 1
.
- , ,
.
-
, .
- , -

.
- ,
, ,
.
- ,
.
- ,
.
- ,
, . -
, ,
.
(
.

- , .
- .
- ,
.

467

- - ,
.
- ,
.
- ,

- , .
() - , ,
.
- ,
.
( ) -

"" . /659/
() - ,
, -
, .
- , , -,
,
() .
- ,
.
- ,
.
- ,
.
- , "",
.
- ,
.

468

- ,
.
- ,
.
: ,
, , ,
.
- ,
, .
- , , .
- - (, ),
.
- , .
- ,
.
- , ,
.
- , .
- , ,
, .
- ,
( 15 44 ).
- ,
.
- , ,
, .
-
.
- ,
, ; ,
, .
469

- () ,
,
( ). /660/
- ,
, ,

.
- ,
.
- ,
.
- - ,
.
.
- ,
.
,
.
- , , ,
.
- ,
- .

-
.
- ().
- ,
.
- ,
. , ,
, (, , ,
), .
, , ""
,
.

470

- , ,
, .
- ;

.
- , ,
, . /661/


,
.

.

:

.
. ,
, .
,
,
.
- .
,
( );
. ,
, .
, , " ,
, - " (.
: , 1969, .5).

.
.
,
0 30 000 .
.
, " .

,
, ,
, .
. /638/
,
.

. , ,
,
471

. , (
) - .
, ,
, , ,
. , ,

.
,
.

(, ),
(.. ).
,
. .
, . ,
,
.., .

, . , ,
, ,
, .

,

.
.
, , ,
.
- , (..
5, 7, 10 /639/ 11 ).
,
. ,
: " ,
" - ,
( ) (
).
.
.
.
. ,
;
, ; ,
, .
, ,

.
. -
. , ,
, , ,
. , . -,
, ,
472

, ,
; ( )
.

.
,
, , . ,
, (. 6), .
, .
,
"" , , ,
,
.

. /640/
, , ,
.
,
, .


,
. ,
, .


- ,
.
: ,
.
.
, , .
. , ,
,
, 1 . .
.
, ..
(, 4- ,
).

. . ,
,
, "" ,
, 1,5
. 2 . . ,
(.. ). ,

, . ,
/641/
, .
(,
473

,
). ,
,
.
,
.
,
.

, .
,
,
, .
, , ,
31 ; 95 ,
3
, .. 28 34 .


-
.
.
- -
. ,
( )
.

. ,
. .
.
, .
(
/642/
.) , 27 - ,
, , ,
.
,
.
,
, . ,
,
, 4- ,
. , ,
, ,
. ,
.
,

. , ,
;
, .
- ,
474

, , (
),
.



. ,
.
.
1. , , .

(, 1:25) ,
(). , ,
. , 25- ,
. /643/
2. .
"",
- . 1-, 2- ..
. ,

(, ,
)
, .
3. .
. , ,
,
.

, .

. ,
(
).
(,
). ()
.
, 10 ,
.
, , ,
.
, ,
.
.
(
. ,
,
. (.)),
.
.
- . (,
" /644/ ")

475

,
.


- ,
.
, .
. ,
, *. (*

, , ,
- , ,
. (.)).
-
, ,
.
,
.
, :

?
.
-
, .
, .
,
. ,
( ),
, ,
**. (** -
. , "

",
"

(
)",
" ", " ", " " ..)

. ,
.
, ( ),
, /645/ .
.
. ,
, .

,
.

- .
.
, .

. , , ,
476

. :
, ?
, - , .
. , (..
) (.. ).
,
. ,
. ,
. ,
, ,
.

.
.
.
.
.
" "
, .. - , ,
- .. ,
/646/ ,
. ,
(,
, ).
1.
-
,
. ,
, (.. ),

( )
, .
1.

477



.
.
/647/ , , , .. ,
,
. " "
,
. , (1943),
, ,
- , , ,
.
.
" "
.
-
.
. , , , ,
, , .
,
, , ,
. ,
, .
.
. ,
.

478

, ,
, . .
, ,
. ", , - , - ,
".
, .

- , ,
, ,
, , .
. , ,

. /648/


,
.
, ,
, .

, .
, ,
. ,
( ),
() . ,
, ,
. , , ,
, .
;
; , , -
. , 15- ,
, . ,
, ,
.
, .
, ,
.

.
, ,
.
.
,
, .
,
. /649/

ABC News-Harris Survey. Leisure time activities. New York: Chicago Tribune
Syndicate, Inc., Jan. 1, 1979.
479

ABC News-Harris Survey. Profile of the 1980 electorate. New York: Chicago Tribune
Syndicate, Inc., May 29, 1980.
Aberle, D., Cohen, A., Davis, K., Levy, M. J. Jr. & Sutton, F. X. The functional
prerequisites of a society. Ethics, 1950, 9, 100-111.
Abrahamson, M. Informal groups in the research laboratory. In M. Abrahamson (Ed.),
The professional and the organization. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1967.
Abrahamson, M. Urban Sociology (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1980.
Adorno, ., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D.J. & Sanford, R.N. The authoritarian
personality. New York: Harper, 1950. * (* . .: "
" - N 3, 1993 . (.))
Aldrich, H.. Technology and organizational structure: A reexamination of the findings
of the Aston Group. Administrative Science Quarterly, 1972, 17, 26-43.
Alexander, K.L., & Eckland, B.K. High school context and college selectivity: Institutional
constraints in education stratification. Social Forces, 1977, 56(1), 166-168.
Allen, F.L. The big change: America transforms itself 1900-1950. London: H. Hamilton,
1952.
Antonio, R.J. The contradiction of domination and production in bureaucracy: The
decline of the Roman Empire. American Sociological Review, 1979, 44. 895-912.
Arensberg, C.M., & Kimball, S.T. Family and community in Ireland. Cambridge, Mass.:
Harvard University Press, 1948.
Aries, P. Centuries of childhood. New York: Vintage, 1965.
Arkin, W., & Dobrofsky, L.R. Military socialization and masculinity. Journal of Social
Issues, 1978, 34, 151-168.
Arling, G. The elderly widow and her family and neighbors. Journal of Marriage and the
Family, 1976, 38, 757-768.
Asch, S.E. Effects of group pressure upon the modification and distortion of judgments.
In H.Guetzkow, Groups, leadership, and men. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Press, 1951.
Astin, A.W. The measured effects of higher education. Annals of the American
Academy of Political and Social Science, 1972, 404, 1-20.
Atchley, R.C. The social forces in later life (3rd ed.). Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1980.
Avery, P.A. With ERA dying, what's ahead for women's groups? U.S. News & World
Report, June 28, 1981, p.55.
Avineri, S. Letter from Israel. The Partisan Review, 1982, 49, 284-93.
Bales, R.F. The equilibrium problem in small groups. In A.P. Hare, E.F.Borgatta, &
R.F.Bales, Small groups. New York: Knopf, 1965. /662/
Bales, R.F., & Slater, P.E. Role differentiation in small decision-making groups. In
T.Parsons & R.F. Bales (Eds.), Family, socialization, and interaction process. New York:
Free Press, 1955.
Banton, M. Six orders of race relations. In J. Stone (Ed.), Race, ethnicity and social
change. North Seituate, Mass.: Duxbury Press, 1977.
Barberis, M. America's elderly: Policy implications. Population Bulletin, Policy
Supplement, 1981, 35(4), 3-36.
Bardwick, J.M., & Douvan, E. Ambivalence: The socialization of women. In J. M.
Bardwick (Ed.), Readings on the psychology of women. New York: Harper & Row,
1972.
Barnet, R.J. Minerals, food, and water. The New Yorker, March 31, 1980, pp. 40-91.
Baron, H. Black powerlessness in Chicago. Trans-Action, November 1968, pp. 27-33.
Barron, R.D., & Norris, G.M. Sexual divisions and the dual labor market. In D.L. Barker
& S. Allen (Eds.), Dependence and exploitation in work and marriage. New York:
Longman, 1976.

480

Barry, H. III, Bacon, M.K., & Child, I.L. A crosscultural survey of some sex differences in
socialization. In C.Harrington (Ed.), Approaches to learning. New York: MSS Information
Corp., 1973.
Brain, R. Friends and lovers. New York: Basic Books, 1976.
Brandwein, R. F., Brown, A., & Fox, E. M. Women and children last: The social
situation of divorced mothers and their families. Journal of Marriage and the Family,
1974, 36, 498-514.
Braverman, H. Labor and monopoly capital: The degradation of work in the twentieth
century. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1974.
Breed, W. Occupational mobility and suicide among white males. American Sociological
Review, 1963, 28, 178-179.
Brim, O. G., Jr. Sociology and the field of education. New York: Russell Sage, 1958.
Brim, O. G., Jr. Socialization through the life cycle. In O. G. Brim, Jr., & S. Wheeler
(Eds.), Socialization after childhood: Two essays. New York: John Wiley, 1966.
Brooks, H. Scientific concepts and cultural change. Daedalus, Winter 1964. Brown, .,
& Grotberg, E.H. Head start: A successful experiment. Courier, 1980, 30, 337-344.
Brown, F. J., & Roucek, J.S. Our racial and national minorities: Their history,
contributions, and present problems. Endlewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1939.
Brown, G.H. Degree awards to women: An update. Washington, D.C.: National Center
for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1979.
Brown, J.S. A comparative study of deviance from sexual mores. American Sociological
Review, 1952, 17, 138.
Brown, L.R., & Finesterbusch, G. Man, food, and environment. In W.W. Murdoch (Ed.),
Environment: Resources, pollution, and the society. Stamford, Conn.: Sinauer
Associates, 1971.
Budget tailors education to Reagan pattern. Science, 1982, 215, 1077-1078.
Bumpass, L., & Rindfuss, L. Children's experience of marital disruptions. Discussion
Papers, DP no. 512-578. Madison, Wise.: University of Wisconsin, Institute for
Research on Poverty, 1978.
Bunker, E. Animal factory. New York: Viking, 1977.
Buraway, M. The Management of Consent: Changes in the Labor Process under
Monopoly Capitalism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979).
Burgess, E. W. The growth of the city. In R. Park, E.W. Burgess, & R.D. McKenzie
(Eds.), The city. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1925. /663/
Burma, J.H. Interethnic marriages in Los Angeles, 1948-1959. Social Forces, 1963, 42,
156.
Butler, R.N. Age-ism: Another form of bigotry. Geroniologist, 1969, 9, 243-246.
Califano, J.A., Jr. Address before the National Council on Smoking and Health.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978.
Campbell, A., Converse, P.E., Miller, W.E., & Stokes, D.D. The American voter. An
abridgement. New York: John Wiley, 1964.
Campbell, A. White attitudes toward black people. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Institute for Social
Research, 1971.
Campbell.C. The secret religion of the educated classes. Sociological Analysis, 1978,
39, 146-156.
Campbell, J.P. On the nature of organizational effectiveness. In P.S. Goodman & J.M.
Pennings (Eds.), New perspectives on organizational effectiveness. San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass, 1977.
Can schools ban books? Newsweek, March 15, 1982, p.82.
Cannell, C.F., & Kahn, R.L. Interviewing. In G. Lindtey & E.Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of
social psychology (Vol.2). Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1968.

481

Cardoso, F.H., & Falleto, E. [Dependency and development in latin America] (M.M.
Urquidi, trans). Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.
Carlen, P. Magistrates' courts: A game theoretic analysis. Sociological Review, 1975,
23, 347-379.
Carmichael, S., & Hamilton, . Black power. New York: Vintage, 1967.
Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education. 3000 futures: Tbe next twenty
years for higher education. San Francisco:Jossey-Bass, 1980.
Cartter, A.M. Pbh.D.s and tbe academic labor market. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972.
Casady, M. If you're active and savvy at thirty, you'll be warm and witty at seventy. In
S.H.Zarit (Ed.), Readings in aging and death: Contemporary perspectives. New York:
Harper & Row, 1979.
Chafetz., J.S. Masculine/feminine or human? An overview of sex roles. Itaca, III.: F.E.
Peacock, 1978.
Chagnon, N.A. Ygnomamo, the fierce people. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston,
1968.
Chambliss, W.J. A sociological analysis of the law of vagrancy. Social Problems, 1964,
12, 76-77.
Cherlin, A.J. Marriage, divorce, and remarriage. Cambridge: Harvard University Press,
1981.
Chodorow, N. The reproduction of mothering: Psychoanalysis and the sociology of
gender. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.
Christaller, W. [Central places of southern Germany] (C.W.Baskin trans.). Englewood
Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1966.
Churchmen vs. the bomb. Newsweek, January 11, 1982, pp.70-71.
Cicourel A.V. Basic and normative rules in the negotiation of status and role. In D.
Sudnow (Ed.), Studies in social interaction. New York: Free Press, 1972.
Clark, B.R. Educating the expert society. San Francisco: Chandler, 1962.
Clark, K.B. Blacks'SAT scores. New York Times, October 21,1982, p.A31.
Clark, R.A., Nye, F.I., & Gecas, V. Husbands' work involvement and marital role
performance. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1978, 40, 9-21.
Clark, R.L., & Spengler, J.J. Changing demography and dependency costs: The
implications of future dependency ratios and their composition. In B. Herzog (Ed.),
Aging and income: Programs and prospects for the elderly. New York: Human Sciences
Press, 1978.
Clarke, A.C. The use of leisure and its relations to levels of occupational prestige.
American Sociological Review, 1956, 21, 301 -307. /664/
Clarke, J.J. On the unity and diversity of cultures. American Anthropologist 1970, 72,
545-554.
Clausen, J.A. The life course of individuals. In M.W. Riley, M. Johnson, & A. Foner
(Eds.), Aging in society: The sociology of age stratification (Vol. 3). New York: Russell
Sage, 1972.
Cloward, R.A. Illegitimate means, anomie, and deviant behavior. American Sociological
Review, 1959, 24, 164-177.
Cloward, R.A., & Ohlin, L.E. Delinquency and opportunity. New York: Free Press, 1960.
Cohe, A.K. Delinquent boys. New York: Free Press, 1955.
Cohe, A.K., & Hodges, H.M. Characteristics of the lower-blue-collar class. Social
Problems, 1963, 10, 303-334.
Cohen, A.K., & Short, J.J., Jr. Juvenile delinquency. In R.K. Merton & R.A. Nisbet
(Eds.), Contemporary Social Problems. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1961.
Cole, S., & LeJeune, R. Illness and the legitimation of failure. American Sociological
Review, 1972, 37, 347-356.

482

Coleman, J.S., et al. Equality of educational opportunity. Washington, D.C.: U.S.


Government Printing Office, 1966.
Coleman, J.S. The concept of educational equality. Harvard Educational Review, 1968,
38, 7-23.
Collins, R. Functional and conflict theories of education. American Sociological Review,
1971, 36, 1002-1019.
Collins, R. Where are educational requirements for employment highest? Sociology of
Education, 1974, 47, 419-442.
Collins, R. Conflict sociology: Toward an explanatory science. New York: Academic
Press, 1975.
Comfort, A. Sexuality in old age. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 1974, 22,
440-442.
Converse, P.E., & Dupeux, G. Politicization of the electorate in France and the United
States. Public Opinion Quarterly, 1962, 26, 1-15.
Cooley, C.M. Social organization: A study of the larger mind. New York: Scribners,
1909.
Cornish, E. The future of the family: Intimacy in an age of loneliness. The Futurist, 1979,
13, 45-58.
Coser, R.L., & Rokoff, G. Women in the occupational world: Social disruption and
conflict. In R.L. Coser (Ed.), The family: Its structure and functions. New York: St.
Martin's Press, 1974.
Cottle, T.J. An analysis of the phases of development in self-analytic groups. In
J.J.Loubser, et al. (Eds.), Explorations in general theory in social science. New York:
Free Press, 1976.
Cowan, P. Jews without money, revisited. The Village Voice, September 21, 1972, pp.
16-20; 92.
Cowan, P. Jews without money: Unifying force in an ethnic tinderbox. The Village Voice,
September 28, 1972, pp. 16-22.
Cox, O. Caste, class, and race. New York: Monthly Review, 1959.
Crain, R.L., & Mahard, R.E. The influence of high school racial composition on black
college attendance and test performance. Washington, D.C.: National Center for
Education, Statistics, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1978.
Crosbie, P.V. Introduction. In P.V.Crosbie (Ed.), Interaction in small groups. New York:
Macmillan, 1975.
Crozier, M. The bureaucratic phenomenon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.
Cumming, E., & Henry, W.E. Growing old: The process of disengagement. New York:
Basic Books, 1961. /665/
Cutler, N.E., & Harootyan, R.A. Democracy of the aged. In D.S. Woodroof & J.E. Birren
(Eds.), Aging: Scientific perspectives and social issues. New York: Van Nostrand, 1975.
Dahrendorf, R. Class and class conflict in industrial society. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford
University Press, 1959.
Daniels, R., & Kitano, H.H.L. American racism: Exploration of the nature of prejudice.
Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1970.
Dasmann, R.F. Environmental conservation. New York: John Wiley, 1972.
Davis, K. Final note on a case of extreme isolation. American Journal of Sociology
1947, 55, 432-437.
Davis, K., & Moore, W.E. Some principles of stratification. American Sociological
Review, 1945, 10, 242-249.
Davis, M.S., & Schmidt, C.J. The obnoxious and the nice: Some sociological
consequences of two psychological types. Sociometry, 1977, 40, 201-213.
Dawson, C.A., & Gettys, W.E. Introduction to sociology (rev.ed.) New York: Ronald
Press, 1935.
483

Dearman, N.D., & Plisko, V.W. The condition of education. In Statistical edition,
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education
Statistics, 1980.
Deem, R. Women and schooling. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1978.
Deevey, E.S. The human crop. Scientific American, September I960, pp. 194-206.
DeLorean, J.Z., & Wright, J.P. How moral men make immoral decisions. In J.P. Wright,
On a clear day you can see General Motors. Grosse Point, Mich.: Wright Enterprises,
1979.
Demerath, N.J., III, & Hammond, P.E. Religion in social context: Tradition and transition.
New York: Random House, 1969.
Demos, J. A little commonwealth: Family in Plymouth Colony. London: Oxford
University Press, 1970.
de Tocqueville, A. Democracy in America. New York: Knopf and Random House, 1945.
(Originally published in 1835.)* (* ..: .. . .
1991. (.)).
Dimock, M.E. Bureaucracy self-examined. In R.K. Merton et al. (Eds.), Reader In
bureaucracy. New York: Free Press, 1952.
Dinnerstein, L., Nichols, R.L., & Reimers, D.M. Natives and strangers. New York:
Oxford University Press, 1979.
Donosky, L., Keeping your work clothes on. Newsweek, November 1, 1982, p. 58.
Dore, R. British factory-Japanese factory: The origins of national diversity in industrial
relations. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973.
Douglas, A. The feminization of American culture. New York: Knopf, 1977.
DuBick, M.A. The organizational structure of newspapers in relation to their metropolitan
environment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 1978, 23, 418-433.
Dundes, A., & Patger, C.A. Urban folklore from the paperwork empire. Austin, Texas:
American Folklore Society, 1975.
Durkheim, E. The rules of sociological method. New York: Free Press, 1938.**
(**.. . . ., 1991
(.)).
Durkheim, E. [Education and society] (S. Fox, trans.). New York: Free Press, 1956.
(Originally published in various sources, 1903-1911).
Durkheim, E. [The division of labor in society] (G. Simpson, trans.). Glencoe, III.: Free
Press, 1964. (Originally published in 1893.)
Durkheim, E. [Suicide.] New York: Free Press, 1964. (Originally published in 1897. Also
originally published in a foreign language.) /666/
Durkheim, E. [The elementary forms of the religious life.] (J.W.Swain, trans.) New York:
Free Press, 1965. (Originally published 1915.)
Easterlin, R.A. Birth and fortune. New York: Basic Books, 1980.
Easton, B. Industrialization and femininity: A case study of nineteenth-century New
England. Social Problems, 1976, 24, 389-401.
Eckhardt, K.W. Religiosity and civil rights militancy. Review of Religious Research,
1970, 11, 199.
Eisenstadt, S.M. Introduction. In S.M. Eisenstadt (Ed.), Max Weber on charisma and
institution building. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.
Elder, G.H., Jr. Children of the great depression. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
1974.
Eldridge, H.T., & Thomas, D.S. Population redistribution and economic growth in United
States 1870-1950 (Vol.3). Demographic analyses and interpretations. Philadelphia:
American Philosophical Society, 1964.
Elkind, D. Giant in the nursery: Jean Piaget. New York Times Magazine, May 26, 1968,
pp. 25ff.
484

Ellis, D., Grasmick, H.G., & Gilman, B. Violence in prisons: A sociological analysis.
American Journal of Sociology, 1974, 80, 16-43.
Epstein, C.F. Conflict and contradiction in women's roles. In R.L. Coser (Ed.,), The
family: Its structure and function. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1974.
Ericksen, J.A., Yancey, W.L., & Ericksen, E.P. The division of family roles. Journal of
marriage and the family, 1979, 41, 301-313.
Erikson, E.H. Childhood and society. New York: Norton, 1950. Erikson, K.T. Everything
in its path: Destruction of community in the Buffalo Creek Flood. New York: Simon and
Schuster, 1976.
Evan, W.M. On the margin - The engineering technician. In P.L. Berger (Ed.), The
human shape of work: Studies in the sociology of occupations. New York: Macmillan,
1964.
Farb, P. Humankind. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1978.
Faris, R.E.L., & Dunham, H.W. Mental disorders in urban areas. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1939.
Fatemi, N.S., Williams, G.W., & de Saunt-Phalle, T.L.T. Multinational corporations. New
York: A.S. Barnes, 1975.
Feagin, J.R. God help those who help themselves. Psychology Today, November 1972,
pp. 101-110.
Feagin, J.R. Racial and ethnic relations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1978.
Featherman, D.L. The socioeconomic achievement of white religio-etnic subgroups:
Social and psychological explanations. American Sociological Review, 1971, 36, 207222.
Featherman, D.L., & Houser, R.M. Opportunity and change. New York: Academic
Press, 1978.
Federici, N. Lezioni di demografia (3rd ed.). Rome; Edizioni E. DiSantis, 1968.
Feeley, M.M. The process is the punishment: Handling cases in lower criminal court.
New York: Russel Sage Foundation, 1979.
Fennell, M.C. The effects of environment characteristics on the structure of hospital
clusters. Administrative Science Quarterly, 1980, 29, 489-510.
Fergusson, A, When money dies: The nightmare of the Weimar collapse. London:
William Kimber, 1975.
Ferree, M.M. Working-class jobs: Housework and paid work as sources of satisfaction.
Social Problems, 1976, 23, 431-441.
Festinger, L., Ricken, H.W., & Schachter, S. When prophecy fails. Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press, 1956. /667/
Firey, W. Sentiment and symbolism as ecological variables. American Sociological
Review, 1945, 10, 140-148.
Fischer, C.S. On urban alienation and anomie. American Sociological Review 1973, 38,
311-326.
Fischer, C.S. The urban experience. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976.
Fishman, J.A. The sociology of language. In P.P. Giglioli (Ed.), Language and social
context. London: Penguin, 1972. The 500. Fortune, May 3, 1981, pp. 322-349.
Flippo, C. Rock and roll tragedy: Why eleven died in Cincinnati. Rolling Stone, January
24, 1980.
Ford, W. Interracial public housing in a border city: Another look at the contact
hypothesis. American Journal of Sociology, 1974, 78, 1426-1477.
Form, W.H. Occupational and social integration of automobile workers in four countries.
In W.A. Faunce & W.H. Form (Eds.), Comparative perspectives on industrial society.
Boston: Little, Brown, 1969.
Frank, A.G. The development of underdevelopment. Monthly Review, 1966, 18, 3-17.
Freedman, R. Theories of fertility decline: A reappraisal. Social Forces. 1979, 58, 1-17.
485

Freeman, J. Going to the well: School district administrative intensity and environmental
constraints. Administrative Science Quarterly, 1979, 29, 119-133.
Freud, S. [Group psychology and the analysis of ego] (J. Strachey, Ed. and trans.). New
York: Liveright, 1951, (Originally published in 1921.) * (* ..: ..
. ., 1989. . ., 1989. (.))
Freud, S. [Criminals from a sense of guilt.] In J. Strachey (Ed. and trans.). The standard
edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud. London: Hogarth, 1957.
(Originally published in 1916.) Freud, S. [Civilization and its discontents.] New York:
Doubleday Anchor Books, 1958. (Originally published in 1930. Also originally published
in German.)
Freud, S. [The future of an illusion.] In J. Strachey (Ed. and trans.), The standard edition
of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 21). London: Hogarth,
1961.
Friedrich, C.J., & Brzezinski, Z. Totalitarian dictatorship and autocracy (Vol.2).
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965.
Fulenwider, C.K Feminism in American politics. New York: Praeger, 1980.
Gagliani, G. How many working classes? American Journal of Sociology, 1981,87,259285.
Gallup, G. The Gallup poll, 1981. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1982.
Gallup, G.H. Public opinion 1981. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1982.
Gamson, W. The strategy of social protest. Homewood, 111.: Dorsey Press, 1975.
Gans, HJ. Urbanism and suburbanism as ways of life. In A. Rose (Ed.), Human
behavior and social process. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1962 (a).
Gans, HJ. The urban villagers. New York: Free Press, 1962 (b).
Garabedian, P.G. Social roles and processes of socialization in the prison community.
Social Problems, 11(1), 1963, 139-152.
Garfinkel, H. Studies in ethnic methodology. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1967.
Garfinkel, H. Studies of the routine grounds of everyday activities. In D.Sudnow (Ed.),
Studies in social interaction. New York: Free Press, 1972.
Geertz, C. The interpretation of culture. New York: Basic Books, 1973.
Gerhard, P.F. The flight of Japanese Americans during World War H: Its history and
manifestations. University of Wichita Bulletin, 1963, 57, 1-21.
German ancestry predominant in U.S. San Francisco Chronicle, May 11, 1982. /668/
Gerschenkron, A. Economic backwardness in historical perspective. New York:
Praeger, 1965.
Gilbert, N., & Eaton, J. Favoritism as a strategy in race relations. Social Problems,
1970, 18, 38-52.
Gilpin R. U.S. power and the multinational corporation: The political economy of foreign
direct investment. New York: Basic Books, 1975.
Glascow, D. Black power through community control. Social Work, 1972, 17, 431-443.
Glass, D., Squire, P., & Wolfinger, R. Voter Turnout: An International Comparison.
Public Opinion. 1984, 6, 49-57.
Glazer, N.. & Moynihan, D.P. Beyond the melting pot. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press
and Harvard University Press, 1963.
Glenn, N.D. The trend in differences in attitudes and behavior by education level. In
R.M. Pavalko (Ed.), Sociology of education: A book of readings. Itasca, III.: Peacock,
1968.
Glenn, N. Interreligious marriage in the U.S.: Patterns and recent trends. Journal of
Marriage and the Family, 1982, 44(3), 557-568.
Glenn, N. White gains from Negro subordination. Social Problems, 1966, 14, 159-179.
Glick, P.C., & Norton, A.J. Marrying, divorcing and living together in the U.S. today.
Population Bulletin, 1979, 32(5).
486

Glock, C. Y., & Stark, R. Christian beliefs and antisemiticism. New York: Harper & Row,
1966.
Goffman, E. Embarrassment and social organization. American Journal of Sociology,
1956-1957, 62, 264-271.
Goffman, E. The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday
Anchor Books, 1959.
Goffman, E. Asylums. New York: Doubleday, I 961.
Goffman, E. Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Endlewood Cliffs,
N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1963.
Gold, R.L On local control of Western energy development. Social Science Journal,
1979, 16(2), 121-127.
Goldner, F.H.. Demotion in industrial management. American Sociological Review,
1965, 30, 97-102.
Goode, W.J. Norm commitment and conformity to role-status obligations. American
Journal of Sociology, 1960, 66, 246-258.
Goode, W.J. World revolution and family patterns. New York: Free Press, 1963.
Goodenough, W. Culture, language, and society. Menlo Park, Calif.:
Benjamin/Cummings, 1981.
Gordon, W. The role of teacher in the structure of the high school. In R.R. Bell &H.R.
Stub (Eds.), The sociology of education. Homewood, III.: Dorsey Press 1968.
Gordon, M. Assimilation in America: Theory and reality. Daedalus, Spring 1961.
Gordon, M. Assimilation in American life. New York: Oxford University Press, 1964.
Gorin, Z. Income inequality In the Marxist theory of development: A cross-national test.
Comparative Social Research, 1980, 3, 147-174.
Gould, R. Transformations: Growth and change in adult life. New York: Simon and
Schuster, 1978.
Gouldner, A. W. Patterns of industrial bureaucracy. New York: Free Press, 1954.
Gove, W.R. Deviant behavior, social interaction, and labeling theory. In L.A. Coser &
O.N. Larsen (Eds.), The uses of controversy in sociology. New York: Free Press, 1976.
Grant, D.P. An architect discovers the aged. The Gerontologist, 1970, 10, 275-281.
Gray Panthers: Aiming at new targets. U.S. News & World Report, January 24, 1977,
p.79. /669/
Greeley, A.M. Religion in the year 2000. New York: Sheed and Ward, 1969.
Greeley, A.M. The denominational society. Glenview, III.: Scott, Foresman, 1972.
Greeley, A.M. The religious factors in academic careers: Another communication.
American Journal of Sociology, 1973, 78, 1147-1155.
Greeley, A.M. The American Catholic: A social portrait. New York: Basic Books, 1977.
Green, G., & Weiniak, E. Changing family composition and income differential.
Washington, D.C.: U.S.Bureau of the Census, 1982.
Green, T. Father Thames has cleaned up his act, at long last. Smithsonian, 1978, 9,
102-108.
Greenstein, F. Children and politics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965.
Greer, S. The urbane view. New York: Oxford University Press, 1972.
Griffin, L.J., & Alexander, K.L. Schooling and socioeconomic attainments: High school
and college influences. American Journal of Sociology, 1978, 84, 319-347.
Guest, A.M. Occupation and the journey to work. Social Forces, 1976, 55, 166-181.
Guiart, J. "Cargo cults" and political evolution in Melanesia, South Pacific, 1959, 5, 128129
Gurr, T.R. Why men rebel. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970.
Gusfield, J.R. Tradition and modernity: Misplaced polarities in the study of social
change. American Journal of Sociology, 1976, 72, 351-362.

487

Hacker, A. Farewell to the family? New York review of Books, March 18, 1982, pp. 3744.
Hagan, J., & Bernstein, I.N. The sentence bargaining of upperworld and underworld
crime in ten federal district courts. Law and Society Review, 1979, 13, 467-478.
Hage, J., & Aiken, M. Relation of centralization to other structural properties.
Administrative Science Quarterly, 1967, 12, 72-91.
Hager, P. San Francisco's new majority - The singles. Los Angeles Times, October 25,
1982, pp. 1;3;21.
Hall, E.T. The hidden dimension. New York: Doubleday, 1966.
Hall, R.H., Haas, J.E., & Johnson N. Organizational size, complexity, and formalization.
American Sociological Review, 1967, 32, 903-912.
Hannan, M.T., & Freeman, J.H. Obstacles to comparative studies. In P.S. Goodman &
J.M. Pennings (Eds.), New perspectives on organizational effectiveness. San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass, 1977.
Hannan, M.T., Tuina, N.S., & Groeneveld, L.P. Income and marital events: Evidence
from an income maintenance experiment. American Journal of Sociology, 1977, 83,
1186-1211.
Hare, A.P. Handbook of small-group research. New York: Free Press, 1962.
Hare, N., & Swift, D.W. Black education. In D.W. Swift (Ed.), American education: A
sociological view Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976.
Harlow, H.F., & Harlow, M.K. Social deprivation in monkeys. Scientific American,
November 1945, pp. 7-17.
Harlow, H.F. The nature of love. American Psychologist, 1958, 13, 673-685.
Harris and Associates, 1971. Cited in Hunter, C.S., & Harmon D. Adult illiteracy in the
United States: Report to the Ford Foundation. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1979.
Harris, C, & Ullnian, E.L. The nature of cities. Annals of the American Academy of
Political and Social Science, 1945, 242, 7-17.
Harris, L. The myth and reality of aging in America. Washington, D.C.: National Council
on Aging. 1975.
Hartmann, H. Capitalism, patriarchy, and job segregation by sex. Signs, 1976, 1, 137169. /670/
Hartmann, H. The family as the locus of gender, class, and political struggle: The
example of housework. Signs, 1981, 6(3), 366-394.
Haveman, R.H. Introduction. In R.H. Haveman (Ed.), A decade of federal anti-poverty
programs. New York: Academic Press, 1977.
Havighurst, R.J. Education, social mobility, and social change in four societies.
International Review of Education, 1958, 4, 167-183.
Hawley, A.M. Human ecology: A theory of community structure. New York: Ronald
Press, 1950.
Heer, D. Society and population (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice-Hall, 1975.
Heilbroner, R.L. The view from the top: Reflections on a changing business ideology. In
E.F. Cheit (Ed.), The Business establishment. New York: John Wiley, 1967.
Hendricks, J., & Hendricks, C.D. Aging in mass society (2nd ed.). Cambridge, Mass.:
Winthrop, 1981.
Henry, A.F., & Short, J.F. Suicide and homicide. Glencoe, III.: Free press, 1954.
Hertz, S.H. Politics of the welfare mothers' movement: A case study. Journal of Women
in Culture and Society, 1977, 2, 600-611.
Hertzler, J.O. A sociology of language. New York: Random House, 1965.
Hess, R., & Torney, J. The development of political attitudes in children. Chicago:
Aldine, 1967.

488

Hetherington, E.M. A developmental study preference, identification, and imitation in


children. In K.Danziger (ed.), Readings in child socialization. Elmsford, N.Y.: Pergamon
Press, 1970.
Hiatt, L.G. Aging and disability. In N.G. McCluskey & E.F. Borgatta (Eds.), Aging and
retirement: Prospects, planning, policy. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage, 1981.
Hicks, A., Friedland, R., & Johnson, E. Class power and state policy: The case of large
business corporations, labor unions and governmental redistributions in the American
states. American Sociological Review, 1978, 43, 302-315.
Hickson, D.J., Hinings, C.R., McMillan, C.J., & Schwilter, J.P. The culture free context of
organizational structure: A tri-national comparison. Sociology, 1974, 8, 59-80.
Hillebrandt, R.H. Panel design and time-series analysis. Unpublished master's thesis.
Northwestern University, 1962.
Hindeland, M.J. Causes of delinquency: A partial replication and extension. Social
Problems, 1973, 20, 471-478.
Hirschi, T. Causes of delinquency. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1969.
Hochschild, A. The unexpected community. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973.
Hodge, R., Siegel, P.M., & Rossi, .H. Occupational prestige in the United States:
1925-1963. In R. Bendix & S.M. Lipset (Eds.), Class and power (2nd ed.). New York:
Free Press, 1966.
Hodges, H.M., Jr. Social Stratification: Class in America. Cambridge, Mass.:
Schenkman, 1964.
Hodgkins, B.J. Catholic education. In D.W. Swift (Ed.), American education: A.
sociological view. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976.
Hoffer, E. The true believer. New York: Harper & Row, 1951.
Hofferth, S.L. Day care in the next decade: 1980-1990. Journal of Marriage and The
Family 1979, 41, 649-658.
Hoffman, L.W. Fear of success in males and females: 1965 and 1971. Journal of
Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1974, 42, 353-358.
Hoge, D.R., & Carroll, J.W. Religiosity and prejudice in northern and southern churches.
Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1973, 12, 181-197.
Hollingshead, A.B. Elmstown youth. New York: John Wiley, 1949. /671/
Hollingshead, A.B., & Redlich, F.C. Social class and mental illness. New York: John
Wiley, 1958.
Homans, G.C. Fundamental social processes. In N.J. Smelser (Ed.), Sociology: An
introduction (2nd ed.), New York: John Wiley, 1973.
Honig, J.R. Centrification and displacement within cities: A comparative analysis. Social
Science Quarterly, 1980, 61(3), 638-652.
Horner, M.S. Fail: Bright women. Psychology Today, November 1969, pp. 36-38.
Hoselitz, B.F. Sociological aspects of economic growth. New York: Free Press, 1960.
How to save social security. Business Week, November 29, 1982, pp. 78-85.
Hoyt, H. The structure and growth of urban areas. Washington, D.C.: Urban Housing
Authority, 1939.
Hudson, R.A. Sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.
Hudson, R.B. Old-age politics in a period of change. In E.F. Borgatta & N.G. McCliskey
(Eds.), Aging and society: Current research and policy perspectives. Beverly Hills,
Calif.: Sage, 1980.
Hunter, C.S., & Harmon, D. Adult illiteracy in the United States: Report to the Ford
Foundation. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976.
Huntington, S.P. Political order in changing societies. New Haven: Yale University
Press, 1968.
Horn, C.J. The limits and possibilities of schooling. Boston, Mass.: Allyn & Bacon, 1978.

489

Hutt, . Sex differences in human development. Human Development, 1972, 15, 153170.
Hutton, J.H. Caste in India (4th ed.). London: Cambridge University Press, 1963.
Hymowitz, C, & Wiesman, M. A history of women in America. New York: Bantam Books,
1978.
Iglitzin, L.B. The making of the apolitical woman: Femininity and sex-stereotyping in
girls. In J.S. Jaquette (Ed.), Women in politics. New York: John Wiley, 1974.
Illich, I. Deschooling society. New York: Harper, 1971.
Ima, Japanese Americans: The making of "good" people. In A.G. Dworkin & R.J.
Dworkin (Eds.), The minority report: An introduction to racial, ethnic, and gender
relations. New York: Praeger, 1976.
Inkeles, A., & Rossi, P.H. National comparisons of occupational prestige. American
Journal of Sociology, 1956, 61, 329-339.
Inkeles, A., & Smith, D.H. The fate of personal adjustment in the process of
modernization. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 1970, 11, 101-103.
Inkeles, A., & Smith, D.H. Becoming modern. Cambridge: Harvard University Press,
1974.
Ireson, Girls' socialization for work. In A.H. Stromberg & S. Harkness (Eds.), Working
women: Theories and facts in perspective. Palo Alto, Calif.: Mayfield, 1978.
Irving, J. The world according to Garp. New York: Dutton, 1978.
Irwin, J. Prison in turmoil. Boston: Little, Brown, 1980.
Isaacson, W. Running with the PACs. Time. October 25, 1982, pp. 20-26.
Jackman, M.R., & Jackman, R.W. Class awareness in the United States. Berkeley,
Calif.: University of California Press, 1982.
Jacobsen, R.B., Berry, K.J., & Olson, K.F. An empirical test of the generation gap: A
comparative intra-familial study. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1975, 37, 841-852.
Jacobson, P.H. American marriage and divorce. New York: Rinehart, 1959.
Jeffries, V., & Ransford, E. Iterracial social contact and middle class white reactions to
the Watts Riot. Social Problems, 1969, 16, 312-324.
Jencks. Inequality. New York: Basic Books, 1972. /672/
Jencks, C, et al. Who gets ahead? The determinants of economic success in America.
New York: Basic Books, 1979.
Jennings, M.K., & Niemi, R.G. The political character of adolescence: The influence of
families and schools. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974.
Johnstone, R.L. Religion and society in interaction. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: PrenticeHall, 1975.
Juster, T. (Ed.) Education, income, and human behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975.
Kagan, J., & Moss, H. Bind to maturity. New York: John Wiley, 1962.
Kohl, J.A. Modernization, exploitation and dependency in Latin America: Germani,
Gonzalez Casanova, and Cardoso. New Brunswick, N.J.: Trans-Action Books, 1976.
Kahn, R.L., Wolfe, D.M., Quinn, R.P., Snoeck, J.AD., & Rosenthal, R.A. Organizational
stress: Studies in role conflict and ambiguity. New York: John Wiley, 1964.
Kammerman S.B., & Kahn, A.J. Families and the idea of family policy. In
S.B.Kammerman & A.J. Kahn (Eds.), Family policy: Government and families in
fourteen countries. New York: Columbia University Press, 1978.
Kanter, R.M. Men and women of the corporation. New York: Basic Books, 1977.
Karabel, J., & Halsey, A.H. Educational research: A review and an interpretation. J.
Karabel & A.H. Halsey (Eds.), Power and ideology in education. New York: Oxford
University Press, 1977.
Kasperson, R.E., et al. Public opposition to nuclear energy: Retrospect and prospect. In
C.I. Unseld et al. (Eds.), Sociopolitical effects of energy use and policy. Washington,
D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1979.
490

Katz, D. Approaches to managing conflict. In R.L. Kahn (Ed.), Power and conflict in
organizations. New York: Basic Books, 1964.
Kenkel, W.F. The family in perspective. Santa Monica, Calif.: Goodyear, 1977.
Kerbo, H.R. The stigma of welfare and a passive poor. Sociology and social research,
1976, 60, 173-187.
Kerr, C. et al. Industrialism and industrial man. Cambridge: Harvard University Press,
1960.
Kerr, C, et al. Observations on the relations between education and work in the
People's Republic of China: report of a study group. Berkeley: Carnegie Council on
Policy Studies in Higher Education, 1978.
Keyfitz, N. The numbers and distribution of mankind. In W.W. Murdoch (Ed.),
Environment: resources, pollution, and the society. Stamford, Conn.: Sinauer
Associates, 1971.
Kidwell, C.S., & Swift, D.W. Indian education. In D.W. Swift (Ed.), American education:
A sociological view. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976.
Killian, L.M. The significance of multiple group membership in disaster. American
Journal of Sociology, 1952, 42, 309-314.
Killian, L.M. Social movements. In R.E.L. Paris (Ed.), Handbook of modern sociology.
Chicago: Rand McNally, 1969.
Kindleberger, C.P. American business abroad. New Haven: Yale University Press,
1969.
Kitagawa, E. Social and economic differentials in mortality in the United States.
International Population Conference, London, 1969. Liege, Belgium: International Union
for the Scientific Study of Population, 1971.
Kitano, H. Japanese Americans: The evolution of a subculture. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:
Prentice-Hall, 1969.
Kitano, H. Race relations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hail, 1974.
Klapper, J.T. The effects of mass communication. In D.L. Sills (Ed.), International
encyclopedia of the social sciences (Vol. 3). New York: Macmillan and Free Press,
1968. /673/
Kluckhohn, C. Common humanity and diverse cultures. In D. Learned (Ed.), The human
meaning of the social sciences. New York: Meridian Books, 1959.
Kluckhohn, C. Culture and behavior. New York: Free Press, 1962.
Kluckhohn, . the foot of the rainbow. Glovieta, N.M., Grande Press, 1967.
Knapp, R.H. A psychology of rumor. Public Opinion Quarterly, 1940, 8, 22-37.
Kohlberg, L. The development of children's orientations toward a moral order. I:
Sequence in the development of moral thought. Vita Humana, 1963, 6, 11-35.
Kohlberg, L. A cognitive-developmental analysis of children's sex role concepts and
attitudes. In E.E. Maccoby (Ed.), The development of sex differences. Stanford:
Stanford University Press, 1966.
Kohn, M.L. Class and conformity. Homewood, 111.: Dorsey Press, 1969.
Kornhauser, A., Dubin, R., & Ross, A.M. Problems and viewpoints. In A. Kornhauser, R.
Dubin, & A.M. Ross (Eds,), Industrial conflict. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1954.
Kornhauser, A. Mental health of the industrial worker: A Detroit study. New York: John
Wiley, 1965.
Kornhauser, W., & Hagstrom, W.O. Scientists in industry. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1962.
Kornhauser, W. "Power elite" or "veto groups". In G.W. Domhoff & H.B. Ballard (Eds.),
. Wright Mills and the power elite. Boston: Beacon Press, 1968.
Krauss, I. Undergraduate education. In D.W. Swift (Eds.), American education: A
sociological view. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976.
Kriesberg, L. Social inequality. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1979.
491

Kronus, C.L. Mobilizing voluntary associations into a social movement: The case of
environmental quality. Sociological Quarterly, 1977, 18, 267-283.
Kuypers, J.A., & Bengston, V.L. Social breakdown and competence: A model of normal
aging. Human Development, 1973, 16, 181-201.
Kuznets, S. Quantitative aspects of economic growth of nations, 2: Industrial distribution
of national produce and labor force. Economic Development and Cultural Change,
1957, 5, 3-11.
Kuznets, S. Modern economic growth: Findings and reflections. American Economic
Review, 1973, 63, 247-258.
Labov, W. The logic of non-standard English. In F. Williams (Ed.), Language and
property. Chicago: Markham, 1970.
Labov, W. Sociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press,
1972.
Ladd, E.C., Jr. Religious faith in America. Public Opinion, 1979, 2, 32-83.
Lakoff, R. Language and women's place. New York: Octagon Books, 1976.
Lambert, R.D., & Hoselitz, B.F. Southern Asia and the West. In R.D. Lambert & B.F.
Hoselitz (Eds.), The role of savings and wealth in Southern Asia and the West. Paris:
UNESCO, 1963.
Landis, J.T. Religiousness, family relationships, and family values in Protestant,
Catholic, and Jewish families. Marriage and Family Living, 1960, 22, 341 -348.
Landtman, G. The origin of inequality in the social classes. New York: Greenwood
Press, 1968.
Lang, K., & Lang, G. Collective dynamics. New York: Crowell, 1961.
Langway, L. It's like "tubula!" Newsweek, August 2, 1982, p.61.
Lannie, V.P. Public money and parochial education: Bishop Hughes, Governor Seward,
and the New York school controversy. Cleveland: Press of Case Western University,
1968.
Laslett, P. In an aging world. New Society, 1977, 42, 171-173.
Lasswell, H.D., & Kaplan, A. Power and society. New Haven: Yale University Press,
1950.
Leach, E.R. Culture and social cohesion: An anthropologist's view. Daedalus, 1965, 94,
24-38. /674/
Leavitt, J.J. Some effects of certain communication patterns on group performance.
Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1951, 46, 38-50.
Legett, J. Class and race labor. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.
Leik, R.K. Instrumentality and emotionality in family interaction. In T.M. Mills (Ed.),
Readings on the sociology of small groups. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1970.
Letnert, E. Social pathology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1951.
Lennard, H., Beaulieu, M.R., & Embrey, N.G. Interaction in families with a schizophrenic
child. In K. Danziger (Ed.), Readings in child socialization. Elmsford, N.Y.: Pergamon
Press, 1970.
Lenski, G. The religious factor. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1961.
Lenski, G. Power and privilege: A theory of social stratification. New York: McGraw-Hill,
1970.
Lenski, G., & Lenski, J. Human societies (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970.
Lerner, D. The passing of traditional societies. New York: Free Press, 1964.
Lerner, D. Modernization: Social aspects. In D.L. Sills (Ed.), International encyclopedia
of the social sciences (Vol. 10). New York: Macmillan and Free Press, 1968.
Levin, M. Social climates and political socialization. Public Opinion Quarterly 1961, 25,
595-606.
Libarle, M., & Seligson, T. The high school revolutionaries. New York: Random House,
1970.
492

Liebow, E. Tally's corner: A study of Negro streetcorner men. Boston: Little, Brown,
1967.
Lindblom, C.E. Politics and markets. New York: Basic Books, 1977.
Lipset, S.M. Political man. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1960.
Lipset, S.M., & Bendix, R. Social mobility in industrial society. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1959.
Lofland, J.F. Collective behavior: The elementary forms. In M. Rosenberg & R.H. Turner
(Eds.), Social psychology: Sociological perspectives. New York: Basic Books, 1981.
Lombroso, C. Crime: Its causes and remedies. Boston: Little, Brown, 1911.
Lowenburg, P. The psychohistorica! origins of the Nazi youth cohort. The American
Historical Review. 1971, 76, 1457-1502.
Lowenthal, L. Literature, popular culture, and society. Palo Alto, Calif.: Pacific Books,
1961.
Luckman, T. The invisible religion. New York: Macmillan, 1967.
Lyons, G. Repealing the enlightenment. Harper's, April 1982, pp. 38-40; 73-78.
McClelland, D. The achieving society. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1961.
Maccoby, E.E.: & Jacklin, C.N. The psychology of sex differences. Stanford, Calif.:
Stanford University Press, 1974.
McCready, W.C., & Greeley, A.M. The end of American Catholicism? America, October
1972, 334-338.
McIntosh, W.A., & Alston, J.P. Acceptance of abortion among white Catholics and
Protestants, 1962 and 1975. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1977, 16, 295303.
McIntosh, W.A., & Alston, J.P. Lenski revisited: The linkage role of religion in primary
and secondary groups. American Journal of Sociology, 1982, 87, 852-882.
McPhail, C, & Miller, D. The assembling process: A theoretical and empirical
examination. American Sociological Review, 1973, 38, 721-735.
McShane, D. Solidarity and the church. Commonweal, January 15, 1982, pp. 14- 17.
Magmtson, E. The bottom line ... busted. Time, November 1, 1982, pp. 30-36. /675/
Malinowski, . Argonauts of the Western Pacific. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul,
1922.
Malinowski, B. The sexual life of savages. New York: Halcyon House, 1929.
Malinowski, B. Culture. In Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (Vol. 4). New York:
Macmillan, 1937.
Malinowski, B. The dynamics of cultural change. (P.M. Keyberry, ed.). New Haven: Yale
University Press 1945.
Malinowski, B. Magic, science, and religion and other essays. Garden City, N.Y.:
Doubleday, 1955.
Malthus, T.R. First essay on population 1798 (Reprint ed.). New York: Kelley, 1926.
(Originally published in 1798.)* (* ..: .. .
., 1992 (.))
Mann, P.H. An approach to urban sociology. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1965.
Mannheim, K., & Stewart, W.A. An introduction to the sociology of education. New York:
Humanities Press, 1962. ** (** ..: , ..
. ., 1992 (.)).
Markle, G.E., & Troyer, R.J. Smoke gets in your eyes: Cigarette smoking as deviant
behavior. Social Problems, 1979, 26, 611-623.
Marrett, C.B. The precariousness of social class in Black America. Contemporary
Sociology, 1980, 9, 19-21.
Marsh, R.M. Comparative sociology. New York: Harcourt Brace & World, 1967.
Marshall, S.L.A. Men against fire. New York: Morrow, 1947.

493

Marx, K. Wage-labor and capital. New York: International Publishers, 1933. (Originally
published in 1865.)
Marx, K. Contribution to a critique of Hegel's philosophy of right. In K. Marx, Early
writings (T.B. Bottomore, Ed. and trans.). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964. (Essay
originally published in 1844.)
Marx, K. Letter to P.V. Annenkov, Brussels, December 1846. In N.J. Smelser (Ed.), Karl
Marx on society and social change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973.
Massey, G., & Lewis, D. Energy development and mobile home living: The myth of
suburbia revisited. Social Science Journal, 1979, 16(2), 81-92.
Matras, J. Populations and societies. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973.
Matza, D. Delinquency and drift. New York: John Wiley, 1964.
Matza, D. The disreputable poor. In NJ. Smelser & M. Lipset (Eds.), Social structure
and mobility in economic development. Chicago: Aldine, 1966.
Matza, D. Becoming deviant. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1969.
Mayer, R.N. Environmental consciousness and class consciousness: Two case studies.
The Social Science Journal, 1982, 19, 105-119.
Mead, G.H. Mind, self and society: From the standpoint of a social behaviorist (C.W.
Morris, Ed.). Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1934.
Mead, M. Sex and temperament in three primitive societies. New York: William Morrow,
1935.
Merton, R.K. The role-set: Problems in sociological theory. British Journal of Sociology,
1957, 8, 106-120.
Merton, R.K. Social structure and anomie. American Sociological Review, 1938, 3, 672682. *** (*** ..: " " 1990-1992 .)
Merton, R.K. Social theory and social structure. New York: Free Press, 1957.
Merton, R.K. Social theory and social structure (Rev. and enl. ed.). New York: Free
Press, 1968.
Meyer, M.W. Automation and bureaucratic structure. American Journal of Sociology,
1968, 74, 256-264. /676/
Michels, R. Political parties (. Paul&C.Paul, trans.). New York: Dover, 1959.
Mileti, D.S., Gillespie, D.S., & Haas, J.E. Size and structure in complex organizations.
Social Forces, 1977, 56, 208-217.
Milgram, S. Some conditions of obedience and disobedience to authority. Human
Relations, 1965, 18, 57-76.
Milgram, S., & Toch, H. Collective behavior: Crowds and social movements. In G.
Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (Vol. 4) (2nd ed.).
Boston: Addisson-Wesley, 1969.
Miller, H. Flexible retirement-Will Sweden make it work? In S.H. Zarit (Ed.), Readings in
aging and death: Contemporary perspectives. New York: Harper & Row, 1977.
Miller, R.S. The social construction and reconstruction of physiological events: Acquiring
the pregnancy identity. In N.K. Denzin (Ed.), Studies in symbolic interaction. Greenwich,
CT: Jai Press, 1978.
Miller, W. Lower class culture as a generating milieu of gang delinquency. Journal of
Social Issues, 1958, 14, 5-19.
Mills, W. The power elite. New York: Oxford University Press, 1956.
Moen, E. The reluctance of the elderly to accept help. Social Problems, 1978, 25, 293303.
Molloy, J. Dress for success. New York: Warner, 1978.
Money, J. The "given" from a different point of view: Lessons from intersexuality for a
theory of gender identity. In E.K. Oremland and J.K. Oremland (Eds.), The sexual and
gender development of young children. Philadelphia: Ballinger, 1977.

494

Money, J. & Ehrhardt, A. Man and woman, boy and girl. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
Press, 1972.
Moore, J. Colonialism: The case of Mexican-Americans. Social Problems, 1970, 17,
463-472.
Moore, W.E. Industrialization and labor. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1951.
Moore, W.E. Social change (2nd ed.) Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1974.
Morocco, J.C., & Morocco, J. Education's role in modernity. International Review of
Modern Sociology, 1978, 8.
Mortimer, K.P., & McConnell, T.R. Faculty participation in university governance. In C.E.
Kruytbosch & S.L. Messinger (Eds.), The state of the university. Beverly Hills, Calif.:
1968.
Multinational enterprises and social policy. Geneva: International Labor Office, 1973.
Murdock, G.P. Social structure. New York: Macmillan, 1949.
Murdock, G.P. Culture and society. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1965.
Murray, R., & Vedlidz, A. Race, socioeconomic status, and voting participation in large
southern cities. The Journal of Politics, 1977, 39, 1064-1081.
Musgrove, F. Youth and social order. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1965.
Myrdal, G. An American dilemma: The negro problem and modern democracy. New
York: Harper and Brothers, 1944.
National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders. Report. New York: Bantam, 1968.
National Advisory Council on Economic Opportunity. Women in Poverty. In The
American promise: Equal justice and economic opportunity (final report of the National
Advisory Council on Economic Opportunity). Washington D.C.: National Advisory
Council on Economic Opportunity, 1981.
Nault, R.L. Erickson, D.A., & Cooper B.S. Hard times for nonpublic schools. The
National Elementary Principal, July/August 1977, 56, 16-21. /677/
Neugarten, B.L., & Lowe, J.W. Age norms, age, constraints, and adult socialization.
American Journal of Sociology, 1965, 70, 710-717.
Neugarten, B.L., & Datan, N. Sociological perspectives on the life cycle. In P.B. Baiter,
& K.W. Schaie (Eds.), Life-span development psychology: Personality and socialization.
New York: Academic Press, 1973.
Newcob, T.M. Attitude development as a function of reference groups: The Bennington
study. In E. Maccoby, T.M. Newcomb, & E.L.Hartley (Eds.), Reading in social
psychology (3rd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1958.
Newconibe, P.R. Cohabitation in America: An assessment of consequences. Journal of
Marriage and the Family, 1979, 41, 579-602.
Nock, S.L. & Rossi, P.H. Ascription versus achievement in the attribution of family social
status. American Journal of Sociology, 1978, 84, 565-590.
Notes and comment. The New Yorker, August 30, 196, pp. 17-21.
Nuclear protest tops 1981 religion news. The Christian Century, 1981, 98, 1355-1356.
Nuehring, E., & Markle, G.E. Nicotine and norms: The reemergence of a deviant
behavior. Social Problems, 1974, 21, 513-526.
Nye, F.I., & Berardo, F.M. The family: Its structure and interaction, New York:
Macmillan, 1973.
Oakley, A. Sex, gender, and society. New York: Harper & Row, 1972.
Oberschall, A. The Los Angeles riot of August 1965. Social Problems, 1968, 15, 297341.
Oberschall, A. Social conflict and social movements. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: PrenticeHall, 1973.
Oberschall, A. The decline of the 1960s social movements. Research and social
movements, conflicts and change, 1978, 7, 257-289.

495

Ogburn, W.F. Social change: With respect to culture and original nature. New York:
B.W. Huebsch, 1922.
Ogburn, W.F., & Nimkoff, M. Technology and the changing family. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin, 1955.
Olson, S.R. Issues in the sociology of criminal justice. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1975.
Orwell, G. 1984. New York: Harcourt Brace Iovanovich, 1971. (Originally published
1949).
Orzack, L.H. Work as a "central life interest" of professionals. In CD. Bryant. (Ed.), The
social dimensions of work. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1972.
Otten, C.M. Ruling out paternalism - students and administrators at Berkeley. In . .
Kruytbosch & S.L. Messinger (Eds.), The State of the University. Beverly Hills: Sage,
1968.
Palmore, E. Compulsory versus flexible retirement: Issues and facts. In S.H. Zarit (Ed.),
Readings in aging and death. Contemporary Perspectives, 1977.
Papenek, H. Men, women, and work. American Journal of Sociology, 1973, 78, 852891.
Parelius, A.P., & Parelius, R.J. The sociology of education. Englewood Cliffs, NX:
Prentice-Hall, 1978.
Parkinson, C.N. Parkinson's law, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1957.* (* ..:
.. . ., 1989 (.)).
Parsons, T. The social system. Glencoe, I11.: Free Press, 1951. ** (** ..: .
" ", 1990-1992 . (.)).
Parsons, ., & Bales, R.F. Family, socialization, and interaction process. Glencoe, 111.:
Free Press, 1955. /678/
Parsons . Societies: Evolutionary and comparative perspectives. Englewood Cliffs,
N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1966.
Parsons, T. Politics and social structure. New York: Free Press, 1969.
Pavalko, R.M. Sociology of education: A book of readings. Itasca, III.: Peacock
Publishers, 1968.
Peach, C. Homogamy, propinquity and segregation: A reevaluation. American
Sociological Review, 1974, 39, 636-641.
Pelto, Pertti J., & Muller-Wille, Ludger. Snowmobiles: Technological revolution in the
Arctic. In Russell Bernard and Pertti J. Pelto (Eds.), Technology and social change.
New York: Macmillan, 1972.
Perrow, C. A framework for the comparative analysis of organizations. American
Sociological Review, 1967, 32, 194-208.
Perrow, C. Departmental power and perspective in industrial firms. In M.N. Zald (Ed.),
Power in organizations. Nashville, Tenn.: Vanderbilt University Press, 1970.
Pettigrew, T. Regional differences in anti-Negro prejudice. Journal of Abnormal and
Social Psychology, 1959, 59, 28-36.
Pettigrew, T.F. The changing - not declining - significance of race. Contemporary
Sociology, 1980, 9, 19-21.
Philliber, W.W., & Hiller, D.V. The implication of wife's occupational attainment for
husband's class identification. The Sociological Quarterly, 1978, 19, 450-458.
Phillips, D.L Rejection: A possible consequence of seeking help for mental disorders.
American Sociological Review, 1963, 28, 963-972.
Phillips, K.P., & Blackman, P.H. Electoral reform and voter participation. Washington,
D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1975.
Phillips, M. Small groups in England. London: Methuen, 1965.
Pietropinto, A., & Simenauer, J. Beyond the male myth. New York: New Times Books,
1977.

496

Piliavin, I., & Briar, S. Police encounter with juveniles. American Journal of Sociology,
1964, 69, 206-214.
Piven, F.F. Deviant behavior and the remaking of the world. Social Problems, 1981,
28(5), 489-508.
Plumb, J.H. In the light of time. London: Penguin, 1972.
Population Reference Bureau. 1981 World population data sheet. Washington, D.C.:
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1981.
Poster, M. Critical theory of the family. New York: Seabury Press, 1980.
Postman, N. The disappearance of childhood. New York: Delacorte Press, 1982.
Pratt, H. The gray lobby. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.
Prothro, E. Anti-Negro attitudes in the deep South. Journal of Abnormal and Social
Psychology, 1952, 47, 105-108.
Przeworski, A., Teune, H. Equivalence in cross-national research. Public Opinion
Quarterly, 1966, 30, 551-559.
Quadragno, J. Occupational sex-typing and internal labor market distributions: An
assessment of medical specialties. Social Problems, 1976, 23, 442-453.
Question Man. San Francisco Chronicle, January 12, 1980.
Quinney, R. Class, state, and crime. New York: David McKay, 1977.
Ramsoy, N.R. Assortative mating and the structure of cities. American Sociological
Review, 1966, 31, 773-786.
Rapoport, R., & Rapoport, R. Dual-career families reexamined. New York: Harper &
Row, 1976.
Reich, M. Economic theories of racism. In M. Carnoy (Ed.), Schooling in a corporate
society. New York: McKay, 1972. /679/
Reimann, B.C. Parkinson revisited. A component analysis of the use of staff specialists
in manufacturing organizations. Human Relations, 1979, 32, 625- 641.
Renshon, S.A. Personality and family dynamics in the political and social process.
American Journal of Political Science, 1975, 19, 63-80. A report on aging in America:
Trials and triumphs. Monticello, ill.: Americana Healthcare Corporation, 1980.
Riesman, D., Glazer, N., Denney, R. The lonely crowd. New Haven: Yale University
Press, 1950.
Rivera, J. Mexican-Americans: The convergence between two cultures. In A.G. Dworkin
and R. Dworkin (Eds.), The minority report: An introduction to racial, ethnic, and gender
relations. New York: Praeger, 1976.
Roach, J.R. Separation of church and state: Religion and politics. Vital Speeches of the
Day, December 1968, 48, 158-160.
Robbins, ., Anthony, D., Richardson, J. Theory and research on today's new religions.
Sociological Analysis, 1978, 39, 95-122.
Roby, P. Women and American higher education. Annals of the American Academy of
Political and Social Science, 1972, 404, 119-134.
Roby, P.A. Shared, parenting: Perspectives from other nations. School Review, 1975,
83, 415-431.
Rodin, J., & Longer, E. Aging labels: The decline of content and the fall of self-esteem.
Journal of Social Issues, 1980, 36(2), 19-29.
Roethlisberger, F., & Dickson, W.J. Management and the worker. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1947.
Rokeach, M., & Mezei, L. Race and shared belief as factors in social class. Science,
1966, 151, 167-172.
Rose, A.M. A systematic summary of symbolic interaction theory. In A.M. Rose (Ed.),
Human behavior and social processes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1962.

497

Rose, A.M. The subculture of aging: A framework in social gerontology. In A.M. Rose &
W.A. Peterson (Eds.), Older people in their social worlds. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis,
1965.
Rosen, S.N. Education in the USSR: Research and innovation. Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Government Printing Office, 1978.
Rosenhan, D.L. On being sane in insane places. Science, 1973, 179, 250-258.
Rosow, I. The social context of the aging self. The Gerontologist, 1973, 12, 82-87.
Rosow, I. Socialization to old age. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.
Ross, G.A. The emergence of organization set in three ecumenical disaster recovery
organizations: An empirical and theoretical exploration. Human Relations, 1980, 33, 2329.
Roueche, R. Annals of medicine: Sandy. The New Yorker, August 21, 1978, p.63.
Rowley, P. New gods in America. New York: David McKay, 1971.
Roy, Quota restriction and gold bricking in a machine shop. American Journal of
Sociology, 1952, 58, 427-442.
Roy, D. Work satisfaction and social reward in quota achievement: An analysis of
piecework incentive. American Sociology Review, 1953, 18, 507-514.
Rubin, L. Worlds of pain. New York: Basic Books; 1976.
Rubin, S.J. The international firm and the national jurisdiction. In C.P. Kindleberger
(Ed.), The international corporation. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1970.
Rude, G. The crowd in the French Revolution. London: Oxford University Press, 1959.
Safilios-Rothschild, C. A macro- and micro-examination of family power and love: An
exchange model. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1976, 37, 355-362.
Sander, E. Woodstock music and art fair: The ultimate pop experience. Saturday
Review, September 27, 196, pp. 59, 65, 66. /680/
Sanford, R.N. Individual conflict and organizational interaction. In R.L. Kahn (Ed.),
Power and conflict in organizations. New York: Basic Books, 1964.
Sarnoff, I., & Zimbardo, P.G. Anxiety, fear and social affiliation. Journal of Abnormal and
Social Psychology, 1961, 62, 356-363.
Sayles, L.R. Managerial behavior: Administration in complex organizations. New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1964.
Schachter, S. The psychology of affiliation. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press,
1959.
Schlesinger, B. Family life in the kibbutz of Israel: Utopia gained or paradise lost? In
H.P. Dreitzel (Ed.), Family, marriage, and the struggle of the sexes. New York:
Macmillan, 1972.
Schneider, E.V. Industrial sociology: The Social relations of industry and the community
(2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969.
Schnore, L.F. Community. In N.J. Smelser (Ed.), Sociology: An introduction (2nd ed.).
New York: John Wiley, 1973.
Schofield, J.W., & Sagar, H.A. The social context of learning in an interracial school. In
R.C.Rist (Ed.), Desegregated schools: Appraisals of an American Experiment. New
York: Academic Press, 1979.
Schorr, A.L. Public policies and single parents. Paper prepared for the Organization for
Economic Cooperation, 1979.
Schuessler, K., & Cressey, D.R. Personality characteristics of criminals. American
Journal of Sociology, 1950, 55, 476-484.
Schur, E.M. Labeling deviant behavior. New York: Harper & Row, 1971.
Seeman, M. On the meaning of alienation. American Sociological Review, 1959, 24,
783-791.
Selli, T. Culture conflict and crime. New York: Social Science Research Council, 1938.

498

Selznick, P. TVA and the grassroots. University of California Publications in Culture and
Society (Vol.3). Berkeley: University of California Press, 1949.
Sewelt, W., Holler, A.O., & Ohlendorf, G.W. The educational and early occupational
status attainment process: Replication and revision. American Sociological Review,
1970, 35, 1014-1027.
Shanas, E., & Maddox, G.L. Aging, health and the organization of health care. In R.H.
Binstock & E. Shanas (Eds.), Handbook of aging and the social sciences. New York:
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1976.
Shannon, W. V. The American Irish. New York: Macmillan, 1966.
Shaw, C, & McKay, H.D. Juvenile delinquency in urban areas. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1942.
Sheldon, W.H. The varieties of human physique. New York: Harper & Row, 1940.
Sheldon, W.H., Hard, E.M., McDertnott, E. Varieties of delinquent youth. New York:
Harper & Row, 1949.
Sills, D. Voluntary associations. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences,
(Vol.16). New York: Crowell-Collier, 1968.
Silver, M., & Geller, D. On the irrelevance of evil: The organization and individual action.
Journal of Social Issues, 1978, 34, 125-136.
Silverstein, ., & Krate, R. Children of the dark ghetto, New York: Praeger, 1975.
Simkins, L.D. The basis of psychology as a behavioral science. Lexington, Mass.:
Xerox, 1969.
Simpson, G.E., & Yinger, M. Racial and cultural minorities: An analysis of prejudice and
discrimination (4th ed.). New York: Harper & Row, 1972.
Singh, J.A.L., & Zingg, R.M. Wolf children and feral man. New York: Harper & Row,
1939.
Skolnick, J.H. Justice without trial. New York: John Wiley, 1966. Skolnick, J.H. The
politics of protest. Hew York: Simon & Schuster, 1969.
Smelser, N.J. Theory of collective behavior. New York: Free Press, 1962. /681/
Smelser, N.J. Theoretical issues of scope and problems. In R.R; Evans (Ed.), Readings
in collective behavior (2nd ed.). Chicago: Rand McNally, 1975.
Smiget, E.O. The Wall Street lawyer. New York: Free Press, 1964.
Soldo, B.J. America's elderly in the 1980s. Population Bulletin, 1980, 35(4), 3-47.
Sorauf, F.J. Party politics in America (4th ed.). Boston: Little, Brown, 1980.
Spector, M. Legitimizing homosexuality. Society, 1977, 14, 52-56.
Spencer, H. The principles of sociology (Vol. 1). New York: D. Appleton, 1897 .* (*
. .: .. ., . 1897. .1-8 (.)).
Spengler, J.J. Values and fertility analysis. Demography, 1966, 3, 109-130.
Spitz, R. Hospitalism. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1945, 1, 53-72.
Stavig, G.R., & Barnett, L.D. Group size and societal conflict. Human Relations, 1977,
30, 761-762.
Stein, M.R. The eclipse of community. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1960.
Stein. P.J., & Hoffman, S. Sports and male role strain. Journal of Social Issues, 1978,
34, 136-159.
Stein, R.B., Polk, L., & Polk, B.B. Urban communes. In N. Glazer-Malbin (Ed.), Old
family/new family. New York: Van Nostrand, 1975.
Stephens, W.N. Family and kinship. In N.J. Smelser (Ed.), Sociology: An introduction.
New York: John Wiley, 1967.
Stobaugh, R., & Yergin, D. After the second shock: Pragmatic energies. Foreign Affairs,
1979, 57(4), 836-871.
Stokes, C.S. Religious differences in reproductive behavior. Sociological Analysis,
1972, 33, 30.

499

Stolzenberg, R.M. Bringing the boss back- in: Size, employee schooling, and
socioeconomic achievement. American Sociological Review, 1978, 43, 813-828.
Stone, D. New religious consciousness and personal religious experience. Sociological
Analysis, 1978, 39, 123-134.
Streib, G.F. Social stratification and aging. In R.H. Binstock & E. Shanas, Handbook of
aging and the social sciences. New York: Van Nostrand, 1976.
Sudnow, D. Passing on. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1967.
Sumner, W.G. Folkways (reprinted ed). New York: New American Library. (Originally
published 1906).
Sussman, M.B. The family life of older people. In R.H. Binstock & E. Shanas (Eds.),
Handbook of aging and the social sciences. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1975.
Sutherland, E.H. Principles of criminology. New York: Harper & Row, 1939.
Suttles, G.D. The social order of the slum. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.
Sutton, F.X., Harris, S.E., Kaysen, C, & Tobin, J. The American business creed.
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1956.
Swidler, A. Love and adulthood in American culture. In N.J. Smelser & E.H. Erikson
(Eds.), Themes of work and love in adulthood. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University
Press, 1980.
Tabb, W. Race relations models and social change. Social Problems, 1971, 18, 431443.
Taeuber, C, & Taeuber, I. The changing population of the United States. New York:
John Wiley, 1958.
Tavris, C, & Offir, C. The longest war. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1977.
Taylor, I., Walton, P., & Young, J. The new criminology: For a theory of social deviance.
New York: Harper & Row, 1973. /682/
Taylor, M.L., & Pellegrin, R.J. Professionalization. In CD. Bryant (Ed.), The social
dimensions of work. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1972.
Thomas, D.L., et al. Family socialization and the adolescent. Boston: Lovington, 1974.
Thomas, E.J., & Fink, C.F. Effects of group size. In A.P. Hare, E.F. Borgatta, & R.F.
Bales (Eds.), Small groups. New York: Knopf, 1965.
Thompson, J.D. Organizations in action. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967.
Tittle, C.R., & Villemez, W.J. Social class and criminality. Social Forces, 1977, 56, 474502.
Tolson, A. The limits of masculinity. New York: Harper & Row, 1977.
Tonnies, F. Community and society. East Lansing, Mich.: Michigan State University
Press, 1970. (Originally published in 1887).
Treiman, D.J. Occupational prestige in comparative perspective. New York: Academic
Press, 1977.
Treiman, D.J., & Terrell, K. The process of status attainment in the United States and
Great Britain. American Journal of Sociology, 1965, 8, 563-583.
Trow, M., & Clark, B.R. The organizational context. In T.M. Newcomb & E.K. Wilson
(Eds.), College peer groups. Chicago: Aldine, 1966.
Tumin, M. Some principles of stratification: A critical analysis. American Sociological
Review, 1953, 18, 387-394.
Turk, A. Criminality and legal order. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1969.
Turner, R.H. Collective behavior. In R. E. L. Paris (Ed.), Handbook of modern society.
Chicago: Rand McNally, 1964.
Turner, R.H. New theoretical frameworks. In M. D. Pugh (Ed.), Collective behavior: A
source book. St. Paul, Minn.: West, 1980.
Turner, R.H., & Killian, L.M. Collective behavior (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:
Prentice-Hall, 1972.
Turner, W. Ex-official guilty of manslaughter ... New York Times, May 22, 1979.
500

Tyree, A., & Smith, B.G. Occupational hierarchy in the United States: 1780-1969. Social
Forces, 1978, 56, 881-889.
United Nations, Population Division. World population and its age-sex composition by
country, 1950-2000: Demographic estimates and projections as assessed in 1978
(ESA/P/WP.65). New York, 1980.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. Religion reported by the civilian population of the United
States, March 1957. Current Population Reports: Population Characteristics (Series P20, No. 79). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1958.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. Projections of population in the United Stales: 1977-2050.
Current Population Reports (Series P-25, No. 704). Washington, D.C.:U.S. Government
Printing Office, June 1977.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. Ancestry and language in the U.S. Current Population
Reports (Series P-23, No. 116), November, 1979.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. Money income of families and persons in the United States:
1978. Current Population Reports (Series P-60, No. 123). Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Government Printing Office, June 1980.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. Characteristics of the population below the poverty level:
1978. Current Population Reports (Series P-60, No. 124). Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Government Printing Office, July 1980.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. Money income of households, families, and persons in the
United States. Current Population Reports: Consumer income (Series P-60, No. 132).
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1982. /683/
U.S. Bureau of the Census. Household and family characteristics. Current Population
Reports: Population characteristics. March, 1981. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1982.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. Historical statistics of the U.S.: Colonial times to 1970.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1975.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. Statistical abstract of the United States: 1980 (101 st ed.).
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1980.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. Statistical abstract of the United States: 1981 (102 nd ed.).
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1981.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. Statistical abstract of the United States: 1982 (103 rd ed.).
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1982.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. Women in the American Economy. (Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Government Printing Office, 1986).
U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Indian service population and labor force estimates.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1981.
U.S. Congress. Developments in aging: 1976, A report of the Special Committee on
Aging, United States Senate (Part 1). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing
Office, 1977.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Advance report of final natality
statistics 1980. Monthly Vital Statistics Report, 1982, 31 (8), 1.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Work in America: Report of a
special Task force to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare. Cambridge,
Mass.: Massachusetts Press, 1973.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Occupational projections and
training data (BLS Bulletin No. 2020). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing
Office, April, 1979.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Analyzing 1981 earnings data
from the current population survey. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
1981.

501

Uribe-Villegas, O. On the social in language and the linguistic in society. In O. UribeVillegas (Ed.), Issues in sociolinguistics. The Hague: Mouton, 1977.
Vanek, J. Housewives as workers. In A.H. Stromberg & S. Harkness (Eds.), Women
working. Palo Alto, Calif.: Mayfield, 1978.
Vasquez, J.A. A learning theory of the American anti-Vietnam war movement. Journal of
Peace Research, 1976, 13, 299-314.
Veltford, H.R., & Lee, G.E. The cocoanut grove fire: A study in scapegoating. Journal of
Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1943, 38, 138-154.
Verba, S., & Nie, N. Participation in America: Political democracy and social equality.
New York: Harper & Row, 1972.
Vineyard, D. The rediscovery of the elderly. Society, 1978, 15, 24-29.
Volkov, P.M. Higher social science education in the USSR. International Social Science
Journal, 1979, 31, 130-137.
Wagner, R. Culture as creativity. In J.L. Dolgin, D.S. Kennitzer, & D.M. Schneider
(Eds.), Symbolic anthropology. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977.
Wagner, R.H. Environment and man. New York: Norton, 1971.
Walker, K.E., & Woods, M.E. Time use: A measure of household production of family
goods and services. Washington, D.C.: Center for the Family, American Home
Economics Association, 1976.
Wallerstein, I. The modern world system (Vol. 1). New York: Academic Press, 1976.
Wallerstein, J.S., & Wyle, C.J. Our law-abiding lawbreakers. Probation, 1947, 25, 107112.
Warner, W.L., & Lunt, P.S. The social life of a modern community. New Haven: Yale
University Press, 1941. /684/
Warren, D.I. Helping networks. South Bend, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1981.
Waters, H.P. What TV does to kids. Newsweek, February 21, 1977, pp. 62-70.
Webb, E. J., Campbell, D.T., Schwartz, R., & Sechrest, L. Unobtrusive measures:
Nonreactive research in the social sciences. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1966.
Weber, M. [From Max Weber: Essays in sociology] (H. Gerth & C.W. Mills, Eds. and
trans.). New York: Oxford University Press, 1946. (Originally published in 1919.)*
(*.. . ., 1990 .. . .,
1972)
Weber, M. General economic history (F.H.Knight, trans.). New York: Free Press, 1950.
(Originally published in 1927)
Weber, M. The sociology of religion (E. Fischoff, trans.). Boston: Beacon Press, 1964.
(Originally published in 1922)
Weber, M. Economy and society: An outline of interpretive sociology (Vol. 1) (G. Roth &
C. Wittich, trans, and eds.). New York: Bedminster Press, 1968. (Originally published in
1925).
Weber, M. Economy and society: An outline of interpretive sociology (Vol.2) (H. Gerth &
C. Wright Mills, trans, and eds.). New York: Bedminster Press, 1968. (Originally
published in 1922)
Weber, M. Class, status, party. In H.H. Gerth & C.W. Mills (Eds.), From Max Weber:
Essays in sociology. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970. (Originally published in
1922)
Weed, P.L. The white ethnic movement and ethnic politics. New York: Praeger, 1973.
Wegner, E.L. Graduate education. In D.W. Swift (Ed.), American education: A
sociological view. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976.
Welter, B. The cult of true womanhood: 1820-1860. In M. Gordon (ed.), The American
family in social-historical perspective. (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1978.
Westley, F. "The cult of man": Durkheim's predictions and new religious movements.
Sociological Analysis, 1978, 39, 135-145.
502

Whitehurst, R.N. Alternate lifestyles. In I. Rodertson (Ed.), The social world. New York:
Worth, 1981.
Whiting, J.W.M., & Child, J.L. Child training and personality. New York: Yale University
Press, 1953.
Whittington, H.G. The frenzied life of a Type A woman. San Francisco Chronicle, July 8,
1982.
Whorf, B.L. Science and linguistics. Technology Review, 1940, 44.
Whyte, M.K. Small groups and political rituals in China. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1974.
Whyte, W.F. Street corner society. Chicago: University of Chicago, Press, 1943.
Wilcox, J., & Mitchell, J. Effects of group acceptance/rejection in a task-oriented
problem-solving group interaction. Small Group Behavior, 1979, 8, 169-177.
Wilder, D.A. Perceiving persons as a group: Effects on attributions of causality and
beliefs. Social Psychology, 1978, 41, 12-23.
Wilhelm, S.M. Who needs the Negro? Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday/Anchor, 1971.
Williams, R. American society: A Sociological interpretation. New York: Knopf, 1960.
Williams, R, Jr. Strangers next door: Ethnic relations in American communities.
Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice-Hall. 1964.
Williams, T.R. Introduction to socialization. St. Louis: Mosby, 1972.
Willkie, W. One world. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1943.
Wilson, B.R. Religion in secular society. London: Watts, 1966 /685/
Wilson, E.O. Sociobiology: The new synthesis. Cambridge: Harvard University Press,
1975.
Wilson, J. Religion in American society: The effective presence. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:
Prentice-Hall, 1978.
Wilson, R.A., & Schulz, D.A. Urban sociology. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall,
1978.
Wilson, W.J. The declining significance of race: Blacks and changing American
institutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978.
Wirth, L. Urbanism as a way of life, American Journal of Sociology, 1938, 44, 3-24.
Wirth, L. The problem of minority groups. In R. Linton (Ed.), The science of man in the
world crisis. New York: Columbia University Press, 1945.
Witkin, H.A. Criminality in XYY and XXY men. Science, 1976, 193, 547-555.
Wolfe, T. Mauve gloves and madmen, clutter and vine. New York: Farrar, Strauss, &
Giroux, 1976.
Wood, J.L. Student political activism. In D.W. Swift (Ed.), American education: A
sociological view. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976.
Worsley, P. The trumpet shall sound. London: MacGibbon and Kee, 1957.
Wurthnow, R. The consciousness reformation. Berkeley: University of California Press,
1976. (a)
Wurthnow, R. The new religions in social context. In C.Y. Glock & R.N. Bellah (Eds.).
The new religious consciousness. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976. (b)
Yinger, J.M. Ethnicity in complex societies: Structural, cultural, and characterological
factors. In L.A. Coser & O.N. Larsen (Eds.), The uses of controversy in sociology. New
York: Free Press, 1976.
Younians, E.G. The rural aged. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social
Science, 1977, 429, 81-90.
Young, M., & Wilmott, P. Family kinship in East London. Baltimore: Penguin, 1957.
Youth gangs are back - on old turf and new. U.S. News & World Report June 29, 1981,
pp. 46-47.
Zablocki, B. Alienation and charisma: A study of contemporary America communes.
New York: Free Press, 1980.
503

Zald, M.N., & Ash, R. Social movement organizations: Growth, decay, and change.
Social Forces, 1966, 44, 327-341.

504