55 views

Uploaded by matteo_1234

non lineal analysis

- 573
- Midterm 2007
- cap 5.pdf
- Materials Research - Remarks on Orthotropic Elastic Models Applied to Wood
- [Eng]Advanced Training Non Linear and Stability 2010.0.78
- Towards New Swedish Recommendations for Cautious
- 1107.2912
- Mmt
- Dimensional Compatibility Between Patch Repair Materials and Concrete Under Short-term Compressive Stress
- Basaran1997.pdfasd asd as asd asda das
- Mohr Earth Stress
- CW 2 problem.pdf
- pl1-pl4
- cub_brid_lesson04_strengthofmatlsmathworksheetas.pdf
- material
- AISI Appendix b
- Models.sme.Large Deformation Beam
- 0074
- Jacketed Piping_ Interview Questions and Answers
- Adyn Composite

You are on page 1of 75

Convergence

g

Best

Practices

Peter R. Barrett, P.E.

September 27, 2012

Nonlinearities Overview:

Challenging (i.e. really hard) Problems

Step-by-Step

p y

p Convergence

g

Procedure

1.

2.

3.

Large Deflection

Material Nonlinearities

Contact

Force balance not obtained

Material Instabilities and/or Element formulation error

Q&A

Assumed to Be Linear

Nonlinearity and is Often the Most Difficult

tto S

l !

Solve!

Status

changes,

friction,

pressure

When,

When where?

What is the pressure?

6

Easier Problems

Deformations

D

f

ti

are relatively

l ti l smallll

Nonlinear strains (plasticity, creep, swelling) are small

Contact status does not oscillate

M d l are smallll and

Models

d simplified

i lifi d (2D

(2D, Axisymmetric)

A i

ti )

Symmetric boundary conditions are utilized

Displacement based loads

L d result

Loads

lt iin ttensile

il member

b stresses

t

Nonlinear buckling to the point of instability (Post buckling not needed)

409 Parts

967 Contact Pairs

Harder Problems

Very large

V

l

d

deformation

f

ti

Large strains with large distortion

Contact chatter and/or loose fitting assemblies

C t t sliding

Contact

lidi with

ith hi

high

h ffriction

i ti coefficient

ffi i t

Post buckling response

Large 3D models with complex geometry

N symmetry

No

t b

boundaries

d i

Force based loads

Hard Solution

Mesh fine enough to capture local

stress concentrations

Use a force based analysis to model

pin insertion and removal

Determine critical locations / load

steps

Easier Solution

Pin/Socket assembly

Create mapped mesh with refinement

on contact surfaces and areas of high

stress

Use a displacement controlled solution

Use auto time stepping and smart

output controls since max stress might

not occur at the final solution step

9

Gasket Assembly

Hard Problem

Large model

Complex loading sequence

Multiple bolt loads

Frictional Contact

Nonlinear material response

10

11

12

Force

Deflection of a

Single Truss

Element

Matches

Detailed 3d

Model

13

Springs can be used to imposed loads and/or prevent rigid body motion

14

15

accuracy and

d convergence

16

17

I.e. it captures clots!

18

19

Streamlines

Deformation

20

1.

2.

3

3.

4.

5.

Force balance not obtained

Material Instabilities

Element formulation error

Combination of items 1-4 above

d t

determining

i i th

the cause

providing solutions

21

APDL the first step is to read the output file

to determine the origin of the non-convergence

22

Negative main diagonal.

Small/Negative Pivot error.

MAX DOF INC = A very large number

*** WARNING ***

CP =

11.703 TIME= 16:15:15

Smallest negative equation solver pivot term encountered at UX DOF of

node 98. Check for an insufficiently constrained model.

23

24

Insufficient supports

Individual parts of an assembly are not supported. This is the most common

form that is found in a contact analysis where rigid body motion occurs

in the parts not associated with any supports.

Insufficiently connected dissimilar element types (i.e. beams to solids, etc.)

25

displacement scaling

The example below is a converged solution where the rigid body motion is only

restrained by weak springs

Note the unrealistic 10e-6 displacement scaling

26

motion, a

modal analysis can be performed.

A modal analysis determines the vibration modes including rigid body motion.

Each rigid body mode is predicted as a zero frequency mode

Animating the zero frequency mode shape illustrates the rigidly moving model.

27

Axisymmetry

Rotational

Planar or reflective

Repetitive or translational

28

Delete/Suppress parts or fix DOF until you get an answer

Adding a rigid region and pushing it with displacements will usually converge

better than a force loading.

29

Can use adjust to touch ANSYS option, but be careful since the geometry will

be changed

Modify to standard contact one pair at a time

Add friction

30

You can never get the wrong answer by adding large displacement effects

Li

Linear

solution

l ti

31

element types

Use MPC contact option to eliminate

iterations and penalty stiffness dependency

error is introduced

32

Rigid body motion often can occur in the beginning of a static analysis due

to the fact that the initial contact condition is not well established.

Fn

Ft

Contact

Target

Pd1,d

Pdn

Pdn d n u n

Pd 1 d t u1

Pd 2 d t u 2

b t opposite

but

it to

t the

th relative

l ti pseudo

d velocities

l iti b

between

t

th

the ttwo surfaces

f

along contact normal and/or tangential directions.

Where: d n = damping coefficient in normal direction

d

u

= pseudo velocity

33

Example: Consider a fixed pin interfacing with a hole in plate with initial

radial clearance and under a force based load

Stabilization captures localized stress distribution more accurately because it

does not change the shape of the pin

Conventional Adjust to Touch

Contact Stabilization Damping

34

Buckling Response

Nonlinear stabilization

Local instabilities and global

instability.

Used

U d ttogether

th with

ith liline search

h and

d

automatic time stepping

Arc-length method

Circumvent g

global instability

y when

forces are applied.

Simulate the negative slope portion

of a load-vs.-displacement curve.

Running

R

nning a static problem as a

"slow dynamic" analysis in ANSYS

Running a static problem as a

"slow

slow dynamic"

dynamic analysis in

ANSYS/LS-DYNA

35

Constraint equations

Springs

Spot

Welds

Beam connections

36

Definition:

Convergence value is greater than criterion after min. load increment and max.

number of iterations are solved

37

Equilibrium Iterations

approximations, with corrections.

Method. Each iteration is known as an equilibrium iteration.

Load

F

2

A full Newton-Raphson

iterative analysis for one

increment of load. (Four

iterations are shown.)

1

u

Displacement

38

Convergence Procedure

loads, {Fa} - {Fnr},

} is called

the residual. It is a measure of the force imbalance in the structure.

The goal is to iterate until the residual becomes acceptably small; less

than the criterion, where the solution is then considered converged.

acceptable tolerance

tolerance.

Fa

{

{Fa}

{Fnr}

Fnr

u

39

40

Load is stepped too rapidly

For small load increments, MINREF criterion exceeded

Material instability

Buckling

Definition of non-convergence,

sum of R (unbalanced forces)

never gets

t below

b l

.5%

5% off th

the

sum of F (sum of external loads,

reactions, etc.))

41

Use more substeps to reduce iterations, use less if only one or two are

needed. (One exception: If contact without friction is the only nonlinearity,

sometimes one substep

p with lots of iterations can be an efficient solution

method)

Load

Load Step 2

2

1

4

equilibrium

iterations

Load Step 1

Substeps

Time

42

Oscillation of contact status and force balance caused by large contact

stiffness.

i t

internal

l stiffness

tiff

value

l which

hi h iis a ffunction

ti off material

t i l and

d mesh

hb

butt nott

geometry

F=KU

43

U Mi

Use

Min, M

Max and

d starting

t ti substep

b t control

t l tto iimprove convergence. Y

You

cannot get the wrong answer by adding too many substeps

Load

Time

tstart

tmin

Incorrect

Strain Energy

tmax

Rule of Thumb:

The more nonlinearities, the

more substeps required

44

ANSYS WB Mechanical offers a toolbox of options under the analysis

settings branch for achieving successful convergence.

Step

p Control - Load steps

p and substeps

p

Nonlinear Controls - N-R convergence criteria

Contact Settings

g

45

46

Recommend using iteration based adjustments

Especially with curved surface contact

The more points in contact the better the convergence

47

If the criterion is very small this will not effect the solution accuracy

If the unbalance force difference is very small this can increase solution speed

significantly

i ifi

tl

48

49

type. (see below)

Default

PINB*

Contact

Classification

Contact Surface

Behavior

KEYOPT(9)

3 x Depth**

Rigid/Flex

Standard

4 x Depth

Rigid or Flex

Standard

2 x Depth

Flex/Flex

Standard

0.50x Depth

Flex/Flex

Bonded or No Separation

0.75x Depth

p

Rigid/Flex

g

Bonded or No Separation

p

y

g)

1.00x Depth

Rigid/Flex

Bonded or No Separation

* Values are for NLGEOM,ON and are reduced by 50% for NLGEOM,OFF

**Depth

Depth = Underlying element depth (for solid elements)

**Depth = 4 x element thickness (for shells and beams)

50

stresses

Satisfies moment equilibrium when an offset exists between contact and

target surfaces with friction.

Can help with

ith contact con

convergence.

ergence

Better handling of sliding contact.

KEYOPT,<contact element type>,4 ,3

51

Depending upon the size of the residual these can be caused by large

force unbalance or can be a result of incorrect material properties

52

Material law cannot handle large load and/or time increment. If the force

unbalance is very large, the material model might not be the problem

Element distorted shape results in negative volume calculation

calculation. Check the

mesh, but again with very large force unbalances the material model might not

be the problem

Max. increment can be adjusted as part of cutback controls, but typically force

balance is the controlling criterion and thus this is rarely changed.

53

Excessive strain

Volumetric locking (PLESOL,NL,HPRES)

Hourglass modes

Buckling

enhanced strain to eliminate reduced

integration issues in lower order elements

Reduce rate of loading

V

Very

llarge fforce unbalance

b l

54

properties, unconstrained model, and element shape checks.

MCHECK command can help you identify defects in the mesh such as holes or

cracks.

55

Make sure to input True Stress vs. Log Strain

l ln 1

expected

p

strain levels

56

Element Selection

Use Higher Order elements for curved surface contact for faster

faster, more

accurate results

20 node bricks

57

Suggest using Direct (Sparse) solver unless PCG is significantly faster per

iteration

58

p

Rezoning

Adjust the starting mesh shapes this is the most common solution

Change Element type / formulation

Use shell or beam elements

Requires a restart so generally only used for very large strain cases like

forming operations or seals

Modify creep law or coefficients

Start mesh shape so that deformed

elements become more square

59

quality

Simple is almost always better and definitely easier to debug

Complex 3-D

geometries

Shell elements

Slender structures

(twisted pipe

model)

60

Rezoning

Note that this requires a restart, but will map existing stresses and strains so

that the solution history is preserved

61

62

63

Make sure the material converges for all stress / strain levels expected with the

one element model before running full model

Especially critical step for hyperelastic and creep analyses

Evaluation of the impact of large aspect ratios, skew angles or warped

elements

64

Element Shape

Robust well shaped elements can improve solution convergence and time

65

Mesh Controls

stress gradients through multiple elements

66

Mesh Refinement

sometimes speed

analyses

67

Element Formulation

the element order chosen (midside nodes) and the material association.

Workbench uses higher order 2d elements by default

Elastic material or

metal plasticity with

higher order

elements

2D Plane Stress

Elastic material or

Metal Plasticity with

lower order elements

2D Plain Strain

Elastic material or

Metal Plasticity with

lower order elements

Fully incompressible

hyperelasticity with

h h or lower

higher

l

order elements

Default URI

Enhanced Strain

68

Change the mesh

C

Coarsen

areas where

h

stresses

t

are llow

Adjust initial element shapes to create better deformed shapes

Add substeps to reduce bisections

Reduce substeps where convergence takes 1 or 2 iterations max.

69

The Force Convergence graph clearly indicates that starting with more

substeps would eliminate the 27 iterations performed before the first

bisection. Reducing the starting number of substeps might eliminate this

bisection

Time vs. Cumulative Iteration

70

List and plot results to check to make sure you solved the problem

intended and that the results make sense

71

Applied loads

72

vs un-average stresses can provide an estimate of

mesh error

73

Stresses and strain component data rotate with the elements

74

or through taking training classes

75

- 573Uploaded bySoveja Lucian
- Midterm 2007Uploaded byCalvin Nguyen
- cap 5.pdfUploaded byRules FTW
- Materials Research - Remarks on Orthotropic Elastic Models Applied to WoodUploaded bydvanupkle
- [Eng]Advanced Training Non Linear and Stability 2010.0.78Uploaded byVlad Mos
- Towards New Swedish Recommendations for CautiousUploaded byalvaroaac4
- 1107.2912Uploaded byMike Alex
- MmtUploaded byDanish Fareed
- Dimensional Compatibility Between Patch Repair Materials and Concrete Under Short-term Compressive StressUploaded byStefanus Adi Kristiawan
- Basaran1997.pdfasd asd as asd asda dasUploaded byPeja Jusoh
- Mohr Earth StressUploaded byNagaraju Jalla
- CW 2 problem.pdfUploaded byPonsamuel
- pl1-pl4Uploaded byMichelMash
- cub_brid_lesson04_strengthofmatlsmathworksheetas.pdfUploaded byAngelo John R. Javinez
- materialUploaded byAshutoshAparaj
- AISI Appendix bUploaded byrk_vijay81
- Models.sme.Large Deformation BeamUploaded byAlireza Azarioon
- 0074Uploaded bygutian259
- Jacketed Piping_ Interview Questions and AnswersUploaded byttki
- Adyn CompositeUploaded byRogelio Mdiaz
- 06CV33_June2012Uploaded bynvnrev
- Recent Developments in Progressive Colapse DesignUploaded byAna-Camelia Sauca
- WCE2012_pp114-118Uploaded bysarahbst
- Validation Methods for Materials Engineering.pdfUploaded byOscar Franco M
- strength of material Chapter 4Uploaded bynaserunn
- Exercise 3Uploaded bypietror_4
- Physical Modeling of Extrusion ProcessUploaded byGeoffrey Armstrong
- SOM2(4th)May2017(1)Uploaded bySukham Saini
- Torsion Report (1)Uploaded byMohamad Muslihuddin Razali
- 3DUploaded byRavi Khandelwal

- BOPP FI Precision Woven Stainless Steel Filter Mesh-BuenoUploaded bymatteo_1234
- Efficient Finite Element Modelling and Simulation of WeldingUploaded bymatteo_1234
- Bekipor Metal Fiber MediaUploaded bymatteo_1234
- Vibration of a Cantilever Beam in Ambient FluidUploaded bymatteo_1234
- Review Seismic AnalysisUploaded bySanjay Deshpande
- Nickel-al-bronze-guide-engineers.pdfUploaded bySenake
- High TemperatureCharacteristicsofStainlessSteel 9004Uploaded byDavid Rodrigues
- Influence of Imperfections on Axial Buckling Load on CompositesUploaded bymatteo_1234
- Home Tech Support Valve Flow Calc and SizingUploaded byMohamed Zaghloul
- asce.7.2002.pdfUploaded byMaria Eugenia Castro
- The Effect of Induced Imperfecfections on the Formation of the First Lobe Buckling in TubesUploaded bymatteo_1234
- FEA Thin Wall Shell by Ansys and LS-dynaUploaded bymatteo_1234
- Comparasion ASME B31-3 % ASME VIII div I -Serge-Bisson---GCM-Consultants---JanFeb-2015.pdfUploaded byAly Mhaskar
- Nickel Aluminium Bronce SB-148 C95800Uploaded bymatteo_1234
- A Vest AUploaded bygogotig
- Idelckik Hydraulic LossesUploaded byCpt_Womble
- Buckling of thin shells, Recent advances and trendsUploaded bychuckhsu1248
- SIF BhattacharyaUploaded byAshok Srivatsan
- AbaqusUploaded bywolverinestorm
- Duplex Stainless Steel 3rd Edition (1)Uploaded byPhani Sridhar Ch
- m2368 CalviUploaded byJimmy Domingo
- GLOSSARY.pdfUploaded byFelipe Sineider
- Welding of TitaniumTi-6Al-4V Alloys a ReviewUploaded bymatteo_1234
- Honeycomb Attributes and PropertiesUploaded bymatteo_1234
- Constraints and Connections in abaqusUploaded byVenu Kishore
- Chapter 7-Performance-Based Seismic Design and Assessment of Bridges.pdfUploaded bymatteo_1234
- d102757x012Uploaded bySUNDRAMNAGA
- CIA AGENDA in VENEZUELA: NO OIL and GAS but Gold , Diamonds and other mines Prospects and Occurrences of the VENEZUELA GUYANA Shield they all are after.Uploaded byRonald Wederfoort
- Material Properties Handbook Magnesium Nickel and Titanium Alloys MIL-697AUploaded bymatteo_1234
- Abaqus 6.12 Theory ManualUploaded bymatteo_1234

- DetunedreactorcalculationUploaded byanantkumbhar
- Nobel Institution Lars brink dark energy reviewUploaded byJoe Nahhas
- Wein Bridge OscillatorUploaded byashrafhaja
- 1Uploaded byStephen Tumbaga
- Electrical-Engineering-portal.com-4 Essential Features of Transformer on-Load Tap Changer OLTCUploaded bypayolin77
- DC Motor Calculations - National InstrumentsUploaded byJosé Perez
- Genious of HomeopathyUploaded byAli Akbar
- DatasheetUploaded byevertonli
- 1769-in032_-en-pUploaded byThiago Sudario Carmo
- AngleUploaded bySpartacus Rashid
- Attitude Dynamics and ControlUploaded bygopika1991
- The Photoelectric EffectUploaded byAlex Tarr
- ALLEN SYLLABUSUploaded byVidushi Gupta
- Cewb121 Exp 6 Full ReportUploaded byNur Fareha
- Cross BusbarUploaded byjay shah
- BEst Practices For VFD GroundingUploaded bySteven A McMurray
- Imagineer Second Level Final KeyUploaded byapi-3728258
- Lv Generator Protection 8 GuideUploaded byza3em4444
- AT6302 - Mahanics of MachinesUploaded byrajasamygopal
- Gazette2.docxUploaded byhideakizawa
- OPTO LECTURE 4 Maxwells EquationsUploaded byanon020202
- Amie Syllabus Sec b ElectricalUploaded byvenkat
- 1280Uploaded byLoftie Deyzel
- Spectral Characterisation of Infrared Optical Materials and FiltersUploaded bymarcoed
- The David Hamel Scalar GeneratorUploaded byMladen Muškinja
- CapacitorUploaded byHipolito MB
- CONSTANT VOLTAGE CONSTANT CURRENT DC POWER SUPPLYUploaded bySeven Hills
- - QuoraUploaded byOsama Elhaddad
- IEEE Recommended Practice for Exc. Sys Models 2Uploaded byEmmanuel Zamorano
- 30225925-faktor-kuasaUploaded bysarsm56