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Photonirvachak J. Indian Soc. Remote Sens. (December 2008) 36:323–334 123 RESEARCH ARTICLE Delineation of Potential

Photonirvachak

J. Indian Soc. Remote Sens. (December 2008) 36:323–334

123

RESEARCH ARTICLE

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Delineation of Potential Sites for Water Harvesting Structures using Remote Sensing and GIS

M. Girish Kumar . A. K. Agarwal . Rameshwar Bali

Received: 12 February 2008 / Accepted: 20 September 2008

Keywords

Rain water harvesting site suitability . Remote sensing . GIS

Abstract Availability of groundwater varies spatially and temporally depending upon the terrain. The scarcity of water affects the environmental and developmental activities of an area. Construction of small water harvesting structures across streams/ watersheds is gaining momentum in recent years. In the present study, potential sites for construction of rainwater harvesting structures in the Bakhar watershed of Mirzapur District, Uttar Pradesh, India have been identified by using remote sensing

M.G. Kumar 1 . A.K. Agarwal 2 . R. Bali 1 ( ) 1 Centre of Advance Study in Geology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow – 226007, India 2 Remote Sensing Application Centre, U.P. Janakipuram, Lucknow – 226021, India

e-mail: rameshbali@rediffmail.com

and GIS techniques. Various thematic maps such as Landuse/Landcover, geomorphology and lineaments, etc. were prepared using remote sensing. These layers along with geology and drainage were integrated using GIS techniques to derive suitable water harvesting sites. Each theme was assigned a weightage depending on its influence on ground water recharge (for example weightages 20,18,15,25,25 and 0 were assigned to geomorphology, landuse, geology, lineament, drainage and road and villages respectively). Each class or unit in the map was assigned a knowledge based ranking of one to four depending on its significance in storage and transmittance of groundwater, and these values were multiplied with layer weightage to form score. The average score for excellent region is greater than 200, for good 121 to 200, for moderate 81 to 121 and the other polygon having value less than 80 (excluding zero) were assigned to poor category. The final map showing different categories of suitability sites for water harvesting structures such as Check dams,

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Contour bunding, Recharge pits, Wells and Contour trenching have been suggested.

Introduction

Water, one of the most essential resources in our day-to-day life is depleting faster in rural as well as urban areas mainly because of increase in agricultural and domestic demands. In water resources planning, ground water is attracting an ever-increasing interest due to scarcity of good quality sub-surface water and growing need of water for domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses. In a densely populated country like India, ground-water resource is in high demand. Continuous failure of monsoon, increasing demand and over exploitation leads to depletion of ground-water level, which in turn tends to increase both the investment and the operational costs. This problem could be sorted out to certain extent by artificially recharging the potential aquifers. In hard rock terrains, availability of groundwater is of limited extent. Occurrence of groundwater in such rocks is essentially confined to fractured and weathered horizons. Efficient management and planning of groundwater in these areas is of the utmost importance. Extensive hydro- geological studies have been carried out by several workers in delineating groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrain (Agarwal et al., 1992; Rao et al., 2001). For delineating the groundwater potential/ prospective zones, Geographical information system (GIS) has been found to be an effective tool. In recent years, use of satellite remote sensing data along with GIS, topographical maps, collecteral information and limited field checks, has made it easier to establish the base line information on groundwater prospective zones (Saraf and Jain, 1993; Krishnamurthy et al., 2000; Agarwal et al., 2004). Most of the above studies were mainly carried out to identify areas having groundwater potential, but very little work has been done to identify zones

suitable for artificial recharge (Saraf and Choudhury, 1998; Agarwal et al., 2005). Like delineation of groundwater potential/prospect zones, delineation of potential sites for artificial recharge is also governed by several factors such as geology, geomorphology, lineaments, landuse/cover, roads map, village location map, permeability, soil depth, drainage intensity, soil texture, water holding capacity and physiography. The overall methodology involves extraction and generation of various thematic maps either through satellite images or through existing records and field survey maps. The next step deals with classification of all these parameters into ‘suitable’ classes and assignment of ‘suitable’ ranks to these classes, weights to the parameters, and finally integration of all the ranked and weighed parameters in a GIS environment. Subsequently, the area is classified into poor, moderate, good and excellent sites suitable for the rainwater harvesting.

Study area

The present studies have been carried out in Bakhar watershed lying between Latitude 24 0 45' to

24 0 56' N and Longitude 82 0 29' to 82 0 56' E falling in

the Survey of India (SOI) Topographical sheet No. 63 L/9 and 63 L/13 (Fig. 1), with an area of around 560 km 2 . The average annual rainfall with in the watershed is 747.52 mm and the maximum average annual temperature is 32.1 0 C (Anonymous, 2003). The topography of the study area, in general, is gently undulating dissected plateau. The Quaternary sediments are deposited over the sandstones. The present drainage network of the Bakhar watershed has been delineated using satellite data. In the Sandstone terrain, the drainage pattern is dendritic and in the Quaternary sediments region the drainages are sub-dendritic to sub-parallel. It is observed that in the Bakhar watershed, new drainages have come up and some streams have changed their course in the northern (Gopalpur) and

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eastern (Rajgarh) side. The satellite data has also revealed that some drainage lines have disappeared and new tanks (surface water bodies) have come up in the recent times. Field visits to these places confirm the same. Roads and settlement layers have been derived from Land Record Department, District Mirzapur and were updated using the satellite images.

photographs and digitally enhanced products of the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS, LISS-III) sensor. Arcview 8 software package was used for creation of digital database, data integration and analysis. All thematic maps were digitized (in continuous mode in the vector format and the digitized values were then edited). Different categories of polygons in the thematic maps were

Different categories of polygons in the thematic maps were Fig. 1 Methodology Basic technical guidelines provided

Fig. 1

Methodology

Basic technical guidelines provided by the Integrated Mission for Sustainable Development (IMSD) and Indian National Committee on Hydrology (INCOH) have been adopted for selecting sites for rainwater harvesting structures. The thematic maps depicting the geomorphology, landuse/landcover, road, drainage and lineaments were prepared using 1:50,000 scale geocoded

labelled separately. The suitable weights were assigned to each thematic feature after considering their characteristics upon their influence over recharge. Knowledge based weight assignment was carried out for each features and they were integrated and analysed by using the weighted aggregation method (ESRI, 1988). The different units in each theme were assigned ranking from 1 to 4 on the basis of their significance with reference to their site selection for installing rainwater-harvesting

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structures. In this ranking, ‘0’ denotes the restricted area (e.g. forest region) and no structure is proposed for that area, 1 denotes poorly favourable zones, 2 denotes moderately favourable, 3 denotes highly favourable and 4 denotes excellent zone for site selection for rain water harvesting structures. The final score of a theme is equal to the product of the rank and weightage. From the composite layer, the delineation of site suitability analysis was made by grouping the polygons into different prospect zones i.e. excellent, good, moderate, poor and not suitable.

Geological set-up

It is a well-established fact that geological set-up of an area plays a vital role in the distribution and occurrence of groundwater (Krishnamurthy and Srinivas, 1995). The geological set-up and stratigraphy of the Vindhyan Super group in the Son valley, Central India was earlier proposed by Auden (1933) and later on revised by Prakash and Dalela

(1982). The Bakhar watershed is dominated by compact sandstones of Kaimur series. At some places, especially in the northern and eastern parts of the watershed, it is overlain by Quaternary alluvium (Fig. 2).

Geomorphological set-up

Geomorphology of an area is one of the most important features in evaluating the groundwater potential and prospect. The geomorphology as such controls the subsurface movement of groundwater. Considering the importance, different geomor- phological features are mapped using the IRS satellite imagery (Fig. 3). Various geomorphic classes/units identified as per the guidelines laid down by National Remote Sensing Centre, Hyderabad (NRSC Technical guidelines, 1995). The data has been duly validated during field visits. The major landforms are as follows:

guidelines, 1995). The data has been duly validated during field visits. The major landforms are as

Fig. 2

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Indian Soc. Remote Sens. (December 2008) 36:323–334 327 Fig. 3 Dissected plateaus These units are highly

Fig. 3

Dissected plateaus

These units are highly fractured and weathered and show the formation of laterites. They show light reddish tone and cover the southern part of the watershed.

Pediments

Generally these units have low permeability and infiltration rate and are noticed around the dissected plateau region and drainage divide area of the watershed. These units show patches of light brownish tone with irregular shape and size.

Buried pediplains

Buried pediplains are formed due to coalescence of buried pediments having thick overburden of weathered materials. These landforms are charac- terized by high porosity, permeability and infiltration rate and as such the groundwater prospects of the buried pediplain are good. In the FCC these units show dark blue to light blue tone and most of the eastern and northern part of the watershed.

Valley fills

Valley fills are mostly structurally controlled and the materials are mainly sheet wash from the plateau area

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and pediplains. Valley fills consist of both alluvial and colluvial materials and are mostly identified along the various streams of the watershed. These are identified by characteristic bright spectral signatures in the false colour composite of band 2,

3, 4. This geomorphic unit acts as good prospective

zone for groundwater development.

Eroded pediplain

This unit is seen along the streams of high and low lying areas. These landforms give a bright red tone

in satellite data due to the presence of vegetation.

porosity and intergranular characteristics together influence groundwater movements. The lineament intersection areas are considered as good groundwater potential zones. The combination of fractures and topographically low grounds can also serve as the best aquifer horizons (Rao, 1992). Lineaments have been identified on images through visual interpretation by comparing spatial variation in tone, colour, texture, association, etc. (Fig. 4). 25 m area on either side of lineaments and intersections of lineaments are considered to be favourable for accumulation of groundwater.

Lineament distribution

A lineament is defined as a large scale linear

structural feature. Such features may represent deep seated faults, master fractures and joints sets, drainage lines and boundary lines of different rock formations. Lineaments provide the pathways for groundwater movement and are hydrogeologically very important (Sankar, 2002). Lineaments are important in rocks where secondary permeability,

Land use / Land cover

The major landuse pattern include cropland, fallow land, forest area, forest plantations, Barren rocky area, land with scrubs and without scrubs. Cropland includes land for growing the Rabi and Kharif crops and have been identified by the light medium red tone, fine/medium texture varying in size, often rectangular in shape. These are excellent site for the groundwater exploration. The forest and forest

size, often rectangular in shape. These are excellent site for the groundwater exploration. The forest and

Fig. 4

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plantation gives light reddish brown tone with white patches and fine to medium texture with irregular shape and varying size. Although, these areas have good ground water prospects, these have been purposefully categorized as poor, keeping in mind that these areas are generally restricted and are not permitted for any ground water exploitation activity. Lands without scrub have been rated lower than land with scrub for recharge, since vegetation cover promotes infiltration (Fig. 5).

structures depends on various factors, which can be integrated by GIS techniques (Novaline et al., 1993). To assess the groundwater prospect in an area, all the different polygons in the thematic maps were labelled separately. Knowledge based weightages are assigned to each thematic features after considering their importance with respect to groundwater. All the thematic maps are integrated in GIS environment and the polygons have been regrouped into different classess.

the polygons have been regrouped into different classess. Fig. 5 GIS Analysis Check dams, contour bunding,

Fig. 5

GIS Analysis

Check dams, contour bunding, recharge pits and wells and contour trenching provide a good measure of rainwater harvesting structures in the hard rock terrains by arresting run-off and increasing the surface area of infiltration. Suitability of these

Weight Assignment

Thematic layers viz, geomorphology, geology, landuse, lineaments buffer zone, drainage, road and village location map have been considered for site suitability analysis. Based on the available knowledge on the role of each of these parameters

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in controlling the occurrence, storage and distribution of groundwater, weightages of 20, 15, 18, 25, 25 and 0 were assigned for geomorphology, geology, landuse, lineament, drainage and roads and villages respectively. Again each of these layers has further been classified into different classes. Each of the classes, based on its ability to facilitate water infiltration has been given ranks from 1 to 4. Finally, scores have been calculated as the product of

the weightage and rank e.g. under the class geo- morphology (wt. 20), valley fills have been assigned the rank 4. The final score of 80 has been calculated by the multiplication of the rank and weightage of the class (Table 1). The thematic layers were integrated with one another through GIS using the weighted aggregation method. The following order of sequence was adopted to derive the final integrated map.

Table 1

Rank, weightage and scores for the various themes with respect to site suitability analysis

 
 

Geomorphic Unit Weightage - 20

 

Landuse Unit Weightage - 18

 

Class

Rank

Score

Class

Rank

Score

Valley fills

4

80

Kharif

4

72

Eroded pediplains shallow

4

80

Rabi

3

57

Eroded pediplains Medium

3

60

Kharif + Rabi

4

72

Burried pediplain – Deep

4

80

Fallow land

3

57

Burried pediplain – Moderate

3

60

Land with scrub

2

36

Burried pediplain – Shallow

2

40

Land without scrub

2

36

Pediments

2

40

Barren rocky

1

18

Pediments (W)

3

60

Dense evergreen forest

0

0

Dissected upper plateau - Laterite

1

20

Deciduous forest

0

0

Dissected lower plateau - Laterite

1

20

Open forest

0

0

Dissected upper plateau

1

20

Scrub forest

0

0

Dissected lower plateau

1

20

Open forest

0

0

 

Geology Unit Weightage - 15

 

Crop land forest

0

0

Class

Rank

Score

Guilled land

1

18

Compact sandstone

1

15

Water bodies

0

0

Compact sandstone (Weathered)

2

30

Settlements

0

0

Laterite

2

30

Reservoir/river

0

0

Alluvium

4

60

Settlements

0

0

 

Drainage Unit Weightage - 25

 
 

Class

Rank

Score

 

Lineaments Unit Weightage – 25

 

Drainage (50m buffer)

4

100

Class

Rank

Score

Road & Village Unit Weightage - 0

 

Lineament (50 m buffer)

4

100

Class

Rank

Score

 

Road & Village (50m buffer)

0

0

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Geology (R1)

+

Geomorphology (R2)

=

S1

S1

+

Landuse/landcover (R3)

= S2

S2

+

Lineament of 50m buffer (R5) = S3

S3

+

Drainage of 50 m buffer (R4) = S4

S4

x

Road and village layer (R6)

= S5

In the first step, geology (R1) and geomorphology (R2) layers were integrated by choosing the union option. The integrated layer (S1), comprises 68 polygons of the geology layer and 215 polygons of the geomorphology layer and after union it resulted in 674 polygons. Adding these two layers, derived the weight of each polygon in the integrated layer (S1). The polygons in S1 have a maximum value of 140 and minimum of 35. In the next step, the S1 layer containing 674 polygons was intersected with the land use layer (R3), which had 339 polygons. In this step, the integrated layer S2 (9209 polygons) was generated by adding lithology, geomorphology and landuse layers. These polygons have a maximum weight of 212 and minimum of 35. The S2 layer was integrated with polygons of the lineament buffer zone (R4). In this integrated layer (S3), (13458 polygons were generated) having a maximum value of 312 and minimum of 35. Layer R5 involving polygons made around the drainage (buffer zone) was integrated with layer S3 by the union option. In this layer (S4) there are 24236 polygons which have a maximum value 412 and minimum of 35. The village and road layers (R6) having zero weightage were integrated with S4, using multiplication option. The polygons in the integrated layer (S5) had retained the same values of S4 except the null value of road and village. The polygons in the integrated layer (S5) contain the composite detail of all the thematic layers together numerically having maximum weight of 412 and minimum weight of zero.

Results and discussion

Grouping of polygons of high ranks of all the thematic layers has helped in delineating the sites

that are excellent for construction of water harvesting structures. Those polygons, which have weight greater than 200 in the final integrated layer have been, classified as excellent sites for rainwater harvesting. The polygons classified as good category have the weights between 121 and 200 and as of Moderate category have the weights between 81 and 120. All other polygons that have weight less than 80 (excluding zero) were grouped as a poor category. Polygons having zero weights have been separated out (not suitable category) as these have been classified as reserve forests, roads and villages. Thematic map (Fig. 6) showing the sites suitable for construction of rainwater harvesting structures suggests that the drainage area and the eastern part of the study area are most suitable for construction of rainwater harvesting structures.

Proposed rain water harvesting structures for Bakhar watershed

The site suitability analysis (Fig. 6) has helped in locating the suitable sites for the water harvesting structures. Based on the above classification as well as depth to water table map and terrain conditions, a map suggesting the type of structures to be built at various locations has been prepared (Fig. 7). The proposed structures are check dams, contour bundings, contour trenchings, nala bandhs, recharge pits and wells. The numbers of structures proposed in the study area are given (Table 2). The key factors for selecting a particular structure at a given site are as follows:

Check dam

(i) The check dam is essentially on the drainage coarse, that may be situated on either 1 st or 2 nd order of drainage; (ii) The preference for this structure is given where drainage is narrow and straight; (iii) The structure of check dam should be made so as to regulate the water during monsoon and non

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332 J. Indian Soc. Remote Sens. (December 2008) 36:323–334 Fig. 6 Fig. 7

Fig. 6

332 J. Indian Soc. Remote Sens. (December 2008) 36:323–334 Fig. 6 Fig. 7

Fig. 7

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Table 2

Proposed groundwater harvesting sites

Sl. No

Location of Groundwater Harvesting Sites (nearest village name)

Suggested rain water structures

1

Ghori, Riksa Khurd, Madaria, Thakkarnagar, Padaria Khurd, Gopalpur, Kutwa, Naudihawan, Harihara, Sobhi, Smera, Raikara, Imliya chaurasi, Dhauraha, Kuri, Rampur, Bishunpur, Rampur Barho, Karkauli, Saranga, Silhata, Bandardewa

Check dam

2

Amoi, Sugapankh Khurd, Gangapur, Hinuta, Khachahan, Lurkutia, Nakti Purwa, Patehra Khurd, Khataua, Ataura, Lahas, Dadhia, Devpurwa, Daranagar Pachakhara

Contour bunding

3

Kalwari, Ganeshpur, Karma Railwaystation, Sirsijethi, Saranga

Recharge pits & wells

4

Contour trenching

Khamharia, Tikuriya, Sirsijethi, Saranga, Baguhra, Bar, Dhauraha, Dhanwal, Jamoi Kalan, Hariahara, Raikara, Kalwari

monsoon period; (iii) The selected site may be located in the vicinity of the habitation and its water storage away from the surrounding lands of irrigation potential (as much as possible); (iv) The structure of check dam are proposed at the hydrogeomorphic unit of buried pediplain medium (BBP-M), buried pediplain deep (BPP-D) and valley fills (VF) near a lineament.

Percolation tank/Recharging pond/Injection well/ Recharge wells, etc.

(i) The site may be located immediately downstream

of the check dam; (ii) The deepening of tank should be adequate to recharge the shallow aquifer; (iii)

Water should be maintained round the year; (iv) It may be located on the side of drainage but not in river bed.

Contour bunding

(i) Site may be located at the highly protected areas;

(ii) Should be constructed in those landform units which need irrigation but have chances of soil erosion; (iii) The gradient of land should be low or minimum.

Contour trenching

In sloping regions, contour trenching arrests Rainwater runoff. The above structures have been proposed for the planned development of water resources of Bakhar watershed area.

Conclusion

The site suitability analysis for locating the rain water harvesting structures using GIS analysis has an added advantage over conventional survey. The multilayer integration viz., geomorphology, landuse, geology, lineament, drainage (Buffer) and road and village buffer gives smaller suitability units as a composite layer. The interlayer ranking and intralayer weightage further intensify the interpolation. Interpretation of thematic layers from Remote Sensing data was assigned various classes and ranking. The composite layer, obtained by multiplication of the layers weightage and rank as score, were further averaged into four classes of Excellent (> 200), Good (121 – 200), Moderate (81 – 120) and Poor (< 80). The suitability of check dam,

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contour bunding/trenching and recharge pits and wells were suggested accordingly near to villages. Out of total 136 villages of Bakhar watershed 22 villages were found suitable for check dams, 14 for contour bunding, 5 for recharge pits and 12 for contour trenching and rest are found not suitable for any of these water harvesting structure. This brings the finer level classification of site suitability analysis.

The authors are thankful to the

Head, Centre of Advanced study in Geology, Lucknow University, Lucknow and Director, RSAC, UP for pro- viding working facilities.

Acknowledgement

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