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Guide to

Fabricating FRP
Composites

with Corrosion-Resistant Vipel Resins

www.corrosionresins.com

Acknowledgments & Credits


Cover photos,
clockwise from upper left:
PITSA
Heil Process Equipment
Belco Manufacturing Co. Inc.
Tri-Clor, Inc
End-use application photos:
Beetle Plastics
Belco Manufacturing
Containment Solutions, Inc.
HEE Environmental Engineering
Heil Process Equipment
JTI Companies
PITSA
Ram Fiberglass
RL Industries, Inc.
Tri-Clor, Inc.
U.S. Composite Pipe, Inc.

Materials & composite
manufacturing photos:
Heil Process Equipment
JTI Companies
Justin Tanks, LLC
Plasteel International, Inc.
RL Industries, Inc.

To the best of our knowledge, the information contained in this publication is accurate. However, we assume no liability for the accuracy or completeness of such information. The data in this publication were gathered using generally accepted industry practices and
equipment. Because equipment, material and environmental conditions may not be precisely the same, we cannot guarantee that others will achieve exactly the same results. The user of this publication is solely responsible for determining the suitability of the guides
information to the users particular operation or end-use application.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction............................................................... Page 3
2. Selecting a Corrosion Resin System.............................. Page 4
3. Selecting Reinforcements............................................. Page 12
4. Initiator, Promoters and Other Additives........................ Page 16
5. Resin Quality Assurance and Record Keeping................ Page 20
Table 1. Common Quality Control Tests...................... Page 22
Table 2. Getting Started with
Quality Assurance Equipment................................... Page 23
6. Resin Handling, Safety and Regulatory Issues................ Page 24
7. Composite Processing Guidelines................................. Page 26
8. Appendix
Typical Formulations and Gel Times
of Select Vipel Resins............................................. Page 32
Trademark Notices.................................................. Page 36
Vipel Corrosion Resin Cross Reference....................... Page 37

Introduction

Portion of a blower fan


Vipel K022-CC
Heil Process Equipment

Depending on the experience and expertise of the reader, this guide can serve as
a reference source, a shop handbook or an educational tool. It has been prepared
primarily for fabricators who may benefit from AOC resin technology to make
fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites that will be used in corrosive environments. This publication may also prove helpful to engineers, consultants, facility
managers and other decision-makers who recommend, design or use composites
for their corrosion-resistant properties.
In thousands of locations around the world, FRP composites made with AOC resins have been fighting the high cost of corrosion for decades. Vipel chemistries
have set the global standard for large diameter water and sewer pipes, underground fuel storage tanks and sewer line rehabilitation. Applications using Vipel
corrosion-resistant resin technology are also found in chemical processing plants,
mineral solvent extraction operations, power generation sites and food processing
facilities.
AOC continues its leadership in corrosion-resistant composites with a wide range
of Vipel thermoset resins designed to resist corrosive attack from chemicals, moisture, thermal cycles and fatigue-stress. Certain Vipel products are also designed
for food contact, potable water, pharmaceutical and other applications requiring
regulatory compliance from such authorities as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). For specific requirements, there are Vipel resin grades for flame retardance, low smoke, higher
temperature resistance and higher mechanical properties.
You can use this manual to determine which Vipel corrosion resin from AOC meets
specific performance requirements without over designing or overpricing the
application. Because Vipel resin technology is part of an engineered material
system, this guide also covers: reinforcement selection, catalysts and related chemistries, performance additives, quality checks and record keeping. In addition, the
guide covers important issues related to fabrication, the environment, health and safety.

Scrubber
Vipel K022-CC
HEE Environmental Engineering

Selecting a
Corrosion
Resin System

Stack liner rib section


Vipel K022-AC
Tri-Clor

Fabricator responsibility

Most fabricators warrant materials, workmanship and compliance with referenced standards.
Material warranties generally exclude corrosion
resistance or performance. The chemical makeup and process are controlled by the user, not the
fabricator. While most users accept these conditions, the fabricator has the ultimate responsibility for proper resin selection. Resin manufacturers provide critical resin physical property,
regulatory, laminate corrosion resistance and
laminating process and cure system data.

Rinse tank design


PITSA

The chemical environment and service temperature


typically govern the selection of resins for corrosion
resistant equipment. Other factors which may influence the selection include:
Knowledgeable users specify particular resins or
generic resin types based on past experience with
FRP equipment in their plants.
Engineering firms tend to specify several resins
based on guidance from resin suppliers and fabricators when generating specifications for particular
industries and processes.
Mechanical and structural performance requirements may be more significant than the chemical exposure.
If historical chemical performance or published
exposure data is not available, laboratory testing of
candidate resins is dictated.
Economic considerations are more important to
the decision-maker than long-term performance or
life cycle cost.
The fabricator controls the selection based on the
users inexperience, or satisfaction from prior purchases.

AOC is committed to providing the fabricator


and his customer the best information possible
to guide the selection of resin systems with
ultimate confidence in equipment performance.
What the fabricator needs to know
Reliable resin selection demands accurate and
complete information about the application and
use of the proposed equipment. When the customer is depending on the fabricator to make
the resin selection, detailed service information
is needed. The fabricator should demand the
data even when the customer clearly specifies
a particular resin and inquires about the acceptability of alternate resins.
Frequently the user will identify a resin system by
name and provide detailed laminate constructions for particular applications. These requirements may be based on past experience, resin
manufacturer recommendations, the supplier of
the chemicals being handled, or the manufacturer of an equipment package.
The fabricator should always verify the source
of the selection and the acceptability of alternate systems. In the absence of clear information from the user, the fabricator should confirm
the users stipulation in writing and absolve
his/her company of any selection responsibility. The conscientious fabricator wants to do
the best possible job for the customer. It can
only be done with thorough and accurate
information about the chemical service and the
process conditions.

The fabricators compliance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for the
reinforced plastic industry dictate accountability of
resin consumption by Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP)
content. For corrosion resins, the regulated HAPs are
styrene and methyl methacrylate monomers.

Fabricator recommendation
When the user, specifer or owner depends on the
fabricator to make a recommendation for selection
of the resin system, be certain the user states all
aspects of the application and service. Some information in the following checklist of application and
service factors does not directly impact resin selection but clearly influences the acceptable design. To
select the proper resin system, determine:
The common name and, when possible, the
chemical name of the substance to which the composite will be exposed. For example, muriatic is a
common name for hydrochloric acid. This type of
information is generally contained in the Material
Safety Data Sheet for the medium.
The concentration of each of the chemical components. In waste streams or other mixtures, it is
imperative that every component be identified by
chemical name and concentration.
Specific gravity of each chemical solution
or mixture.
pH, if it is an aqueous system.
Normal operating temperature range.
Include any anticipated temperature excursions due
to process upset or other abnormal condition.
Maximum use temperature not maximum design temperature. Refer to AOC Resin Data Sheets
for specific information about resin heat deflection
temperature.
Pressure and/or vacuum conditions. For tanks
it is also important to know if filling will be by pressure such as from a tank truck. Closed vent systems
must be clearly identified with a statement of pressure drop to be applied to the equipment.
Length of exposure to the medium if less that
continuous. In unusual cases, only a short period
of exposure is to be expected. For example, the
laminate may need to only withstand occasional
splashes.
Process description where a reaction such as
neutralization takes place in the tank. Exothermic reactions must be described with detailed temperature
range from the start to the maximum with control
methodologies to insure operating temperature limits are not exceeded. Time range may also be important to avoid thermal shock.

Flow rates range of inlet and outlet flows.


Fire retardancy, where applicable. This must
be clearly stated, including flame spread rating
and smoke requirements.
Installation location (indoors or outdoors). If
outdoors, annual ambient temperature ranges,
local wind, snow load and seismic requirements
are needed.
Insulation and heating requirements.
This is particularly important when freeze protection or other temperature maintenance is dictated.
When heating coils are used, adequate clearance
at coil entry and exit nozzles must be provided to
prevent localized overheating.
Agitation
and/or
re-circulation
requirements.
Tank
supported
agitation
equipment can significantly impact design
considerations. All loads must be provided
including dead weight, horsepower, and imposed
torque and bending moments. Side entry mixers
should be independently supported. Re-circulation should not interfere with normal fill, outlet or
overflow openings.
Other mechanical loads such as platforms or
walkways that may need to be supported on the
equipment.
Food and drug requirements. Use in food
and drug applications must be identified where
applicable.Cleaning and sterilization techniques
can be more severe than the chemical exposure.
Composite applications in food and pharmaceutical processing must meet requirements for food
contact and resistance to specific cleaning and
sterilization materials and techniques. AOC offers
resins that comply criteria of the U.S. Food and
Drug Administration (FDA). Refer to AOC resin
data sheets for specific information.

Short exposure periods at higher temperatures


usually do not affect product integrity if the heat
distortion temperature of the cured resin is not
exceeded. However, the highest temperature
reached and exposure duration at this temperature should be indicated when making inquiries.

In those instances where the specific application is not listed, the fabricator is encouraged to
contact AOC. The checklist information above
should be included and should be directed to:


Corrosion Product Leader
AOC

950 Highway 57 East

Collierville, TN 38017

Phone: (901) 854-2800

Fax: (901) 854-2895
The Corrosion Advisor button on the AOC corrosion website (www.corrosionresins.com) provides a direct link to send an e-mail message with
this information to the Corrosion Product Leader.

AOC Corrosion Resistant Resin Guide

AOC has a Corrosion Resistant Resin Guide both in


print form and on its dedicated corrosion resins Web
site www.corrosionresins.com. Normally a suitable
resin can be selected from the Corrosion Resistant
Resin Guide based on the information covered in the
previous section.
The temperature data presented in the guide represent the highest temperature at which the individual
resin has demonstrated acceptable service in either a
laboratory environment, other similar service or actual
field use. Refer to AOC Resin Data Sheets for specific
information about resin heat deflection temperature.
Environments not tested may be done at customer request. Serviceability should not be interpreted to mean
the full retention of all visual and mechanical properties, but rather an expectation of how a properly designed and fabricated structure will perform.
The resistance of Vipel resins to the chemical environments listed in the guide has been established according to ASTM C581 or in actual use. The ASTM
C581 immersion test is generally more stringent than
actual service conditions. The list does not apply to
mixtures of different media unless explicitly stated. It
contains chemically declared media and some brand
name chemicals, which were not precisely identified
with respect to chemical composition.

Resin Selection Options

The fabricator has a number of options that can


influence the resin selection process. Less aggressive chemical environments result in a broader
range of possible resins. More aggressive services typically leave fewer choices. Furthermore,
the selected resin system must have reasonable
processing characteristics in the various molding
and fabrication operations to be used.
AOC Vipel resins listed in this guide are suitable for typical hand lay-up, spray-up and filament winding processes, principally used in the
manufacture of tanks, pipe, duct and other corrosion resistant equipment. Brief descriptions of
available resin technologies follow. To assist the
fabricator with more detailed resin information,
typical formulations and gel times of select Vipel
resins are listed in the Appendix of this guide.
AOC technical support can also help fabricators
develop formulations for closed mold processes
such as resin transfer molding, resin transfer
molding light and resin infusion.
CAUTION: Many applications and chemical
services listed in the guide make reference to
NOTES in the column adjacent to the chemical.
These notes are an integral part of the listing recommendation and must be strictly followed. The
notes indicate application-specific requirements

for veil materials, cure systems, liner construction,


thickness and post cure.

Resin Technologies

AOC manufactures a wide range of corrosion resistant products comprised of vinyl esters and polyesters.
Vinyl ester resins include bisphenol A epoxy and epoxy novolac products. Polyesters include isophthalic,
terephthalic and chlorendic products. Vinyl esters are
sold to the chemical, pulp and paper, pharmaceutical,
mining, power, food and high purity markets. Vinyl
esters and polyesters are used for municipal water and
waste treatment and a wide range of general chemical
and food processing applications. High tensile elongation properties of bisphenol A vinyl esters provide
superior toughness for improved impact resistance.

Vinyl Esters

Most vinyl ester resins are provided unpromoted to


give the fabricator maximum flexibility in formulaing
to meet in-shop process and cure requirements. Less
experienced fabricators are urged to carefully study
the formulations provided
and consult the AOC
Product Leader for guidance in developing promoted cure systems.
Bisphenol A epoxy vinyl esters are well suited
to all processes and are
compatible with most veil
and reinforcement materials. These resins also
have the greatest range
of promoter and initiator
Dual laminate tank
system flexibility. SpecialVipel F010
ized
systems like BPO/
RL Industries
DMA cures for sodium
hypochlorite service work reliably with these resins.
Other systems are available for thick parts and thin
parts where gel time and exotherm temperature flexibility is important.
Vipel F010 series resins are the most commonly used
resins for corrosion service. The styrene content of Vipel F010 is relatively low which helps fabricators meet
MACT requirements.

High-strength HVAC ducting


Vipel K022-AA
Ram Fiberglass

Vipel F007 has an even lower styrene content and is a


possible alternative. Vipel F010 will have better corrosion resistance in most harsh chemical environments.
Vipel F017 is an elastomeric epoxy vinyl ester used
for bonding primer applications and where inherent
toughness is required.
Vipel K022 fire-retardant bisphenol A epoxy vinyl
esters are for fire and corrosion resistant service.
Vipel K022 series includes several technologies:
Vipel K026-AA series meets Class I flame spread
and smoke development code requirements as tested
per ASTME 84 without the use of synergists. This version is the highest in specific gravity.
Vipel K022-AC series meets Class I flame spread
code requirements as tested per ASTM E84 without
the use of synergists. It is suggested for chimney liner
applications.
Vipel K022-CC series meets Class I flame spread
code requirements as tested per ASTM E84 with the
addition of 1.5% antimony trioxide. It is suitable for a
wide range of applications.
Vipel K022-CN series meets Class I flame spread
code requirements as tested per ASTM E84. It does
contain synergistic antimony products. The primary
use is for structural parts.
Vipel K022-E series meets Class I flame spread
code requirements as tested per ASTM E84 without
the addition of synergists. The product is designed for
infusion processes.

High cross-linked bisphenol A epoxy vinyl esters are


unique variations of the basic vinyl ester chemistry.
Vipel F080 series are high performance epoxy
vinyl esters that provide superior corrosion resistance
to both acidic and alkaline environments and have
good thermal mechanical values.

Vipel F083 is a low styrene (<35%) version providing


outstanding corrosion resistance to oxidizing chemicals such as acids at elevated temperatures.
Vipel K023 series meets Class I flame spread code
requirements as tested per ASTM E84 without the use
of synergists. It is a fire-retardant low styrene (<35%)
product.

Wet-scrubbing tray tower


Vipel F085
Heil Process Equipment

Vipel F086 provides the same corrosion-resistant


performance at a HDT of 330F (166C)
Vipel K095 series meets Class I flame spread and
smoke developed code requirements as tested
per ASTM E84 without the use of synergists..

Unsaturated Polyesters
Bisphenol A fumarate polyesters, such as
Vipel F282, have been widely used in corrosive
service. Many users have successful applications
of these types of resins with over 30 years service
and favor them over vinyl ester alternatives. Heat
distortion temperatures are marginally higher
than basic vinyl esters with a trade off in lower
tensile elongation.

Odor control ducting


Vipel F010
JTI Technologies

Epoxy novolac vinyl esters offer unique performance in aggressive applications where conventional
vinyl esters have restricted serviceability. Vipel epoxy
novolac vinyl ester resins are highly reactive and very
sensitive to cure system variables. While they are compatible with most veil and reinforcement materials, the
reactivity and exotherm temperatures require greater
skills and workmanship of the laminator.
Vipel F085 provides elevated temperature capability with a heat distortion temperature (HDT) of 300F
(149C) and better resistance to some solvents.

Chlorendic fire retardant polyesters such


as Vipel K190 are designed for excellent corrosion and thermal resistance to wet chlorine and
oxidizing acids. Vipel K190 series meets Class I
flame and smoke developed code requirements
as tested per ASTM E84 with the addition of 3%
antimony trioxide. Chlorendic resins are NOT
recommended for caustic environments.
Isophthalic polyester resins are generally suitable in mild chemical service with
continuous operating temperatures below 180 F
(82C). Vipel isophthalic polyesters are suitable
for weak acid and caustic solutions with a pH
ranging from 2 to 10 at various temperatures.
These resins are suitable for many water and
waste treatment applications such as alum, fer-

ric chloride, coagulant aids, potable water, municipal


waste water and water-based polymer emulsions. Refer to the AOC Corrosion Resistant Resin Guide for
specific recommendations.
Isophthalic resins are considerably less expensive than
vinyl esters and are easier to work with in some fabricating operations. Because of the lower cost, for less
demanding environments, these resins are often used
in the structural layers behind inner corrosion barriers
constructed with premium corrosion-resistant resins.
Isophthalics are usually pre-promoted and provided
with reasonable gel times for most hand lay-up and
spray-up using conventional room temperature MEK
peroxide cure systems. The absence of fabricator
measuring and promoting requirements enhances the
savings.
Vipel F701 isophthalic polyester is a classic 1:1
isophthalic acid/maleic anhydride resin with excellent
handling and processing characteristics. Vipel F701
has been used extensively in a variety of mildly corrosive environments for storage vessel, piping, potable
water, food grade, pollution abatement, ductwork and
other applications.

Vipel K733 series are fire retardant isophthalic resins.


Vipel K733-A series meet Class I code flame spread
requirements when tested per ASTM E84 without the
use of synergists. Vipel K733-B series require addition
of 1.5% antimony trioxide to meet Class I code flame
spread requirements when tested per ASTM E84.

Tank section oblated for shipment


Vipel F737
PITSA

Vipel F701-S series products contain less styrene in


order to address MACT compliance issues.
Vipel F737 and Vipel F739 are resilient isophthalic
polyester resins. These resins also have excellent handling and processing characteristics; are ideally suited
for aqueous environments and are proven products for
many large diameter pipe applications such as intake
and outlet pipes for power stations.
Vipel F707 is a NPG (neopentyl glycol) version that
will adhere to certain grades of PVC. Bonding tests
are needed to confirm that adequate adhesion is obtained.
Vipel F764 is a high cross linked isopolyester resin and
meets Underwriters Laboratories 1316 and 1746 requirements for underground storage applications. UL
1316 applies to all-composite underground storage
tanks for petroleum products, alcohols and alcoholgasoline mixtures. UL 1746, Parts II and III, applies to
steel tanks that are protected with an external polymer
composite laminate.

10

Cooling water pipe header


Vipel F737
Beetle Plastics

Vipel F774 is a high crosslinked version engineered primarily for composite underground fuel
storage tanks but may be used for any application needing resistance to a wide range of solvents and chemicals, including many acidic solutions. These resin technologies meet Underwriters
Laboratories 1316 and 1746 requirements for
underground storage applications.

Section of sewer interceptor


Vipel F701
U.S. Composite Pipe

Underground storage tanks


Vipel F774
Containment Solutions

Terephthalic polyester resins are chemically similar


to isophthalic resins and provide corrosion-resistant
service that competes very favorably with isophthalics. Since terephthalics generally have a higher heat
distortion temperature and higher elongation than
isophthalics, terephthalics are generally recommended over isophthalics except where UV resistance is
required. The primary chemical difference between
terephthalics and isophthalics is the type of acid
terephthalic or isophthalic used to create the base
polyester resin.
Vipel F713 is a standard 1:1 terephthalic/maleic
resin that also has excellent handling and processing
characteristics.

Product Selection Guide

The AOC Product Selection Guide is designed to


help fabricators select the optimum Vipel resin that
meets the needs for value and performance. The
Product Selection Guide lists and describes Vipel
resins by resin type and product series designation. The Product Selection Guide also has a Cross
Reference to AOC Corrosion Resins that lists similar resins from other major corrosion resistant resin manufacturers. This table can help fabricators
select the appropriate AOC resin or resins where
specifications allow or equal or equivalent
substitution. This Cross Reference is also included
in the Appendix of this publication. If you
would like a copy of the most current
Product Selection Guide, contact your AOC
Corrosion Specialist or download a copy from
www.corrosionresins.com.

11

Selecting
Reinforcements

Fiberglass woven roving

12

Selection of reinforcements is not as complex as selection of resins. Chemical service can influence the
selection of veil material for exposed surfaces and the
type of glass for gun rovings and mats used in interior layers adjacent to the surface. Industry standards,
project specifications, fabrication processes and application techniques usually include stipulations for the
other forms of reinforcement to be used.

cal veils produce [0.010 to 0.015 inches (0.25


0.38 mm)] thickness per ply or layer. As noted
in the Corrosion Resistant Resin Selection Guide,
some aggressive service conditions require two
(2) plies or layers of the required veil material.

Chopped Strand Mats

Surface Veils

Chopped strand mat

C-glass veil

The strands in chopped strand mats are typically


1.5-inch (3.8 cm) long Type E or ECR glass fiber. Mats are typically available as roll goods in
weights from 0.75 to 3.0 oz/ft2 (225 to 600 g/
m2) and widths from 3 to 120 inches (7.6 cm to
304 cm). The most commonly used for corrosion
resistant laminates are 0.75 and 1.5 oz/ft2 (225
to 450 g/m2). Binders applied to the chopped fibers to hold the mat together must be compatible
with the resin systems used.

Synthetic veil

Surface veils are intended to provide limited reinforcement to thin [0.01 to 0.03 inches, (0.25 mm to 0.76
mm) thick] resin rich layers on the exposed surfaces
of corrosion resistant equipment to reduce cracking
and crazing of the resin. The most commonly used
veil material is monofilament fiber made from Type C
or ECR glass. Synthetic veils, such as Nexus, made
from polyester or other man made fibers are used in
chemical environments that would attack glass fibers.
Specialty veils are frequently preferred in some severe
environments.
The weight and thickness of the veil plies dictate the
thickness of a veil-reinforced layer. The resulting surface layer is usually 90 to 95% resin by weight. Typi-

Hand lay-up of fiberglass mat

Some chopped strand mats, while compatible


with most corrosion resins, can exhibit a visual
phenomenon in some vinyl ester resins referred
to as glint and jack straw. While this appearance does not impact the laminate structurally,
it may affect long term chemical performance
in aggressive environments. Presence of glint
and jack straw may be a cause for rejection by
some users.

13

Woven Roving, Specialty Fabrics

Woven roving [24 oz/yd (814 g/m )] is the most


commonly used supplemental reinforcement for hand
lay-up and spray-up structural layers in corrosion resistant laminates. These materials are usually preceded
and followed by a layer of chopped strand mat or
spray-up equivalent to avoid adjacent woven plies.
Accepted industry practice is to alternate mat or chop
plies with these fabric reinforcements.
2

available in a variety of widths from 4 inches to 120


inches (10.2 to 305 cm) depending on the type of
product and the weaving or knitting process and machinery used.

Combination Fabrics

These fabrics are a combination of chopped strand


mat with woven roving or bi-directional fabric on a
single roll. Numerous weight combinations and widths
are available. The most common combination is a 1.5
oz/ft2 (450 g/m2) mat attached to a [(24 oz/yd2
(814 g/m2)] woven roving or [(18 oz/yd2 (610 g/
m2)] bidirectional fabric. These specialty materials are
convenient for exterior joints in pipe, tanks and duct.
Some specifications restrict or prohibit the use of this
type of reinforcement without prior written approval.

Gun Roving

Woven roving

Gun roving is a continuous fiber suitable for chopping


or cutting with a conventional spray-up chopper gun.
The roving is delivered in a coreless package called a
doff or ball. The density of the material is typically
given as the yield expressed in yd/pound. Typical
gun roving yields are in the 210 to 230 yd/pound
(423 to 463 m/kg) range. Gun rovings are usually
Type E glass. Type ECR rovings are also available
and provide better chemical performance in aggressive environments.

Unidirectional fabric

Bi-directional fabrics are similar to woven roving except that the rovings are held together with a non-glass
knitted stitch yarn. This keeps the rovings straight in
the finished laminate and tends to increase the physical properties in comparison to woven roving.
Uni-directional fabrics are used to impart strength in
one direction. Uni-directional fabrics generally have
the glass fibers in the fill direction (across the width of
the roll) and the knitting yarns in the weft direction (the
length of the roll). These fabrics are frequently added
to filament wound structures to add longitudinal or
axial strength, particularly where the winding angle
is shallow (nearly circumferential). These materials are

14

Gun roving

As with chopped strand mat, the binder on the roving


must be compatible with the resin system being used.
The binder or sizing on the roving also impacts the
processing attributes such as choppability, fiber fallout from the resin glass stream, degree of static buildup and catenary.

Probably most important are the wet out and roll out
characteristics after the roving has been chopped and
sprayed onto the part with the resin. The ultimate quality of the laminate is a function of the degree to which
entrapped air is removed. Ease of air removal during rollout will directly impact the workers ability to
achieve acceptable quality.

glass. Type ECR rovings are also available and


provide better chemical performance in aggressive environments. Binders or finishes on winding
rovings must be compatible with the resin system
being used. The binder impacts the wet-out, processing and handling characteristics.

Filament winding process

Automated spray-up process

Filament Winding Rovings

Winding rovings need to be resistant to fiber


breakage as they are pulled from the package in
a creel through various guide eyes to the wet-out
bath or applicator head. Some systems pre-wet
the roving in a resin bath while others apply resin
to the mandrel. In either case the handling characteristics from the roving package to the part
are very important. Once the roving is on the
part, the wet-out, ribbon tension and uniformity of
the multi-roving band influence the thickness, density and glass-to-resin ratio in the cured laminate.

Filament winding roving on creel

Filament winding rovings, like gun rovings, are continuous fibers provided in doffs or balls. Roving weight
is measured as yield and expressed in yd/pound.
Typical yields are from 113 to 675 yd/pound (227 to
1,359 m/kg). Winding rovings are usually Type E

15

Initiator,
Promoters
and Other
Additives

Adding promoter to unpromoted resin

16

Open molding processes typically utilize room temperature cure systems. Catalyst is added to resin that
is pre-promoted as purchased or blended by the fabricator using promoters, accelerators and other additives to provide specific process curing characteristics.
Gel time, gel to peak exotherm time and temperature
can be selectively tailored by careful knowledgeable
use of these additives.
Typical Vipel resin gel times in the Appendix of this
guide gives detailed formulations for various resins to
provide the fabricator maximum flexibility in dictating
cure behavior. Each formulation listed identifies the
catalyst, promoter, accelerator and any other additive
preferred to achieve the indicated gel and cure times.

MEKP catalyst with dispenser

Initiators

Initiators, frequently referred to as catalysts, start the


gelling process. Initiator is mixed into promoted resins
immediately prior to use or are injected by spray gun.
When practical it is best to pour additives into the
vortex so that they do not cling to the side wall of the
container. Initiator is injected into the promoted resin
stream in spray-up equipment systems. CAUTION:
Initiator is NEVER mixed with promoters or accelerators. The best procedure is to add initiators to resin
that already contains promoters or accelerators. Direct contact of an initiator with a promoter or accelerator can create an explosive condition or cause a
fire. Consult the MSDS for each of these materials for
safe handling and storage.
MEKP (methyl ethyl ketone peroxide) is the most
commonly used organic peroxide initiator. In North
America, active oxygen content of MEKP provided by

suppliers is typically in the area of 9%. The active


oxygen content of organic initiator peroxide varies by geographical region. Fabricators should
check with their local organic peroxide initiator supplier for specific active oxygen content
guidelines. MEKP is typically used with cobalt
napthanate (CoNAP) promoter and DMA/DEA
accelerators for room temperature curing of most
polyester and vinyl ester resins. Concentration of
isomers/active oxygen variations of MEKP can
provide additional cure flexibility with some resin
and promoter systems. There are several versions
of MEKP. For example, some have low dimer contents and others have high dimer contents. For
vinyl ester resins, MEKP initiator with a high dimer content is the preferred initiator. Examples
of MEKP products that are high in dimer content
are Hi Point 90, Lupersox DHD 9 and Norox
MEKP 925 H. Examples of MEKP that are low
in dimer content are Luperox DDM-9 and Norox
MEKP 9.

CHP (cumene hydroperoxide) is principally


used with high reactivity vinyl ester resins such as
Vipel F085 to provide lower exotherm temperatures and reduced shrinkage. CHP performs well
with CoNAP/DMA formulations. CHP is also suitable for some other resins where slower cures
are required or thicker laminates are made in a
single pass without intermediate cure and exotherm stopping points.
BPO (benzoyl peroxide) is available in powder
form, as a paste or in a liquid emulsion. Powders
and pastes are difficult to use and control. When
BPO is required, emulsions with 40% active BPO
content are preferred for use with Vipel vinyl ester resins. When determining BPO additive concentration take into account the dilution factor.
(Gel time tables are based on 98% active BPO.)
BPO initiator with DMA accelerator is preferred
for laminates in sodium hypochlorite service in
place of conventional MEKP/CoNAP/DMA cure
systems. The ratio of BPO to DMA is critical to
avoid gel and cure inconsistencies. Post curing
is required to achieve complete cure with BPO/
DMA.

17

Blended initiators
Trigonox

239A is an example of a proprietary blend


of initiator that may reduce foaming in some vinyl ester resins.

Promoters and Accelerators

CoNAP (cobalt naphthanate) promoter is typically


a 6% solution in an organic solvent. Other versions
such as 12% are available. The formulations provided in the Appendix of this guide are based on 6%
CoNAP solutions.
DMA (N,N di-methylaniline) is used as an accelerator in conjunction with CoNap promoter when using
MEKP or CHP initiators or by itself with BPO. DMA is
normally provided as a 100% active liquid however
10% active versions are available.
DEA (N,N di-ethylaniline) can be substituted for
DMA in some systems to extend gel times and reduce
exotherm temperatures in highly reactive systems.
With respect to health safety, DEA is marginally safer
than DMA. Consult the MSDS for current status

Resin bath for filament winding

Inhibitors and Gel Time Extenders

TBC (tert butyl catechol) is an inhibitor frequently


added to styrene monomer to provide longer shelf life
when the monomer is purchased in drum quantities.
When any styrene containing TBC is added to promoted resin mixes, the resin gel time and cure characteris-

18

tics may be altered. TBC as purchased is usually 85%


active inhibitor and should be used very carefully. A
very small amount of TBC can have a significant and
inconsistent impact on gel and cure. Addition of small
quantities is best controlled using a 5 or 10% solution in styrene and adjusting formulations accordingly.
CAUTION: Care must be taken to prevent TBC solutions from contacting the skin. Refer to the MSDS.
2,4-pentanedione (2,4-P) is a gel time extender or
retarder for vinyl ester resins; however, it is also a promoter for polyester resins. 2,4-P is recommended for
long gel times because it has minimal effect on the
ultimate cure. It is effective for MEKP and CHP initiator
systems but is not effective with BPO initiator systems.
Caution is needed using 2,4-P. Refer to the MSDS for
handling instructions. Several of the tables in the Appendix of this publication demonstrate formulations
where gel times have been adjusted through the use
of 2,4-P.

Other Resin Additives

Other chemicals and materials may be added to the


resin formulation to achieve specific end-use requirements. Fabricators should review the appropriate literature and check with an AOC technical representative and the additive supplier to see how a particular
additives use may affect resin processing or performance. Here are the more widely-used resin additives
that unlike catalysts, promoters and inhibitors, are not
directly related to resin cure:
Ultraviolet absorbers are typically added for applications that must resist the degrading effects of longterm exposure to sunlight. UV absorbers are used
on the exterior portion of the laminate and where
specified by the buyer. Most specifications define the
amount and type of UV absorber. Alternatively, the
recommendation of UV absorber manufacturers can
be followed. UV absorbers are most commonly added
to the top coat but may be added at a lower loading
to the structural layer.
Synergists may be added to added to fire retardant
resins to meet specifications calling for code flame
spread requirements. The most commonly used fire
retardant synergist fillers are antimony oxides. These
products are used with halogenated resins to enhance

the fire retardant properties. Addition of these products to non halogenated resins does not improve the
flame resistance significantly. Antimony trioxide has
been the most common product, and it should be incorporated with a high shear mixer in order to ensure
that the particles are suitably dispersed into the resin.
Frequent mixing is recommended to prevent settling in
the resin.
Liquid dispersions of antimony products are also
available and preferred by many fabricators. Since
the liquid dispersions such as Nyacol APE3040 are
only 40% active, this dilution factor must be taken into
account. Nyacol is a dispersion of the synergist in a
non corrosion-resistant resin. This should be taken into
consideration for some severe corrosion applications.
Generally, antimony oxides are not incorporated into
the corrosion barrier, so this is not normally a concern.
Some grades of antimony trioxide fillers and dispersions have been known to cause gel drift. Thus any
antimony oxide product should be added to the resin
just prior to use and the gel time checked daily.
One significant advantage of using a liquid dispersion such as Nyacol APE3040 is that the laminate is
less opaque. Thus the removal of air bubbles from a
resin containing Nyacol APE3040 is easier.

Three specimens of Vipel K022-C series resin show the effect of


synergist addition on translucency. The clear one has no synergists. The middle one contains 2.5% Nyacol APE3040. The
most opaque one contains 1.5% antimony trioxide.

Thixotropes such as Cab-O-Sil TS-720 or Aerosil R 202 can be added for viscosity control or
making putties and pastes. However, it is recommended that they not be used in corrosion liner
resins as they will reduce chemical resistance.
Abrasion resistant additives such as aluminum
oxide, silica and silicon carbide can be added
to resin to improve the abrasion resistance of the
composite. Other fillers are generally prohibited
in many corrosion-resistant equipment specifications. Occasionally, inert conductive fillers such
as graphite or carbon black will be added to
a resin to meet electrical conductivity requirements. Abrasion resistance of the composite can
be improved through the use of hard, inert fillers
such as silicon carbide.
Defoaming agents are occasionally needed to
enhance release of air bubbles that form in the
resin when cobalt and MEKP initiators are used.
Foaming is less common when high dimer initiators are used than when low dimer imitators are
used. Examples are BYK-A 555 and Foam Kill.

Vapor suppressants can be added to resins


to reduce styrene and other monomer emissions
and are becoming a more important part in emission compliant issues. Resins containing these additives must be tested per the MACT specified
test method to determine the particular emission
reduction index for each additive in each resin.
Fabricators also need to be aware that these
additives can affect secondary bonding and in
many cases this will need to be tested also. If
secondary bonding is not an issue, paraffin wax
can be used. For some applications where secondary bonding is necessary, BYK-S 740/750
have been used. However, acceptable secondary bonding can never be assured when products such as these are used. It is always best to
grind before applying secondary laminates.

Pigments add inherent color to the finished part. Pigments are not widely used in the fabrication of corrosion resistant equipment and are prohibited in the corrosion barrier by many specifications except by user
fabricator agreement. AOCs Chroma-Tek pigment
dispersions are recommended if color is desired.

19

Resin Quality
Assurance &
Record
Keeping

Gel time test

20

Good recordkeeping is the essential first step to ensuring the quality and consistency of corrosion resistant
parts. From incoming raw materials to finished parts
shipment, the fabricator should keep a record of any
variables that may affect the parts ability to meet mechanical and physical property targets. The fabricator
should keep the quality control information provided
by material suppliers.
The quality assurance measurements in Table 1. Common Quality Control Tests are conducted, using properly maintained and calibrated equipment. A step-bystep protocol for each of the AOC test procedures is
available on request and can also be obtained from the
AOC Corrosion Specialist for your region. In addition
to those pre-shipment tests performed by AOC, several
tests that should be routinely checked by the fabricator
are also listed. Table 2. Getting Started with Quality
Assurance Equipment is intended for composite manufacturing operations that may need help in selecting
equipment for these measurements.

Quality Assurance

Quality control testing guidelines on incoming raw materials are listed in detail in ASME RTP-1. This is an
excellent reference document for all corrosion fabricators. An AOC certificate of analysis should accompany
every batch of resin. If the certificate is lost in transit,
fabricators are encouraged to obtain replacement certificates from the producing AOC plant or the distributor as needed. Fabricators who have quality control
testing capability can compare their test results with the
AOC results. If there is a significant variation between
the two values, fabricators should contact the technical
service lab at the AOC producing plant.

3) Type and quantity of catalyst used


in the resin to manufacture the corrosion
liner, structural layer and the topcoat.

4) Ambient temperature and the temperature
of the resin used for all fabrication steps.
5) Viscosity and gel time of the resin.
Gel times should be checked periodically
for each application process.
6) Quantity of resin used in the manufac ture of the corrosion liner, structural layer
and the top coat.
7)


The quantity of reinforcement should be


recorded. If glass reinforcement is used, a
close approximation the glass content
would be an ash content.

8) AOC certificate of analysis and the


fabricators comparative data.
9) Post cure temperature and time.
10) Mechanical testing on finished com posites. Examples are flexural strength,
flexural modulus, tensile strength, ten sile modulus, glass resin ratio (by burn-out)
and Barcol hardness.

11) Other records should be kept such
as the thickness of the corrosion barri er and the structural portion, hardness
measurements, cut outs, acetone sensitiv ity, visual effects, etc.

Record Keeping

ASME RTP-1 is also an excellent reference document


for record keeping guidelines. Basic resin information
that is useful for record keeping follows:

1) Identification of the resin used in the corrosion


liner, structural layer and the topcoat. Include the
batch number.
2)


The amount and type of promoter, thixotrope,


monomer, inhibitor, UV additive, styrene suppressant and other additives included in the
resin formulation.

21

Viscosity test

Barcol hardness test

* A step-by-step protocol of AOC test procedures is available upon request.

22

Barcol impresser

No. GYZJ 934-1 (hard)

Gardco (800-762-2478)

Beakers - 100, 250, 400 & 800 ml,


tri-cornered polypropylene

02-593-50B, -C, -D & -E

Fisher Scientific (800-766-7000)

HA908

Hamilton Beach (800-572-3331)

08-594-17B

Fisher Scientific (800-766-7000)

08-595D

Fisher Scientific (800-766-7000)

13-711-5A

Fisher Scientific (800-766-7000)

22A

Sunshine (800-343-1199)

11-380A

Fisher Scientific (800-766-7000)

14-635-5D

Fisher Scientific (800-766-7000)

Muffle furnace

10-750-14A

Fisher Scientific (800-766-7000)

Oven

13-247-826F

Fisher Scientific (800-766-7000)

Pipette 2 ml

13-671-108B

Fisher Scientific (800-766-7000)

Pipette bulb

13-681-102A

Fisher Scientific (800-766-7000)

Scale (gram triple beam)

Ohaus 710-00

Fisher Scientific (800-766-7000)

Model# PR2003DR
Cat# 01-918-29

Fisher Scientific (800-766-7000)

Spatula - 4 inch blade

14-365B

Fisher Scientific (800-766-7000)

Specific gravity cup

CB-1130

BYK-Gardner (800-343-7721)

Stopwatch

14-648-1

Fisher Scientific (800-766-7000)

Test tubes

19x150 cat 14-925K

Fisher Scientific (800-766-7000)

MP20700

Fisher Scientific (800-766-7000)

U-35629-10

Cole-Parmer (800-323-4340)

15-041-4F

Fisher Scientific (800-766-7000)

01-346

Fisher Scientific (800-766-7000)

Viscometer

Brookfield RVF

Brookfield (800-628-8139)

Water bath

15-460-6

Fisher Scientific (800-766-7000)

Blender (commercial mixer)


Desiccant bags
Desiccator
Disposable transfer pipettes
Gel timer
Glass rods
Lubricant

Scale digital

Thermometer digital (pyrometer)


Thermometer Infrared
Thermometers (standard glass:
-10 to 260C range)
Tongue depressors

1 Manufacturers may change product designation or replace models with new versions.
2 Specific manufacturer names are provided as a starting point and do not constitute an endorsement by AOC.

23

Resin Handling,
Safety and
Regulatory Issues

Resin storage area

24

Storage

Ideally, vinyl ester and polyester resins should be


stored out of direct sunlight at below 77F (25C).
Temperatures above 77F (25C) will shorten the usable working life of a resin. Generally, non-formulated resins (ones without thixotrope or promoters)
are much more stable than formulated resins. Bulk
storage tanks should either be stainless steel or carbon steel. Drums should have bungs closed to keep
moisture out. Inventory of resins should be rotated so
that the first in is the first used.

Safety

Safe procedures must be followed in using vinyl ester


and polyester resins, promoters, iniators and other
additives. For example, promoters or accelerators
(such as cobalt naphthanate) must never come in direct contact with any catalyst such as MEKP. A violent
explosion and fire can occur. Thus promoters or accelerators must be completely mixed into the resin
before any catalyst is added. A complete review of
MSDS information on all raw materials used to make
composites is necessary.

Regulatory Issues
MACT
Composite fabricators must comply with Maximum
Achievable Control Technology (MACT) regulations
established by the U.S. Environmental Protection. For
composites fabrication, styrene (the principal monomer in polyester and vinyl ester resins) and methyl
methacrylate (frequently used monomer in gel coats
and some resins) are listed as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs).
Affected composites manufacturers must demonstrate compliance in accordance with options provided in the final EPA National Emissions Standards
for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), codified in
40 CFR Part 63 Subpart WWWW. The American
Composites Manufacturers Association (ACMA) is
an excellent source of information and guidance
about the rule. ACMA also provides MACT compliance calculators for member companies and
links to EPA documents. Generally, detailed MACT
information is not available for non-members. For
more information about AMCA, go to www.acmanet.
org. Copies of the MACT rule, revisions and other related documents are is available on the EPA web site
at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/rpc/rpcpg.html

Resin selection is usually a significant variable in


developing and implementing a MACT compliance strategy. For years, AOC has maintained
a leadership position in the development of low
styrene resin systems that offer processability
that is as good as, and in some cases better
than, that offered by higher styrene-content resins. AOC is committed to providing resins engineered to offer the optimum combination of
processability, end-use performance and regulatory compliance. In addition, AOC offers the
industrys best technical support for helping
fabricators achieve the highest levels of quality,
consistency and regulatory compliance.
OSHA
Exposure to styrene in the workplace is regulated by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health
Adminstration (OHSA). Industries producing
and using styrene agreed to establish a voluntary program with the OSHA to limit workplace
inhalation exposures to styrene to 50 ppm on an
8-hour Time Weighted Average (TWA), and a
100 ppm 15-minute Short Term Limit (STL). One
of the best sources for more details on this issue
is AMCA whose website is www.acmanet.org.
State and Local
Fabricators should check with their state and local government agencies to determine if they are
subject to emission standards that are in addition to those established by the EPA and OSHA.
A listing of significant state and local regulations
is maintained by ACMA.

Storing resin behind a dam prevents spread


of accidental spills.

25

Composite
Processing
Guidelines

Fiberglass roving conveyed through guides

26

The following rules, principles and recommendations


are based on shop experiences and in many cases
reflect practices outlined in industry standards. For
more details on the manufacture and fabrication of
fiber-reinforced polymer composites for corrosionresistant service, contact the AOC Corrosion Team.
To find the team member for your geographical region, go to Corrosion Team on the homepage menu
of www.corrosionresins.com.

Post Curing

To ensure that the final composite will meet fire retardant and corrosion resistant expectations, post curing
is recommended. In addition, post curing is required
on any composite that will be used for food/drug applications and aggressive chemicals such as sodium
hypochlorite. Post curing vinyl ester options are:

1) Two hours at 200F (93C)
2) Four hours at 180F (82C)
Depending on the chemical environment, novolac
resin composites may need to be post cured for four
hours at 212F (100C). Depending on the heat distortion temperature of the isophthalics or terephthalics, post cure is generally accomplished by heating
for four hours at 160F (71C) to 180F (82C). Ideally, laminates cured with BPO should be post cured
within one week of lamination. This is not necessary with composites cured with MEKP. Temperature
should be closely monitored during ramp-up, at peak
temperature and during cool down. Direct any questions on this procedure to AOCs Product Leader for
Corrosion Resins.

Secondary Bonding

Secondary bonds can easily be applied to most composites manufactured with Vipel products. Laminates
are typically ground prior to secondary bonding
operations. The structural layer is usually applied to

the corrosion liner within 24 hours. In this case


grinding is normally not required. Other cases
involving grinding are:
1) Resins Containing Wax. Very few
Vipel resins contain wax or wax type
products but sometimes the fabrica tor may add wax to minimize styrene evapo ration and or facilitate the fast cure of the
resin. When wax is used, the surface
should be ground with a coarse (16 or 24
grit) grinding disc.
2) Novolac Resins. Novolac resins are
highly reactive and present more of a
challenge with respect to secondary
bonding. Before applying a secondary
bond, the surface should be ground with a
grinding disc, as mentioned above. Re move all dust and debris after grinding
prior to the application of the secondary
laminate.The secondary bonding should
be started within 2 hours from the time the
surface preparation was completed. Oth erwise, foreign material may get on the
surface that could interfere with the bond.

Test Patches

Test patches may be used when making repairs


to interior surfaces that have been exposed to
chemicals that reduce adhesion. Primer coats
with Vipel F017 are recommended to improve
the adhesion with or without the test patch result.
If you need assistance in the proper preparation
of a test patch, contact an AOC Corrosion Specialist.

Top Coats

A top coat of 0.002 - 0.004 inches (0.05-0.1


mm) is used to protect the glass fiber content
below. Paraffin wax is often added to improve
cure on the air-exposed surface. Achieving the
optimal coating thickness is important. A thinner coat usually cures poorly; a thicker coat is
more prone to cracking.

Small batches and short gel times are preferred


techniques for preventing the top coat from running off the surface.

Bonding composite to composite

27

It is important that a top coat gels and cures quickly.


The potential for entrapment of foreign materials on
the surface increases as the gel time is extended.
Polyester and vinyl ester laminates that are exposed
to air during cure in an open molding process remain tacky due to air inhibition of the resin on the
surface. Degree of inhibition varies depending on
the generic resin type. Air-exposed surfaces will not
reach complete cure over time or with post curing.
Paraffin wax is added to resins to reduce air inhibition and improve the cure of these surfaces. Secondary bonding is impaired when paraffin has been
added to laminating resins.

Paraffin Wax Styrene Solution

A ten percent (10%) solution by weight of paraffin


wax dissolved in styrene is added to laminating resins in the formulation of topcoat resins systems. The
solution may be purchased from a fiberglass materials distributor or can be prepared by the fabricator.
When the fabricator chooses to make the solution,
several precautions are important:
The paraffin wax used must have a melting point
of 118 -122F (48-50C).

Formulating Topcoat Resins

Formulation and gel time of topcoat resins are critical for optimum cure and performance of coated
surfaces. The required paraffin content is generally
0.05-0.20 % by weight depending on the generic
resin type. Since the paraffin is insoluble in the resin,
a solution of paraffin wax in styrene is added to the
resin.
Resin and paraffin solution temperatures should be
at least 70F (21C) when preparing the topcoat mixture.
Paraffin solution should be slowly added to the
resin after mixing has been started.
Addition of thixotropic agents should be avoided.
Topcoat resins should be thoroughly re-mixed immediately prior to use. Mixing action should be mild
to avoid generation of air bubbles.
Batch size should be dictated by estimated needs
for use within one day of preparation.

Warming of the solution is required to dissolve the


paraffin.

Initiator level should be such that the exotherm temperature is reached in a relatively short time after
gelation to insure complete cure of the thin topcoat
layer.

Equipment used for warming must be explosion


proof.

Gel time of the topcoat resin should be 5 to 10


minutes at the application temperature.

Solution should be re-heated immediately prior to


use to insure that the paraffin is not crystallized or
solidified when added to the resin.

For recommended promoter, paraffin solution and


initiator formulations, contact a member of the AOC
Corrosion Team or your AOC technical representative.

Left: improperly applied wax topcoat


Right: properly applied wax topcoat

28

Application of Topcoats

Surface preparation: Surfaces should be clean,


dry and free of dust and other foreign matter. When
applying the topcoat to the air inhibited side of primary laminates the surface to be coated should be
lightly sanded or scuffed to remove loose fiber and
any other blemishes. For fresh (recently laminated,
exothermed and cooled) secondary surfaces sanding should only be necessary to remove loose fiber
and any other blemishes. Solvent wiping should be
avoided to prevent contamination of the prepared
surface.
Applying a topcoat

Brush or roller application: Where practical


the topcoat should be poured on the prepared
surface and then spread with a brush or roller.
Strokes with the brush or roller should be minimized. Excessive brushing or rolling can prevent the paraffin from surfacing and leave the
exposed surface shiny and tacky. Avoid disturbing adjacent surfaces that have already been
coated. Use care to insure coverage of all prepared areas with as little overlap as possible
onto unprepared surfaces.

Surface grinding

Catalyzing topcoat resin for brush or roller application: The quantity of topcoat resin to be catalyzed
should be approximately the amount of resin that
can be applied before it gels in the container. Since
the mix has been formulated for a relatively short
gel time, the amount may be small. After thorough
stirring to ensure complete mixing of the initiator, allow the mixture to rest for a moment to allow froth
or foaming to dissipate before applying the topcoat.

Spray application: Spray-applied topcoats


should also have relatively short gel times. Light
brushing or rolling shortly after spraying will assist in spreading the topcoat uniformly and promote the release of any froth or foaming from
the initiator. As with brush or roller application,
it is important not to disturb the paraffin on adjacent wet surfaces.
Appearance: Properly topcoated surfaces will
have a dull hazy surface that is not tacky after
complete cure. Shiny or streaky areas will likely
be tacky and are indications that the paraffin
did not come to the surface or was disturbed.

29

Bonding to Concrete

The following guidelines are for applying an FRP


laminate to concrete. For specific questions, contact
your AOC Corrosion Team member.
For best results the concrete should be at least one
month old.
Grind or sandblast the surface to remove loose
concrete and oil spots.
Pits or cracks should be repaired with a putty and
sanded.
Wash the surface of the concrete with 10:1 muriatic acid.
Rinse the surface with tap water starting 20 minutes to 45 minutes after the muriatic acid is applied.
Allow the concrete surface to thoroughly dry.
Apply 0.002-0.003 inches (0.05-0.08 mm) Vipel
F017 primer. Vipel F017 is supplied unpromoted and
thus a promoter and initiator must be added for the
primer to gel and cure properly. The recommended
initiator for Vipel F017 primer is Methyl Ethyl Ketone
Peroxide (MEKP).
The temperature of the concrete surface must be
over 65F (18C).
Inspect to make sure no foreign material such as
dirt or water landed on the primer. If so, clean up
and spot repair primer, as needed.
Apply the composite after the primer has cured
and plan to lay up on the primer within 3 days of the
primer being tack free.
Apply a top coat onto the final cured composite as
described above.

30

Applying composite to steel.

Bonding to Steel

The following guidelines are for applying an FRP


laminate to steel. For specific questions, contact a
member of the AOC Corrosion Team.
Sandblast or grind the surface to white metal conforming to NACE No 1 or SSPC-SP-5.
Fill holes, pits or defects with a putty.
Fill in sharp radius surfaces with a putty. This applies to all bolts, overlapping plates holes, etc. Allow
the putty to cure and sand to a smooth surface.
Vacuum the surface to remove any dust.
Apply 0.002-0.003 inches (0.05-0.076 mm) Vipel F017 primer. Vipel F017 is supplied unpromoted and thus a promoter and initiator must be added
for the primer to gel and cure properly. The recommended initiator for Vipel F017 primer is Methyl
Ethyl Ketone Peroxide (MEKP).

Apply composite as soon as possible after the primer has cured and plan to lay up on the primer within
3 days of the primer being tack free. The choice of
specific resin will depend on the chemical environment that the composite is exposed to, temperature,
specific mechanical stresses, etc. Avoid contamination of the primer surface prior to the application of
the composite.
Grind off stray fibers with an 80 grit abrasive.
Apply a top coat onto the final cured composite as
described above.

31

Appendix

Interior of a scrubber in the shop


Vipel K022-CC
Heil Process Equipment

32

Typical Formulations and Gel Times


of Select Vipel Resins
The information contained in the following tables is
a guide for promoting and inhibiting non-promoted
Vipel resins. The recommended method of making
additions is:
1) After the mixer is turned on, drop the
additive onto the surface of the resin in such
a way as to minimize the possibility of the
product clinging to the top edge of the
container.
2) Mix until uniform.
3) Repeat for each additive and beware that
promoters or accelerators must never
come in direct contact with initiators.
It is usually a good plan to prepare a small sample
and check the gel time before proceeding to make a
larger production quantity.
Cobalt solutions, tertiary butyl catechol (TBC) and
benzoyl peroxide (BPO) are available in several concentrations. The concentrations of these products in
this guide are 6, 85 and 98% respectively. In many
cases, adjustments will be needed to account for the
concentration of the product in hand.


3)
Extra
care
must
be
taken
to

handle
tertiary
butyl
cath ecol (TBC) because it can burn
the skin upon contact. The higher the con centration, the more likely TBC will burn.
TBC will inhibit any initiator system but
its use should not exceed 0.05% of

the 85%
version.
TBC
is
best
used as a 10% solution in sty rene. The solution can be prepared
from solid TBC or an 85% concentrated so lution depending on availability.
4)


Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide (MEKP) is


available in many different raw material
components. By varying the concentration
of the components, many different version
of MEKP are available. High dimer versions
are suggested preferred for vinyl esters.
Care must be used in handling these chemicals
from a health and safety perspective. Review
information available in the MSDS document
before using the product.

There are advantages and disadvantages to some of


these additives as described below:
1)
N,N-Diethylaniline (DEA) is a slightly
safer product to handle than N,N-Dimethyl aniline (DMA). Gel times with DEA are
longer (about twice as long) than when
DMA is used at the same concentration.
2) 2,4-Pentanedione (2,4-P)
is the preferred
inhibitor because there is minimal effect on
the gel to peak and the peak temperature of
vinyl esters. 2,4-P is not effective when
benzoyl peroxide is used as an initiator.
2,4-P acts as a promoter for polyester resins,
thus it can only be used as an inhibitor in
vinyl ester resins.

33

Typical Formulations and Gel Times of Select Vipel Resins


Gel Times for Vipel F010CNL, CNM and CNT series

Cobalt Naphthenate (6%) & DMA and alternate DEA with 1.25% Hipoint 90 MEKP Catalyst
DMA
DEA
Resin
Temperature
60s
70s
90s
60s
70s
(F)
10 20 min.
19
16
13
18
17
15
MEKP,%
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.3
CoNAP,%
DMA,%
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
DEA,%
0.2
0.1
2,4-P,%
0.01
TBC,%
0.01
.
26
32
29
25
38
32
29
36
34
27
20 40 min
1.25
1.25
MEKP,%
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
CoNAP,%
DMA,%
0.05 0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
DEA,%
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
2,4-P,%
0.02
0.05
0.05
0.02
0.05
0.01
TBC,%
0.025
0.01
0.015
0.015

40 60 min.
MEKP,%
CoNAP,%
DMA,%
DEA,%
2,4-P,%
TBC,%

43
1.25
0.2
0.05

43
1.25
0.2
0.05

0.05

50
1.25
0.2
0.05

52
1.25
0.2
0.05

0.08
0.017

51
1.25
0.1
0.05

46
1.25
0.1
0.05

0.1
0.03

0.04

90s
12
1.25
0.1

15
1.25
0.1

0.1
0.01

0.1
0.005

29
1.25
0.1

30
1.25
0.1

0.1
0.04

0.1
0.02

47
1.25
0.2

49
1.25
0.2

44
1.25
0.2

51
1.25
0.2

48
1.25
0.1

51
1.25
0.1

0.1
0.05

0.1

0.1
0.07

0.1

0.1
0.06

0.1

0.016

0.035

0.03

Typical Formulations and Gel Times of Select Vipel Resins


Gel Times for Vipel F010CNL, CNM and CNT series
Benzoyl Peroxide Catalyst (BPO) with DMA and alternative DEA
[For laminates less than 3/16 inches (4.8 mm) thick]
Resin Temperature (F)
60s
70s
10 20 min.
17
16
17
18
BPO,%
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
DMA,%
0.3
0.2
DEA,%
0.6
0.45
20 40 min.

40 60 min.

BPO,%
DMA,%
DEA,%
BPO,%
DMA,%
DEA,%

36
1.0
0.1
54
1.0
0.07

35
1.0
0.3
44
1.0
0.2

Legend for abbreviations


2,4-P: Pentanedione
CoNAP:
Cobalt Naphthanate 6% solution
BPO:
Benzoyl Peroxide 98% active

(Adjust addition level for other concentrations)
DEA:
N,N Diethylaniline
DMA:
N,N Dimethylaniline
TBC:
Tertiary Butyl Catechol 85%
THQ:
Toluhydroquinone 10% solution in styrene

(Available from AOC as Inhibitor A)

34

27
1.0
0.1
57
1.0
0.05

30
1.0
0.25
52
1.0
0.15

90s
13
1.0
0.1

38
1.0
0.05
48
1.0
0.04

13
1.0
0.3
25
1.0
0.15
52
1.0
0.1

Typical Formulations and Gel Times of Select Vipel Resins


Gel Times for Vipel K022-AC, CCC , CCL, CNC series

Cobalt Naphthenate (6%) & DMA and DEA alternative with 1.25% Hipoint 90 MEKP Catalyst
Resin
Temperature
(F)
10 20 min.
MEKP,%
CoNAP,%
DMA,%
DEA,%
20 40 min.
MEKP,%
CoNAP,%
DMA,%
DEA,%
2,4-P,%
TBC,%
40 60 min.
MEKP,%
CoNAP,%
DMA,%
DEA,%
2,4-P,%
TBC,%

DMA

DEA

60s

70s

90s

60s

70s

90s

20
1.25
0.2
0. 2

13
1.25
0.3
0.15

17
1.25
0.3
0.05

16
1.25
0.3

17
1.25
0.3

13
1.25
0.3

0.5

0.3

0.2

24
1.25
0.2
0.1

32
1.25
0.2
0.05
0.05

44
1.25
0.2
0.05
0.04

52
1.25
0.1
0.05
0.007

48
1.25
0.2
0.05
0.075

36
1.25
0.2
0.05

27
1.25
0.2
0.05

0.0075
50
1.25
0.2
0.05
0.015

0.08
46
1.25
0.2
0.05
0.1

31
1.25
0.2
0.05

30
1.25
0.2

28
1.25
0.2

35
1.25
0.2

36
1.25
0.2

33
1.25
0.2

0.1

0.1
0.05

0.1

0.1
0.08

0.1

0.01
55
1.25
0.2
0.05
0.02

0.004

0.017

44
1.25
0.2

45
1.25
0.2

48
1.25
0.2

56
1.25
0.2

52
1.25
0.2

43
1.25
0.2

0.1
0.04

0.1

0.1
0.06

0.1

0.1
0.1

0.1

0.005

0.01

0.025

Typical Formulations and Gel Times of Select Vipel Resins


Gel Times for Vipel K022-AC, CCC , CCL, CNC series

Benzoyl Peroxide Catalyst (BPO) with DMA and alternative DEA


[For laminates less than 3/16 inches (4.8 mm) thick]
60s
70s
Resin Temperature (F)
10 20 min.
17
18
18
18
BPO,%
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
DMA,%
0.35
0.23
DEA,%
0.8
0.5
20 40 min.

40 60 min.

BPO,%
DMA,%
DEA,%
BPO,%
DMA,%
DEA,%

23
1.0
0.25

27
1.0

49
1.0
0.1

56
1.0

0.5

0.25

26
1.0
0.12

28
1.0
0.3

44
1.0
0.1

55
1.0
0.15

10
1.0
0.2

90s

15
1.0
0.3

26
1.0
0.09

27
1.0
0.2

42
1.0
0.05

54
1.0
0.1

Typical Formulations and Gel Times of Select Vipel Resins


Gel Times for Vipel F085-AAA, AAB. ABB series
Cobalt Naphthenate (6%) & DMA with CHP (90% active)
Resin Temperature (F)
10 20 min.
CHP,%
CoNAP,%
DMA,%
20 40 min.

40 60 min.
Alternative #1

60s
No Data

70s
17
1.5
0.4
0.2

90s
16
1.25
0.2
0.02

CHP,%
CoNAP,%
DMA,%

23
2
0.4
0.2

29
1.5
0.3
0.05

30
1
0.3
0.05

CHP,%
CoNAP,%
DMA,%

46
1
0.3
0.05

50
1
0.2
0

43
1
0.15
0

35

Typical Formulations and Gel Times of Select Vipel Resins


Gel Times for Vipel F701-BBB series

Cobalt Naphthenate (6%) & DMA with Hipoint 90 MEKP Catalyst


Resin Temperature (F)
10 20 min.
MEKP,%
CoNAP,%
20 40 min.

40 70 min.

60s
No Data

70s
15
1.0
0.6

90s
16
1.0
0.2

MEKP,%
CoNAP,%

23
1.0
0.6

24
1.5
0.2

21
0.75
0.2

MEKP,%
CoNAP,%

70
1.0
0.2

43
1.0
0.2

No Data

70s
20
1.5
0.4
0.1

90s
16
1.5
0.3
0.05

Typical Formulations and Gel Times of Select Vipel Resins


Gel Times for Vipel K095-AAA-00

Cobalt Naphthenate (6%) & DMA with CHP (90% active)


Resin Temperature (F)
10 20 min.
CHP,%
CoNAP,%
DMA,%
20 40 min.

40 60 min.

60s
No Data

CHP,%
CoNAP,%
DMA,%
2,4-P,%

35
2.0
0.4
0.2
0

30
1.5
0.3
0.05
0

30
1.0
0.2
0
0.05

CHP,%
CoNAP,%
DMA,%

49
1.5
0.3
0.05

45
1.0
0.2
0

49
1.0
0.2
0.1

Legend for abbreviations


2,4-P: Pentanedione
CoNAP:
Cobalt Naphthanate 6% solution
BPO:
Benzoyl Peroxide 98% active

(Adjust addition level for other concentrations)
DEA:
N,N Diethylaniline
DMA:
N,N Dimethylaniline
TBC:
Tertiary Butyl Catechol 85%
THQ:
Toluhydroquinone 10% solution in styrene

(Available from AOC as Inhibitor A)

Trademark Notices
Aerosil is a registered trademark of Degussa Corp. Aropol is a registered trademark of Ashland Inc.
BYK is a registered trademark of BYK. Cab-O-Sil is a registered trademark of Cabot Corp.
Chroma-Tek is a registered trademark of AOC, LLC. CoREZYN is a registered trademark of Interplastic Corp.
Derakane is a registered trademark of Ashland Inc. DION is a registered trademark of Reichhold Inc.
Hetron is a registered trademark of Ashland Inc. Lupersox is a registered trademark of Arkema Inc.
Mylar is a registered trademark of DuPont Teijin Films. Norox is a registered trademark of Norac, Inc.
Nyacol is a registered trademark of Nyacol Nano Technologies, Inc. Trigonox is a registered trademark of Akzo Nobel nv.
Underwriters Laboratories is a registered trademark of Underwriters Laboratories Inc. Vipel is a registered trademark of AOC, LLC.

36

Vipel Corrosion Resin Cross Reference


If you are considering or using resins made by another manufacturer, use this reference to find Vipel technologies that most nearly
match competitors resins. This list is only a guide. Confirm your selection with an AOC Corrosion Specialist before making a final
decision because some environments may require an alternative.
AOC
Vipel

Derakane

ASHLAND
Hetron

Bisphenol-A Epoxy Vinyl Ester

F010

411

922

8300

Bis-A Epoxy VE (higher HDT)


Elastomeric, Bis-A VE
Bis-A Epoxy VE
(higher cross linked)
Bis-A Epoxy VE
(higher cross linked, low VOC)
Fire Retardant Brominated Bis-A
Epoxy VE Class I flame spread
and smoke developed without the
use of synergists *
Fire Retardant Brominated Bis-A
Epoxy VE Class I flame spread
without the use of synergists *
Fire Retardant Brominated
Bis-A Epoxy Vinyl Ester Class I
flame spread with the use of
synergists
Fire Retardant Brominated
Bis-A Epoxy VE containing
antimony products Class I flame
spread *
Fire Retardant Brominated Bis-A
Epoxy VE (higher cross linked)
Class I flame spread without the
use of synergists *
Epoxy Novolac Vinyl Ester
Epoxy Novolac VE (higher HDT)
Fire Retardant Brominated Epoxy
Novolac Vinyl Ester Class I flame
spread and smoke developed
without the use of synergists *
Fire Retardant Brominated Epoxy
Novolac Vinyl Ester Class II flame
spread without the use of
synergists *
Isophthalic Polyester
(rigid high cross-linked)

F007
F017

441
8084

942

F080

441

980

8360
8550
8710
8770

F083

441

980/35

K022-AA
K026-AA

510A

Isophthalic Polyester
(rigid)
Isophthalic Polyester (resilient)
Fire Retardant Halogenated
Isophthalic Polyester Class I flame
spread without the use of
synergists *
Fire Retardant Halogenated
Isophthalic Polyester Class I flame
spread with the use antimony
trioxide *
Terephthalic (rigid)
Terephthalic Polyester
(rigid high cross-linked)
Chlorendic Acid Polyester Class I
flame spread with the use of
antimony trioxide *
Bisphenol-A Fumarate Polyester
* Tested according to ASTM E84

Aropol

INTERPLASTIC
CoREZYN

REICHHOLD
DION
9100
9102
9085

8360
8440

K022-AC

K022-CC

510C

K022-CN

VE8450

FR992SB

K023
F085
F086

FR992

FR9300

8440M-AT

FR998/35
470
470HT

970

8730

9400

K095

510N
F764
F701

7241
7242

F737

7334

75-AQ-001, S & W
75-AQ-010, S & W

75-AQ-011
75-AQ-610

K733-A

K733-B

6631
6334
FR7767

604T-20
99P

F713
F774

490

K190

197

F282

700

16-DA-097

797
6694

37

THE WORLD OF

Sales Contacts
North America

+1 866 319 8827


Fax: +01 901 854 7277
northamerica@aoc-resins.com
AOC is a leading producer of unsaturated polyester and vinyl
ester resins and is the world leader in innovative resin technology.
AOC manufactures its products in facilities strategically located
throughout North America and Europe. AOC owned facilities are
ISO 9001:2008 certified and use AOCs proprietary process
control technology to guarantee batch to batch consistency.
From isophthalic polyesters, and terephthalics, to epoxy novolac
and bisphenol A vinyl esters, AOC offers local availability,
worldwide, of a broad range of proven Vipel resins through its
network of distributors and plants. Please contact the AOC
Corrosion Specialists for Vipel resins that meet your corrosion
resistant specifications, and put the technology and service of
the AOC Corrosion Team to work for you.

CORROSIONRESINS.com
The internets best resource on corrosion-resistant composites.

Latin America

+01 863 815 5016


Fax: +01 863 815 4733
latinamerica@aoc-resins.com

Middle East

+44 1473 288997


Fax: +44 1473 216080
middleeast@aoc-resins.com

Europe

+44 1473 288997


Fax: +44 1473 216080
europe@aoc-resins.com

India

+91 20 2547 2011


india@aoc-resins.com

Asia/Australia

+44 1473 288997


Fax: +44 1473 216080
asia@aoc-resins.com

AOC World Headquarters


955 Highway 57 East
Collierville, TN 38017

+01 901 854 2800 +01 901 854 1183 (fax)


corrosionresins@aoc-resins.com

AOC and Vipel are registered trademarks of AOC, LLC.


Printed in U.S.A. Copyright February, 2012 AOC.