Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 16

USTER CLASSIMAT

QUANTUM
APPLICATION REPORT

Analysis of yarns by a
sophisticated classifying
system
THE YARN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

S. Dnmez Kretzschmar
R. Furter
May 2008
SE 620

THE YARN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

Copyright 2008 by Uster Technologies AG


All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, translated or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronically, mechanically, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in writing of the copyright owner.

Veronesi\Textile_Technology\Schulung_Dokumente\Off-Line\ClassimatQuantum\SE_620_Analysis of yarns by a sophisticated classifying system

2 (16)

USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM

THE YARN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

Contents
1

Introduction ...............................................................................5

Classification of seldom-occurring thick and thin places ......6

Origin of seldom-occurring yarn faults....................................7

Description of the data output of the classifying system .......8

4.1

The scatter plot............................................................................8

4.2

Detection of foreign fibers............................................................9

4.3

Classification matrix for foreign fibers ........................................ 10

4.4

Scatter plot of foreign fibers....................................................... 11

Benchmarking for USTER CLASSIMAT classification......... 12

Conclusion............................................................................... 13

Literature.................................................................................. 14

USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM

3 (16)

THE YARN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

4 (16)

USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM

THE YARN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

Introduction

Today, the selection of the right yarn for the right product is crucial for economic reasons. A continuous incoming inspection guarantees a constant
satisfactory quality of the end product. In this respect yarn clearing and
classifying systems are playing a very important role. At the beginning of
electronic yarn clearing the setting of the clearing curve has been quite
difficult and has required specialists. In 1968 Uster Technologies launched
an electronic system by the name of USTER CLASSIMAT which was a
revolution in yarn clearing at that time. The purpose of the system was the
analysis of seldom-occurring or disturbing thick places and the setting of an
optimum clearing curve on the winding machine to eliminate the really disturbing yarn faults and to simultaneously keep the efficiency of the winding
machine as high as possible. For this purpose the yarn was classified into
four length and in four thick place classes.
This analyzing system was not only used by spinners. The yarn buyers
(traders, weavers, knitters, garment makers, etc.) also detected this system
as a tool to separate yarns into first grade, second grade, etc., or to establish minimum conditions for the acceptance of yarns.
As already mentioned, the first classifying system was introduced in the
market in 1968. Therefore, the year 2008 marks the 40th anniversary of this
analyzing tool. Fig. 1 also shows that the system was permanently improved in the past 40 years.
2002

USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM


+ additional function
compared to the
previous model

1994
+ 4 classes for small thick places
(A0, B0, C0, D0)
+ 6 classes for short thin places
+ Scatter plot of yarn faults
+ Comparison with Uster Statistics
+ Trend analysis

1978
+ 3 classes for long thick places (E, F, G)
+ 4 classes for long thin places (H1, H2, I1, I2)
+ Results absolute and per 100 km
+ Automatic print-out of results
+ Automatic length measurement (option)

1968

+ Classification according to Quantum


+ Classification according to CMT3
+ 27 classes for foreign fibers
+ Clearing with CAY
+ Yarn fault simulation
+ Fabric simulation

USTER CLASSIMAT 3

USTER CLASSIMAT 2

Classification of thick places


in 16 classes A4 B4 C4 D4
A3 B3 C3 D3
A2 B2 C2 D2
A1 B1 C1 D1

1968 1970

Fig. 1

1975

USTER CLASSIMAT

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

Improvements of the USTER CLASSIMAT system

USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM

5 (16)

THE YARN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM


Today with the USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM generation, the cleared
and uncleared yarn can be checked; the classification of thick and thin
places, neps and foreign fibers in the yarn can be fulfilled. This system also
helps the user in determining the optimal limits for yarn clearing, in analyzing new material, and supports with experience values which can be used
for benchmarking and evaluation.
In this article, we will try explain the most important features of the USTER
CLASSIMAT QUANTUM and its possible usage in improving the quality of
yarns.

Classification of seldom-occurring thick and


thin places

Classifications are used in spinning mills either as on-line monitoring system as a feature of the clearing system on automatic winding machines or
as an analyzing instrument on manual winding machines in textile laboratories and they have played a very important role to analyze seldomoccurring yarn faults.
Fig. 2 shows the classification matrix of this analyzing system with a few
examples of seldom-occurring yarn faults for the thick place classes A1 to
D4 which are assigned by the system to the respective classes.

Fig. 2

6 (16)

Classes of the USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM system

USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM

THE YARN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM


It is obvious that the appearance of seldom-occurring faults in a grey fabric
depends on various items:

The cross-section of the fault compared to the mean value

The length of the fault

The count of the yarn

The yarn density in the fabric

The type of fabric (weaving or knitting)

With USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM, there is also a possibility of defining new customized classes called Tailored classes. The system can
classify and present the events in the tailored classes for thick places, thin
places and foreign fibers.

Origin of seldom-occurring yarn faults

A basic rule in quality management is a preventive maintenance rather than


corrections afterwards. Unfortunately, this is not yet possible with the technology of today. Textile specialists in spinning mills who have to conquer
disturbing yarn fault have to find the origin of such yarn faults.
Table 1shows a selection of sources which produced seldom-occurring
faults in the respective categories. It is a collection of reasons over many
years why such events happened.
Classes

Possible reason of faults

A (Thick place)

A0

Extended class, mainly used for ply yarn

A1

Bad condition of carding, blow room, trash in yarn

A2

Bad condition of carding, blow room, trash in yarn

A3

Neps, fluff, foreign matters, dirty drafting zone

A4

Ring front zone dirty, fly waste in trumpet

B0

Extended class, mainly used for ply yarn

B1

Fibers damage in process, spindle without aprons

B2

Fibers damage in process, spindle without aprons

B3

Fluff in travelers, unsuitable travelers, bad piecing

B4

Slub from ring spinning department

C0

Extended class, mainly used for ply yarn

C1

Bad piecing in cans, sliver entanglements

C2

Bad piecing in cans, sliver entanglements

C3

Piecing, ring spinning

(Unacceptable faults)

C4

Floating fibers, fly, slub

(Unacceptable faults)

D0

Extended class, mainly used for ply yarn

D1

Floating fibers

B (Thick place)

C (Thick place)

D (Thick place)

USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM

Comments
(Short thick places)

(Unacceptable faults)

(Short thick places)

(Unacceptable faults)

(Short thick places)

7 (16)

THE YARN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM


Classes

Possible reason of faults

Comments

D2

Gauge problem of roving frame, spacer problem

(Unacceptable faults)

D3

Fluff in ring spinning department

(Unacceptable faults)

D4

Fluff in ring spinning department

(Unacceptable faults)

E (Thick place)

Double yarn

(Spinners double)

F (Thick place)

Bad piecing in ring yarns, roving & back process

(Long thick places)

G (Thick place)

Bad piecing in ring, roving & back process etc.

(Long thick places)

H (Thin place)

H1

Mostly eccentric bobbins on roving & ring frames, eccentric spindles

(Thin places)

H2

Poor handling of material during processes

(Thin places)

I1

This type of faults is produced by separation of parts of


sliver or roving prior to spinning

(Long thin places)

I2

This type of faults is produced by separation of parts of


sliver or roving prior to spinning

(Long thin places)

I (Thin place)

Table 1 Classimat defects / Classification and sources of origin

Description of the data output of the classifying


system

4.1

The scatter plot

The scatter plot is a very important feature of USTER CLASSIMAT


QUANTUM which helps the user in analyzing the exact place of each event
in the classification matrix and indicates the yarn faults of both the standard
classes and the extended classes as points in the classification matrix. The
exact length and cross-section increase of the individual yarn faults can
easily be determined with the horizontal and vertical scales.
In order to show the usage of the scatter plots, two yarns of two mills were
given (Ne 30, 100% cotton, carded) as an example. 100 km of these two
yarns were measured with USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM and the neps,
short thick, long thick and thin places (NSLT) were counted and classified.
In Fig. 3, we can see the scatter plot of a yarn produced in a mill with a
good quality management having less number of faults. These faults are
shown according to the CLASSIMAT Classes (NSLT) as green colored
points. In Fig. 4 the scatter plot of a low quality yarn is shown having a high
number of faults. When we compare these two yarns, for example in the B1
class, the first yarn (left) had only 9 short thick places; Fig. 4 shows, as a
contrast, a yarn with 488 short thick places in the same class. The faults in
the B1 class can be the result of a wrong raw material, fiber damages in
spinning or other processing problems. The difference between these two
yarns is enormous, and by the help of the scatter plot the user can analyze
and choose the yarn having better quality easily.

8 (16)

USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM

THE YARN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

Fig. 3

100% cotton, carded, Ne 30, ring spun yarn, per


100 km (low number of faults)

Fig. 4

100% cotton, carded, Ne 30, ring spun yarn, per


100 km (high number of faults)

The yarn of Fig. 4 also has much more faults in the thin place area (part
below the zero line of the scatter plot).

4.2

Detection of foreign fibers

Foreign fibers are one of the major problems in spinning mills. The global
ITMF survey on cotton contamination in 2007 showed that in the perception
of spinners from around the world contamination remains a serious problem. During the past 18 years the degree of contaminated cotton bales was
increasing steadily from 14% to 22%. Organic matters are still the main
contaminants, followed by fabrics of cotton and plastic film, strings of jute
and plastic [1]. These fibers can be of different origin, character, structure,
or color other than the original fibers of the yarn (for example synthetic fibers in a cotton yarn). There are distinct benefits to early detection and
removal of unwanted fibrous material since later processing stages open up
and spread out these foreign fibers. This can result in the contamination
of many yarn packages [2]. Schenek named that due to the fact that fabrics
containing foreign fibers can not be dyed homogeneously, these fibers can
cause a lot of quality problems especially after finishing [3]. Lord mentioned
that these foreign fibers and materials adversely affect processing and produces error and also affect the properties such as dye uptake, fiber reflectance and the appearance of the final product [4].
Fig. 5 shows the risk of a spinning mill which has the foreign fiber challenge
not under control.

USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM

9 (16)

THE YARN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

34800

36000
32000

Sales prices in USD

28000
24000
18000

20000
16000
12000
7320

8000
3840

4000
600

1320

0
Bale

Yarn (Nec 30,


combed)

Raw fabric

Finished fabric
(bleached)

Shirts

Retailer

Fig. 5
Foreign fiber risk calculated
for a spinning mil

In this example, the calculation is based on a bale of 500 lbs (227 kg) and
the price for the bale was USD 600. The yarns made of this bale were sold
for USD 1320 and the raw fabric price was USD 3840. Finally, the finished
fabric was sold for USD 7320.
Because the foreign fibers were only detected after bleaching, the finishing
plant did not send the complaint to the cotton producer or cotton trader, but
to the spinner. Therefore, the finishing plant had a damage of USD 7320
per bale which had to be paid by the spinner, but the spinner only earned
USD 720 for the processing of the entire bale.

4.3

Classification matrix for foreign fibers

In addition to the standard classification, this system also allows the user to
measure foreign fibers and vegetables in a yarn and classify these faults in
27 foreign fiber classes.
With the vegetable filter, it is possible to differentiate between organic and
synthetic foreign fibers. Based on the fact that vegetables mostly do not
have a disturbing effect on the appearance of fabrics, because they can be
bleached and can absorb the same dyestuff, these particles are allowed to
remain in the yarn for many fabrics and, as a result, it saves a considerable
number of cuts on the winding machine and reduces the formation of
splices.
The USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM uses the basic matrix for foreign
fiber classification of the USTER QUANTUM, but the classes B1, B2, C1,
D1 and E1 have been further divided. Because the most frequent foreign
fibers occur mainly in the classes B1, B2 and C1, these classes and the
class D1 are further divided (Fig. 7).

10 (16)

USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM

THE YARN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM


Since the basic matrix is retained, this means, for example:

B11 + B12 +B13 + B14 = B1 or


B21 + B22 = B2

Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 shows the structure of the classification matrix for foreign
fibers, which represents the appearance (in %) and length (in cm). The appearance corresponds to the visibility of a fault. No classification data is
available for the A1 class, because there is too high accumulation of foreign
fibers. The foreign fiber matrix is divided into 21 (Fig. 6) or 27 (Fig. 7) foreign fiber classes depending on a coarse or fine setting.
Appearance

Appearance
A4

B4

C4

D4

E4

30%
B3

C3

D3

E3
F

20%
A2

B2

C2

D2

D4

E4

A3

B3

C3

D3

E3
F

A2

B21 B22

C2

D2

E2

B13 B14

C12

D12

E12

10%

C1

B1

no counts

4.4

C4

20%

E2

10%

Fig. 6

B4

30%
A3

5%

A4

1.0

2.0

D1

3.0

E1

5.0

no
counts

7%
5%

7.0 cm Fault length


l

Structure of the classification matrix for foreign fibers


Coarse setting

Fig. 7

B11 B12
1.0

1.4

E11

D11

C11
2.0

3.0

5.0

7.0 cm

Length
l

Structure of the classification matrix for foreign


fibers Fine setting

Scatter plot of foreign fibers

With the scatter plot (Fig. 8 and Fig. 9), the distribution of foreign fibers in
the yarn can be seen at one glance. Furthermore, vegetables are distinguished from actual foreign fibers by the vegetable filter and displayed
separately (olive-green).
In Fig. 8 and Fig. 9, we can see the foreign fiber scatter plots of the same
yarns mentioned above (In Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, Ne 30, 100% cotton, carded).
In Fig 8, the scatter plot shows a yarn with a low amount of foreign fibers.
These faults are shown as green colored points and vegetables are shown
in olive-green. In Fig. 9, the scatter plot shows a yarn with a high number of
foreign fibers. When we compare these two yarns, for example in the Class
B1, the yarn in Fig. 8 has only 103 foreign fibers and 24 vegetables; Fig. 9
shows, as a contrast, a yarn with 673 foreign fibers and 238 vegetables in
the B1 class. Again the user can analyze and choose the yarn having a
lower number of foreign fibers by using the scatter plot.

USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM

11 (16)

THE YARN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

Fig. 8

100 % cotton, carded, Ne 30, ring spun yarn, per


100 km (less faults)

Fig. 9

100 % cotton, carded, Ne 30, ring spun yarn, per


100 km (high number of faults)

The difference between the two yarns, what foreign fibers are concerned, is
enormous, and also has considerable consequences on the appearance of
the fabric. The comparison also shows that the yarn in Fig. 9 has much
more remaining vegetables (olive-green dots).
Both yarns were processed on a winding machine with no foreign fiber
clearing. However, in order to avoid a considerable drop of the efficiency of
the winding machine it is only allowed to remove the most significant foreign fibers in the yarn of Fig. 9.

Benchmarking for USTER CLASSIMAT classification

In 1975, Uster Technologies introduced the USTER STATISTICS for the


USTER CLASSIMAT for the first time. Uster Technologies has carried out
many tests with yarns coming from all over the world and the results were
published in 2003 as the first USTER STATISTICS for foreign fibers and in
2007, the new USTER STATISTICS 2007 were introduced to the market.

95%
75%
25%
5%

Fig. 10
Cotton 100%, carded, Ne 10 to
Ne 40, ring-spun, for knitted
fabrics

12 (16)

USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM

THE YARN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM


In Fig. 10 the red symbol (on the right hand side) explains the significance
of statistical values and indicates the range from 5 to 95 %. A foreign fiber
content on the 95% level means that 95% of all spinning mills worldwide
are below this figure. A value on the 5% level, however, indicates that only
5% of all spinning mills worldwide could achieve this quality level.
Fig. 10 shows for example that the spinning mills with the lowermost number of foreign fibers only have 15 events in the B21 class whereas the mills
with the highest level have 600 and more foreign fibers in the same category.

Conclusion

It is well known that the yarn quality is very important for the quality of the
end product. Weak places, for example, mainly affect the productivity (machine stops caused by end breaks) whereas coarse yarn faults in woven or
knitted fabrics result in costly rejects. Today, the selection of the right yarn
for the right product is crucial for economic reasons. A continuous incoming
inspection guarantees a constant satisfactory quality of the end product. In
this respect classifying systems are playing a very important role. For example many of the foreign fiber problems are only detected after finishing,
and the spinner is finally made responsible for the damage. For this reason,
the sooner they are detected, the lower the costs and the better the quality.
The costs and claims due to foreign fibers can be prevented by setting up a
quality management system to eliminate or minimize the number of foreign
fibers in yarns.
Within the scope of a modern quality assurance program it is now possible
that test reports, which serve as a quality guarantee for the observance of
supplier agreements or certificates, are requested with every yarn delivery.
As a result of 40 years of continuous experience in yarn clearing and classification, the USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM can be used not only as a
tool in order to examine the yarns to be purchased for remaining disturbing
thick places, thin places and foreign fibers but also as a sophisticated classifying system which can help the user to determine and set his own yarn
quality standards.

USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM

13 (16)

THE YARN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

Literature
1. Schindler C., ITMF COTTON CONTAMINATION SURVEY 2007, 29th International Cotton Conference, Proceedings, Bremen, April 2 - 5, 2008.

2. Oxhenam W., Preparing for Change, Yarn preparation faces questions as


to what the future holds
http://www.textileworld.com/Articles/2000/April/Features/Preparing_For_Ch
ange.html

3. Schenek A.,Lexikon Garne und Zwirne: Eigenschaften und Herstellung


textiler Fden, Deutscher Fachverlag GmbH, Fankfurt am Main, 174-175,
2006.

4. Lord, P. R., Handbook of yarn production: Technology, science and economics, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2005.

5. Furter, R. Experience with foreign material removal systems for cotton,


Uster Technologies, Application Report, SE 594, 2006.

6. Edalat-Pour, S.,USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM Application Handbook,


Classification of thick and thin places, classification of foreign fibers, 304
100- 89720, 2005.

14 (16)

USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM

THE YARN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM

15 (16)

THE YARN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

Uster Technologies AG
Wilstrasse 11
CH-8610 Uster / Switzerland
Phone +41 43 366 36 36
Fax
+41 43 366 36 37
www.uster.com
sales@uster.com

16 (16)

USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM