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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. The Background of The Study


Community demands toward human resource need in the present are
growing up. Now, everyone is required to have specific skills as the ability
that can be used to survive. Education is considered as the only way to expect
to deliver a better future generation. Thus, education challenge in Indonesia is
increasingly complex.
To respond the problem, Indonesian government issues a national
education vision Cerdas Berdaya Saing 2025 (Indonesian students are able
to compete intelligently in 2025) with the ideal is Indonesian students are not
only able to compete nationally but also globally toward the people in the
world.1 The students, as a manifestation of the next generation, are not only
taught pure and applied science, but also are expected to have the ability to
interact others well. They need to have good and perfect language skills so
that they are able to interact in their community, whether it is either among
domestic or foreign public interaction globally. English, as an international
language, is one of important one to master as a communication tool that can
be applied in international interface.
The rapid global communication and interaction have placed English as
one of the absolute media needs. Without the ability to speak adequate
1 Dede Rosyada, Good Governance dalam Pengelolaan Pendidikan Tinggi
Agama Islam Paper presented at Seminar Nasional: Kontribusi Pendidikan bagi
Pembangunan Bangsa dan Negara; Menciptakan Negara yang Bersih dan
Berwibawa serta Masyarakat Makmur dan Sejahtera, Langsa, 18 September 2012.
1

English, high school graduates will face many problems in establishing global
interaction. English is a language used globally. Global language is used by
different nations to communicate to others around the world. Moreover, the
use of English as a learning media widely leads mastering the language
cannot be avoided.
English is a tool to communicate both spoken and written. The definition
of communication in this case is to understand and express information,
thoughts, feelings, and to develop science, technology, and culture in English.
Communication skills are also as the ability to understand the discourse fully.
Similarly, in the context of education, English serves as a tool to
communicate in order to access information and in the context of everyday
life, as a means to foster interpersonal relationships, information exchange
and enjoy the esthetic of language in particular culture, especially the culture
in countries that use English as their native language. More specifically,
English is the international language that is considered very important as a
tool or medium for absorbing, transferring, and developing of science,
technology, art and culture, and fostering relationships with other nations. By
studying English, then, someone will open horizons and knowledge
internationally. Therefore, learning English is very important to give to
students currently in global world of information.
Rintisan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional or RSBI (Pilot International
Standard School) is a program initiated by the government to address the
need. The program allows the students to learn English more, because it
requires teachersexcept for several subjects, such as Bahasa, Religion,

Civic Education, and Historyto use English as teaching learning instruction


in the class. Certainly, the more students in contact with English during
learning process, the wider exposure they get in learning English.
However, in its implementation, the program was getting mixed-reviews
from the public. Public assumed that the program raises castes in education.
In addition, to support the program is going well, people were required to pay
an additional fee. It made it a costly program. It implicated the program was
only accessible to the rich one. In addition, the people were concerned that
the program was a gateway liberalization and capitalization of education in
Indonesia. This concerned along with fear of loss of identity of the Indonesian
people, because English was so widely used as the language of instruction in
the teaching and learning activities. Naturally, it leads the use of Bahasa is
very limited in some subjects only.
Of these concerns, then, on 28 December 2011, the people applied for a
judicial review of Article 50 Section 3 of Undang-Undang Republik
Indonesia Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 Tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional (a
constitution to regulate educational system in Indonesia) that became the
constitutional foundation of the program. They reviewed judicially the article
toward the Constitution Preamble, Article 28C Section 1, Article 28E Section
1, Article 28, Section 2, Article 31 Section 1-3, and Article 36 of UndangUndang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945 (Indonesian main
constitution). Petitioner formulated that Article 50 Section 3 of UndangUndang Republik Indonesia Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 Tentang Sistem
Pendidikan Nasional against the nationalism and the obligation of the state to

the nations intellectual life, causing dualism education system in Indonesia,


forming liberalization of education and discrimination in education, as well as
eliminating the national identity.2
According to the lawsuit, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of
Indonesia finally granted that the Article is contrary to the Constitution and
does not have binding legal force. It implies the dissolution RSBI program in
Indonesia with a grace period until the end of the 2012-2013 academic year in
June 2013.
Apart from the above problems and demands, RSBI is an appropriate
program to develop English skills. It is because it allows English learning
focuses on skills in using language, not only a knowledge-based teaching of
language as a phenomenon that often occurs in every single English class
throughout of Indonesia. It also creates a contextual learning environment in
teaching English with all available media and it may be an ICT-based
learning.
From the description above, it concludes that the RSBI program has
positive sides, especially in the development of students ability to speak
English, so even though the program has been cancelled constitutionally, the
criteria can still be implemented. Moreover, the termination of the program is
not through an evaluation process first. Thus, the program implementation
needs to evaluate to find out the aspects of the program that have not been
realized. It leads the evaluation of the program can map elements that are not
done well and result of recommendations that can be used as input for the
2 Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi Republik Indonesia No. 5/PUU-X/2012, 174177. available on www.mahkamahkonstitusi.go.id accessed on 1 April 2013

government to formulate a better new programs to improve students English


skills.
SMP Negeri 1 Langsa is one of two schools in junior high level in
Langsa that were given the opportunity by the government to run the
program. A school is viewed as a system is a collection of related components
that work in a single unit to achieve a particular goal. The all components for
instance objectives, management, curriculum, facilities, teachers, and students
are as a school system that contributes to achieve mutual goals, in this case is
the effectiveness of school activities.
Based on the problem above, the researcher is interested in conducting an
evaluation study of RSBI implementation entitled: An Evaluation of RSBI
Program Implementation in Improving Students English Skills at SMP
Negeri 1 Langsa (An Evaluative Research Based on CIPP Evaluation
Model). Definitely, the results of this study can be inputs are taken into
consideration to revise the program in improving students English skills.

B. The Problem of The Study


From the background above, a primary issue to be answered in this study
is how the implementation process of RSBI program in improving students
English skills at SMP Negeri 1 Langsa? Seen from a primary issue above, the
researcher will discuss various issues in some more specific research
questions associated with it, as follows:
1. What are the official policies, program objectives and public
participation toward RSBI Program as context evaluation aspect at
SMP Negeri 1 Langsa?

2. How are the students recruitment procedure, curriculum, English


teachers, and learning infrastructures for improving students English
skills as input evaluation aspect at SMP Negeri 1 Langsa?
3. How are the learning process and extracurricular activity to support
students English skills as process evaluation aspect at SMP Negeri 1
Langsa?
4. How are the students English achievements both in national and
international scope as product evaluation aspect at SMP Negeri 1
Langsa?
C. The Purpose of The Study
The purpose of this study is to determine clearly and accurately the
information about the implementation of the RSBI program in improving
students English skills. Therefore, in detail the purposes of this study
formulates as follows:
1. To explore the official policies, program objectives and public
participation toward RSBI Program as context evaluation aspect at
SMP Negeri 1 Langsa.
2. To investigate the students recruitment procedure, curriculum,
English teachers, and learning infrastructures for improving students
English skills as input evaluation aspect at SMP Negeri 1 Langsa.
3. To find out the learning process and extracurricular activity to
support students English skills as process evaluation aspect at SMP
Negeri 1 Langsa
4. To identify the students achievements in English both in national
and international scope as product evaluation aspect at SMP Negeri 1
Langsa.

D. The Significance of The Study


Commonly, the significances of this research may be classified into two
aspects, they are theoretically and practically.
1. Theoretically
The study aims to inform everyone who is interested in RSBI
Program implementation either constitutionally or practically and the
issue related to the program. It also contributes to identify the strength
and weakness of RSBI during the program is running.
2. Practically
The study constructs some recommendations. The government and
stakeholder can employ the recommendations as a guide or an input to
issue a program to develop students English skills better in the future.

E. Operational Definition
This study seeks to describe and map the implementation RSBI program
in improving students English language proficiency at SMP Negeri 1 Langsa.
To avoid the differences in either understanding or interpreting in this study,
the researchers will explain the terms used in this study, include the
following:
1. Program Evaluation
Program evaluation in this study is the evaluation that is used to
investigate the program implementation and the limitation is simply to
evaluate the employment of the program components that are directly

related to the development of students English proficiency at SMP


Negeri 1 Langsa.
2. Rintisan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional (RSBI Program)
RSBI Program is the program that implemented in SMP Negeri 1
Langsa before the program was canceled by the constitution.
3. Students English skills
Students English skills are the ability of students to communicate
actively in English. This capability consists of the ability in listening and
reading comprehension, speaking, and writing.
4. CIPP Evaluation Model
CIPP Evaluation Model is the evaluation model that use context,
input, process, and product of the program as the elements of evaluation. It
was developed by Stufflebeam in 1965.