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Baba - A small cake made from enriched yeast dough, often flavored with candied fruits, and

soaked with a rum or Kirsch syrup after baking. This dough is also used to make the larger
savarin.
Baekenhofe - An alsacienne stew made of pork, lamb, and beef layered with potatoes and
onions. The meat is first marinated in wine and herbs for a minimum of 24 hours, then
assembled and baked in a paste sealed casserole until the meat is buttery tender. The juices
are reduced and the top is browned under the broiler. Crisp bacon and fried leeks are used
to garnish this dish.
Bagna Cauda - Meaning "warm bath", this is a dip made of anchovies, olive oil, and garlic.
Unlike the French anchoiade, this is served warm and is not emulsified. Bread and raw
vegetables are served with this dip.
Bain-Marie - Simply a water bath. It consists of placing a container of food in a large,
shallow pan of warm water, which surrounds the food with gentle heat. The food may be
cooked in this manner either in an oven or on top of a range. This technique is designed to
cook delicate dishes such as custards, sauces and savory mousses without breaking or
curdling them. It can also be used to keep foods warm.
Baked Alaska - A dessert comprised of sponge cake topped with ice cream and covered
with meringue. The dessert is then placed in a hot oven to brown the meringue before the
ice cream can melt.
Baking Powder - A leavening agent combining an acid with bicarbonate of soda to form the
gas which enables baked products to rise. The chemical reaction between the acid and the
soda produces carbon dioxide to leaven the product. The most common form of baking
powder is the double acting variety, which produces gas upon mixing and again at high
temperatures. Always store this tightly covered.
Baking Soda - A leavening agent which is used as an essential ingredient in baking powder.
When used alone as a leavener, recipes must include some type of acid to neutralize the
resulting sodium carbonate in the finished product. Buttermilk, yogurt, sour cream, and citrus
juice are adequate acid to use. You may also use baking soda to help neutralize the acid in
recipes that call for large amounts of fruit.
Baklava - A very sweet dessert made of layers of flaky pastry filled with a mixture of ground
nuts and sugar. The pastry is sliced, baked, and brushed with a honey syrup flavored with
lemon or rose water.
Ballottine - A pt-like dish in which forcemeat is stuffed back into the boneless carcass from
which the forcemeat was made. This may include fish, poultry, game birds, or even some
cuts of meat. The mixture is wrapped in muslin and poached or braised. These dishes may
be served hot or cold.
Balsamic Vinegar - A wonderfully fragrant vinegar made from the juice of Trebbiano grapes.
The juice is then heated and aged in wooden barrels, evaporating and concentrating in
flavor. The resulting vinegar is deep rich brown with a sweet and sour flavor. Well aged
balsamic vinegars are very costly, some reaching an astronomical $200 an ounce. Most
balsamic vinegars found in the US are not "aceto balsamico tradizionale", but un aged
balsamic vinegar. These vinegars lack in body and flavor that the well-aged balsamic
vinegars possess, yet have a fair sweet and sour balance of flavor not found in any other

vinegars.
Bangers - British colloquial term for sausages. "Bangers and mash" are sausages and
mashed potatoes.
Barding - The practice of wrapping lean cuts of meat to be with thin slices of back fat. The
converse of this is larding, in which long strips of fat are inserted into the cut of meat to keep
it moist during cooking.
Barquette - A small oval shaped pastry shell with either sweet or savory fillings.
Basquaise - Food prepared in the style of Basque which often includes tomatoes and sweet
or hot red peppers.
Bavarian Cream - A cream made with pastry cream lightened with whipped cream and
stabilized with gelatin. This cream may then be poured into molds, or used as a filling for
cakes or pastries. Bavarian cream is often flavored with fruit purees or alcohol.
Bearnaise - This is the most notable of all the hollandaise sauce variations. It is made with a
wine and vinegar reduction flavored with tarragon. This sauce makes a good companion to
grilled meats and fish.
Bechamel Sauce - This is a white sauce made with milk or cream and thickened with a
roux. Bechamel sauce is generally used as a base for other more complex sauces, though it
may be used alone for binding or moistening.
Beignet - A French term for a type of doughnut. Dough or batter is deep fried and dusted
w/sugar or glazed with a flavored syrup.
Belle Helene - Best known as the name of a dessert with poached pears, ice cream, and
chocolate sauce. It is also a term used in French cookery as a name for a garnish to grilled
meat dishes.
Benne Seeds - An African term for sesame seeds.
Beurre Blanc - An emulsified sauce made of a wine or vinegar reduction blended with
softened butter. This may be flavored in many ways, for fish, vegetables, and poultry dishes.
This is a very tricky sauce and does not hold for long periods of time. Because of this,
modern versions add a touch of cream to stabilize the sauce for longer periods of time.
Beurre Manie - A mixture of flour and butter kneaded to a smooth paste. This is then used in
small quantities to adjust the thickness of sauces and stews. The sauce must then be boiled
briefly to remove the starchy taste of the flour. For this reason, beurre manie is used in
situations where only a small quantity is needed.
Biscotti - Dry Italian cookies flavored with almonds, chocolate, or anise seed, used for
dunking in coffee and sweet dessert wine.
Bisque - A rich shellfish soup made with the shells of the animal. The soup is enriched with
cream and Cognac and garnished with pieces of the shellfish meat. This name is also used
to describe vegetable soups prepared in the same manner as shellfish bisques.
Bistella - See pastilla for a definition.
Blanch - Cooking foods in boiling water for a brief period of time. This applies primarily to
vegetables so as to reduce their final cooking time. But blanching may be done to fish or
meat as well.
Blanquette - A stew of white meats, usually veal, without initial browning. The sauce is
thickened with roux and enriched with cream.
Blini - A small pancake made of buckwheat flour and leavened with yeast. These pancakes

are often brushed with large amounts of melted butter and served with caviar and sour
cream. Other versions may be made of vegetable purees or semolina flour.
Blintz - A stuffed crepe or thin pancake. The filling is usually made of a fresh cheese or
cottage cheese, and often topped with fresh fruit or fruit preserves.
Boletus - A family of wild mushrooms known for their rich taste and meaty texture. Porcinis
and cepes are two members of this family of mushroom.
Bollito Misto - An Italian stew consisting of various cuts of meat, including zampone, boiled
in a rich broth with vegetables. The whole dish is served with cornichons, pickled onions and
a variation of chutney called mostarda di Cremona. These are whole or large pieces of fruit
cooked in a spicy mustard flavored syrup. Other common sauces are salsa verde and
mayonnaise.
Bordelaise - This is a term primarily used to describe a brown sauce that includes shallots
and red wine. Some versions of this sauce include slices of bone marrow added at the end
of cooking. Fish dishes with this name will be cooked with white Bordeaux wine.
Borscht - A rich soup from Eastern Europe containing beets or cabbage. Other ingredients
may include potatoes, beans, meat or sausage. The best known of these soups is a cold
version based on beets and served with sour cream, but hot versions are very common.
Bouchee - A small round puff pastry shell used for sweet or savory fillings.
Boudin - Smooth sausages of two types. Boudin blanc contain veal, pork, and chicken.
Boudin noir are made with blood and rice or potatoes. The latter type are popular in
European and Creole cooking.
Bouillabaisse - A rich fish stew from southern France. This was once a poor man's meal
made of any fish available. Modern versions include lobster and shrimp. The broth is
flavored with garlic, orange peel, fennel, and saffron. Olive oil is added to the stew and
rapidly boiled to blend it into the broth. The stew is served with croutons and rouille, a
variation of aioli.
Bouquet Garni - A sachet of herbs, containing parsley, thyme, and bay leaf. Variations may
include rosemary, marjoram, fennel, leeks, celery leaves, and black pepper.
Bourguignonne - Foods cooked in the style of Burgundy. This includes red wine,
mushrooms, pearl onions, and bacon.
Bourride - Another fish stew from southern France. Here the broth, in which large pieces of
fish are poached, is strained and thickened with aioli. The two are then served together in
shallow bowls with bread or croutons.
Bran - The outer husk of grains such as wheat, containing a high percentage of fiber. White
flours have the bran removed. Whole wheat flours may contain all or part of the bran.
Brandade - A puree of salt cod mixed with olive oil and potatoes. Another version of
brandade is covered with Gruyere cheese and browned in the oven. Both are served with
croutons.
Bresaola - A cured and dried beef filet from Italy with a more delicate texture but stronger
flavor than that of prosciutto. A Swiss version of this is called bundnerfleisch. This style is
pressed into a rectangular shape and has a bit drier texture than bresaola. Both are served
thinly sliced with bread and fruit or pickled vegetables.
Brioche - A very rich bread with butter and eggs. Brioche is baked in many shapes though
the brioche e tete is best known. The dough can be flavored with nuts or candied fruit, as

well as herbs and spices. It may also be used to wrap foods like coulibiac. Slices of toasted
brioche are the perfect companion to foie gras and gravlax.
Brochette - Skewers of meat, fish, or vegetables that are grilled over a flame and simply
served.
Brunoise - A very fine dice usually applied to vegetables.
Bruschetta - Grilled slices of bread brushed with olive oil and fresh garlic. This was the
original garlic bread.
Bucatini - Long, narrow tubes of pasta usually served with a hearty meat sauce.
Buffet - A vast array of hot and cold foods, often elaborately garnished.
Bulghur - Cracked wheat made from the whole kernel that has been cooked and dried.
Most commonly used in breads and tabbouleh salad.
Butter - A cooking and eating fat that is made from sweet or sour cream and, by federal law,
must contain a minimum of 80% butterfat. Butter absorbs odors easily and is highly
susceptible to rancidity. To avoid either of these problems, store butter in the refrigerator no
longer than 2 weeks. For longer storage, butter may be frozen for up to 6 months without
deterioration.
Butter-Cultured - Cultured butter is butter churned from cultured cream (cream fraiche).
Most butter produced in the U.S. before 1920 was cultured butter, but in the 20's, the U.S.
Government guaranteed the sale of every pound of butter produced, so quality became a
non-issue and sweet cream butter prevailed.
Buttermilk - Originally a by-product of butter making, buttermilk is commercially produced
by adding lactic acid culture to skimmed or partially skimmed milk.
Calabacita - A variety of summer squash found in Latin American and Mexican cooking.
Calamari - The Italian word for squid.
Caldo Verde - A Portuguese soup made from a sharp flavored cabbage, potatoes, broth,
and olive oil. Sausage is then cooked in the soup.
Calzone - A half-moon shaped pizza turnover, often served with sauce over the top rather
than inside.
Canape - Small open-faced sandwiches served as snacks or for lunch. They may be served
hot or cold, but they are often elaborately garnished.
Cannelloni - An Italian dish made of sheets or tubes of pasta filled with meat, cheese or
fish, sauced and baked au gratin. Variations of this use thin pancakes, called crespelle,
which are similar to crepes and are filled and cooked in the same manner as the pasta.
Cannoli - A crisp pastry tube filled with sweetened ricotta cheese, chocolate chips, and
candied fruit. Cinnamon and vanilla are common flavorings for this cheese mixture.
Caper - The pickled bud from the caper bush which is used in sauces and as condiments for
smoked fish and nicoise salad.
Capicolla - A coarse Italian pork sausage. Usually highly seasoned, this sausage is served
cold, thinly sliced, as for prosciutto.
Capon - A castrated chicken that is savored for its delicate taste and texture. Once
castrated, the chicken would become fattened, yielding tender, juicy flesh. This method of
raising chickens is not practiced much anymore, since most chickens are butchered at a
young age and still very tender.

Caponata - Best known as a spread or cold salad containing eggplant, celery, tomatoes,
raisins, and pine nuts seasoned with vinegar and olive oil. Modern variations will add other
vegetables such as zucchini and season it with fresh herbs.
Capsicum - The family name for sweet and hot peppers.
Carbonara - An ultra-rich pasta sauce consisting of pancetta, eggs, and parmesan cheese.
Actually less of a sauce than a preparation, hot pasta is tossed with the rendered pancetta
fat, the eggs, and then the cheese. Crisp pancetta and black pepper are tossed into the
pasta just before serving.
Cardamom - Aromatic seeds used for baking, flavoring coffee and exotic Scandinavian and
Indian dishes. Excellent when freshly ground. Botanical name: Elettaria cardamomum.
Cardinal - Fish dishes which have sauces made with lobster fumet and are garnished with
lobster meat.
Cardoon - A vegetable from the artichoke family that looks like celery. Cardoons may be
eaten raw or cooked and served like any vegetable.
Carob - The seed from the carob tree which is dried, ground, and used primarily as a
substitute for chocolate.
Carpaccio - An Italian dish made of paper thin slices of beef dressed with olive oil and
parmesan cheese. Slices of raw white truffles are an excellent partner to this dish.
Cassoulet - A dish from southwest France consisting of white beans and an assortment of
meats like confit, lamb, pork, and Toulouse sausage. The dish is enriched with large
amounts of duck fat and is baked until the top is brown and crispy. Variations of this dish
include seafood and lentils. This dish is very substantial and needs nothing else to be served
with it but a bitter green salad to cut through the richness.
Caul Fat - The stomach lining of pork which is used in place of back fat for pates and to
encase crepinettes.
Caviar - These are the eggs of sturgeon that have been salted and cured. Grading for caviar
is determined by the size and color of the roe and the species of the sturgeon. Beluga caviar,
which is the most expensive of the three types of caviar, are dark gray in color and are the
largest eggs. Ossetra caviar are light to medium brown and are smaller grains than beluga.
Sevruga caviar are the smallest grains, the firmest in texture and are also gray in color.
Pressed caviar is made of softer, lower quality eggs and have a stronger, fishier flavor. The
term malossol is used to describe the amount of salt used in the initial curing process. The
roe from other fish such as salmon, lumpfish, and whitefish are not considered caviar,
regardless of their label. They should be addressed as roe. Caviar should be served as
simply as possible. Traditional accompaniments, inspired by the Russians, are sour cream,
blinis, and ice cold vodka. Lemon and minced onion are often served with caviar, but their
flavors will only detract from the pure delicate flavor of the caviar.
Celeriac - The root of a type of celery with a firm texture and a clean, sweet flavor of celery.
Cepes - A wild mushroom of the boletus family known for their full flavor and meaty texture.
Cervil - A mild-flavored member of the parsley family, this aromatic herb has curly, dark
green leaves with an elusive anise flavor. Though most chervil is cultivated for its leaves
alone, the root is edible and was, in fact, enjoyed by early Greeks and Romans. Today it is
available dried but has the best flavor when fresh. Both forms can be found in most
supermarkets. It can be used like parsley but its delicate flavor can be diminished when
boiled.

Chai - The Indian name for tea, often served with milk and sugar.
Chanterelle - A wild mushroom with a golden color and a funnel-shaped cap. The whole
mushroom is edible and is savored for its exquisite flavor and firm texture when cooked.
Chantilly - This is a name for sweetened whipped cream flavored with vanilla. The term may
also be used to describe sauces that have had whipped cream folded into them. This
includes both sweet and savory sauces.
Chapati - A whole wheat Indian flatbread that can be grilled or fried.
Charcuterie - The French word for the variety of pork preparations that are cured, smoked,
or processed. This includes sausages, hams, pates, and rillettes. This term may also imply
the shop in which these products are sold and the butchers who produce it.
Charlotte - The name for two different desserts. The first preparation is made of slices of
bread which are lined in a mold, filled with fruit, and baked until the bread acquires a golden
color and crisp texture. The second version, similar to the first, lines a mold with cake or lady
fingers and is filled with a bavarian cream. These may also be filled with whipped cream or
even a fruit mousse. More elaborate versions layer the cake with jam, then slices of this
cake is used to line the mold.
Charmoula - A sauce and marinade used in Middle Eastern cooking made of stewed onions
flavored with vinegar, honey and a spice mixture called "rasel hanout". This is a complex
spice mixture containing cinnamon, black pepper, cloves, cumin and sometimes paprika and
coriander. This sauce is used on meat and fish and can even be adjusted to make a unique
vinaigrette.
Chateaubriand - A thick slice of beef from the heart of the tenderloin, grilled or sauted and
simply sauced. Many restaurants claim their chateaubriand to be the head of the tenderloin,
cut for two, which is roasted and carved tableside.
Chaud-Froid - Meat or fish that has been poached or roasted, chilled and served cold,
masked with a thick sauce and glazed with aspic. The whole preparation was once quite
popular and used consistently on elaborate buffets. Modern tastes have moved away from
this style of food, opting for cleaner, less adulterated flavors.

<Chayote - A pear shaped squash, used in Latin American cooking, with a taste of zucchini.
Chayote may be eaten raw or cooked as you would any summer squash.
Cherimoya - Also called the custard apple, this is a tropical fruit with a creamy texture and
sweet pineapple flavor.
Chevre - The French word for goat, generally referring to goat's milk cheeses.
Chiboust - A custard made originally as the filling for the gteau Saint-Honor, consisting of
pastry cream lightened with Italian meringue and stabilized with gelatin.
Chicharron - Crispy fried pigskin used in Mexican cooking for salads, fillings and snacks.
Chiffonade - A very fine julienne of vegetables usually associated with leafy herbs, lettuces,
or greens.
Chilaquiles - A family style Mexican dish of refried corn tortillas simmered in a sauce of
tomatoes, chiles, and garlic. This is a highly seasoned dish, often served as a brunch or
lunch dish with eggs or grilled meats.
Chili Rellenos - A Mexican dish consisting of a batter-fried, cheese stuffed, pablano chili
pepper.
Chinois - French word for "Chinese". Also refers to a "China Cap", a very fine mesh, conical

strainer.
Chipotle - A dried and smoked jalapeo which can be found dried or reconstituted and sold
in tomato sauce. These chiles are extremely hot and caution should be taken when using
them in cooking.
Chive - Related to the onion and leek, this fragrant herb has slender, vivid green, hollow
stems. Chives have a mild onion flavor and are available fresh year-round. They are a good
source of vitamin A and also contain a fair amount of potassium and calcium.
Chocolate - A product of cocoa beans in which the chocolate liquor is mixed with cocoa
butter in various proportions to produce the different varieties of chocolate. Bitter chocolate
has no additional ingredients added. Other varieties of chocolate have additional cocoa
butter added, along with sugar, milk, and vanilla.
Chorizo - A spicy pork sausage from all Hispanic countries, ranging in seasoning from mild
and sweet to fiercely hot. Hotter versions come from areas of Spain and Portugal. Mexican
versions contain a large variety of chiles and have a mealier texture and more complex
flavor. Some of them even use fresh herbs giving it a green color. Portugal makes a cousin
to this sausage called the linguisa, that is smoked and much hotter.
Choron - A variation of Bearnaise sauce with tomato puree or concasse added.
Choucroute - An Alsatian specialty consisting of sauerkraut that is simmered with assorted
fresh and smoked meats and sausages. This is a grand dish served on huge platters so that
diners may witness all of the components displayed at one time. The kraut is first washed,
then seasoned with garlic, caraway seeds, and white wine. The meats are layered in the
casserole with the kraut and cooked until all the meat is tender and the flavors have blended
together. Pork sausages, smoked pork shanks and shoulders, and fresh pork loin are all
used. A variation of this, though not actually called a choucroute, is a whole pheasant
cooked in sauerkraut with champagne. There are other recipes that consist of solely fish in
with the sauerkraut. This can be quite delicious if properly prepared.
Chutney - The name for a large range of sauces or relishes used in East Indian cooking.
Fresh chutneys have a bright, clean flavor and are usually thin, smooth sauces. Cilantro,
mint, and tamarind are common in fresh chutney. Cooked chutneys have a deeper, broader
flavor.
Cioppino - A rich fish stew from San Francisco made with shrimp, clams, mussels, crabs,
and any available fish. The broth is flavored with tomato, white wine, garlic, and chile flakes.
This stew needs no other courses served but a simple green salad and a lot of sourdough
bread.
Civet - A French stew usually containing game, though duck and goose are used. The meat
is marinated in red wine for long periods of time, then stewed with pearl onions and bacon.
The sauce was once thickened with blood, but that is a method not used much anymore.
Clafouti - A dessert of fruit, originally cherries, covered with a thick batter and baked until
puffy. The dessert can be served hot or cold.
Clotted Cream - This specialty of Devonshire, England (which is why it is also known as
Devon cream) is made by gently heating rich, unpasteurized milk until a semisolid layer of
cream forms on the surface. After cooling the thickened cream is removed. It can be spread
on bread or spooned atop fresh fruit or desserts. The traditional English "cream tea" consists
of clotted cream and jam served with scones and tea. Clotted cream can be refrigerated,
tightly covered, for up to four days.

Cock-a-Leekie - A thick Scottish soup made with chicken, leeks, and barley. Modern
versions have lightened up this soup by using a chicken broth garnished with leeks and
barley.
Cocoa Powder - This is the dried powder formed from chocolate liquor after the cocoa
butter content has been reduced. This mixture is then dried and ground into a fine powder.
Dutch process cocoa has been treated with alkali to give a darker appearance and less bitter
taste. Breakfast cocoa has sugar, milk solids, and other flavorings added to it.
Coconut Milk - This is not the liquid that is found in the center of coconuts, but a thick liquid
made by steeping fresh grated coconut in hot water. The hot water helps to extract the fat
from the coconut meat, which carries so much of this flavor.
Coeur la Crme - Meaning "the heart of the cream", this is a soft cheese dessert where
the mixture is drained in a mold to help it set. The cheese is then turned out onto a platter
and served with fruit and bread.
Coeur e la Creme - Meaning "the heart of the cream", this is a soft cheese dessert where
the mixture is drained in a mold to help it set. The cheese is then turned out onto a platter
and served with fruit and bread. Alternate versions use mixtures of ricotta and cream cheese
and flavored with liquor and citrus juice. This is then molded and served with a berry coulis.
Collard Greens - One of a variety of "greens" with a firm leaf and sharp flavor.
Colombo - A West Indian stew seasoned with a spice mixture of the same name. This is
similar to curry powder, containing coriander, chiles, cinnamon, nutmeg, saffron, and garlic.
The stew may contain pork, chicken, or fish. Vegetables are cooked in the stew and rice and
beans are served on the side.
Compote - Dried and fresh fruit cooked with sugar to a jam like consistency, brief enough to
allow the fruit to retain their individual identity.
Concasse - The term for chopping a vegetable coarsely. This is used most often when
referring to chopped tomatoes.
Conchiglie - Large shell shaped pasta noodles. These are often stuffed and baked au
gratin. Small shells are called conchigliette.
Confit - This is a preparation for meat to preserve it for long periods of time when fresh meat
would be scarce. The meat is first salted to remove moisture. It is then cooked at the lowest
of simmers, submerged in fat, until the meat is buttery tender. After the meat is cooled, it is
stored in crocks and covered with the fat to prevent exposure to air. The whole crock is
stored to help age the meat. During this aging period the meat develops a new flavor,
completely different from its original state. When ready to eat, the meat is fried in a skillet or
grilled until the skin is crisp and the meat is warmed through. Duck confit was once served
with potatoes fried in the same duck fat as the confit. This practice is less popular now, but
good companions to the confit are lentils or bitter green salads to balance the richness of the
meat. Fatty meats such as duck, goose, and pork work best in confit. Confit is an
indispensable component in cassoulet.
Consomme - A clarified broth used as a base for sauces and soups.
Coppa - The loin or shoulder of pork that is cured, cooked and dried. It is served thinly sliced
for antipasto or on sandwiches or pizza.
Coq au Vin - A chicken stew flavored with red wine, bacon, mushrooms, and pearl onions.
Corn Syrup - Dextrose, maltose, or glucose obtained by converting starch with acids. This

syrup is used in baking, primarily to prevent the crystallization of sugar.


Cotechino - A fresh pork sausage with a very fine consistency and delicate flavor. It
contains a small amount of ground pork rind, coteca in Italian, thus giving it the name.It is a
large sausage, about 3"X 9", used in stews and pasta e fagioli.
Coulibiac - A Russian pie made with alternating layers of salmon, hard cooked eggs, rice,
mushroom duxelle, and vesiga. Vesiga is the spinal marrow of sturgeon and has all but
disappeared from commercial markets. The dough used to wrap the pie can be pate brisee,
puff pastry, or brioche dough. Crepes are often layered in the bottom of the pie.
Coulis - A puree of fruit or vegetables, used as a sauce or flavoring agent to other sauces or
soups. As sauces, they are thinned down just enough to reach the proper consistency, but
not so much as to alter the intense flavor of the puree.
Courgette - The French word for zucchini.
Court-Bouillon - A well-seasoned cooking liquor, sometimes made with broth, used to
poach fish and shellfish. Court-bouillons mainly consist of wine, water, herbs, and onion.
Vinegar is sometimes added to the bouillon to help set the fish and enhance its white color.
Truite au bleu is a perfect example of this technique.
Couscous - A pasta made from semolina (which itself is a flour made from Durum
wheat).The name couscous also refers to the famous Maghreb dish in which semolina or
cracked wheat is steamed in the perforated top part of a special pot called a couscoussiere,
while chunks of meat (usually chicken or lamb), various vegetables, chickpeas and raisins
simmer in the bottom part. The cooked semolina is heaped onto a large platter, with the
meats and vegetables placed on top. Diners use chunks of bread to scoop the couscous
from the platter.
Crackling - Crispy pieces of skin remaining after the fat is rendered. Commonly made from
pork, duck, and goose it is used in salads, stuffings, and seasonings.
Cream - This is the portion of milk that rises to the top when milk has not been
homogenized. Cream is defined by its varying amounts of butterfat content. Half and half
cream is a mixture of milk and cream, resulting in a butterfat content of 12%. Sour cream
and light cream have a butterfat content of 18-20%. Heavy cream will have no less than 30%
butterfat, averages around 36%, and will go as high as 40%.
Creme Anglaise - This is a custard made of milk and eggs. It is used both as a sauce for
desserts and as a base for mousses.
Creme Caramel - Like the Spanish flan, this is a baked custard that is flavored with
caramel. When the dish is inverted, the caramel creates a sauce for the dessert.
Creme Fraiche - A naturally thickened fresh cream that has a sharp, tangy flavor and rich
texture. This is an expensive item to buy, but a good substitute can be made by mixing
heavy cream with uncultured buttermilk and allowed to stand, well covered, in a tepid place
until thickened.
Creme Patissierre - This is a thick pastry cream made of milk, eggs, and flour. Other
versions of this use all or a portion of cornstarch.
Crepaze - A cake made of crepes layered with vegetables, cheese, or ham. The cake is then
baked to blend the flavors and help set it so that it may be cut into wedges.
Crepe - A very thin pancake used for sweet and savory fillings.
Crepinette - A small sausage patty wrapped in caul fat. They are filled with ground pork,

veal, or poultry and fried or grilled. Some are shaped into balls. You may also use cooked
meat or vegetables to flavor a forcemeat in the crepinette.
Crespelle - An Italian pancake, similar to a crpe, used in place of pasta in preparations of
dishes like manicotti and cannelloni.
Croque-Monsieur - The French version of a grilled ham and cheese sandwich with Gruyere
cheese.
Croquembouche - A grand dessert made up of cream puffs that are dipped in caramel and
assembled into a large pyramid shape. The whole dessert is then brushed with more
caramel and elaborately decorated.
Croquette - A thick patty made up of cooked foods. These patties or balls are breaded and
fried or sauted. Vegetables, fish, or meat may be used in croquettes.
Crostini - Toasted bread slices which are brushed with olive oil and served with tomatoes,
pumate, cheese, chicken liver mousse, bean puree, or tapenade. These are the Italian
version of canaps.
Croutons - Bread that is cut into smaller pieces and toasted or fried until crisp. This includes
cubes for salads and slices for soups and hors d'oeuvres.
Crudite - A selection of raw vegetables served with a dip.
Culatello - The heart of the prosciutto.
Cumberland Sauce - An English sauce used for ham, game, and pts. The sauce is made
of currant jelly mixed with lemon and orange juice and port wine.
Curry Powder - This is a mix of spices that we have come to know of by the Muslim variety
found in stores. Yet this is a mixture that is unique to everyone's kitchen. They may be mild
with spices like cumin, fennel, and coriander; or heated up a bit with chiles and pepper; or
fragrant with cinnamon and saffron. All of these are considered curry powders and all of
them have distinctly different applications. Look under the definition for garam masala for
more information.
Cuttlefish - A cousin to the squid, that is also prized for its ink sac as well as its flesh.
Dacquoise - A cake made of nut meringues layered with whipped cream or buttercream.
The nut meringue disks are also referred to as dacquoise.
Daikon - A large oriental radish with a sweet, fresh flavor. Can be as fat as a football but is
usually 2 to 3 inches in diameter. Use raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cook in a
variety of ways including stir-fry.
Dal - This is the Indian term for all varieties of dried beans, split peas, and lentils. There are
many different varieties of dal, all of which have a specific use in Indian cooking.

- The Larousse Gastronomique describes a 'darne' as a transverse slice of


a large raw fish, such as hake, salmon or tuna.
Dashi - A Japanese fish stock made with dried bonito and kombu seaweed. This is used for
soups, sauces, and marinades.
Daube - A stew consisting of a single piece of meat such as a shoulder or joint. The meat is
stewed in a rich, wine laden broth with herbs and vegetables. The broth is then thickened,
reduced and served with the slices of meat and accompanying vegetables.
Dauphine - The name for little puffs made of potato puree, that are mixed with choux paste
and deep fried.

Dauphinoise - The name of a potato gratin with lots of cream and garlic, all topped with
Gruyere cheese.
Deglaze - A process of adding liquid to a hot pan in order to collect the bits of food which
stick to the pan during cooking. This is most common with sauted and roasted foods. Wine,
stock, and vinegar are common deglazing liquids.
Demi-Glace - A rich brown sauce comprised of espagnole sauce, which is further enriched
with veal stock and wine and reduced to proper consistency. This is a very long procedure
and requires constant skimming. A quick version of this involves reducing brown veal stock
to which has been added mirepoix, tomato paste, wine, and brown roux. The latter recipe
saves time, but never reaches the intensity of flavor as does the former method. Due to the
quantity and length of time required to prepare it, it is not usually made in the home.
However it is available for home gourmands.
Devon Cream - Please see "Clotted Cream"
Dijonnaise - This is a name given to dishes that contain mustard or are served with a sauce
that contains mustard.
Dim Sum - A selection of small dishes served for snacks and lunch in China. These dishes
include a wide selection of fried and steamed dumplings, as well as, various other sweet and
savory items.
Ditalini - Short pasta tubes.
Dolma - A cold hors d oeuvre made of grape leaves stuffed with cooked rice, lamb, and
onion. They are marinated with olive oil and lemon. Vegetarian versions of this are also
made.
Dry Aging - A process usually referring to beef. This process not only adds flavor but
tenderizes the beef through enzyme action. Maximum flavor and tenderness is acheived in
21 days.
Duchess - The name for potato puree that is enriched with cream, then piped into
decorative shapes and browned in the oven. They are often piped around the rim of a platter
onto which a roast or whole fish may be served.
Durian - A large fruit from southeast Asia that has a creamy, gelatinous texture and a
nauseating smell similar to that of stinky feet. The flesh is savored by many from this area,
but outsiders find it a difficult flavor to become accustomed.
Duxelle - Finely chopped mushrooms that are cooked in butter with shallots and wine.
When cooked dry, duxelle make a good filling for omelets, fish, and meat. They may also be
moistened with wine or broth and served as a sauce. Duxelle are also flavored with fresh
herbs and brandy or Madeira.
Effiler - To remove the fibrous string from a string bean; to thinnly slice almonds.
Egg Threads - Lightly beaten eggs that are poured slowly into a hot broth, creating irregular
shaped threads used to garnish soups.
Emincer - To cut fruit into thin slices, shorter than for julienne. This term is most often used
when referring to meats, but it also applies to fruits and vegetables.
Empanada - A small savory pie from Spain and South America. Fillings may be made of
meat, seafood, or vegetables. The fillings can be seasoned in many ways. Those from
around Spain are flavored with peppers, onions, and tomatoes. Those from South America
have a sweet/sour undertone from the addition of raisins and green olives. Crusts may be

made from bread dough or flaky dough like pate brisee and puff pastry.
Entrecote - A steak cut from the rib section of beef. It is boneless and has a very thin layer
of fat. Though steaks cut from the loin ends of the rib are a finer quality steak, the whole rib
may be used for entrecete. The term is sometimes used referring to a strip steak. This is not
an accurate description. This cut of beef is called the faux-filet or contre-filet.
Escabeche - A highly seasoned marinade used to flavor and preserve food. Fish and
chicken are the most common foods used for escabeche. First the meat is fried and placed
in a dish large enough to hold all of the food in one layer. Then a marinade made of onions,
peppers, vinegar, and spices is poured over the food while hot. The whole dish is then
allowed to rest overnight and served cold.
Escalope - A thinly sliced food similar to a scallopine. This may consist of meat, fish, or
vegetables.
Espagnole Sauce - This is the foundation of all of the brown sauces. A number of
modifications have been made of this sauce since its conception. The sauce is now made of
a rich brown veal stock thickened with a brown roux. The sauce is then simmered with a
mirepoix, bouquet garni, and wine. The long, slow cooking help to purify and concentrate its
flavor. It is finally strained through very fine muslin. Demi-glace and glace de viande are all
structured around a fine espagnole sauce.
Falafel - A Middle Eastern specialty consisting of small, deep-fried croquettes or balls made
of highly spiced, ground chickpeas. They are generally tucked inside pita bread, sandwich
style, but can also be served as appetizers. A yogurt or tahini-based sauce is often served
with falafel.
Farfalle - Bow tie shaped pasta.
Fava Bean - This tan, rather flat bean resembles a very large lima bean. It comes in a large
pod which, unless very young, is inedible. Fava beans can be purchased dried, cooked in
cans and, infrequently, fresh. If you find fresh fava beans, choose those with pods that are
not bulging with beans, which indicates age. Fava beans have a very tough skin, which
should be removed by blanching before cooking. They are very popular in Mediterranean
and Middle Eastern dishes. They can be cooked in a variety of ways and are often used in
soups. Also called faba bean, broad bean and horse bean.
Feijoa - A fruit grown in New Zealand with a thin green skin and a flavor reminiscent of
strawberry, banana, and pineapple.
Feijoada - A Brazilian dish very similar to cassoulet, made with black beans. Sausage,
bacon, ham, and various cuts of pork are cooked in with the beans. The traditional
accompaniments are plain white rice, cooked greens, fresh orange slices, and a very hot
sauce, similar to pico de gallo, called molho carioca. Toasted cassava flour is used as a
condiment, to be added by each diner. This too is a very substantial dish and needs little
else to accompany it.
Fen Berry - Fen Berry is another name for a small variety of cranberry - also known as
cram-berry, crawberry, moss-millions, sow-berry, sour-berry, marsh wort, bog-berry and
swamp red-berry. It is found in many English recipes.
Fenugreek - A very hard seed grown in the Middle East, which is used as a spice. Its
dominant flavor and aroma is recognizable in commercial curry powders.
Fettuccine - Flat narrow pasta noodles less than wide and a bit thicker than tagliatelle.
Ficelle - The French word for string. This is a term used in cooking to describe foods that

have been tied to a string and cooked in a broth. This was a practice in villages when a
communal pot was used to cook food. The string was used in order to allow the owners to
identify and recover their piece of meat. This is generally applied to tough cuts of meat that
require long periods of cooking. Yet, some restaurants are using the term to describe a more
tender cut of meat that is poached in a rich broth. Beef filet and duck breasts are two good
choices for this type of preparation.
Financier - A small cake or cookie that is made with ground nuts and whipped egg whites.
These are soft like sponge cake, and have a rich flavor of nuts.
Fines Herbes - A mixture of chopped fresh herbs consisting of tarragon, parsley, chervil and
chives. Dried herbs may also be used, but their delicacy is lost.
Finnan Haddie - The Scottish name for smoked haddock.
Five Spice Powder - A dry spice mix used in Chinese cooking consisting of cinnamon, star
anise, pepper, clove, and fennel.
Flan - This is a term that may be used to describe two different preparations. The first use of
this word is describes an open top tart that is filled with pastry cream and topped with fruit.
Flan is used in Spanish and Mexican cooking to describe an egg custard that is baked in a
large shallow dish, and flavored with caramel. The dish is inverted when served and the
excess caramel is used as a sauce for the flan. The flan may be flavored with orange, anise,
cinnamon, or liqueur.
Fleuron - A small crescent shaped pastry made of puff dough that is used to garnish fish
dishes and soups.
Florentine - This is used to describe foods that are cooked in the style of Florence. The
word is most commonly associated with dishes containing spinach and sometimes a cream
sauce. Steak cooked ala Florentine is a large T-bone steak, rubbed with olive oil and garlic,
grilled and served with fresh lemon on the side.
Flour - This is the finely ground grain of wheat, corn, rice, oat, rye, or barley. Unless
specified, this term refers to wheat flour. Flour is milled from a variety of wheats containing
different amounts of protein. The different levels of protein give each flour unique qualities.
All-purpose flour is the most commonly used, especially by the domestic market. This flour is
milled from both hard and soft wheats, giving it the strength needed in bread baking, but
leaving it tender enough for cakes and pastries. Bread flour has a higher protein content so
that it may withstand the constant expansion of the cell walls during proofing and baking.
Cake flour is milled from soft wheat, thus containing a very low protein content and
preventing the development of gluten. Pastry flour is of relatively low protein content,
containing just enough to help stabilize the products during leavening. Whole wheat flours
are milled from the whole kernel, thus giving it a higher fiber content and a substantial
protein content. Semolina is milled from hard durum wheat, being used mainly for
commercial baking and pasta production.
Focaccio - An Italian flatbread made with pizza or bread dough, that can be baked plain or
topped with onions, zucchini, eggplant, cheese, or whatever you choose.
Foie Gras - This literally means goose liver, but the term is used to describe the fattened
liver of both duck and geese. The birds are force fed a rich mixture to help expedite this
process. These livers are praised for their delicate flavor and rich, buttery texture. The
largest production of commercial foie gras is done in France and Israel. The US will only
allow this product to be imported in a cooked stage, either canned, vacuum-sealed, or

frozen. These are inferior products and will never highlight the true delicacy of foie gras. But
fresh foie gras is now available from breeders in the US. These foie gras are very fine
specimens, but a very high price goes along with them. Foie gras is prepared in a vast
number of ways, though one should remember to keep these as simple as possible to avoid
masking the flavor of this treasure.
Fondant - This is an icing made of sugar syrup and glucose, which is cooked to a specific
temperature and then kneaded to a smooth, soft paste. This paste can then be colored or
flavored and used as an icing for cakes and petit fours.
Fondue - There are several different types of fondue, the most notable of which is cheese
fondue. This is a Swiss specialty in which cheese is melted with wine, eggs, and seasonings
and served with bread and fresh vegetables. Fondue Bourguignonne is a pot of hot oil into
which the diners will cook strips of meat and dip them into an array of sauces on the table.
Similar to this is fondue Chinois where the hot oil is replaced by a rich chicken or meat broth.
The meat, and fish too, are then cooked in this stock and dipped in sauces. The Japanese
have a dish called shabu shabu, which is similar to this type of fondue. Named for the
swishing sound that the meat makes in the broth, this dish is also served with vegetables
and noodles in to be eaten along with the meat. A chocolate fondue is a chocolate bath,
flavored with liqueur and eaten with bread and fruit, like fresh berries. These are all dishes
eaten as much for their social qualities as their culinary grandeur. Their popularity in the US
has diminished over the last 15 years, only being seen in ski resorts and at private dinner
parties.
Fonduta - An Italian style fondue made of Fontina cheese and served over toast or polenta.
Exceptional with truffles.
Fougasse - A flatbread from France that was once served sweetened with sugar and
orange water. It is now more commonly seen as a bread eaten with savory dishes. In this
case, the dough is brushed with olive oil and sprinkled with herbs or salt before baking.
Foyot - This is a variation of a bearnaise sauce with the addition of a well reduced meat
glaze.
Frangipane - A pastry cream made of butter, eggs, flour, and finely ground almonds or
macaroons. Modern versions will use a combination of cornstarch and flour. The nuts must
be very finely ground for this to be successful. This type of raw cream is baked in the pastry
shell or crepe. Frangipane is also the name for a type of panada used in making forcemeats.
Fricassee - A stew prepared without the initial browning of the meat. Though chicken is the
most common form of this type of stew, fish, vegetables, and other meats are prepared in
this manner.
Frittata - An Italian open-faced omelet.
Fritter - Food that has been dipped in batter and deep fried or sauted. These may consist of
vegetables, meat, fish, shellfish, or fruit. The food may be dipped in the batter or mixed with
the batter and dropped into the hot fat to form little balls. Japanese tempura fried foods are a
type of fritter, though this term is not applied to it.
Fritto Misto - An Italian mixed fried platter, similar to the Japanese tempura platter. A
mixture of vegetables, meat, and fish are dipped in a light batter and quickly deep fried to
prevent a saturation of grease into the food.
Fruit Pectin - A substance found naturally in fruits such as apples, quince, and all citrus
fruits. Pectins ability to gel liquids makes it a key ingredient in jelly and jam making. You can

purchase pectin in powder or liquid form, or use high pectin fruits in the recipe.
Fugu - Japanese for swellfish; globefish; blowfish; ballonfish; puffer. Fugu is caught in winter
only, and it is eaten as chiri-nabe (hotpot) or fugu-sashi (raw fugu, sliced paper-thin). Only
licensed fugu chefs are allowed to prepare this fish in Japan, since it contains a deadly
poison.
Fumet - An aromatic broth made for use in soups and sauces. The flavor of a fumet is
usually concentrated on one item, though multiple ingredients may be used. The stock is
then reduced to concentrate this flavor. Fish and vegetable broths are more commonly called
fumets, but meat may also be used.
Fusilli - Spiral shaped pasta. Some versions are shaped like a spring. Other versions are
shaped like a twisted spiral.
Galanga - A root spice related to ginger, which has a musky flavor reminiscent of saffron. It
is found dried whole or in slices, and also in powder.
Galantine - A pate-like dish made of the skin of a small animal, most often chicken or duck,
which is stuffed with a forcemeat of this animal. Additional strips of meat, blanched
vegetables, and truffles are also layered with the forcemeat. This is then wrapped or tied and
poached in broth. Galantine are always served cold with their aspic, where as ballottines
may be hot or cold. These terms are often used interchangeably.
Galette - This is French for pancake, usually sweet, made of batters, doughs, or potatoes.
Brioche-type dough or puff pastry are often used. Small short butter cookies were once also
called galettes. The term has now been stretched to include preparations made of
vegetables or fish. Different from a croquette, these cakes are not breaded.
Garam Masala - This is an Indian curry mixture with a more complex flavor and aroma. The
mixture is always made fresh by the cook, never purchased pre-ground. The mixture may
include cumin, fennel, coriander, cardamom, cinnamon, saffron, pepper, chiles, and caraway.
These spice mixtures vary greatly between cooks and different dishes. Garam Masala is
also used as a condiment, being added to a dish at the end of cooking.
Gazpacho - A cold vegetable soup served throughout all of the Spanish countries. The most
common version is one made with a coarse puree of fresh tomatoes flavored with vinegar
and olive oil, embellished with diced raw vegetables like onions, cucumbers, and peppers. A
light gazpacho is made with a puree of cucumber, and served with an array of garnishes for
the diner to choose from. Roasted almonds, avocadoes, and croutons are common
garnishes.
Gelatin - A protein produced from animals, used to gel liquids. It is found in granular and
sheet form.
Gelato - An Italian frozen dessert, whose popularity has overwhelmed the US, is made of
whole milk and eggs. This gives it richness without flavors becoming masked by the fat from
cream. The flavors are very intense and the texture is soft and silky.
Genoise - A very rich sponge cake made with eggs and butter. This may be eaten as is with
whipped cream or fruit, but also used as the foundation for many other cake preparations.
Ghee - The Indian name for cooking fat. Most commonly used is clarified butter made from
the milk of buffaloes and yaks. In regions where milk is unobtainable, mustard and sesame
oil are used.
Glace - A highly reduced stock used as an essence in flavoring sauces and enriching soups
and stews. Veal glace is used for all meat preparations and stands up the best to the long

reduction required. Fish and shellfish glaces are used, but their flavor can become edirtye
tasting and bitter from too long of a reduction.
Gluten - The protein found in wheat flours.
Gnocchi - These are small dumplings made with flour, potatoes, and eggs. Other versions
include spinach, semolina, sweet potatoes, chopped herbs, and parmesan or ricotta cheese.
Once the gnocchi are made they are cooked in boiling water, and then sauced or tossed with
melted butter. Some recipes call for cooking the gnocchi in broth. Gnocchi is also the name
of a pasta with a similar shape.
Gougere - A savory pastry made of choux paste flavored with cheese. This may be made in
individual puffs or piped into a ring of puffs, which is served with a pool of sauce in the center
of the ring.
Goulash - A Hungarian soup/stew made with beef and liberally seasoned with paprika.
Some versions add gremolata at the very end of cooking or sprinkled over the top.
Granita - A coarse fruit ice similar to sorbet, without the meringue, which is often flavored
with liqueurs.
Granola - A combination of assorted toasted grain (oats), dried fruits and nuts usually
served as a breakfast cereal. Some blends are sweetened with honey and/or brown sugar.
Gratin - Dishes cooked in the oven which form a crust on the surface. This is expedited by
placing the dish under the broiler. Bread crumbs and cheese are often sprinkled on top of
these dishes to help form the crust.
Gravlax/Gravadlax - Whole salmon fillets that have been cured with salt, sugar, and
pepper, then flavored with dill. The salmon is then sliced paper thin and tradionally served
with pumpernickel bread, sour cream, capers, onion, and lemon.
Grecque - Foods that are prepared in the style of Greece. This is usually used for dishes
with lemon, garlic, and olive oil. But the addition of tomatoes, peppers, and fennel often
allows a dish to be called la grecque.
Gremolata - A mixture of chopped parsley, garlic, and lemon peel. This is added to stews at
the end of their cooking time to add a pungency to the dish. Used in some recipes for osso
buco a la Milanese, and Hungarian goulash.
Grissini - Italian bread sticks.
Gruyere - A moderate-fat cow milk cheese with a rich, sweet, nutty flavor that is prized for
both out-of-hand eating and cooking. It is usually aged for 10 to 12 months and has a golden
brown rind and a firm, pale-yellow interior with well-spaced medium-size holes.
Guacamole - A dip made of mashed avocadoes seasoned with onions, tomatoes, chiles,
and cilantro. This is mostly eaten as a dip for fried corn chips, but it is also very good with
raw vegetables. You may also use it as a filling for burritos and tacos.
Gumbo - A thick soup/stew made with meat or seafood served over plain white rice. Okra,
fil powder, and roux. All methods are acceptable, and all are considered traditional.
Harissa - A spice mixture used as both a condiment and a seasoning. Harissa contains
chiles which are ground with cumin, garlic, coriander, and olive oil. It becomes a thick paste
that is used as is in cooking or diluted with oil or stock to be used as a condiment.
Hoisin Sauce - A rich, dark, sweet barbecue sauce used in Chinese cooking for marinades
and basting. Hoisin sauce is easily recognizable in Mu Shu pork and Peking duck. The
sauce is made from soybean flour, chiles, red beans, and many other spices.

Hollandaise Sauce - This is the most basic of the egg and oil emulsified sauces. The only
flavoring is fresh lemon juice. This sauce must be kept warm, as excessive heat will cause it
to break. Because this is kept warm, it is not safe to keep it for long periods of time and
should never be reused from another meal period.
Horn of Plenty Mushroom - This is a wild mushroom with a hollow, funnel-shaped cap and
is dark gray or black in color. Because of this, it also has the name etrumpet of deathe. This
mushroom is somewhat stringy, but has a robust flavor and may be used to flavor sauces,
soups, or any other mushroom preparation.
Hyssop - Any of various herbs belonging to the mint family with aromatic, dark green leaves
that have a slightly bitter, minty flavor. Hyssop adds intrigue to salads, fruit dishes, soups
and stews. It is also used to flavor certain liqueurs such as Chartreuse.
Iago - A small British pastry or petit four.
Ibrik - A small, long-handled Turkish pot with a bulbous bottom, narrow waist and flared top.
Icefish - See rainbow smelt.
Icelandic lobester - See Norway lobster.
Infusion - An infusion is the flavor that is extracted from any ingredient such as tea leaves, herbs or
fruit by steeping them in a liquid such as water, oil or vinegar.
Involtini - Thin slices of meat or fish which are stuffed and rolled. They may then be sauteed, grilled,
or baked.

Jambalaya - A Creole version of paella, though more highly spiced. The only consistent
ingredients among all of the jambalaya recipes are rice, tomatoes, peppers, and onions.
Ingredients used for jambalaya are ham, oysters, chicken, Andouille sausage, duck, shrimp,
and game birds.
Jerusalem Artichoke - A tuber, also called sunchoke, with a very firm flesh and a flavor
reminiscent of globe artichokes. These are used as a vegetable, in soups, or cooked and
served in salads.
Jicama - A large bulbous root vegetable with a thin brown skin and white crunchy flesh. Its
sweet, nutty flavor is good both raw and cooked. It is a fair source for vitamin C and
potassium.
Julienne - Foods that are cut in long, thin strips. The term is usually associated with
vegetables, but may be applied to cooked meat or fish.
Jus - A rich, lightly reduced stock used as a sauce for roasted meats. Many of these are
started by deglazing the roasting pan, then reduced to achieve the rich flavor desired. A jus
lie is one that has been slightly thickened with cornstarch or flour.
Kalakukko - A Finnish dish of bread filled with fish.
Kebab - Also spelled kabob, these are skewers of meat, fish, or vegetables grilled over a
fire. All countries serve some version of this dish.
Kedgeree - A British variation of an Indian dish with rice, smoked fish, hard cooked eggs,
and bechamel sauce flavored with curry. Finnan Haddie is most often used, but smoked
sturgeon or salmon are excellent substitutes.
Kefir - A fermented milk drink similar to a lassi, flavored with salt or spices. Where available,
kefir is made with camel milk.
Ketchup - A term derived from Asian cookery, this sauce is known to be a sweet sauce
made from tomatoes. Other forms of ketchup are made from walnuts, mushrooms, and
grapes.

Kirsch - A clear brandy distilled from cherry juice and pits. In cookery, it is most prominently
known as a flavorful addition to fondue and cherries jubilee.
Kombu(Konbu) - A large edible seaweed used in Japanese cooking.
Kugelhopf - A yeast cake from Alsace baked in a large crown-like earthenware dish. It is
similar to brioche, though less rich, and flavored with currants or golden raisins and almonds.
This is mainly eaten for breakfast.
Kumquat - A very small citrus fruit with the unique quality of having a sweet skin and bitter
flesh. These are used in pastry making, preserves, and chutneys
Langouste - The French name for the spiny lobster, differentiating from Maine lobsters in
that they have no claws. Langoustes are warm water crustaceans that can be found in the
south Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, and off the coasts of South America, Australia
and the West Indies.
Langoustine - The French name for Dublin prawn. These are small pink crustaceans
resembling crayfish, with a taste and texture closest to lobster. Their claws are quite long but
have no edible meat in them. Like the langouste, these are found in warm waters.
Larding - A technique by which thin strips of back fat, or vegetables, are inserted into a
piece of meat. These strips help the meat to remain juicy during cooking. Larding with
vegetables gives the meat a contrast of color plus the addition of flavor. This practice is not
used as often now because of the higher quality of meat available to us.
Lasagna - Sheets of pasta which are layered with sauce and cheese and baked au gratin.
Meat, fish, shellfish, and vegetables are all used as fillings for this dish. Recipes from
northern Italy are simple preparations consisting of little more than sauce and cheese.
Contrary to this is lasagna al forno, filled with a rich bolognese sauce. Southern Italian
versions are more elaborate calling for the addition of sausages, mushrooms, and anything
else they may have on hand.
Lassi - A frothy yogurt drink, sweet or salty, flavored with pistachios, cardamom, cumin, or
rose water.
Lefse - A thin, flat potato pancake, about the consistency of a tortilla and cooked by similar
method. Very mild, starchy, slightly sweet taste. Lefse is enhanced by the addition of peanut
butter, brown sugar, or lutefisk.
Liaison - The process of thickening a sauce, soup, or stew. This includes all rouxs, starch
and water mixtures(slurries), beurre mani, and egg yolks with or without cream. Egg yolks
must be tempered with hot liquid before adding to the liquid in order to prevent curdling.
Limousin Beef - A breed of cattle which is naturally lower in fat and cholestrol. These cattle
were brought to the United States from France around 1930.
Linguine - Long, oval shaped pasta noodles. Hand cut versions of this are very narrow flat
noodles.
Linzertorte - An Austrian pastry comprised of a short crust dough flavored with ground
almonds and hazelnuts, cinnamon, and lemon zest. This is then spread with raspberry jam
and topped with a cross-hatch of dough. Almond paste is sometimes layered underneath the
raspberry jam. Other versions of this use fresh cranberries or apricots in the filling.
Lobster Mushroom - A wild mushroom that has a firm texture and a red and orange color
like lobster shells.
Lutefisk - A Norweigan fish dish of dried cod, cured in lye, then reconstitued by boiling.

Traditionally served with clarified butter or in white sauce and served with lefse. In its finest
form, lutefisk has a delicately mild buttery flavor and flaky consistency. In its not-so-fine form,
it is reminiscent of fish-flavored gelatin.
Lychee - A small fruit from China and the West indies, with a hard shell and sweet, juicy
flesh. The flesh is white with a gelatinous texture and a musky, perfumed flavor.
Lyonnaise Sauce - A classic French sauce preparation made with sauteed onions, white
wine and demi-glace. The sauce is strained before being served with meats and sometime
poultry.
Lyonnaise, la - A French term for in the manner of Lyons Dishes include onions which
have been cooked golden brown and seasoned with wine, garlic, and parsley
Macaire - A potato pancake made with seasoned potato puree.
Macaroon - A small round cookie that has a crisp crust and a soft interior. Many versions
bought commercially have been thoroughly dried. These cookies may be made from
almonds, though coconut is common in the US. The may also be flavored with coffee,
chocolate, or spices. Amaretti, from Italy, are a type of macaroon.
Macedoine - A mixture of fruit or vegetables. Vegetable macedoine are cut into small dice
and used as a garnish to meats. Fruit macedoine are cut in larger pieces and often
marinated in sugar syrup with liqueur.
Macerate - Soaking fruit or vegetables in wine, liquor, or syrup so that they may absorb
these flavors. Salt and sugar macerations are used to draw excess moisture out of the food
for a secondary preparation. This is done for canning, jam and preserve making, and to
remove bitter flavors from vegetables.
Mache - A wild lettuce with small round leaves that may be used for salads or cooked and
used as you would spinach. The taste is a little less pronounced than spinach. Mache grows
wild, and can be found in the fall. It is cultivated in France, Italy, and the US from September
to April.
Madeleine - A small shell shaped cookie or cake made from a rich batter similar to gnoise.
These may be flavored with almonds, lemon, or cinnamon.
Magret - The breast meat from a mallard or Barbary duck. These ducks are specially raised
for foie gras. Their breasts are large and have a much thinner layer of fat than do the Peking
or Long Island duckling.
Maitre d Hotel Butter - This is the most common of all the compound butters. It is flavored
with lemon and chopped parsley and used to garnish fish and grilled meats. Garlic may be
added, but it would then be called escargot butter.
Marengo - A chicken stew made with wine, tomatoes, and garlic. The stew is served over
toast, garnished with crayfish and fried eggs. The modern versions of this omit the eggs and
substitute shrimp for the crayfish. Of course, other liberties have been taken with this recipe
to include black olives, peppers, and veal. The dish is rumored to have been named for the
dish served to General Bonaparte after his army s defeat of the Austrians in the battle of
Marengo.
Margarine - A solid fat invented in 1869 by the French chemist Henri Mege-Mouries.
Margarine was first invented to replace butter in cooking and baking. It was then made solely
of beef fat. Margarine is now made with a variety of fats, alone or with others, along with the
addition of water, whey, yellow coloring, and vitamins. Beef fat is still used today, but with a
higher consciousness toward a healthier diet, it is very rare.

Marzipan - An almond paste with the addition of egg whites. This mixture is kneaded into a
smooth paste and used to wrap or layer cakes and candies. Marzipan is also shaped into
figures of animals, fruits, and vegetables, and sold in pastry or candy shops.
Mascarpone - A rich triple cream, fresh cheese from Italy with a texture resembling that of
solidified whipped cream.
Matafan - A thick pancake eaten sweet as a snack, or savory as an accompaniment to
cheese. They are also made with bacon, spinach, and potatoes.
Matelote - A French fish stew made with wine. The Alsatian version of this dish is made with
freshwater fish, Riesling wine, and thickened with cream and egg yolks. The Normandy
version includes seafood and is flavored with cider and Calvados. These stews are normally
embellished with pearl onions and mushrooms.
Matjes Herring - A reddish herring that has been skinned and filleted before being cured in
a spiced sugar-vinegar brine.
Mayonnaise - This is the mother of all of the cold egg and oil emulsified sauces.
Commercial versions are made with inferior oils and are far to thick for proper utilization. A
hand made version has a rich, subtle flavor and silky texture. You should always use a
neutral oil or a good olive oil. Avoid using an extra-virgin olive oil, which will offer too strong
of a flavor for most usage.
Melba - The name of a popular dessert invented by Auguste Escoffier. Poached peach
halves are served with vanilla ice cream and topped with fresh raspberry sauce.
Menudo - A soup similar to pozole with

addition of tripe and meat broth. This, too, is served with assorted condiments for the diners
to choose from.
Meringue - Whipped egg whites to which sugar has been added to form a stiff paste.
These are used to lighten mousses, cakes, and pastry creams. Unsweetened
versions are used to lighten forcemeats. Meringue is also baked in a very low oven,
forming crisp shells which are filled with fruit or ice cream. Small dried meringue
shells are called vacherin.
Mesclun - This is a mix of very young lettuces and greens. Often this mix is
stretched with herb or flower sprigs and bitter greens. These greens should be
dressed very lightly, with only best oil and vinegar, so that their flavor will not be
masked.
Mignonette - This is a term used to describe coarsely ground pepper used for au
poivre preparations and in bouquet garni. This is also used to describe small round
pieces of meat or poultry.
Milanese - This is used to describe foods that are dipped in egg and bread crumbs,

sometimes parmesan cheese, and fried in butter.


Mille-Feuille - Small rectangular pastries made of crisp layers of puff pastry and
pastry cream. This may also include savory fillings of similar presentation. The word
mille-feuille means a thousand leaves.
Mincemeat - A sweet spicy mixture of candied and fresh fruits, wine, spices, and
beef fat. Earlier recipes for this used beef or venison meat and beef fat. It is used
primarily as a filling for pies served during the Christmas holiday season.
Minestrone - An Italian vegetable soup with beans and pasta or rice. This may
contain any number of vegetables, but for authenticity, meat is never added.
Mirepoix - A mixture of chopped onion, carrot, and celery used to flavor stocks and
soups. Ham or bacon are sometimes added to a mirepoix, depending on the specific
preparation.
Mirin - A non-alcoholic version of sake/rice wine. It is sweet and syrupy.
Mise en Place - A term used in professional kitchens to describe the proper planning
procedure for a specific station.
Miso - A paste made from fermented soy beans. This is used in Japanese cooking
for sauces and soups.
Molasses - This is a syrup resulting from the crystallization of raw sugar from the
sap. Additional processing results in darker and stronger tasting molasses called
black strap.
Mole - An assortment of thick sauces used in Mexican cooking made of chiles.
These sauces are made with one or many chiles, and flavored with cumin, coriander,
cinnamon, nuts, seeds, and chocolate. Their flavor is rich, smoky, and very complex.
Some recipes are made with fresh herbs and have a green color. Chicken, turkey,
and pork are then simmered in this sauce.
Monosodium Glutamate - A sodium salt found in wheat, beets, and soy bean
products. It is used extensively in Chinese cookery, and thought to help accentuate
the flavors of certain foods. Many people suffer serious allergic reactions to this so
widespread use has been reduced to the commercial food processing industry.
Morel Mushroom - This is a wild mushroom with a honeycomb cap and hollow
stem. These are very dirty mushrooms and must be cleaned carefully. Morels

possess a wonderful earthy flavor, making them good candidates for soups, sauces,
and fillings.
Mornay Sauce - A bechamel sauce with Gruyere cheese, sometimes enriched with
egg yolks. It is used mainly for fish and vegetable preparations.
Mortadella - Large,lightly smoked sausages made of pork, beef, or veal. These are
specialties of Bologna, which is where the US version of this sausage gets its name.
Mortadella is a very smooth, pink sausage with a subtle creamy texture. They are
studded with cubes of pork fat and peppercorns.
Mostarda di Cremona - These are fruits cooked and marinated in a spicy, mustard
flavored syrup. It is a classic accompaniment to bollito misto. These fruits are also
used in sauces for veal, and assorted stuffed pasta fillings.
Moussaka - A layered dish of eggplant and lamb with tomatoes and onions. This is
all bound with bechamel sauce and cooked au gratin.
Mousse - Sweet or savory dishes made of ingredients which are blended and folded
together. These mixtures may be hot or cold, and generally contain whipped egg
whites to lighten them. Cream is also used to lighten these dishes, though when
used in large quantities, these preparations are called mousselines.
Mousseline - As stated above, these are fine purees or forcemeats that have been
lightened with whipped cream. The term is also used to describe a hollandaise sauce
which has unsweetened whipped cream folded into it.
Mousseron Mushroom - A wild mushroom with an off-white to beige color. The
flavor is full-bodied and the texture is fleshy like bolets.
Mulligatawny - A curried chicken soup adapted by the British from India. Originally
the soup was enriched with coconut milk and embellished with almonds and apples.
Newer versions make a lighter broth and flavor this with curry and coconut.
Nage - An aromatic broth in which crustaceans are cooked. The shellfish is then
served with this broth. The most notable of these dishes is lobster la nage.
Nantua - A name given to dishes containing crayfish. This includes crayfish tails and
sauces made with a crayfish fumet.
Navarin - French stew made with mutton or lamb and onions, turnips, potatoes, and
herbs.

Nicoise - Foods cooked in the style of Nice. These dishes may include garlic,
Nicoise olives, anchovies, tomatoes, and green beans. Salad Nicoise is the most
famous of all these dishes, consisting of potatoes, olives, green beans, and
vinaigrette dressing.
Noisette - A small round steak, made of lamb or beef tenderloin.
Noisette Butter - Whole butter which has been cooked until it reaches a rich, nutty
brown color and aroma.
Nori Seaweed - Thin dry sheets of seaweed used in Japanese cooking. It is mainly
used to wrap sushi and as garnish for other cold presentations.
Nougat - A candy made from sugar and honey mixed with nuts. This mixture is then
formed into slabs and sliced.
Nougatine - A darker candy, made of caramel syrup and nuts. This is rolled into thin
sheets and formed into cups or bowls to serve as a vessel for other candy or fruit.
Nuoc-Mam - This is a Vietnamese fish sauce made with fermented fish or shrimp.
Another name for this is nam pla.
Nutella - A commercial brand of gianduja. This is a creamy paste of chocolate and
hazelnuts treasured in Italy. This is used in candy making, for flavored milk drinks,
and when thinned out, spread on bread as a quick snack.
Oeuf - The French word for egg.
Oeuf a la Neige - Sweet meringue puffs that are poached in milk and chilled. When
served, these puffs are drizzled with caramel and served with creme anglaise.
Olive Oil - Olive oil has a very distinctive flavor, and has become more prominent in
American cooking today. Gradings of olive oils are determined by the methods of
extraction and the acid content of the resulting oil. Virgin oils are those obtained
from the first pressing of the olive without further refinement. The finest olive oil is
extra virgin, with an acid content of 1%. Following this are superfine at 1.5%, fine at
3%, and virgin at 4%. Pure olive oils are those which have been extracted by heat.
These are of 100% olive oil, but their flavor can result in a harsh, bitter
aftertaste. Pomace olive oil is refined from the final pressings and under heat and
pressure. The taste is inferior to other olive oils and should never be substituted for
them. Olive oil becomes rancid very easily, more so when exposed to heat or light.

Always store tightly sealed in a cool, dark place.


Olives - This is the edible fruit of the olive tree. Found in both green(unripe) and
black(ripe) forms, each must undergo a process to remove the bitterness found in
them. This curing process is done with brine solutions, salt curing, and drying.
Opakapaka - Pink snapper. A local Hawaiian favorite, especially around the
holidays.
Orzo - Small rice shaped pasta.
Oseille - French term for sorrel.
Osso Buco - An Italian dish comprised of crosscut slices of the veal shank braised
with vegetables, aromatics, and stock. Milanese style is served with saffron risotto
and gremolata.
Ouzo - A clear anise-flavored liqueur from Greece. It is generally mixed with water
which turns it whitish and opaque.
Oyster Mushroom - A wild mushroom that grows in clusters on the side of trees. It is
off-white to greyish in color and has a soft texture. These mushrooms have a very
subtle flavor. They are also being cultivated in the US, making them readily available
in markets and moderately priced.
Paella - A Spanish rice dish originating in the town of Valencia. There are hundreds
of recipes for paella, all claiming to be authentic. The only ingredients that are
necessary for paella are rice, tomatoes, and saffron. Other ingredients are chicken,
chorizo, mussels, squid, peppers, and beans. More elaborate preparations include
shrimp, lobster, and duck.
Paillard - A piece of meat or fish that has been pounded very thinly and grilled or
sauteed.
Palmier - A cookie made of sheets of puff pastry that are rolled in sugar and folded
to resemble palm leaves. These cookies are baked until the sugar becomes
caramelized.
Pan-bagnat - A sandwich from southern France, consisting of small round loaves of
bread which have been hollowed out and filled with onions, anchovies, black olives,
and tuna, then drenched in extra virgin olive oil.
Panada - A thick paste used as a binding agent for forcemeats. Flour panadas are

made in a style similar to choux paste. Other types use bread crumbs or potato
puree.
Pancetta - Cured pork belly that is rolled and tied. Unlike American bacon, this is not
smoked.
Panforte - A rich dense torte made of candied fruit and nuts.
Panino - The Italian word for sandwich.
Pannetone - An Italian cake made with a dough rich in egg yolks, traditionally
served around Christmas time. The dough is studded with raisins, candied fruits, and
occasionally pistachios.
Panzanella - A salad consisting of toasted cubes of bread tossed with vegetables
and vinaigrette. The salad is then marinated for at least one hour. The bread should
be very firm so that it will endure the soaking of dressing. Vegetables can include
tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, and onions. Lots of garlic, capers, black olives, and
anchovies are added to the salad.
Pappardelle - Wide flat pasta noodles served with rich, hearty sauces.
Pasilla Chili Pepper - Called a chilaca in its fresh form. The mature chilaca turns
from dark green to dark brown. After drying (when it becomes a pasilla) it changes to
a blackish-brown. It has a rich hot flavor and is generally ground and used for
sauces.
Pasta e Fagioli - A rich bean soup with pasta, in which a large sausage(such as
cotechino) has been cooked. The soup is eaten first, followed by the sausage served
with mustard and bread.
Pastilla (Bistella) - A Moroccan pie made with chicken wrapped in phyllo dough.
When finished cooking, the pastilla is dusted with sugar and cinnamon.
Pastry Cream - A cooked custard thickened with flour. Some versions may use
cornstarch or a mixture of the two starches.
Pt - A French term referring to pastes or pastry.
Pt - A term referring to many different preparations of meat, fish and vegetable
pies. The definitions of which have been altered through the years. Originally
pat referred to a filled pastry much like American or English pies. Now the term pt
en croute is used to describe these preparations. Pt en terrine has been shortened

to either pt or terrine. A terrine is generally a finer forcemeat than that used for
pt, and is always served cold. Pts are coarser forcemeats and, as stated before,
are often prepared in a pastry crust. We now use these terms interchangeably and
inclusive of all styles of forcemeat. Look for definitions under ballottine and galantine.
Pt Choux - A paste used to make cream puffs, eclairs, and other more elaborate
pastries. It is made by adding flour to boiling water or milk, which has been enriched
with butter. Eggs are then added into the paste to leaven it. Savory pastries such as
gougere may also be made with this paste.
Pt a Foncer - A shortcrust pastry dough made with butter and strengthened with
water. Used as a lining for meat or fish pies.
Pt Brise - A short crust pastry dough made with butter and eggs.
Pt Feuilletae - A dough comprised of many alternating layers of butter and pastry.
This is an extremely versatile dough though preparation of it is labor intensive and
very difficult.
Pt Sable - Another type of sweet, short crust dough.
Pt Sucre - A sweet, short crust dough for tarts and tartlets.
Paupiette - A thin slice of meat, like a scallopine, which is stuffed and rolled. These
may also be made of fish or vegetables.
Penne - Quill-shaped pasta tubes with smooth sides. Those with ridges are called
penne rigati. These are also called mostaciolli. Large quill-shaped tubes are called
manicotti.
Perilla - A Japanese herb that has a dark, russet-purple dentate leaf. It has a
complex sweetness, and is wonderful in meat sauces and to make vinegar with. (this
definition courtesy of Joanna Sheldon)
Persillade - A mixture of chopped parsley and garlic, added to recipes at the end of
cooking.
Pesto - A delicious sauce used for pastas, grilled meats, and poultry. This is made of
fresh basil, garlic, olive oil, and parmesan cheese. Some versions will also add
parsley and walnuts or pine nuts. The ingredients are ground into a paste and
moistened with the olive oil. Pesto is also used to describe similar sauces that
contain other herbs or nuts.

Petit Four - A small cookie or cake served on elaborate buffets or at the end of a
multi-course meal.
Pico de Gallo - Literally meaning "rooster's beak", this is a very hot, raw salsa made
of fresh chiles, onions, and tomatoes.
Piroshki - Small Russian meat pies, like empanadas, eaten for lunch or snacks.
Pissaladiere - A southern French pizza consisting of a thick bread crust covered
with cooked onions flavored with garlic. The pizza is then topped with black olives
and anchovies.
Pita Bread - Flat round bread made with or without a pocket.
Poblano Chili Pepper - A dark, sometimes almost black green chili pepper with a
mild flavor. Best known for its use in "Chili Rellenos", a Mexican stuffed pepper.
Polenta - The Italian version of cornmeal. Coarsely ground yellow cornmeal is
cooked with stock or water and flavored with onions, garlic, and cheese. Polenta
may be eaten fresh out of the pot, as a perfect accompaniment to stews. Polenta
may also be poured into a greased pan and allowed to set. It is then sliced, sauted,
and topped with cheese or tomato sauce. When cooked properly, polenta is a simple
treasure.
Posole - Pozole - A Mexican soup containing hominy served with various
ingredients to be added by each diner. The base of the soup is water flavored with
onions, tomatoes(or tomatillos), and herbs. Hominy is cooked into this broth and
condiments include minced onion, avocado, lime wedges, oregano, queso fresco,
and fried pork skin. A similar soup to this is menudo. Without the pork skin, this
makes a perfect vegetarian soup.
Praline - In French cookery this is a powder or paste made of caramelized almonds
and/or hazelnuts. American cookery refers to a candy consisting of caramel and
pecans.
Profiterole - A small puff made with pate choux usually filled an served as an
appetizer.
Prosciutto - The Italian word for ham, usually referring to the raw cured hams of
Parma. Though once impossible to obtain in the United States due to USDA
regulations, fine prosciuttos from Italy and Switzerland are now being imported.

These hams are called prosciutto crudo. Cooked hams are called prosciutto cotto.
Prosciutto is best when sliced paper thin served with ripe figs or wrapped around
grissini.
Pumate - Italian for sun-dried tomatoes.
Puttanesca - A piquant pasta sauce made of tomatoes, onions, black olives, capers,
anchovies, and chile flakes. The hot pasta is tossed in this sauce prior to serving.
Some recipes leave the ingredients raw, allowing the heat of the pasta to bring out
the flavors.
Pyramide Cheese - A truncated pyramid is the shape of this small French chevre
that is often coated with dark gray edible ash. The texture can range from soft to
slightly crumbly and depending upon its age, in flavor from mild to sharp. It is
wonderful served with crackers or bread and fruit.
Quahog - The American Indian name for the East Coast hard shell clam. It is also
used to describe the largest of these hard shell clams. Other names used are,
chowder or large clam.
Quatre-epices - A French spice mixture containing ground cinnamon, nutmeg,
cloves, and pepper. This mixture is used to season stews and ptes.
Quenelle - A dumpling made from fish or meat forcemeat.
Quesadilla - Originally a corn masa empanada filled with meat then deep fried.
Modern versions found throughout restaurants in the US are made with flour tortillas
that are filled with cheese and folded over when cooked.
Quiche - An open top pie made of eggs, milk or cream, and anything else within
reach. The most famous of these is the quiche Lorraine of Alsace, made with bacon
and Gruyere cheese.
Quince - This yellow-skinned fruit looks and tastes like a cross between an apple
and a pear. Its texture and flavor make it better cooked than raw. Its high pectin
content make it ideal for use in jams, jellies, and preserves.
Quinoa - Pronounced (KEEN-wah). A natural whole grain grown in South America.
Originally used by the Incas, it can be substituted for rice in most recipes. It is a
unique grain in that it serves as a complete protein containing essential amino acids.

Radicchio - A member of the chicory family with red and white leaves. The different
varieties range from mild to extremely bitter. The round Verona variety are the most
common in the US. Radicchio is used most often in salads, but is quite suitable to
cooked preparations.
Ragout - A French term for stew made of meat, fish, or vegetables.
Ras el Hanout - This is a powdered spice mixture, used in Arabic and north African
cooking, with a sweet and pungent flavor. See the definition under charmoula for a
description of the ingredients and its applications.
Ratatouille - A vegetable stew consisting of onions, eggplant, sweet peppers,
zucchini, and tomatoes flavored with garlic, herbs, and olive oil. Traditionally
simmered until all of the vegetables are quite soft and the flavor has blended into
one, ratatouille takes on the appearance of marmalade. Newer versions reduce the
cooking time, allowing the vegetables to retain some of their original identity.
Ravioli - Stuffed pasta dough served in broth or with sauce.
Remoulade - This classic French sauce is made by combining mayonnaise (usually
homemade) with mustard, capers and chopped gherkins, herbs and anchovies. It is
served chilled as an accompaniment to cold meat, fish and shellfish.
Rennet - An extract from the stomach of lambs and calves used in cheese making to
coagulate milk. There are also rennets obtained from vegetables such as cardoons.
Rigatoni - Large pasta tubes with ridged sides.
Rijsttafel - A Dutch word, meaning "rice table". It is a Dutch version of an Indonesian
meal consisting of hot rice accompanied by several (sometimes 20 or 40) small, wellseasoned side dishes of seafoods, meats, vegetables, fruits, sauces, condiments,
etc.
Rillette - A coarse, highly spiced spread made of meat or poultry and always served
cold. This is called potted meat because rillettes are often covered with a layer of
lard and stored for a period of time to age the mixture.
Risotto - An Italian preparation of rice resulting in a creamy liaison with stock and
butter. This may be served as a first course, main course, or side dish and
embellished with meat, seafood,cheese, or vegetables. The best known version of
this dish is risotto ala Milanese, with saffron and Reggiano parmesan cheese.

Rissole - Small pies similar to empanadas and piroshki. They are filled with meat,
vegetables, or cheese and deep fried.
Rissole - The British version of small savory pies.
Rosti - A Swiss potato pancake made from cooked potatoes, sometimes flavored
with bacon.
Rouille - A thick sauce similar to aioli, made of dried chiles, garlic, and olive oil.
Rouille is traditionally served with bouillabaisse and soup de poisson. Other recipes
also add saffron and tomatoes.
Roux - A mixture of flour and fat used to thicken sauces, soups, and stews. Though
usually made with butter, rouxs are also made with bacon or poultry fats, margarine,
and vegetable oil. The mixture is cooked for a brief time to remove the raw taste of
the starch from the flour. Longer cooking results in a darker color, which is favorable
in Creole cooking where rouxs are cooked for long periods until they reach a dark
brown color.
Sabayon - See the definition under zabaglione.
Sable - A rich short cookies similar to shortbread.
Saffron - A spice consisting of the dried stigma of the Crocus sativus plant,
originating in the eastern Mediterranean, now grown as well in Spain, France, and
South America. It has a characteristic pungent aroma and flavor and bright yellow
color. It is also very expensive and used sparingly. Saffron is indispensable in paella
and bouillabaisse. A good substitute for the yellow color is tumeric, though nothing
can replace its unique flavor.
Salt Cod - Cod that has been salted and dried to preserve it for long periods of time.
Salt cod is evident in cuisines of the Mediterranean and Caribbean Seas. To
reconstitute the fish, you must soak it in many changes of fresh water to remove the
excess salt. You may then poach the fish until it is just flaking off the bone, or use it
raw for other preparations.
Saltimbocca - An Italian dish comprised of thin slices of veal, rolled around ham and
cheese, seasoned with sage and braised until tender.
Saltpeter - The name for potassium nitrate, which is used primarily in the meat
industry to help preserve cured meats. It gives a distinctive pink color to hams and

bacon. There are recent reports from the USDA that nitrates, and nitrites are
carcinogenic.
Sambuca - An anise-flavored, not-to-sweet Italian liqueur which is usually served
with 2 or 3 dark-roasted coffee beans floating on top.
Samosa - An Indian snack of deep fried dumplings stuffed with curried vegetables.
Most common of the fillings is potatoes or cauliflower with peas.
Sangria - Spanish drink made from sweet red wine, pieces of fresh fruit (usually
orange and lemon), spices (cinnamon,cloves)
Sashimi - A Japanese dish of raw fish, shellfish, and mollusks served with soy
sauce, wasabi, and pickled vegetables. Sushi is similar but it is served with
vinegared rice, and may also include nori seaweed, vegetables, and strips of cooked
eggs similar to omelets. A common accompaniment to this is pickled ginger.
Satay - Also spelled sat and sateh. These are pieces of meat or fish threaded onto
skewers and grilled over a flame. Several variations of these are seen throughout
Southeast Asia. A spicy peanut sauce is served with meat satay in Vietnam and
Thailand.
Savarin - A ring-shaped cake made of a rich yeast dough, soaked with a rum syrup,
and filled with pastry or whipped cream.
Scampi - Another word for langoustine. This word is used in the US as a description
of shrimp broiled with butter, lemon, and garlic.
Scone - A small, lightly sweetened pastry similar to American biscuits, often flavored
with currants.
Sea Urchin - A round spiny creature found off the coasts of Europe and America.
The only edible portion is the coral, usually eaten raw with fresh lemon juice.
Semifreddo - Meaning "half cold", this is gelato with whipped cream folded into it.
Semolina - A coarse flour made from durum wheat, used in making pasta and
bread.
Seviche - A Spanish dish of raw fish, scallops, or shrimp marinated in citrus juices
until the flesh becomes "cooked". Onions, peppers, and chiles are then added to
finish the dish.
Shortbread - A butter-rich cookie from Scotland, often seasoned with lemon,

cinnamon, ginger, almonds, and cumin.


Shoyu - Japanese for Soy Sauce.
Skate Wings - This is the edible portion of the skate. The flesh, when cooked,
separates into little fingers of meat and has a distinctive rich, gelatinous texture. The
taste is similar to that of scallops.
Smorgasbord - A Swedish buffet of many dishes served as hors d oeuvres or a full
meal. Similar buffets are served throughout Scandinavia, as well as the Soviet
Union. Common elements of a smorgasbord are pickled herring, marinated
vegetables, smoked and cured salmon and sturgeon, and a selection of canaps.
Soba Noodle - Buckwheat noodles resembling spaghetti, used in Japanese
cooking.
Sorrel - Low perennial herb with acid leaves. It is used to flavor sauces.
Soy Sauce - A condiment from Southeast Asia and Japan made from fermented soy
beans. There are different varieties of soy sauce available. Darker, stronger sauces
are used for cooking while lighter ones are used as sauces and seasonings.
Japanese soy sauce is called shoyu.
Spatzle - This is a coarse noodle from Alsace and Germany made of flour, eggs, oil,
and water. The soft dough is dropped into boiling water(with a spatzle press) and
poached until cooked through. The noodle is then fried in butter or oil and served as
a side dish to meat dishes. Spatzle may also be flavored with cheese, mushrooms,
and herbs.
Speck - Cured and smoked pork flank.
Spiedini - An Italian word for skewers of meat or fish grilled over a flame or under a
broiler.
Spring Roll - Thin sheets of dough which are filled with meat, seafood, or
vegetables and rolled into logs. Spring rolls are most often deep fried, though they
may also be steamed. Chinese versions use wheat doughs, while the Vietnamese
and Thai versions use a rice paper wrapper.
Stock - A flavored broth from meats, fish, shellfish, and vegetables. These are the
basis of sauce and soup making.
Strudel - Paper thin pastry rolled around sweet fillings of fruit, nuts, or cheese. Savory versions of

this are similar to the Russian coulibiac.

Sugar Syrup - Differentiating from natural syrups, this term refers to a solution of
sugar and water. Simple syrups are made with equal quantities of water and sugar.
Heavy syrup is made with twice as much sugar as water. These types of syrups are
used in making sorbets, soft drinks, and for soaking cakes.
Sweetbread - The culinary term for the thymus gland of an animal. Those of veal
and lamb are most commonly eaten. The pancreas is also considered a sweetbread,
but its taste and texture is inferior to that of the thymus gland.
Syllabub - An English dessert comprised mainly of whipped cream sweetened with
sugar and flavored with sherry, brandy, or cointreau. Lemon zest, fruit preserves or
puree may also be swirled into the cream.
Tabasco Sauce - A thin spicy sauce made of vinegar, red peppers, and salt,
developed in America by Edmund McIlhenny at his home on Avery Island before the
U.S. Civil War. McIlhenny Company is the sole supplier of Tabasco Pepper Sauce
to this day. This sauce is commonly used with Creole food, chili con carne, and eggs.
Tabbouleh - A Lebanese salad made of softened bulghur tossed with vegetables
and seasoned with lemon and mint.
Tagine - A Moroccan dish named after the cooking utensil in which it has been
cooked. These stews may contain poultry, fish, meat, or vegetables and are highly
spiced with sweet overtones common in North African cuisine.
Tagliarini - A flat ribbon pasta, narrower than tagliatelle, measuring approximately
3mm across.
Tagliatelle - A flat ribbon pasta, narrower than fettuccine, measuring approximately
6mm across.
Tahini - A paste made from sesame seeds, used primarily in hummus and baba
ganoush.
Tamarind - This is the fruit pod of trees originally from Africa, now common in Asia,
India, and the West Indies. The taste is bittersweet with citrus overtones. The pulp is
very sticky and difficult to work with. Common forms sold are syrups and bricks of
the pulp. It is used extensively in dishes of these regions as well as in candy and
drinks.

Tapenade - A paste made from cured black olives seasoned with olive oil, garlic,
anchovies, capers, lemon, and marc or cognac. This is common in Provence, where
it is served with croutons and raw vegetables to dip. This also makes a good sauce
for grilled meats and strong flavored fish.
Taramasalata - A Greek dip made of olive oil and fish roe with the consistency
similar to that of mayonnaise. American versions commonly use salmon, whitefish, or
carp roe. This is served with raw vegetables and bread or croutons.
Tartare - This is a term which has several meanings. It is often used to describe the
preparation of raw beef called steak tartare. Raw beef is chopped finely and served
with minced onion, parsley, capers, and seasoned with anything from Worcestershire
sauce to Tabasco sauce. Tartare sauce describes a mayonnaise based sauce with
capers, onion, hard cooked eggs, cornichons, and herbs.
Tarte Flamb - An Alsatian pizza with a thin crust topped with fresh white cheese,
onions, and bacon. This is also called an Alsatian firepie.
Tarte Tatin - A type of tart in which the pastry is baked on top of the fruit, then
inverted when finished baking. Apples are traditionally used, becoming soft and
caramelized during baking.
Terrine - See the description under pts.
Tiramisu - An Italian dessert which gained dramatic popularity in the US. Tiramiso
consists of sponge cake, soaked with an espresso syrup and layered with a
sweetened mascarpone cheese and chocolate sauce.
Toad in the Hole - An English dish consisting of pieces of meat or sausages
covered with batter and baked in the oven.
Tocino - Cured ham with added color.
Tofu - Also called bean curd, this is made from processed soy beans. It comes in
various degrees of firmness and is a very high source of protein.
Torta Rustica - A large pie similar to coulibiac, filled with salmon, cabbage or
spinach, eggs, and mushrooms. Other versions use meat or sausage in the filling.
The crust is usually made of bread dough and sprinkled with salt before using.
Tortellini - A stuffed pasta made from little rounds of dough, then twisted to form
dumplings. Fillings can be made with anything and are served sauced or in a simple

broth.
Tortelloni - This is a larger version of the tortellini.
Tortilla - A thin pancake made of cornmeal or flour. They are served both soft and
fried, being an integral part of Mexican and Latin American cooking.
Tournedo - A slice of beef from the heart of the tenderloin, approximately an inch
thick. This term is rarely used in America today, being replaced by filet of beef or filet
mignon.
Tourte - Similar to pt en croute, these are pies made in a round shape and served
cold. They are generally highly seasoned and preparations are indicative to the
region they are from.
Trennette - Flat noodles, wider than fettuccine, that have one flat edge and one
scalloped edge.
Tripe - The stomach of beef, pork, and sheep.
Truffle - This is a tuber of unusual flavor and aroma. It is savored in Italian and
French cookery, and due to its scarcity, draws a very high price. The truffle has yet to
be successfully cultivated, though a fine substitute is now being grown in California.
The black truffle of Perigord and the white truffle of Piedmont are highly prized for
their exceptional flavors. The black truffle requires cooking to allow the flavors to be
fully achieved. Conversely, the white truffle is best when shaved directly on the dish
before eating. The aroma of truffles is strong enough to permeate egg shells when
the two are stored together. Due to their short growing season and large demand,
truffles can reach a price of up to $800 per pound. Frozen and canned forms are
more accessible, but their taste never reaches that of fresh truffles.
Tuiles - Crisp, paper thin cookies named for their tile-like appearance. They are
often flavored with almond slices, lemon, and vanilla.
Tumeric - A bright yellow spice used primarily in commercial curry powder. It is also
used in sweet pickles and for various dishes requiring a yellow color. This is used as
a coloring substitute for saffron.
Tzatziki Sauce - Dipping sauce derived from yogurt, garlic, cucumber, olive oil and
lemon juice. Served with calamari.
Tzimmes - Traditionally served on Rosh Hashana, this sweet Jewish dish consists of

various combinations of fruits, meat and vegetables. All are flavored with honey and
often with cinnamon as well. The flavors of this casserole-style dish develop by
cooking it at a very low temperature for a very long time.
Udon - Thick wheat noodles used in Japanese cooking.
Ugli - A citrus fruit hybrid between a grapefruit and a tangerine native to Jamaica. It
is available around the country from Winter to Spring. It has an acid-sweet flavor and
is an excellent source of vitamin C.
Vacherin - A crisp, sweet meringue shell used as a serving vessel for fruit and ice
cream.
Vanilla - A plant native to Mexico now common in areas throughout the West Indies
and Indian Ocean. The pod is used to make extracts which we use in cooking. The
whole pod may also be purchased and used as a fragrance or split and scraped to
allow the tiny seeds to flavor the dish. It is generally thought of as a sweet spice,
used in custards, creams, and cakes. It is also used in savory dishes with vegetables
or seafood. There are also imitation vanilla flavorings using synthetically produced
vanillin. These can be found in liquid and powder forms.
Velout - A sauce of various stock bases thickened with a roux. This is used as a
base for other more complex sauces, though it may be used alone.
Vermicelli - A very fine round noodle which means "small worms". These are thinner
than spaghetti and thicker than capellini.
Vichyssoise - A chilled soup of potatoes and leeks. Other versions now use
zucchini, apples, and carrots.
Victual - Food or other provisions.
Vinaigrette - A sauce commonly used to dress salads, comprised of oil and vinegar.
Emulsified vinaigrettes use egg and/or mustard to stabilize the dressing. Other
combinations using acids other than vinegar, such as wine or citrus juice, are also
called vinaigrettes.
Vitello Tonnato - Thinly sliced roast or braised veal, served cold with a creamy,
piquant tuna sauce. This combination may sound a bit unusual, but is surprisingly
delicious.
Vol-au-Vent - A large round pastry case which is filled with a sauced mixture of

meat, seafood, or vegetables then topped with a pastry lid.


Wasabi - Called Japanese horseradish, this is a root that is dried and ground to a
fine powder. This powder is then reconstituted and used for dipping sauce with soy
sauce when eating sushi and sashimi.
Water Bath - The French call this cooking technique bain marie. It consists of
placing a container of food in a large, shallow pan of warm water, which surrounds
the food with gentle heat. The food may be cooked in this manner either in an oven
or on top of a range. This technique is designed to cook delicate dishes such as
custards, sauces and savory mousses without breaking or curdling them. It can also
be used to keep foods warm.
Waterzooi - A rich Flemish stew with chicken or fish and assorted vegetables. The
sauce is enriched with a liaison of cream and egg yolks.
Welsh Rarebit - Often confused as Welsh rabbit, this is a cheese sauce made with
ale and seasoned with dry mustard, black pepper, and Worcestershire sauce. This is
traditionally served over toast, with or without crumbled bacon. It is also a good
variation of fondue and goes well with beer and ale.
Whelk - A small marine snail. Whelks are poached and served hot or cold.
Wiener Schnitzel - Thin slices of veal or pork breaded and fried in butter. Traditional
garnishes are lemon butter, anchovies, and capers.
Worcestershire Sauce - A condiment developed in England from flavors discovered
in India. It is used as a sauce, a seasoning, and a condiment. It is made of a very
odd assortment of ingredients including anchovies, tamarind, vinegar, molasses, and
cloves.
Xanthan Gum - Produced from the fermentation of corn sugar. It is most commonly
used as a stabilizer, emulsifier and thickener in foods such as yogurt, sour cream
and salad dressings.
XXX; XXXX - Label symbols used for confectioners sugar.
Yagi - Japanese for goat.
Yakitori - A Japanese dish of chicken marinated in soy sauce, sugar, and sake. The
chicken is then placed on skewers and grilled or broiled.
Yard of Ale - An elongated glass, measuring approximately 26 inches long holding

42 fluid ounces.
Zabaglione - An Italian custard made with egg yolks and wine or juices, which are
beaten vigorously over hot water to form a rich, creamy dessert. The custard can
then be poured into glasses and chilled to be eaten later, or eaten warm with fresh
fruit. Marsala is the most common wine used, though any sweet wine such as
Madeira, Champagne, or Sauterne may be used.
Zakuski - The Russian version of tapas involving a lot of food and vodka.
Zampone - A specialty of the town of Modena in northern Italy, this consists of a
hollowed and stuffed pig trotter which is poached and served as a part of a traditional
bollito misto.
Zuccotto - This is an Italian form of charlotte royale. In this dessert, triangles of
sponge cake are placed in a bowl to form a shell for the filling. The filling consists of
stiffly whipped cream which is studded with toasted almonds, hazelnuts, chocolate
chips, and candied fruit. A final layer of cake is placed over this, and when well set,
the dessert is inverted onto a platter to form a large dome, reminiscent of Florence
Duomo.
Zuppa Inglese - Literally translated as "English soup", this Italian dish is, in fact, a
refrigerated dessert similar to the British favorite, trifle. It is made with rum sprinkled
slices of sponge cake layered with a rich custard or whipped cream (or both) and
candied fruit or toasted almonds (or both).

B
Bagoong(n.)AfishsaucecondimenttraditionallyfoundinthePhilippines.
Beitzah(n.)Anothernameforahardboiledegg.
Bokashi(n.)AnancientJapanesenoodorcompostingmethod.
Burbot(n.)Aslimy,eelshapedfishthatgoesbymanynames.
Butterfly(v.)Tosliceacutofmeatlengthwiseinordertocookwithout
dryingout.

C
Carboy(n.)Ahugeglassjarthatholdsfermentingbrewmadeathome.
Champ(n.)Adishmadewithpotatoes,milk,butterandchoppedscallions.
Chesty(adj.)Usedtodescribeteathathasbeenimproperlypackedorstored.
Chewettes(n.)Medievaltalkforsmallmeatpies.
Cleptobiosis(n.)Anactofstealingfoodfromthesamespecies.
D
Danderfunk(n.)Apuddingmadebysailorsusingcrumbledcrackersand
molasses.
Devein(v.)Toremovethedarkdorsalvein(asinshrimp).
Donabe(n.)AJapanesepotmadeoutofclayusedoveranopenflame.
Dulse(n.)AkindofdriedseaweedflakesnackfoodinsomepartsoftheUK
andEurope.
E
Ebrious(adj.)Inclinedtodrinkinexcess,tipsy.
Epazote(n.)AMexicanherbwitharobusttasteandagasolineesqueodor.
Escabeche(n.)Aspicymarinademadefromvinegar,onions,peppersand
spices.
Exocarp(n.)Afruitsoutermostshell,skinorotherwiseprotectivelayer.
F
Farctate(n.)Theprocessofovereatingandfeelingstuffed.
Fatback(n.)Theflavorfullayeroffatalongthebacksideofapig.
Food Desert(n.)Aplacewherefresh,healthyfoodisunaffordableor
inaccessible.
Foxy(adj.)Usedtodescribewinewithamuskyflavor.
Frogmore(n.)Aseasonedstewmadewithpotatoes,sausage,cornand
shrimp.

G
Gastropod(n.)Afamilyofmollusksconsistingofashellandasingle
muscle.
Gavage(n.)Themethodofforcefeedingtofattenananimalandenrichits
liver.
Grissini(n.)Along,thinpieceofcrisp,toastedbreadtypicallyservedwith
pasta.
Guanciale(n.)AtypeofItalianbaconpreparedwithpigsjowlorcheeks.
Guar Gum(n.)Anaturalfoodthickener,similartocornstarch.
H
Hard Crack Stage(n.)Acandymakingstagewhenthesugarmixture
reaches310F.
Hawaij(n.)AYemenispiceblendusedonavarietyoffish,meatandlamb
dishes.
Haystack(n.)Adishmadeupofstarchyfoodswithfreshvegetablesand
protein.
Hoki(n.)AcoldwaterfishtypicallyfoundinEuropeanmarkets.
Hootenanny(n.)Aneasytomakepuffypancake,perfectedbytheAmish.
I
Irradiation(n.)Aprocessofexposingfoodtoionizingradiationtocontrol
bacteria.
Isinglass(n.)Aformofgelatinderivedfromtheairbladdersofsturgeon.
J
Jaccart(v.)Topierceapieceofmeatwithaneedletotenderizeit.
Jaggery(n.)Anaturalsweetenermadebycrystallizingsugarcanejuice.
Jamun(n.)AberryfoundinIndiathatchangesfromgreentopinktoblack.
Jeroboam(n.)Alargebottleofwine,otherwiseknownasthedouble
magnum.
Jicama(n.)Acrisp,sweetrootcultivatedinSouthAmericaforcenturies.

K
Kipper(v.)Tocuresmall,oilyfish(typicallyherring).
Kishke(n.)AJewishdishthattranslatestointestine.
Kissing Crust(n.)Whenaloafremainssoftduetoitsbakingproximityto
another.
Knolselderijstamppot(n.)ADutchdishwithmashedpotatoesandcelery
root.
Kumis(n.)AbeveragemadeoffermentedmaresmilknativetoCentralAsia.
L
Lactobacillus(n.)Atypeofbacteriathatcausesdecompositionor
fermentation.
Lame(n.)Abakingtoolusedtoallowbakingbaguettestoexpandlengthwise.
Locule(n.)Aseedcompartment,usuallyinanovaryofafruit.
Lovage(n.)Aplantwhoseleavesareusedasherbsandtherootsas
vegetables.
M
Mannish Water(n.)Jamaicansoupwithgoatoffal,greenbananasand
vegetables.
Marlborough Pie(n.)OneoftheoldestallAmericanpies,servedat
Thanksgiving.
Mother(n.)Asubstancethatdevelopsinfermentingliquid.
Muffaletta(n.)AtypeofsubmarinesandwichoriginatinginNewOrleans.
Mugwort(n.)Abitter,hoppyflavoringagentusedindishesinEuropeand
Asia.
N
Nappe(n.)Theabilityofaliquidtocoatthebackofaspoon.
Nougat(n.)Candymadefromnuts,honey,sugarandeggwhites.
Nutraceutical(adj.)Usedtodescribefoodsproventoprovidehealth
benefits.

O
Oenophile(n.)Aloverofwine,alsoknownasawineconnoisseuror
aficionado.
Omakase(n.)PhrasemeaningIllleaveittoyou,allowingthechefto
choosethefishyoureservedatasushirestaurant.
Omuraisu(n.)AJapanesericeomeletservedwithketchup.
Ort(n.)Ascrapoffoodleftoverfromameal.
P
Parsons Nose(n.)Thetriangularstubwheretailfeathersgrowonpoultry.
Pizza Peel(n.)Giantflatutensilusedtotransferpizzatoandfrombaking
stone.
Potlikker(n.)Theliquidleftbehindafterboilingapotofcollardgreens.
Pozole(n.)SouporstewtraditionallymadeinLatinAmericathatmeans
foamy.
Psito(n.)TheGreekmethodforroastingmeatintheoven.
Q
Quadriller(n.)Markingthesurfaceoffoodsonthegrillwithacrisscross
pattern.
Quenelle(n.)Athreesidedscoopofsomethingsoftenoughtomold.
R
Raclette(n.)AtraditionalSwissdishbestknownasfondueintheU.S.
Reinheitsgebot(n.)TheGermanBeerPurityLaw,whichoriginatedin
1516.
Rennet(n.)Acombinationofenzymesoftenusedintheproductionofcheese.
Ristra(n.)Anarrangementofdrychilies,usuallyhungbystring.
Rosewater(n.)Thebyproductofdistillingrosepetalsandwaterforperfume
andfoodanddrinkflavoring.

S
Shigging(n.)Standingnearacookwithintentionsofstealingcooking
techniques.
Sippets(n.)Smallcubesofbreadfriedwithherbsandbutterusedtogarnish
soup.
Spa(n.)HeavilyusedinBoston,translatestosodafountain.
Spider(n.)Alsoknownasaskimmer.Aflatmeshbasketusedwithadeep
fryer.
Sweetmeats(n.)Anothernameforcandy.
T
Tasso(n.)Spicycuredporkcutintostrips.
Teff(n.)Theworldstiniestgrain,fromEthiopia.Fullofprotein,ironand
calcium.
Tobiko(n.)TheJapanesewordforflyingfishroe.
Trussing(n.)Theprocessoftyingmeatwithbutcherstwinetokeepit
uniform.
Tsoureki(n.)Asweet,eggenrichedbreadthatisastapleofGreekcuisine.
U
Ultra-Pasteurized(adj.)Describesmilkorcreamheatedveryhigh,then
cooled.
V
Varak(n.)Ediblethinsheetsofpuresilverandgoldusedfordessert
decoration.
Vegucate(v.)Tounderstandwhatittakestobeavegan.
Velout(n.)Whitesaucethickenedbycreamandbutter.AFrenchmother
sauce.
Viticulture(n.)Thestudyandpracticeofcultivatinggrapes.

W
Weakfish(n.)Afishnamedforitsinabilitytointimidateorbeatupanyother
fish.
Winnowing(n.)Theprocessofseparatinggrainfromchaff.
Wort(n.)Thesweetliquidproductofmashedgrains(i.e.unfermentedbeer).
Wurstvergiftung(n.)Germanwordthattranslatestosausagepoisoning.
X
Xerophagy(n.)Atypeoffastinwhichoneeatsonlydryfoodswithno
cookingoils.
Xylitol(n.)A100%naturalsweetenerextractedfrombark,fruitsand
vegetables.
Y
Yumasetta(n.)Acasseroleofgroundbeef,cannedsoup,noodlesand
Velveeta.
Z
Zester(n.)Akitchenapplianceusedtoremovetheouterpartofcitrusfruit
peel.
Zwieback(n.)Adrytoastedsliceofbreadthatmeanstwicebakedin
German.

Bain Marie: Hot water bath used to gently cook food or keep food hot. Container for holding
food in a hot water bath.
Ballontine: Boneless poultry leg stuffed with forcemeat and gently roasted/braised,
traditionally shaped into a ball.
Barding: Tying thin slices of fat such as pork or bacon, over meats or poultry that have
little fat to help keep moist.

Baste: To moisten foods using their natural juices periodically during cooking.
Blanching: To briefly submerge in simmering water, boiling water, or fat to assist in
preparation of foods. Example: Tomato concassee.
Bouquet Garni: Fresh herbs and vegetables tied into a cheesecloth bundle and used to flavor
sauces, soups, stocks, stews.
Brochette: Skewered hors d'oeuvres using meats, fish, shellfish, vegetables and grilled or
broiled.
China cap/Chinois: A conical shaped strainer.
Concasse: Peeled, seeded and diced tomato
Deglaze: To swirl or stir in a liquid into a hot pan to lift away caramelized food particles.
Degrease: To remove fat from the surface of a liquid such as a stock or sauce by skimming
the surface.
Dredging: To coat a food item in flour or ground crumbs prior to frying or sauteing.
Dress: To trim or clean an animal for cooking
FIFO: First In First Out. Inventory management system
Fillet: Removing the side of fish intact while removing all bones.
Flambe: Food flamed by use of alcohol for flavor.
Frenching: Trimming racks of rib or poultry so the bone is cleaned and prominent.
Glace de viande: Dark, syrupy meat glaze made by reducing beef stock.
Jacquarding: The process of poking holes into the muscle of meat in order to tenderize.
Jus lie: Can be called fond lie, sauce made by thickening brown stock using corn starch or
similar starch.

Larding: Inserting thin slices of fat directly into meat product to infuse moisture.
Mince: To cut into very small pieces where uniformity or shape is not important.
Mise en Place: Meaning "Everything in place", refers to the preparation and organization of
ingredients and equipment.
Nappe: A certain consistency in liquid that coats the back of a spoon.
Needling: Injecting fat or flavors into an ingredient to enhance moisture or flavor.
Oignon Brule: French for burnt onion, made by charring onion halves. Used to flavor and
color stocks & sauces.
Oignon Pique: Studding an onion with a bay leaf and cloves. Used in bechamel sauce.
Parboiling: To partial cook a food in simmering/boiling water. Similar to blanching, but
cooked for longer.
Parcooking: Partially cooking food by any cooking method.
Paupiette: Thin slice of meat, poultry or fish spread with savory stuffing and rolled and
braised or poached.
Professional Cooking: System of cooking that appreciates the proper techniques of
ingredients and knowledge.
Raft: Crust formed during production of consomme.
Remouillage: The process of reusing bones for a second stock. French meaning "rewetting".
Render: To transform solid fat into liquid form by use of heat.
Refreshing: Submerging a hot food item in cold water to quickly stop the cooking process.
Also known as an icebath.

Ricer: Sievelike tool used to force soft foods through to evenly breakup the product, such
as potatoes.
Rondeau: Shallow, wide, straight-sided pot with loop handles.
Roulade: Slic eof meat, poultry or fish rolled around a stuffing.
Sachet: Containing herbs and spices used to flavor stocks, soups and sauces. Easily
removable.
Sauteuse: Basic sauteing pan with sloped sides and single long handle.
Sautoir: A variation of a saute pan with straight sides and long handle.
Savoury: Spied or seasoned foods, opposed to sweet.
Scald: To heat a liquid, usually milk to just below boiling.
Sear: Brown food quickly over high heat, done as a preparatory step for further methods such
as braising or roasting.
Silverskin: Tough connective tissue that surrounds certain muscles.
Staling: Known as starch retrogradation, change in moisture within starch that causes
products to turn firm, drier and more crumbly.
Steep: Soaking food in a hot liquid in order to extract flavor or remove impurities.
Sweat: To cook food in a pan, usually covered, without browning over low heat to encourage
flavors to be extracted from vegetables and spices.
Sweetbreads: Thymus gland of calf or lamb.
Tempering: To slowly add hot liquid to eggs while stirring vigorously to slowly bring
mixture up to temperature without curdling the eggs.
Tourner: To shape vegetables while peeling. Procedure is to peel, then shape.

Truss: Tying whole poultry or meat to encourage even cooking.


Water Bath: See Bain Marie
Whetstone: A special dense, grained stone used to sharpen or hone knives.
Zushi: The seasoned rice used in preparing sushi
-A-BBARD
To tie fat around lean meats or fowl to keep them from drying out during roasting. The fat bastes the meat while
it cooks, keeping it moist and adding flavor. The fat is removed a few minutes before the meat is finished,
allowing the meat to brown. Barding is necessary only when there is no natural fat present.
BASTE
To brush or spoon food as it cooks with melted fat or the cooking juices from the dish. Basting prevents foods
from drying out and adds color and flavor.
BLANCH
To cook raw ingredients in boiling water briefly. Blanched vegetables are generally "shocked" i.e. plunged
immediately and briefly into an ice water bath to stop the cooking process and preserve color and crunch.
BLEND
To combine two or more ingredients together with a spoon, beater or blender.
BOIL
To heat a liquid to its boiling point, until bubbles break the surface. "Boil" also means to cook food in a boiling
liquid.
BONE
To remove the bones from meat, fish or fowl. Use a sharp boning knife and angle the blade toward the bone to
avoid tearing or nicking the flesh.
BRAISE
To cook food, tightly covered, in a small amount of liquid at low heat for a long period of time. Sometimes, the
food is first browned in fat. The long, slow cooking tenderizes meats by gently breaking down their fibers. The
braising liquid keeps meats moist and can be used as a basis for sauce. Use wine, stocks or water as components
in braising liquid.
BROIL
To cook food directly above or under a heat source. Food can be broiled in an oven or on a grill.
BRUSH
To apply a liquid, like a glaze, to the surface of food using a pastry brush.

BUTTERFLY
To split food (meat, fish, fowl) down the center, cutting almost, but not completely through. The two halves are
then opened flat to resemble a butterfly.
-CCHANNEL
To create small V-shaped grooves over the surface of fruits or vegetables for decorative purposes using a
channel knife. The fruit or vegetable is then sliced, creating a decorative border on the slices.
CARAMELIZE
To heat sugar until it liquefies and become a clear caramel syrup ranging in color from golden to dark brown.
Fruits and vegetables with natural sugars can be caramelized by sauteeing, roasting or grilling, giving them a
sweet flavor and golden glaze.
CHIFFONADE
To slice into very thin strips or shreds. Literally translated from French, the term means "made of rags".
CHOP
To cut food into bite-size pieces using a knife. A food processor may also be used to chop food. Chopped food is
more coarsely cut than minced food.
CLARIFY
To remove sediment from a cloudy liquid, thereby making it clear. To clarify liquids, such as stock, egg whites
and/or eggshells are commonly added and simmered for approximately 15 minutes. The egg whites attract and
trap particles from the liquid. After cooling, strain the mixture through a cloth-lined sieve to remove residue. To
clarify rendered fat, add hot water and boil for about 15 minutes. The mixture should then be strained through
several layers of cheesecloth and chilled. The resulting layer of fat should be completely clear of residue.
Clarified butter is butter that has been heated slowly so that its milk solids separate and sink, and can be
discarded. The resulting clear liquid can be used at a higher cooking temperature and will not go rancid as
quickly as unclarified butter.
CURE
To treat food by one of several methods for preservation purposes. Examples are smoking, pickling - in an acid
base, corning - with acid and salt, and salt curing - which removes water.
-DDEEP-FRY
To cook food in hot fat or oil deep enough so that it is completely covered. The temperature of the fat is
extremely important and can make the difference between success and failure. When the fat is not hot enough,
the food absorbs fat and becomes greasy. When the fat is too hot, the food burns on the exterior before it has
cooked through. Fat at the correct temperature will produce food with a crisp, dry exterior and moist interior. An
average fat temperature for deep-frying is 375 degrees, but the temperature varies according to the food being
fried. Use a deep fryer, an electric fry pan or a heavy pot and a good kitchen thermometer for deep frying.
DEGLAZE
To remove browned bits of food from the bottom of a pan after sauteing, usually meat. After the food and excess
fat have been removed from the pan, a small amount of liquid is heated with the cooking juices in the pan and
stirred to remove browned bits of food from the bottom. The resulting mixture often becomes the base for a
sauce.

DEMI-GLACE
A rich brown sauce that starts with Espagnole sauce. Beef stock, made from beef and or veal bones and
vegetables with wine, slowly cooked and reduced until it naturally coats a spoon.It is used as a base for many
small sauces.
DEVEIN
To remove the blackish-gray vein from the back of a shrimp. The vein can be removed with a special utensil
called a deveiner or with the tip of a sharp knife. Small and medium shrimp needdeveining for aesthetic
purposes only. However, because the veins in large shrimp contain grit, they should always be removed.
DICE
To cut food into tiny cubes (about 1/8- to 1/4-inch).
DRAIN
To pour off fat or liquid from food, often using a colander.
DREDGE
To lightly coat food that is going to be fried with flour, breadcrumbs or cornmeal. The coating helps to brown
the food and provides a crunchy surface. Dredged foods need to be cooked immediately, while breaded foods,
those dredged in flour, dipped in egg then dredged again in breading, can be prepared and held before cooking.
-EECLAIR
A small oblong pastry that is filled with cream. Many eclairs are topped with five finger icing (3 T. powdered
sugar and a few drops of water, melt over double boiler while stirring).
EGGS
Eggs are one of the most important items in cooking! All eggs should be free of cracks, leaks or holes. Eggs are
graded by quality and size with grade AA, A and B. Eggs are sized by weight per dozen, Ex. Large 27 oz., Large
24 oz., Medium 21 oz., Small 18 oz., Peewee 15 oz. Very fresh high quality eggs stand up more when cooked,
while older eggs spread out more. The color of the yolk depends on the hen's diet. The egg color, white or brown
depends on the breed of the hen, it has nothing to do with nutritional value or taste. Eggs must always be
refrigerated. Pasteurized liquid eggs (easy eggs) are beaten together and heated up without cooking to kill any
bacteria and then packaged for sale.
EGG WASH
Egg Wash is a mixture of egg yolks and/or whites beaten with a little water or milk. Used to brush over breads,
cakes and pies to give them color and a shiny sealed glaze.
EGGNOG
A Christmas beverage consisting of milk and ice cream, beaten eggs, sugar, cinnamon, nutmeg and liquor (we
like brandy and rum). The best eggnog requires seperating the eggs and beating the yolks with 1/2 the sugar and
whipping the whites with 1/2 the sugar to make meringue, folding all together with an electric mixer or blender!
EGGPLANT
An Eggplant is a member of the nightshade family, along with the potato and tomato, making it a fruit! It is
actually a berry growing on a long vine. There are many varities grown and eaten around the world. Sizes are 2
to 12 inches, white, black and purple.
EMULSIFY
To bind together two liquid ingredients that normally do not combine smoothly, such as water and fat. Slowly

add one ingredient to the other while mixing rapidly. This action disperses tiny droplets of one liquid in the
other. Mayonnaise and vinaigrettes are emulsions. Use a good whisk for a steady even emulsification.
ENTREE
In America "Entree" refers to the main course of the meal. In Europe, it refers to the dish served before the meat
course during formal dinners.
ESPRESSO
A dark strong coffee that's made by forcing steam through a small amount of finely ground pressed special
coffee beans. Served in a tiny espresso cup. The addition of heated cream or milk makes this a Cappuccino.
-FFABRICATION
The butchering, cutting and trimming of meat, poultry, fish and game.
FILLET
To create a fillet of fish or meat by cutting away the bones. Fish and boning knives help produce clean fillets.
FOLD
To combine a light mixture like beaten egg whites with a much heavier mixture like whipped cream. In a large
bowl, place the lighter mixture on top of the heavier one. Starting at the back of the bowl, using the edge of a
rubber spatula, cut down through the middle of both mixtures, across the bottom of the bowl and up the near
side. Rotate the bowl a quarter turn and repeat. This process gently combines the two mixtures.
FOOD NETWORK
Chefs and Cooks sharing cooking techniques, recipes and ideas with people who share similar interests or
concerns and who interact and remain in contact for mutual assistance or support. Professionals in the
foodservice industry network together to achieve quality.
FRY
To cook food (non-submerged) in hot fat or oil over moderate to high heat. There is very little difference
between frying and SAUTEING although sauteing is often thought of as being faster and using less fat.
-GGRATE
To reduce a large piece of food to coarse or fine threads by rubbing it against a rough, serrated surface, usually
on a grater. A food processor, fitted with the appropriate blades, can also be used for grating. The food that is
being grated should be firm. Cheese that needs to be grated can be refrigerated first for easier grating.
GRIDDLE
A special flat pan or cooktop designed to cook foods like pancakes and hamburgers. Some have long handles or
two handles, non stick, aluminum or cast iron. Often confused with grilling, see below.
GRILL
To cook food on a grill over hot coals or other heat source. The intense heat creates a crust on the surface of the
food which seals in the juices. The grill should be clean and must be heated before the food is laid on it. The
food can also be basted and seasoned.

GRIND
To reduce food to small pieces by running it through a grinder or food processor. Food can be ground to
different degrees, from fine to coarse. A mortar and pestle is prefered by many Chefs and Pharmacists alike.
GYROS
A Greek specialty consisting of chopped lamb and spices molded around a vertical spit, the meat is sliced and
served on pita bread with cucumber sauce, tomatoes and onions.
-HHABANERO
This extremely hot chile is from Mexico and the Caribean. It is light green, yellow or orange and also available
as a dried habanero powder! Caution, it is extremely hot, some believe it's strong enough to stop a grizzly.
HOMOGENIZE
To create an emulsion by reducing all the particles to the same size. The fat globules are broken down
mechanically until they are evenly distributed throughout the liquid. Homogenized milk and some commercial
salad dressings are two examples of homogenized foods.
-IINFUSE
To steep an aromatic ingredient in hot liquid until the flavor has been extracted and absorbed by the liquid. Teas
are infusions. Milk or cream can also be infused with flavor before being used in custards or sauces.
-JJOINT
To cut meat and poultry into large pieces at the joints using a very sharp knife.
JULIENNE
To cut food into thin sticks. Food is cut with a knife or mandoline into even slices, then into strips.
-KKNEAD
To mix and work dough into a smooth, elastic mass. Kneading can be done either manually or by machine. By
hand, kneading is done with a pressing-folding-turning action. First the dough is pressed with the heels of both
hands and pushed away from the body so the dough stretches out. The dough is then folded in half, given a
quarter turn, and the process is repeated. Depending on the dough, the kneading time can range anywhere
from 5 to 15 minutes. During kneading, the gluten strands stretch and expand, enabling dough to hold in gas
bubbles formed by a leavener, which allows it to rise.
-LLARD
To insert strips of fat (lardons) or bacon into a dry cut of meat using a utensil called a larding needle. Larding
makes the cooked meat more succulent and tender.
LINE
To cover the bottom and sides of a pan, mold or terrine with a thin layer of bacon, pork fat, flavorings or pastry.
Cake pans are frequently lined with parchment paper to prevent the cake from sticking to the pan after baking.

-MMACERATE
To soak foods, usually fruit, in liquid so they absorb the liquid's flavor. The macerating liquid is usually alcohol,
liqueur, wine, brandy or sugar syrup. Macerate is also frequently applied to fruits sprinkled with sugar, which
intensifies natural flavor of the fruit by drawing out its juices.
MARINATE
To soak food in a seasoned liquid mixture for a certain length of time. The purpose of marinating is to add flavor
and/or tenderize the food. Due to the acidic ingredients in many marinades, foods should be marinated in glass,
ceramic or stainless steel containers. Foods should also be covered and refrigerated while they are marinating.
When fruits are soaked in this same manner, the process is called macerating.
MASH
To crush a food into smooth and evenly textured state. For potatoes or other root vegetables, use a ricer, masher
or food mill. While food processors provide a smooth texture more like a puree or a paste, they should not be
used for potatoes.
MINCE
To cut food into very tiny pieces. Minced food is cut into smaller, finer pieces than diced food.
MOUNT
To whisk cold butter, piece by piece, into a warm sauce for smooth texture, flavor and sheen. Each piece of
butter must be thoroughly incorporated before a new piece is added so that the sauce does not break (or separate
into liquid and fat).
-NNAP
To completely coat food with a light, thin, even layer of sauce.
-OOPEN FACED
A sandwich prepared with just one piece of bread which is topped with a wide variety of meats,
vegetables, cheeses and heated or not.
-PPARBOIL
To boil food briefly in water, cooking it only partially. Parboiling is used for dense food like carrots and
potatoes. After being parboiled, these foods can be added at the last minute to quicker-cooking ingredients.
Parboiling insures that all ingredients will finish cooking at the same time. Since foods will continue to cook
once they have been removed from the boiling water, they should be shocked in ice water briefly to preserve
color and texture. Cooking can then be completed by sauteeing or the parboiled vegetable can be added to
simmering soups or stews.
PARE
To remove the thin outer layer of foods using a paring knife or a vegetable peeler.
PEEL
To remove the rind or skin from a fruit or vegetable using a knife or vegetable peeler.

POACH
To cook food by gently simmering in liquid at or just below the boiling point. The amount of the liquid and
poaching temperature depends on the food being poached.
POT ROAST
To cook meat slowly by moist heat in a covered pot. The meat is first browned, then braised either on top of the
stove or in the oven. Pot roasting is good for tougher cuts of meat which require longer cooking times to break
down connective tissue.
POUND
Pounding thinner cuts of meat tenderizes it by breaking down muscle. Kitchen mallets are generally used for
pounding, but it can be done using a small frying pan as well. First place the piece of meat between two pieces
of plastic wrap or wax paper.
PUREE
To grind or mash food until completely smooth. This can be done using a food processor or blender or by
pressing the food through a sieve.
-QQUADRILLER
To mark the surface of grilled or broiled food with a crisscross pattern of lines. The scorings are produced by
contact with very hot single grill bars which brown the surface of the food. Very hot skewers may also be used
to mark the surface.
QUENCH
To quickly place a heated object in cold water. This is usually done to either stop the cooking process or to
separate the skin of an object from the meat. This process is sometimes referred to as "shocking."
-RRATATOUILLE
A popular dish from the French region of Province that combines tomatoes, eggplant, onions, peppers, zucchini,
olive oil, herbs and garlic all simmered together. Visti our recipe section to get the recipe thats full of flavor.
REDUCE
To thicken or concentrate a liquid by boiling rapidly. The volume of the liquid is reduced as the water
evaporates, thereby thickening the consistency and intensifying the flavor.
RICE
To push cooked food through a perforated kitchen tool called a ricer. The resulting food looks like rice.
ROAST
To oven-cook food in an uncovered pan. The food is exposed to high heat which produces a well-browned
surface and seals in the juices. Reasonably tender pieces of meat or poultry should be used for roasting. Food
that is going to be roasted for a long time may be barded to prevent drying out.
-SSAUTE
To cook food quickly in a small amount of fat or oil, until brown, in a skillet or saute pan over direct heat.

The saute pan and fat must be hot before the food is added, otherwise the food will absorb oil and become
soggy. Practice makes perfectly saute foods.
SCALD
To dip fruits or vegetables in boiling water in order to loosen their skins and simplify peeling. The produce
should be left in the water for only 30 seconds to prohibit cooking, and should be shocked in an ice water bath
before the skin is removed
SCALE
To remove the scales from the skin of a fish using a dull knife or a special kitchen tool called a fish scaler. Also
means weighing out all ingredients in a recipe.
SEAR
To brown meat or fish quickly over very high heat either in a fry pan, under a broiler or in a hot oven. Searing
seals in the food's juices and provides a crisp tasty exterior. Seared food can then be eaten rare or roasted or
braised to desired degree of doneness.
SEASON
To add flavor to foods.
To coat the cooking surface of a new pot or pan with vegetable oil then heat in a 350 degree oven for about an
hour. This smoothes out the surface of new pots and pans, particularly cast-iron, and prevents foods from
sticking.
SEED
To remove the seeds from fruits and vegetables.
SHRED
To cut food into thin strips. This can be done by hand or by using a grater or food processor. Cooked meat can
be shredded by pulling it apart with two forks.
SIEVE
To strain liquids or particles of food through a sieve or strainer. Press the solids, using a ladle or wooden spoon,
into the strainer to remove as much liquid and flavor as possible.
SIFT
To pass dry ingredients through a fine mesh sifter so large pieces can be removed. The process also incorporates
air to make ingredients like flour, lighter. Synonymous with AERATE.
SIMMER
To cook food in liquid over gentle heat, just below the boiling point, low enough so that tiny bubbles just begin
to break the surface.
SKEWER
To spear small pieces of food on long, thin, pointed rods called skewers. The Romans and Chinese have
skewered many foods for thousands of years.
SKIM
To remove the scum that rises to the surface from a liquid when it is boiled. The top layer of the liquid, such as
the cream from milk or the foam and fat from stock, soups or sauces, can be removed using a spoon, ladle or
skimmer. Soups, stews or sauces can be chilled so that the fat coagulates on the surface and may be easily
removed before reheating.

SKIN
To remove the skin from food before or after cooking. Poultry, fish and game are often skinned for reasons of
appearance, taste and diet. Check out our cutlery section for scissors and skinning knives.
SMOKE
To expose fresh food to smoke from a wood fire for a prolonged period of time. Traditionally used for
preservation purposes, smoking is now a means of giving flavor to food. Smoking tends to dry the food, kills
bacteria, deepens color and gives food a smoky flavor. The duration of smoking varies from 20 minutes to
several days. The most commonly used woods are beech, oak and chestnut to which aromatic essences are often
added. Small home smokers are now available.
STEAM
To cook food on a rack or in steamer basket over a boiling liquid in a covered pan. Steaming retains flavor,
shape, texture, and nutrients better than boiling or poaching. Our steamer insert fits almost any pot! Search
"steamer basket" on the home page.
SUPREME
To remove the flesh sections of citrus fruit from the membranes. Using a sharp knife, cut away all of the skin
and pith from the outside of the fruit. Place the knife between the membrane and the flesh of one section and
slice down. Turn the knife catching the middle of the fruit. Slice up, removing each section sans membrane.
SWEAT
To cook vegetables in fat over gentle heat so they become soft but not brown, and their juices are concentrated
in the cooking fat. If the pan is covered during cooking, the ingredients will keep a certain amount of their
natural moisture. If the pan is not covered, the ingredients will remain relatively dry.
-TTEMPER
1. To slowly bring up the temperature of a cold or room temperature ingredient by adding small amounts of a
hot or boiling liquid. Adding the hot liquid gradually prevents the cool ingredient, such as eggs, from cooking or
setting. The tempered mixture can then be added back to hot liquid for further cooking. This process is used
most in making pastry cream and the like.
2. To bring chocolate to a state in which it has snap, shine and no streaks. Commercially available chocolate is
already tempered but this condition changes when it is melted. Tempering is often done when the chocolate will
be used for candy making or decorations. Chocolate must be tempered because it contains cocoa butter, a fat that
forms crystals after chocolate is melted and cooled. Dull grey streaks form and are called bloom. The classic
tempering method is to melt chocolate until it is totally without lumps (semisweet chocolate melts at a
temperature of 104 degrees F.) One third of the chocolate is then poured onto a marble slab then spread and
worked back and forth with a metal spatula until it becomes thick and reaches a temperature of about 80 degrees
F. The thickened chocolate is then added back to the remaining 2/3 melted chocolate and stirred. The process is
repeated until the entire mixture reaches 88-92 degrees for semisweet chocolate, 84-88 degrees for milk or white
chocolate. This whole process can also be done in a simple double boiler or a stainless steel mixing bowl over a
pot of hot water. For more chocolate tips, visit our chocolate section.
TENDERIZE
To make meat more tender by pounding with a mallet, marinating for varying periods of time, or storing at
lower temperatures. Fat may also be placed into a piece of meat to make it more tenderduring cooking. Our
meat tenderizers are amazing, visit the Sportsmans section.

TOURNE
To make a barrel shape piece of food by using a tourney or birds beak knife, usually a vegetable. Search this
word "Tourne" on the home page.
TRUSS
To secure food, usually poultry or game, with string, pins or skewers so that it maintains a compact shape during
cooking. Trussing allows for easier basting during cooking.
-UUNLEAVENED
The word which describes any baked good that has no leavener, such as yeast, baking powder or baking soda.
-VVANDYKE
To cut zigzags in edges of fruit and vegetables halves, usually oranges, tomatoes or lemons. The food is usually
used as a garnish to decorate a dish.
-WWHIP
To beat ingredients such as egg whites or cream until light and fluffy. Air is incorporated into the ingredients as
they are whipped, increasing their volume until they are light and fluffy.
WHISK
To beat or whip ingredients together until smooth, using a kitchen tool called a whisk.
-XXXX, XXXX, 10X
An indicator on a box of confectioners sugar of how many times it has been ground. The higher the number of
X's the finer the grind.
-YYAKITORI
A Japanese term meaning "grilled."
-ZZAHTAR
Popular spice blend in Turkey and other areas, this blend is composed of sesame seeds, powdered sumac and
dried thyme. Zahtar can be purchased on our Spice Page.

ZEST
To remove the outermost skin layers of citrus fruit using a knife, peeler or zester. When
zesting, be careful not to remove the pith, the white layer between the zest and the
flesh, which is bitter.

-B-

Baba ghanoush:

A Middle Eastern specialty that is a mixture of


roasted eggplant, tahini (sesame paste), olive oil,
lemon juice, and garlic. Served as either a dip or
a spread. Traditionally garnished with
pomegranate seeds and mint.

Baba:

A rich rum or kirsch-soaked Polish yeast cake


studded with currants or raisins. The traditional
baba is baked in a tall cylindrical mold but the
cake can be made in a variety of shapes and
sizes; called savarin when baked in a large ring
mold.

Baba:

a French or Italian small sweet cake made from


enriched yeast dough, often flavored with
candied fruits and soaked with a rum or
Kirschwasser syrup after baking. This dough is
also used to make the larger savarin.

Babaco:

This fruit indigenous to Ecuador, ranges from 8 to


12 inches long and about 4 inches in diameter.
The skin, which is entirely edible, turns from
green to golden yellow as it ripens. Babaco is
best eaten raw, contains triple the amount of
papain than found in papaya, and is a good
source of vitamins A and C.

Babka:

A Polish sweet yeast bread, traditionally made


with rum and studded with almonds, raisins and
orange peel.

Baby Back Ribs:

A slab of ribs cut from the pork primal loin and


weighing 1.75 pounds or less.

Baby Lima Beans:

There are two common varieties of lima beans:


the Fordhook and the baby (also called sieva).
The pale green bodies of both varieties have a
slight kidney-shaped curve. The Fordhook is
larger and plumper than the baby lima.

Bacalaitos fritons:

[Spanish] codfish fritters.

Bacalao:

[Spanish] salt cod; dried codfish.

Baccala:

See "Salt Cod, dried."

Back order (food industry term): Out-of-stock items that cannot be shipped with a
customer's original order and are sent to the
customer as soon as available.

Backhaul (food industry term): A transportation practice used to defray costs by


picking up products from a manufacturer after
delivering products to a store.
Backroom (food industry term): A storage area for excess products, kept on hand
to restock the sales floor as needed.
Backstock (food industry term): Extra products stored in a backroom to restock
shelves between deliveries.
Backstrap:

Tenderloin steak.

Backup (food industry term):

A copy of current computer files saved to a


computer disk or magnetic tape in case of a
computer system failure.

Back-up merchandise (food


industry term):

Products kept in a backroom for convenient


restocking of the sales floor.

Backup tape (food industry


term):

A removable tape used to back up computer


data.

Bacon (slab):

bacon in a chunk. You must slice it by hand (and


may want to remove the rind first). Slab bacon is
often the only way to find top-quality bacon.

Bacon rashers:

Canadian bacon or ham.

Bacon:

A smoked and cured product made from the


meat taken from the back, sides, and belly of
pigs. Fat, which gives bacon its sweet flavor and
tender crispness should be half to two:thirds of
the total weight.

Bacon:

A cured / smoked cut of pork carcass that


consists of fat interspersed with strands of meat,
available sliced or in a slab.

Baekenhofe:

an Alsatian stew made of pork, lamb, and beef


layered with potatoes and onions. The meat is
first marinated in wine and herbs for a minimum
of 24 hours, then assembled and baked in a
paste sealed casserole until the meat is buttery
tender. The juices are reduced and the top is
browned under the broiler. Crisp bacon and fried
leeks are used to garnish this dish.

Bag stuffer (food industry


term):

An ad circular placed in a customer's grocery bag


during bagging.

Bagel:

A dense, chewy, doughnut-shaped roll that is


cooked in boiling water, then baked.

Bagel:

a hard, glazed, doughnut- shaped roll.

Bagger (food industry term):

A retail clerk or associate who bags customers'


purchases at the checkstand.

Bagging (food industry term):

A process of properly, carefully packing customer


's purchases in plastic or paper bags to suit
customers.

Bagging shelf (food industry


term):

A platform on which bags are placed when


bagging customers' orders.

Bagna Cauda:

Meaning "warm bath", this is a dip made of


anchovies, olive oil and garlic. Unlike the French
anchoiade, this is served warm and is not
emulsified. Bread and raw vegetables are served
with this dip.

Baguette:

A long, thin, cylindrical loaf of French bread with


a crisp, brown crust and chewy interior;
traditionally made from flour, salt, water and
yeast.

Baguette:

A long, narrow loaf of French bread, usually with


a crispy brown crust and a soft, but chewy
interior.

Bain Marie:

1. A hot-water bath used to gently cook foods.


Hot water is placed in a pan and the food item
(such as custard), nestled in a separate
container, is set in the water. This allows gentle
cooking without scorching. 2. French term for a
type of double boiler.

Bain Marie:

[French] Simply a water bath. It consists of


placing a container of food in a large, shallow
pan of warm water, which surrounds the food
with gentle heat. The food may be cooked in this
manner either in an oven or on top of a range.
This technique is designed to cook delicate
dishes such as custards, sauces and savory
mousses without breaking or curdling them. It
can also be used to keep foods warm.

Bake Cups:

Paper or foil pleated cups used to line cupcake


or muffin tins.

Bake:

To cook in the oven. While roasting is often used


as a synonym for baking, the terms are actually
different. Roasting describes cooking food at a
higher temperature to brown the surface of the
food quickly.

Bake:

To cook in an oven or oven-type appliance.


Covered or uncovered containers may be used.
When applied to meats in uncovered containers,
the method gererally is called roasting. Common
oven temperatures are:

250 to 2750F Very slow oven

300 to 3250F Slow oven

350 to 3750F Moderate oven

400 to 4250F Hot oven

450 to 4750F Very hot oven

5000 to 5250F Extremely hot oven

Bake:

Cooking food in dry heat, especially in an oven.

Bake:

To cook in an oven with dry heat at a specific


temperature.

Baked Alaska:

A dessert comprised of sponge cake topped with


ice cream and covered with meringue. The
dessert is then placed in a hot oven to brown the
meringue before the ice cream can melt.

Bake-off (food industry term):

An in-store baking process using frozen doughs


and products to prepare fresh products, i.e.,
fresh rolls, bread, doughnuts or other pastries.

Bake-off bakery (food industry


term):

Prepared dough baked in a store to provide fresh


products, such as rolls, breads or doughnuts.

Baker's % formula:

Ingredient weight divided by total flour weight X


100 = bakers% for that ingredient. Example, 3 lb
water divided by 5 lb. flour X 100 = 60% water.

Baker's Cheese:

Similar to cottage cheese, this soft, acidic white


cheese is made from skim milk and used mainly

in commercially baked goods. It is rarely


available in retail stores.
Baker's Peel:

A tool with a flat, smooth surface and long handle


that's used to move pizzas and yeast breads to
and from an oven. Peels are usually hardwood,
but can be made of metal. Also known as a pizza
peel or paddle.

Baker's percent:

"In baking formulas primarily based on flour, each


ingredient's weight is measured as a percentage
of the total flour weight (100 percent). See box
below.
Sample Formula
Bakers Percent
Ingredients Bakers % Weight
Flour* 100.0 5lbs
Water 60.0 3lbs
Yeast 3.5 2.8oz Veg. Oil 3.5 2.8oz
Sugar 3.0 24oz
Milk Solids 2.5 2.0oz
Honey 2.5 2.0oz
Molasses 2.0 1.6oz
Salt 2.0 1.6oz
*May be bread, whole wheat, or blend.
100%=total flour weight
"

Bakery control sheet (food


industry term):

A daily record used to maintain and ensure


proper inventory and production levels in the
Bakery Department.

Baking

Surrounding food with hot, dry air in a closed


environment, usually an oven; a dry-heat cooking
method

Baking mix:

A combination of pre-measured baking dry


ingredients (Example, flours, meal, leavening,
sugars, salt, spices).

Baking pan:

Baking pan Available in a variety of shapes and


sizes for baking specific cakes, cookies, biscuits,
breads, pies, and specialty goods. Most pans
sold today are made from light- to heavy-gauge
steel, except for two-layer, insulated baking pans,
which are heavy-gauge aluminum. Most test
kitchens use midgauge aluminum pans to
formulate standards for baking time,
temperature, and even baking/browning.

Baking potato:

This term refers to Idaho and russet potatoes,


the big potatoes with rough, brown skin and
numerous eyes. These potatoes are low in
moisture and high in starch, which makes them
ideal for baking. They also make good mashed
potatoes and French fries.

Baking powder:

A leavening agent containing both baking soda


and one or two acids - citric or tartaric. It reacts
without acid from the other ingredients when wet
and when it becomes hot. The baking powder
used at home is "double-acting" because it has
two types of acid - one reacts when liquids are
added in the bowl and the other reacts when it
becomes hot during baking. Carbon dioxide is
the gas produced that "lifts" the batter and makes
a light product in the end. Test for strength by
mixing one teaspoon baking powder with 1/4 cup
very hot water. Mixture should bubble furiously.

Baking Powder:

A Leavening agent containing a combination of


baking soda, an acid like cream of tartar and a
moisture-absorber like cornstarch. When mixed
with liquid, it releases carbon dioxide gas that
causes baked goods to rise.

Baking powder:

A chemical leavener combining an acid with


bicarbonate of soda to form the gas which
enables baked products to rise. The chemical
reaction between the acid and the soda produces
carbon dioxide to leaven the product. The most
common form of baking powder is the double
acting variety, which produces gas upon mixing
and again at high temperatures. Always store this
tightly covered.

Baking sheet:

A sheet of metal that is rigid and is used for


baking cookies, breads, biscuits, etc. It usually
has one or more edges that is turned up for ease
in removing from the oven. Types include shiny,
heavy-gauge aluminum, the standard used in
most test kitchens for even baking and browning.
Darkened, heavy-gauge pans will produce
especially crisp exterior crusts desired for
specialty baked goods. Insulated baking sheets
are two sheets of aluminum with air space
between, and are especially good for soft
cookies or tender-crust breads or rolls. Also, see
Cookie sheet, Insulated bakeware, and Jelly roll

pan glossary listings.


Baking Soda, Bicarbonate of
Soda:

A Leavening agent that causes baked goods to


rise when combined with an acid ingredient such
as buttermilk or yogurt.

Baking soda:

"A base, alkaline in nature, formed when sodium


carbonate (purified form of mineral trona) is
mixed with carbon dioxide and water to form
sodium bicarbonate.
Na2CO3 + CO2 + H20 + NaHCO3
sodium carbonate + carbon dioxide + water +
sodium bicarbonate . Baking soda is the source
of CO2 gas in leavening systems. It neutralizes
acids in the batter, adjusting the final pH of baked
goods. Baking soda is not the same as baking
powder."

Baking soda:

Also called bicarbonate of soda and sodium


bicarbonate is a leavening agent which is used
as an essential ingredient in baking powder.
When used alone as a leavener, recipes must
include some type of acid to neutralize the
resulting sodium carbonate in the finished
product. Buttermilk, yogurt, sour cream, and
citrus juice are adequate acid to use. You may
also use baking soda to help neutralize the acid
in recipes that call for large amounts of fruit.

Baking stone:

A round or rectangular plate of stone or


unglazed, tile-like material used to provide the
baking qualities of a brick oven floor. The stone is
placed on the lowest oven rack. Follow the
manufacturer's directions regarding whether
preheating the stone with the oven is
recommended. The product to be baked or the
product in its pan are placed on the stone to
bake.

Baking Stones, Baking Tiles:

A heavy, thick, round or rectangular ceramic or


stone plate placed on the lowest oven shelf and
preheated with the oven. Such stones are used
to duplicate the baking qualities of the brick floors
of some commercial bread and pizza ovens.
Items to be baked are then placed directly on the
baking stone in the oven. Also known as a pizza
stone. Baking tiles are used like a baking stone,
but are thick, unglazed quarry tiles 8 to 12 inches
square.

Baking tray:

Cookie sheet.

Baklava:

Greek pastry made in layers with thin leaves of


phyllo dough, honey, sugar and chopped nuts.

Baklava:

[Middle Eastern- Greek] A very sweet dessert


made of layers of flaky pastry filled with a mixture
of ground nuts (often pistachios) and sugar. The
pastry is sliced, baked, and brushed with a honey
syrup flavored with lemon or rose water.

Balachan:

Malaysian condiment made of spices, small fish


and shrimp, allowed to ferment in the hot sun,
and then dried. It is quite pungent and is
considered an acquired taste.

Balance sheet (food industry


term):

A financial statement of a business, which lists


assets, liabilities and net worth at a specified
date.

Balanced features (food


industry term):

A marketing and/or merchandising program that


features and/or displays short-profit and longprofit products together as a combination sale.
See related items.

Bale (food industry term):

A large bundle of cardboard that is recycled.

Baler (food industry term):

A device used to compact and bind corrugated


cardboard into bales for recycling.

Ballasts (food industry term):

A transformer-like device in a fluorescent light


fixture.

Ballottine:

A dish in which forcemeat is stuffed back into the


boneless carcass from which the forcemeat was
made. This may include fish, poultry, game birds,
or even some cuts of meat. The mixture is
wrapped in muslin and poached or braised.
These dishes may be served hot or cold.

Balsamic Vinegar:

An Italian vinegar made from white Trebbiano


grape juice. It has a dark color and pungent
sweetness from aging in barrels made of wood.

Balsamic vinegar:

A wonderfully fragrant vinegar made from the


juice of Trebbiano grapes. The juice is then
heated and aged in wooden barrels, evaporating
and concentrating in flavor. The resulting vinegar
is deep rich brown with a sweet and sour flavor.
Well aged balsamic vinegars are very costly,

some reaching an astronomical $200 an ounce.


Most balsamic vinegars found in the US are not
"aceto balsamico tradizionale", but an aged
balsamic vinegar. These vinegars lack in body
and flavor that the well-aged balsamic vinegars
possess, yet have a fair sweet and sour balance
of flavor not found in any other vinegars.
Bamboo leaves:

Used in Asian cooking to wrap ingredients for


steaming. They need to be reconstituted before
use.

Bamboo Shoots:

These are the ivory-colored shoots of the


bamboo plant. Bamboo shoots have a tendercrisp texture and sweet flavor. Primarily available
in cans and used in Asian cuisines.

Bamboo shoots:

The young growth of a certain edible bamboo


plant. Fresh shoots, tender and ivory-colored
occasionally turn up in Asian markets, but rarely.
The canned ones are tasteless but provide a
decent crunch. found in Asian markets and many
supermarkets.

Banana Squash:

A large, long winter squash with creamy orange


skin and orange flesh; often sold in sections.

Banana:

A tropical fruit that grows in clusters and is long


and curving with a yellow skin flecked with brown
specs. It has a slightly sticky, creamy pulp and a
distinctive sweet flavor.

Bandwidth (food industry term): The data transfer rate of an electronic


communications system.
Bangers:

British colloquial term for sausages. "Bangers


and Mash" are sausages and mashed potatoes.

Banner (food industry term):

An in-store advertising sign or display used to


identify in-store locations, sale items and
products.

Banneton:

A small woven basket used for letting bread


dough rise before baking. The basket is dusted
with flour before use. The dough takes on the
shape of the basket as it rises and is then
carefully turned out onto a baking sheet. The
baked bread retains the pattern of the basket.

Bap:

A soft Scottish yeast roll traditionally eaten for

breakfast with a flour-tasting finish.


Bar code (food industry term):

A unique identification code on products, pallets


and coupons. The code is read by an electronic
scanner for receiving, ordering and inventory
control purposes. See UCC/EAN-128.

Barbacoa:

[Spanish] barbecued or pit-cooked meat; often


refers to the head of a cow, sheep or goat that
has been barbecued or pit-cooked.

Barbados sugar:

Also known as muscovado sugar. A British


specialty brown sugar; it is very dark brown and
has a strong molasses flavor.

Barbados Sugar:

A soft, moist, fine-textured type of raw sugar. If


unavailable, dark brown sugar can be substituted
in equal parts.

Barbecue, Barbeque, Bar-B-Q:

1. A method of cooking meat, poultry or fish or


even vegetables and fruit. Is covered and slowly
cooked in a pit or on a spit, using hot coals or
hardwood as a heat source. 2. A brazier fitted
with a grill and sometimes a spit.

Barbecue:

To roast slowly on a gridiron or spit, over coals,


or under free flame or oven electric unit, usually
basing with a highly seasoned sauce. Popularly
applied to foods cooked in or served with
barbecue sause.

Barder, Bard:

To cover meats with slices of salt pork

Barding:

The practice of wrapping lean cuts of meat to be


with thin slices of back fat. The converse of this
is larding, in which long strips of fat are inserted
into the cut of meat to keep it moist during
cooking.

Barley flour:

A low-gluten flour made from hulled barley. It


imparts a sweet taste, moisture, and relative
lightness to cakes, cookies, and quick breads.

Barley Flour:

Ground barley used for baking, however, since it


lacks gluten, barley flour isn't recommended for
yeast breads unless combined with a glutencontaining flour. An excellent thickener for soups
and sauces

Barley, Pearl:

Polished barley.

Barley:

A small, round grain grown in most of the world.


It is pearled to remove its outer husk. It has a
slightly sweet, nutty, earthy flavor and chewy
texture.

Barm Brack:

An Irish bread, usually containing candied fruit


peel and raisins or currants. Barm brack is
typically buttered and served with tea.

Baron (of beef or lamb):

The two legs and saddle cooked as a unit.

Barquette:

A small oval shaped pastry shell with either


sweet or savory fillings.

Barquettes:

Small, oblong pastry tarts made of short crust


pastry or puff pastry and baked blind.

Barracuda:

A pike:like sea fish with long pointed jaws filled


with razor:sharp teeth. It is a firm:textured fish
with moderate fat content. The type most
commonly found in the U.S. is the Pacific
barracuda (also called the California barracuda).

Base price (food industry term): A price calculated by taking a product's


suggested retail price and subtracting a
percentage.
Base wrap (food industry term): A wrap at the base of a merchandising display to
provide continuity or a decorative touch to
displays.
Basic items (food industry
term):

Necessary, common, everyday household items,


which customers expect to find in a grocery
store.

Basic stock list (food industry


term):

A wholesalers' listing of products and brands.


See rotation list.

Basil:

An herb commonly used in Italian cooking with a


strong sweet flavor. Basil is used with many
dishes but is most commonly paired with
tomatoes. Basil also is one of the main
ingredients in pesto, a thick paste made by
pounding the herb's green leaves with Parmesan
and Pecorino cheeses, pine nuts and olive oil.

Basil:

Native to India, it has long been a mainstay in


Italian cooking. Its leaves have a spicy smell and

flavor that work well in everything from seafood


cocktails and soups to stews and other meat
dishes.
Basmati:

An aged, fragrant long grain rice. It has a creamy


yellow color, distinctive sweet, nutty aroma and
delicate flavor.

Basquaise:

Food prepared in the style of Basque which often


includes tomatoes and sweet or hot red peppers.

Bass scanning (price


verification) (food industry
term):

The process of verifying retail prices and item


descriptions in the Point of Sale System (register
system), using the BASS FM unit.

Bass:

A term that refers to numerous and often


unrelated freshwater and saltwater fish. True
basses include groupers, black sea bass, and
the striped bass. Largemouth, redeye, rock,
smallmouth and the spotted bass, are actually
sunfish.

Bass:

A term used for several varieties of fresh and


saltwater spiny-finned fish. Large mouth, small
mouth, sea and striped bass are some of the
varieties.

Baste:

To moisten food during cooking with pan


drippings, sauce, or other liquid, often with the
help of a baster. Basting prevents foods from
drying out.

Baste:

To moisten meat or other foods while cooking, in


order to add flavor and to prevent drying of the
surface. The liquid usually is melted fat, meat
drippings, fruit juice, sauce or water.

Baste:

To add moisture, flavor and color to foods by


brushing, drizzling or spooning pan juices or
other liquids over the food during cooking.

Baste:

To moisten with marinade or with pan juices


during broiling or roasting.

Basting

Moistening food during cooking by spooning or


brushing food with melted fat, pan drippings, a
sauce, or another liquid to prevent it from drying
out

Basting:

Preparation method which moistens meat or

poultry with pan juices or drippings during


roasting by using a spoon or bulb baster as a
tool. The bulb on the baster is squeezed while in
the liquid, then slowly released to draw the liquid
into the tube.
Batarde:

A French butter sauce made with egg yolks.

Batch:

One recipe of a dough or batter, such as bread or


cookies.

Batter:

A mixture of flour and liquid, usually combined


with other ingredients, as in baked products. The
miscure is of such consistency that it may be
stirred with a spoon and is thin enough to pour or
drop from a spoon.

Batter:

"Thin mixture of flour and water that can be


poured or spooned into pan or on a griddle.
Batter or Dough
Other ingredients plus the ratio of liquid to
flour help determine if it's a batter or
dough.
Liquid to Flour:

Pour batter - 1 to 1

Drop batter - 1 to 2

Soft dough - 1 to 3

Stiff dough - 1 to 4

"
Batter:

A mixture of flour, fat, and liquid that is thin


enough in consistency to require a pan to encase
it.

Batter:

A flour-liquid mixture that is thin enough to pour.


One example is pancake batter.

Bavarian cream:

A cream made with pastry cream lightened with


whipped cream and stabilized with gelatin. This
cream may then be poured into molds, or used
as a filling for cakes or pastries. Bavarian cream
is often flavored with fruit purees or alcohol.

Bavette:

Thin, oval shaped pasta.

Bay (food industry term):

The bottom shelf in a retail aisle.

Bay leaf:

An aromatic leaf that comes from bay laurel.


Whole, halved, or ground, it lends a slightly bitter
taste. A pungent seasoning to add to soups,
stews, and stocks. One of the primary
ingredients in a bouquet garni.

Bay Leaves:

A leaf from the laurel family used as an herb that


imparts a lemon-nutmeg flavor and is usually
removed from food after cooking.

Bb (food industry term):

Billback.

Bbq machine (food industry


term):

A device to cook foods in-store to add a Bar-BQue or smoky flavor.

Bcp (food industry term):

Broken Case Price.

Bean curd:

Cheese-like product made from soybean milk.


Buy fresh in cakes in most supermarkets. Can be
found in cans also but the flavor is far inferior.

Bean sauce:

A soybean condiment that is an essential


ingredient in stir-fries. It is labeled either "whole
bean sauce" or "ground bean sauce," which
tends to be saltier. Available in Asian markets
and many supermarkets.

Bean Sprouts:

Mung and soybean sprouts are very popular in


Asian cooking. The crisp, mild-flavored sprouts
add a crunchy texture to salads, and are best
eaten raw. However, they are also a nice addition
to stir-fry dishes, but will lose their crunchiness if
cooked longer than 30 seconds. Bean sprouts
are available in most supermarkets, either prepackaged or in bulk. Select crisp, pale sprouts
with the buds attached; avoid musty-smelling,
dark or slimy-looking sprouts

Bean sprouts:

Edible sprouts which can be produced from a


variety of seeds and beans, from the mung and
alfalfa to lentil, radish and even broccoli. Sprouts
should be kept in the refrigerator in the ventilated
container or plastic bag in which they were sold,
and used within a few days. Found fresh in most
produce sections. Skip using the canned variety

if you can avoid it.


Bear sign or bear claw:

Fried pastry similar to the modern doughnut.

Bear:

A large, partly carnivorous quadruped found in


America, the Arctic, and in Europe. Bear steaks
should be cooked like beef, except that they are
generally marinated for a couple of days in oil
and vinegar or wine to help tenderize the meat.

Bearnaise Sauce:

A classic white-wine sauce flavored with fresh


herbs and shallots, thickened with egg yolks and
usually finished with tarragon or chervil.

Bearnaise:

This is the most notable of all the hollandaise


sauce variations. It is made with a wine and
vinegar reduction, egg yolks, butter and flavored
with tarragon or other herbs. This sauce makes a
good companion to grilled meats and fish.

Beat:

To blend a mixture of food quickly with the goal of


making it smooth and adding as much air as
possible.

Beat:

To make a mixture smooth by introducing air with


a brisk, regular motion that lifts the mixture over
and over, or with a rotary motion as with an egg
beater or electric mixer.

Beat:

Making a smooth mixture by whipping or stirring


with a wire whisk, spoon, beater or electric mixer.

Beat:

To mix thoroughly with a spoon, whisk or beaters


until smooth and well combined.

Beating:

Process of mixing food to introduce air and make


it lighter or fluffier. Tools utilized to beat an
ingredient or mixture include a wooden spoon,
hand whisk or electric mixer.

Beau Monde Seasoning:

A commercial combination of herbs

Beaver:

A semi:aquatic animal of the rodent family. The


tail is considered the best part to eat. Care must
be taken when skinning to avoid severing the
musk gland, which will permeate the entire flesh
when cut.

Bebidas:

[Spanish] drinks.

Bechamel sauce:

This is a white sauce made with milk or cream


and thickened with a roux. Bechamel sauce is
generally used as a base for other more complex
sauces, though it may be used alone for binding
or moistening.

Bechamel:

Basic milk (white) sauce

Beef fillet (filet mignon):

This tender but expensive boneless cut of meat


comes from the small end of the tenderloin. It
should be cooked quickly by frilling or saut ing.
Not an overly flavorful cut of meat.

Beef stock:

Real beef stock is superior to any. But


consomme or bouillon (mostly salt) may be
substituted in a pinch.

Beef tartare:

A dish of coarsely ground beef. The meat is


normally high:quality, lean, and seasoned with
salt, pepper, and seasonings. Beef tartar is often
served with a raw egg placed on top, along with
capers, parsley, and onions.

Beef:

The meat from cows, steers (males castrated


when very young), heifers (females that have
never borne a calf) and bulls under 2 years old.
The eight USDA grades are Prime, Choice,
Select, Standard, Commercial, Utility, Cutter, and
Canner.

Beef:

The firm but tender meat of cows which has a


dark red color, rich flavor, interior marbling and
external fat.

Beefalo:

A cross between the American bison (commonly


called buffalo) and cattle, the beef strain being
dominant. The dark red meat of beefalo is very
lean and has a somewhat stronger flavor than
beef.

Beerwurst:

A German cooked sausage with a garlic flavor


and a dark red color. Normally used as lunch
meat. Also know as "Bierwurst."

Beet:

A large round, garnet red edible root with an


edible leafy green top

Beignet:

A French or Creole version of doughnuts. Dough


or batter is deep fried and dusted with powdered

sugar or glazed with a flavored syrup.


Beignets:

Fritters

Bel Paese:

Semisoft Italian cheese having a mild, buttery


flavor. Delicious with fruity wines, it can be
served as a dessert cheese, and melts
beautifully for use in casseroles or on pizza.

Bell Pepper:

A large fresh sweet pepper with a mild sweet


flavor and available in various colors, including
green, red, white, brown, purple, yellow and
orange.

Bell peppers:

Also known as sweet peppers, bell peppers are


"mature" when they turn bright green, but they
are not yet ripe; their flavor is sharp, even acrid
at this point. If picked after they have changed to
red, yellow, or orange their flavor will have
mellowed considerably.

Belle Helene:

Best known as the name of a dessert with


poached pears, ice cream, and chocolate sauce.
It is also a term used in French cookery as a
name for a garnish to grilled meat dishes.

Belly:fish:

This large low:fat, firm:textured salt:water fish


has a mild, sweet flavor that compares with
lobster. Sometimes referred to as "poor man's
lobster." Also called "angler fish," "monkfish," and
"goosefish."

Bench Proof:

The final rising state in yeast dough production,


occurring between the time the dough is panned
and baked.

Bench time:

Allowing yeast dough 5 to 15 minutes resting


time after fermentation, punching, dividing and
before shaping to allow gluten to relax.

Bench:

The counter or surface bakers use to work with


dough.

Benchmarking (food industry


term):

A performance standard against which operating


performance is measured, which is used to
identify performance improvements and best
practices in an industry.

Benedictine:

A green spread made with cucumber, cream

cheese and mayonnaise.


Benne seeds:

[African] sesame seeds.

Benne:

Term used commonly in the southern United


States for sesame seeds, and to describe dishes
containing sesame, e.g., benne brittle or benne
wafers (sesame cookies).

Bercy:

A French sauce with white wine and shallots as a


base.

Bermuda onion:

This big, sweet, ivory-colored onion truly does


not come from Bermuda. A sweet, crisp topping
for sandwiches, this onion is also a good choice
for everyday cooking. Bermudas have a shorter
shelf life than the basic yellow onion. Also called
Spanish onion.

Berries:

Fruit with seeds embedded in the pulp. Varieties


include blackberries, raspberries, dewberries,
loganberries, salmonberries, youngberries and
many more. Berries should be plump, tender and
stored in ventilated containers when fresh.

Besan:

Used in East Indian cooking, besan is a pale


yellow flour made from ground, dried chickpeas.
This nutritious, high-protein flour is used for
myriad preparations including doughs,
dumplings, noodles, a thickener for sauces and
in batter for deep-fried foods. Besan, also known
as gram flour can be found in Indian or Asian
markets. Store, wrapped airtight, in the
refrigerator for up to 6 months.

Best food day (food industry


term):

The day that grocery ads run in a newspaper in


any community.

Beta Carotene:

A naturally occurring nutrient found in plants and


vegetables that acts as an antioxidant. When
consumed, beta carotene is converted into
vitamin A.

Beta test (food industry term):

A field test of new equipment or software


programs to identify errors or problems, and to
solicit user's comments so that the manufacturer
can make final modifications before the
equipment or software is released for sale.

Betabel:

[Spanish] beet.

Betty:

a baked dessert dating to Colonial America, It is


a baked pudding made with layers of spiced
sweetened fruit (usually apples) and buttered
bread crumbs. Apple Brown Betty is made with
brown sugar and sliced apples.

Beurre Blanc:

An emulsified sauce made of a wine or vinegar


reduction blended with softened butter. This may
be flavored in many ways, for fish, vegetables,
and poultry dishes. This is a very tricky sauce
and does not hold for long periods of time.
Because of this, modern versions add a touch of
cream to stabilize the sauce for longer periods of
time.

Beurre Manie:

A mixture of flour and butter worked into a paste,


either with your fingers or a spoon. This is then
used in small quantities to adjust the thickness of
sauces and stews. The sauce must then be
boiled briefly to remove the starchy taste of the
flour. For this reason, beurre manie is used in
situations where only a small quantity is needed.

Beurre Noir:
Cabanossi:

A sa
A salami-type sausage popular in Southern
Europe.
Common cabbage has a tight round head of
waxy, tightly wrapped light green leaves. Other
varieties include white and red.
[Spanish] goat.
A dish of young cooked goat that is popular in
Portugal, Spain and Mexico.
[Spanish] unweaned goat; suckling goat; kid
goat; usually split and spit roasted whole;
considered a delicacy in Mexico and the
Southwest; a favorite dish in northern Mexico,
especially at Easter.
[Spanish] peanuts.
An Italian stew-like dish flavored with onions,
herbs, mushrooms, tomatoes and sometimes
wine.
(kuh-KOW) Tropical evergreen tree cultivated for
its seed pods from which cocoa powder and
cocoa butter are produced.
In the southwest and Mexico, the large, flat,
fleshy, oval green pads of the nopal cactus are
prepared as a vegetable. When cooked, pieces

Cabbage:
Cabra:
Cabrito:
Cabrito:

Cacahuates:
Cacciatore:
Cacoa:
Cactus paddle:

Cactus:
Cafe Brulot:
Cafe Brulot:
Cafe Noir:
Cafe:
Caffeine:

Cage (food industry term):


Caguama:
Cajeta:

Cajun:
Cake cooler:
Cake Flour, Pastry Flour:
Cake flour:
Cake tin:
Cake:

Cal:
Cala:

have the color and translucence of cooked bell


pepper, but they are also viscid, like okra. The
flavor is something between a bell pepper and
artichoke or asparagus or okra.
The pads and fruits of the Opuntia cactus are
cooked and eaten.
Coffee spiced with cinnamon, sugar, lemon or
orange rind, and brandy; sometimes served
flaming.
Spices and other ingredients flamed with brandy
or some other spirits to which hot coffee is
added.
Black coffee.
[Spanish] coffee.
A mild organic stimulant found in foods such as
coffee, tea and chocolate; acts as a stimulant on
the nervous system, kidneys and heart, dilates
the blood vessels and induces the release of
insulin in the body.
A secure area used to store selected products,
such as cigarettes and aerosols.
[Spanish] sea turtle.
[Spanish] originally a little wooden box made to
hold sweets; burned milk; goat's milk caramel;
goat's milk that has been mixed with sugar and
cooked into a brown paste; dessert, usually of
fruit or milk, cooked with sugar until thick.
Cooking influenced by southern U.S. and French
cuisine.
Wire rack.
A fine-textured, wheat flour with a high starch
content used for making cakes, pastry doughs
and other tender baked goods.
Fine-textured, silky flour milled from soft wheat,
with a low protein content for making cakes,
cookies, pastries and some breads.
Baking pan.
A broad range of sweet, baked pastry
confections containing flour, sugar, flavorings and
eggs and/or leavening agents such as baking
powder or baking soda.
dolomitic lime; slaked lime; mineral added to corn
when making nixtamal masa to loosen the
kernels' skins.
A deep-fried, sweet rice cake resembling
doughnut holes sprinkled with sugar, commonly
served in New Orleans around the holiday of
Revillion.

Calabacita:

[Spanish] squash; zucchini. A variety of summer


squash found in Latin American and Mexican
cooking.
Calabash:
A variety of passion fruit native to Central
America and the Caribbean. Shaped similar to an
apple with a thin yellow-brown skin. In Southern
cooking the term applies to breaded or battered
fried fish.
Calabaza:
Baked pumpkin.
Calabaza:
[Spanish] pumpkin. This pumpkin-like winter
squash, usually sold in slices or hunks in markets
catering to Central and South Americans. Also
known as West Indian pumpkin, calabaza is quite
frequently better than pumpkin when cooked in
the same way.
Calamares:
[Spanish] squid.
Calamari:
This ten:armed cephalopod, commonly known as
"squid," is related to the octopus. They vary in
size from 1 inch to 80 feet in length. The meat is
firm and chewy, with a somewhat sweet flavor.
Over:cooking can lead to a rubbery texture.
Calamari:
Italian and [Spanish] squid.
Calamata olives:
Purple-black Greek olives of generally high
quality. Also spelled kalamata olives.
Calcium:
A necessary mineral found in all dairy products,
most dark leafy green vegetables (such as kale,
turnip greens and broccoli), dried peas and
beans, sardines and canned salmon with bones.
Almost 100 percent of the body's supply of
calcium goes into forming and maintaining bones
and teeth.
Caldero:
[Spanish] heavy kettle.
Caldillo:
A thick Mexican stew of meat, potatoes and
chiles. Also the name used to define a light
Spanish broth.
Caldillo:
[Spanish] little soup; thick stew with beef and
chiles; commonly served in El Paso and Juarez.
Caldo (caldillo):
[Spanish] broth, stock or clear soup.
Caldo de cerdo:
[Spanish] pork broth.
Caldo Verde:
A Portuguese soup made from a sharp flavored
cabbage, potatoes, broth, and olive oil. Sausage
is then cooked in the soup.
Calendar (food industry term): A chronological list by month of the major trade
shows pertaining to the supermarket industry.
Calendar marketing agreement An agreement between a retailer and a
(cma) (food industry term):
manufacturer in which the retailer agrees to
promote the manufacturer's products according
to a specific schedule.

Calf fries:

[Spanish] ranch treat of quick-fried calf scrotum;


also called mountain oysters.
Calico bass:
One of a large number of North American
freshwater fish closely related to the perch.
Known for their bright, sunny colors, calico bass
are also known as "sunfish."
California sheepshead:
A saltwater fish belonging to the wrasse family.
Also called "sheepshead," "fathead," and
"redhead." Its meat is white, tender, and lean.
Callo de hacha:
[Spanish] pinna clam.
Calorie Free:
A food containing less than 5 calories per
serving.
Calorie:
A unit of heat used to measure food energy. Also
written as kcalorie, kcal or Cal., it is the amount
of heat required to raise the temperature of 1
kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius. Calories are
obtained from alcohol, carbohydrates, fats and
proteins. Of the four, fats and alcohol have a
higher caloric density than proteins and
carbohydrates.
Calzone:
A stuffed, half-moon-shaped Italian turnover,
similar to a pizza folded in half and baked or
deep fried. Also the name for a Mexican sugar
cookie.
Calzone:
A stuffed, half-moon-shaped Italian turnover,
similar to a pizza folded in half and baked or
deep fried. Also the name for a Mexican sugar
cookie.
Calzone:
[Italian} "trousers." A half-moon shaped pizza
turnover, often served with sauce over the top
rather than inside.
Camarones (camaron):
[Spanish] shrimps; shrimp.
Camembert Cheese:
A soft, surface-ripened French cheese, similar to
brie. The cheese is famous for its gray, felt-like
rind, slightly bitter flavor and complex aroma.
When overripe, camembert will be runny, bitter
and rank. When ripe, the cheese should ooze
thickly, look plump and feel soft to the touch.
Camote:
[Spanish] yam; sweet potato.
Campechana:
[Spanish] blend or mixture.
Can code (food industry term): A manufacturer's code that describes the facility,
shift, date and time that a product was
packaged.
Can manufacturers institute
1625 Massachusetts Ave., N.W. Washington DC
(cmi) (food industry term):
20036 (202) 232-4677
Canadian bacon:
A lean, smoked meat that is closer to ham than
to bacon. It comes from the lean tender eye of
the loin, located in the middle of the back. It is

Canadian Bacon:
Canadian bacon:

Canape:
Canape:

Canard:
Canard:
Candele Pasta:
Candied ginger:
Candied:
Candlefish:

Candy (food industry term):


Candy Thermometer:
Candy thermometer:

Cane Syrup:
Cane syrup:
Canela:

Caneton:
Canned cowboy:
Cannellini Beans:

called "back bacon" in Canada.


The lean, boneless rib-eye of a pork loin which
has been cured and smoked.
The large rib-eye muscle of the pork loin, cured
and smoked. It is boneless and more lean than
streaky bacon, making it a good ham substitute
for those watching their fat intake.
French for an appetizer prepared and served on
toast or crackers.
[French] plain or toasted bread or crackers
topped with a savory mixture. Usually served as
appetizers, with cocktails, snacks or for lunch.
They may be served hot or cold, they are often
elaborately garnished.
Duck
[French] duck.
Pipe-shaped pasta, about inch to ? inch in
diameter.
Found in Asian markets.
Cooked in sugar or syrup until transparent and
well-coated.
A rich and oily mild:flavored fish. This variety of
smelt is so named because Indians sometimes
run a wick through their high:fat flesh and use
them for candles. Also known as the "Eulachon."
A category that includes candies, chewing gum
and other confections.
A large glass, mercury kitchen thermometer used
for testing the temperature while making candy,
jams, and jellies.
Cooking tool comprised of a large glass mercury
thermometer that measures temperatures from
about 40 degrees F to 400 degrees F. A frame or
clip allows it to stand or hang in a pan during
cooking for accurate temperature measurement.
A thick, sweet syrup made from sugarcane.
A sweet, dark brown, very thick sugar cane
syrup, tasting something like dark brown sugar.
[Spanish] cinnamon; Ceylon cinnamon; lighter in
color and more subtle in flavor than cinnamon
sold in the United States; dried inner bark of the
"Cinnamomum zeylanicum" tree, which was
brought to Mexico from Sri Lanka; canela sticks
have a rough, torn appearance, and its soft
surface grinds easily in spice mills and blenders.
[French] duckling.
Canned milk, a term from the American West.
A large creamy, white kidney bean used in Italian

Cannellini beans:

Cannelloni:
Cannelloni:

Cannibalization (food industry


term):
Canning & pickling salt:

Canning Funnel:
Cannoli:

Canola Oil:

Canola oil:

Canopy (food industry term):

cooking. They are sometimes referred to as


Northern beans.
[Italian] large, creamy white bean often included
in Italian cooking. Also known as Northern beans,
this legume makes an excellent vegetarian
substitute for both fish and chicken due to its rich
texture.
Large pasta tubes that are boiled, then stuffed
with a meat or cheese filling and baked with a
sauce.
[Italian] large tubular-shaped noodles usually
served stuffed. An Italian dish made of sheets or
tubes of pasta filled with meat, cheese or fish,
sauced and baked au gratin. Variations of this
use thin pancakes, called crespelle, which are
similar to crepes and are filled and cooked in the
same manner as the pasta.
A competitive factor that reduces a product's
sales, such as the debut of a competing brand.
A pure granulated salt, with no additives or freeflowing agents. It may be used the same as table
salt in baking recipes. It may cake when exposed
to greater than 75 percent relative humidity. Also,
see Salt glossary listing.
A wide-stemmed funnel (usually made of metal to
resist heat) specifically designed to fit the necks
of standard home canning jars.
[Italian] a crisp pastry tube filled with sweetened
ricotta cheese, chocolate chips, and candied
fruit. Cinnamon and vanilla are common
flavorings for this cheese mixture.
A bland oil made from rapeseeds; contains
omega-3 fatty acids and less saturated fat than
other vegetable oils. It is often blended with other
oils to make margarine, and because of its
neutral taste it is suitable for salad dressings and
cooking. Also known as rapeseed oil. Because it
is the most widely used oil in Canada, the
Canadian seed-oil industry changed the market
name to canola. It is also referred to in Canada
as lear oil, for "low erucic acid rapeseed" oil.
This neutral is your best choice for cooking
because it is inexpensive, extremely low in
saturated fats, has a high burning point, and
does not detract from the flavor of food with
which it is combined.
An awning or covering ledge that extends over
the top of grocery fixtures. It may have lights or
signs to draw attention to the products on display

Cantaloupe:

Cantina:
Cao (food industry term):
Cap (food industry term):
Capeado:
Capellini:
Capers:

Capers:

Capicolla:
Capicolla:
Capirotada:
Capocollo:

Capon:

Capon:
Capon:

Caponata:

below.
A muskmelon with a embossed crisscross gray
green rind and light orange flesh with a large
seed cavity and numerous seeds. It has a sweet
distinctive flavor.
[Spanish] bar.
Computer-assisted ordering.
Controlled atmosphere packaging.
[Spanish] covered with batter and fried.
Ther term in Italian means "fine hair" and
describes very fine spaghetti.
Unopened flower buds from a Mediterranean
shrub that are cured in salted white vinegar. They
have a sharp salty-sour flavor and are used as a
flavoring in salads and sauces.
Pickled hyssop buds which is used in sauces and
as condiments for smoked fish and nicoise salad.
Sold packed in vinegar or in salt. Small pickled
flower of a shrub though to have originated in the
Sahara Desert or in the Orient; Mexican capers
are large; Italian capers may be substituted.
Italian sausage prepared with pressed (not
chopped) pork shoulder and sweet red peppers,
cased, cooked and air-dried.
A coarse Italian pork sausage. Usually highly
seasoned, this sausage is served cold, thinly
sliced, as for prosciutto.
[Spanish] bread pudding; usually served during
Lent and Holy Week (Easter).
An Italian sausage made from pork shoulder and
flavored with sweet red peppers. It is pressed
(rather than chopped), put into casings, and air
dried. It is a specialty of the Parma region of
Italy.
The culinary term for castrated chicken that is fed
on a special diet until it is slaughtered at the age
of 6 to 9 months. Considered by most to be the
best eating chicken available.
A young castrated rooster.
A castrated rooster that is savored for its delicate
taste and texture. Once castrated, the chicken
would become fattened, yielding tender, juicy
flesh. This method of raising chickens is not
practiced much anymore, since most chickens
are butchered at a young age and still very
tender.
An Italian appetizer made from eggplant,
zucchini, tomato, anchovies, vinegar, olives,

Caponata:

Capons:
Cappelletti:

Capping:

Cappuccino:
Caprini:

Capsaicin:

Capsicum:

Capsicum:

Car (food industry term):


Carambola (star fruit):

other vegetables, herbs and spices. It is


frequently served as a side dish, relish, or as a
spread with toasted bread.
[Italian] Best known as a spread or cold salad
containing eggplant, celery, tomatoes, raisins,
and pine nuts seasoned with vinegar and olive
oil. Modern variations will add other vegetables
such as zucchini and season it with fresh herbs.
Castrated cocks, weighing 6 to 7 pounds or
more, these birds are especially desirable for
roasting when a large bird is in order.
Italian term for little hats. Cappelletti are small,
pointed-hat-shaped dumplings stuffed with
ground meat, cheese or vegetables; traditionally
served on Christmas day.
When yeast loaves are under-proofed and the
interior pushes up the top crust leaving a rough,
sharp edge along the side of the loaf having the
appearance of a "cap."
A beverage made from equal portions of
espresso, steamed milk and foamed milk, often
sprinkled with sweet cocoa powder or cinnamon
Cylindrical Italian cheese composed of a varying
mixture of goat, cow, and ewe's milk and having
a high fat content. Stored in olive oil and bay
leaves, the cheese is served as an antipasto.
The compound found in the placental ribs of a
chili. Responsible for the heat of the chili causing
watery eyes, a runny nose, sweating and
burning. It has been found not only to stimulate
pain receptors in the digestive tract, but to block
some as well- allowing people to become
accustomed to hotter and hotter dishes.
"Family of peppers such as cherry, banana, bell,
Tabasco, jalapeo, habaero, etc., which fall into
two categories: chiles and sweet peppers.
Common black and white pepper - made from
berries from vines of the Piperaceae family - are
not botanically related. "
The family name for sweet and hot peppers.
Large pepper with a slightly sweet flavor. Also
called a pepper, or sweet pepper. Available in
green (most common), red and yellow.
A transportation term that refers to a railroad car
or railcar.
Originally from Indonesia, this is one of the most
recent tropical imports, now grown in Florida and
found in most supermarkets. It has yellow, neartranslucent skin (which is tough but edible), and

Carambola:

Caramel:

Caramelization:

Caramelize:

Caramelize:
Caramelize:

Caramelize:

Caraway seed:

Caraway Seeds:
Carbohydrate:

slices take the shape of a star. Best eaten raw,


but also takes well to grilling.
A golden tropical fruit that has a star shape when
cut acorss the grain. The flesh is juicy and tastes
like a combination of plums, grapes, and apples.
Also known as star fruit.
1. A substance produced by cooking sugar until it
becomes a thick, dark liquid; its color ranges
from golden to dark brown; used for coloring and
flavoring desserts, candies; sweet and savory
sauces and other foods. 2. A firm, chewy candy
made with sugar, butter, corn syrup and milk or
cream.
Browning sugar over a flame, with or without the
addition of some water to aid the process. The
temperature range in which sugar caramelizes is
approximately 320? F to 360? F (160? C to 182?
C).
To gently brown natural sugars and other
compounds in foot over low heat to produce a
more intense flavor. Aromatic vegetables,
especially carrots and onions, and stew meats
are often caramelized in a small amount of fat.
Example
To heat sugar or foods containing sugar until
brown color and characteristic flavor develop.
The process through which natural sugars in
foods become browned and flavorful while
cooking. This is usually done over a constant
heat of low to medium-low. Caramelization can
be quickened with the addition of a little sugar.
Either way, be careful not to burn.
To slowly dissolve sugar (granulated or brown) in
water, then heat the resulting syrup until it turns
caramel-brown in color. Caramelized sugar is
sometimes called burnt sugar.
Curved, anise-like seed popular in German and
Austrian cooking. Caraway is a member of the
parsley family. Seeds are used as topping on
breads and savory pastries, and as
accompaniments to cabbage and goulash.
Caraway seed is also utilized in preparing some
cheeses and liqueurs.
An aromatic spice with a pungent, licorice flavor.
An important class of foods derived from organic
nutrients. There are three classes of significance:
1. Cellulose: indigestible dietary fiber. 2. Sugars:
fructose, sucrose, glucose and more complex
sugars. All are readily digested and are high in

Carbon:
Carbonade:
Carbonara:

Carbonara:

Carbonnade:
Cardamom:
Cardamom:

Cardinal:
Cardoon:

Caribe chiles:
Caribou:

Carload order (food industry


term):
Car-lot seller (food industry
term):
Carmelization:
Carne Adovada:

calories. 3. Starches: complex compounds


derived from cereal grains, legumes or
vegetables. These have more nutrients than
other carbohydrates and take longer to digest.
[Spanish] charcoal.
Braised or grilled, or sometimes stewed meat.
A pasta sauce composed of such items as
bacon, olive oil, eggs, cream, Parmesan cheese
and occasionally white wine, onions, garlic and
herbs.
An ultra-rich pasta sauce consisting of pancetta,
eggs, and parmesan cheese. Actually less of a
sauce than a preparation, hot pasta is tossed
with the rendered pancetta fat, the eggs, and
then the cheese. Crisp pancetta and black
pepper are tossed into the pasta just before
serving.
Braised Steak
This spice, from the ginger family, has a sweet,
ginger-like flavor. Available as seeds or ground.
Aromatic seeds used for baking, flavoring coffee
and exotic Scandinavian and Indian dishes.
Excellent when freshly ground. Botanical name:
Elettaria cardamomum.
Fish dishes which have sauces made with
lobster fumet and are garnished with lobster
meat.
Cardoons are the thick, fleshy stalks of a plant in
the thistle family very similar to artichokes. It
looks like very large, coarse, matte-gray celery.
Popular in Italy, France and South America.
Cardoons may be eaten raw or cooked and
served like any vegetable.
Flaked red chiles.
Any of several large North American deer which
are related to Old World reindeer. Caribou meat
is called "venison." Antelope, elk, deer, moose,
and reindeer meat are also classified as venison,
the most popular large animal game meat.
A product that is shipped on a railcar and meets
specific standards of weight and volume
capacity, among others.
An agent that sells and ships products by railcar
loads. For special promotions, the railcar serves
as a storage unit for fast-moving merchandise.
To heat sugar until brown and a characteristic
flavor develops; occurs at 3000 F.
Pork steak marinated in chile sauce, then

Carne adovada:
Carne Asada:
Carne asada:
Carne de res:
Carne mechada:
Carne seca:
Carne:
Carnitas:

Carob:

Carob:
Carp:

Carpaccio:

Carrageen; Carragheen:

Carre:
Carrelet:
Carriage/shopping cart (food
industry term):
Carrier (food industry term):

roasted or pan fried. Usually served with Spanish


rice and refried beans.
[Spanish] meat cured in red chile sauce;
traditional New Mexican dish.
Beef or pork cut in thin diagonal strips and
cooked quickly over very hot coals, as in a
brasero or Japanese hibachi.
[Spanish] marinated, broiled meat; in Sonora,
Mexico means a picnic or cookout where meat is
broiled.
[Spanish] beef.
[Spanish] pot roast.
[Spanish] dried beef or jerky; was a trail food
utilized on the range.
In Italian and Spanish meaning meat.
[Spanish] little pieces of meat; small chunks of
pork which have been seasoned, slow-cooked,
and fried crisp in their own fat; it is a traditional
taco and enchilada filling.
The sweet pulp of the long, leathery pods from
an evergreen tree native to the Middle East. The
pulp can be eaten raw, but is usually dried,
roasted and ground into a powder. The powder
has a flavor similar to chocolate and is often
used as a chocolate substitute to flavor baked
goods and candies; available in specialty food
and health food stores. Carob is also known as
Saint John's bread and locust bean.
The seed from the carob tree which is dried,
ground, and used primarily as a substitute for
chocolate.
This freshwater fish ranges from 2 to 7 pounds
and has a lean white flesh. It is the primary
ingredient for the Jewish dish called "gefilte
fish."
An Italian dish (usually served as an appetizer),
made of paper thin slices of beef dressed with
olive oil and parmesan cheese. Slices of raw
white truffles are an excellent partner to this dish.
Purple seaweed used after processing as a
texturing and thickening agent in jellies, ice
cream and desserts; also known as Irish moss or
chondrus extract.
Rack of lamb or veal
Flounder
Four-wheeled baskets that customers use to
transport merchandise to the checkout counters.
A registered, licensed truck or rail company,

which transports merchandise from one point to


another. Also called a common carrier.
Carrot:
A member of the parsley family (Daucus carota);
has lacy green foliage, an edible orange taproot
with a milk sweet flavor and crisp texture, a
tapering shape and comes in a variety of sizes.
Carry-in charge (food industry A service delivery fee that vendors charge
term):
retailers to unload and stage products in a store.
See curb delivery.
Carrying cost (food industry
The cost of the capital employed in holding an
term):
asset (such as inventory) calculated as an
interest rate (internal borrowing rate or
opportunity cost of capital) times the amount of
capital employed.
Carryout clerk (food industry
An employee who carries and loads groceries in
term):
a customer's vehicle.
Cart corral (food industry term): A three-sided enclosure in a store's parking lot to
collect shopping carts.
Cart lock system (food industry A system that requires a coin, a quarter, to
term):
release a shopping cart.
Cart, shopping (food industry A four-wheeled basket used to collect purchase
term):
items.
Cartoccio:
A method of baking fish in paper or parchment
after seasoning it with salt, pepper, olive oil and
lemon juice. A similar cooking technique in
France is known as "en papillote.
Caruru:
Brazilian seafood stew made with dried shrimp,
okra, tomatoes, and (dende) palm nut oil.
Carving Board:
A hardwood board with a depression in the
center and a channel around the edge to catch
juices. Also comes as a reversible board that is
flat on one side for general carving and has an
oval depression on the other side for carving
roasted poultry.
Casareccia Pasta:
S-shaped lengths of pasta that are slightly
twisted.
Cascabel chiles:
[Spanish] Little rattler; jingle bells; sleigh bells;
small, round, hot chiles that rattle when shaken;
measure about 1 1/2 to 2 inches across and
have smooth skins; woodsy chile with tones of
hazelnut, citrus and tobacco, gives off a
wonderful aroma when roasted; great in stews,
soups, salsas, salad dressing and vinaigrettes;
blend well with apples, pears and other fruits and
with spices such as star anise, canela and
cinnamon; rbol chiles may be substituted.
Case (food industry term):
Computer-aided software engineering.
Case card (food industry term): A sign used to identify products.. Also called a

stack card or header card.


Case code (food industry term): A universal product code (U.P.C.). A product 's
unique, machine-readable numeral printed on a
product, cases and pallet loads.
Case cost (food industry term): The wholesale cost of a case of products.
Case count (food industry
A receiving procedure that accepts an invoice's
term):
total-order case count instead of verifying the
contents of each case.
Case cube (food industry term): A standard measurement used to calculate a
shipping container's volume.
Case dollar return (food
A retailer's gross profit calculated by subtracting
industry term):
the wholesale cost of a case from the retail price
of a case.
Case labels (food industry
A product's identification and pricing label
term):
attached to a product or case when shipped.
Case lot (food industry term):
Unopened cases of products sold at a set price.
Case pack (food industry term): The number of units of products packed in a
case.
Case ready (food industry
Packaged, prepared, refrigerated or frozen foods
term):
that go from a shipping container to a sales floor.
Case stocking (food industry
A stocking procedure that removes a case lid and
term):
places a product on the shelf in an original
container.
Case weight (food industry
The total weight of a case, a product and its
term):
packaging.
Case wrap-arounds (food
A decorative wrap around the base of a
industry term):
merchandising display. Also called base wrap.
Case, refrigerated (food
A refrigerated display unit for perishable
industry term):
products, such as dairy products or ice cream.
Casein:
Phosphoprotein rendered from milk, soybeans
and other sources, important as the chief
component of cheese (after fermentation), and
contains all essential amino acids. It is used to
solidify food as well as adhesives and paints.
Cases selected (food industry Includes only hard cases, that is, no repacks.
term):
Cash discount (food industry
A percentage allowance deducted from an
term):
invoice under certain conditions, such as, two
percent off the invoice if a customer pays the bill
within ten days of receiving it.
Cash flow (food industry term): The increase or decrease of cash resources,
permitting money to be available for working
capital, investments, and other expenses.
Cash handling (food industry
All operations that involve taking in or sending
term):
out money. Includes bonding employees; cash
controls; coin shortages; making change at the
checkout; forms; store deposits for banks. See
Dab:
This flatfish is a variety of flounder that features a

Dacquoise:

Daikon Radish:

Daikon:
Daily value (dv) (food industry
term):
Dairy products (food industry
term):
Dairy/deli case extender (food
industry term):
Dal:

Dal:

Damage center (food industry


term):
Damaged goods (food industry
term):
Dampfbraten:
Dandelion:

Dandelion:

Danger zone (food industry


term):

sweet, firm flesh.


A cake made of nut meringues layered with
whipped cream or buttercream. The nut
meringue disks are also referred to as
dacquoise.
From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon
(root). A large, long, white tubular radish with a
sweet, fresh flavor. Eaten in many Asian cultures.
Can be as fat as a football but is usually 2 to 3
inches in diameter. Use raw in salads, shredded
as a garnish or cook in a variety of ways
including stir-fry. Found in Oriental markets and
some supermarkets.
A Japanese root vegetable, that looks like a
white carrot that is used in salads or and a wide
variety of cooked dishes, including stir-fry.
A list of vitamins, minerals, nutrients, etc., printed
on a product label.
Milk (including dry milk), cream, sour cream,
yogurt, eggs, butter and substitutes such as
margarine, cheese, and ice cream.
An insulated container display attached to a
refrigerated case that extends into an aisle to
stimulate impulse buys.
1. The Hindi term for dried peas, beans, and
lentils; legumes. 2. Dal is also the word for the
spicy dish made with lentils, tomatoes, onions
and various seasonings. It is often pureed and
served with curry.
This is the Indian term for all varieties of dried
beans, split peas, and lentils. There are many
different varieties of dal, all of which have a
specific use in Indian cooking.
A place where damaged merchandise is sent.
An unsalable product, such as sliced box tops
and dented cans.
[German] beef stew.
A plant with bright green jagged leaves and a
slightly bitter taste. Dandelion leaves can be
used in salads or cooked in the same way as
spinach.
A strong-tasting green that is among the most
vitamin-packed foods on the planet; when young
it's relatively mild, but when it matures, it's the
most bitter of all greens.
The temperature range, 40 to 140 degrees
Fahrenheit at which foods spoil. Perishable foods

should be held at temperatures above or below


this temperature range.
Danger zone:
The temperature at which perishable food should
not be held or left out of refrigeration for any
longer than 2 hours-The Danger Zone for food
safety is 400 F. to 1400 F.- perishable foods
held in this "zone" for over 2 hours should not be
eaten.
Dangler (food industry term):
A small, eye-catching sign that hangs from a
product or a shelf to draw attention to an item or
display.
Dariole:
Small, cup-shaped mold used for making
puddings, sweet and savory jellies, and creams
Dark chocolate:
is also bittersweet, semi-sweet, and sweet dark
chocolate; all contain cacao beans, sugar, an
emulsifier such as soy lecithin to preserve
texture, and flavorings such as vanilla but do not
contain milk solids. They are distinguished by the
amount of cocoa powder - 30% (sweet dark) to
70%, 75%, or even above 80%, for extremely
dark bars.
Darne:
[French] The Larousse Gastronomique describes
a 'darne' as a transverse slice of a large raw fish,
such as hake, salmon or tuna.
Dash:
An approximate measure roughly equal to 1/16
teaspoon.
Dashi Stock:
A broth that is a basic ingredient in Japanese
cooking. The stock is made from dried seaweed
or from dried tuna shavings. Instant dashi stock
is also available. A Japanese fish stock made
with dried bonito and kombu seaweed. This is
used for soups, sauces, and marinades.
Data mining (food industry
A process of searching data bases for unique
term):
trends or occurring situations and displaying
those trends to the user.
Data model (food industry
The complete set of data elements which must
term):
be taken into account whenever software
systems are written. Industry efforts are
underway to define a standard data model for
retailers.
Data warehousing (food
A compilation of data from a variety of sources
industry term):
for storage and easy retrieval.
Data/voice network (food
A telecommunications system that handles both
industry term):
voice and data transmissions over the same
line.
Dataviews (food industry term): An easy-to-read table of data, which measures
dollar sales, gross margin, and unit movement.
Date code or coding (food
A "sell by" date stamped on a product to ensure
industry term):
freshness. The date assists with quality control

(first in, first out) and proper rotation. It may also


apply to affixing a "sell by" or "pull by" date on
merchandise which is on display (as in the
Bakery Department).
Date Sugar:
Ground dehydrated dates that are used as a
sweetner.
Date:
The fruit of a palm tree grown in Mediterranean
regions. Usually oval in shape, a very thin skin
and exceptionally sweet flesh and a chewy
texture. Dates are eaten fresh or dried.
Date:
The brown, oval shaped staple of the eastern
Mediterranean and western Asia. Intensely
sweet; Deglet Noor is a good, and common,
dried brand. Fresh dates are increasingly
available.
Datiles:
[Spanish] dates.
Dating (food industry term):
A supplier's offer that provides discounts for
payment of an invoice at some future date. The
longer the time period the better the
arrangement. See extended dating.
Daube:
A classic French stew or pot roast consisting of a
single piece of meat such as a shoulder or joint.
The meat is stewed in a rich, wine laden broth
with herbs and vegetables. The broth is then
thickened, reduced and served with the slices of
meat and accompanying vegetables.
Dauphine:
The name for little puffs made of potato puree,
that are mixed with choux paste and deep fried.
Dauphinoise:
The name of a potato gratin with lots of cream
and garlic, all topped with Gruyere cheese.
Day letter (food industry term): A daily bulletin with current product and pricing
information sent to retail stores See bulletin.
Days-of-supply (d-o-s) (food
The amount of product calculated to meet
industry term):
customer demand between replenishments.
Dc (food industry term):
Distribution center.
Dead net (food industry term): The lowest cost for goods after all allowances
are subtracted, also known as net-net.
Dead-heading (food industry
Returning an empty vehicle to a warehouse.
term):
Deal (food industry term):
A buying arrangement or terms of sale that offer
special purchasing incentives; a promotion or a
trade deal.
Deal pack (food industry term): A manufacturer's method of packaging products
for special customer promotions at a store.
Deal period (food industry
A manufacturer's time frame for special
term):
allowances to retailers for a promotion.
Deal sheet (food industry term): A vendor (DSD supplier) generated information
sheet listing current or upcoming products on

allowance. Includes product description, UPC


codes, allowance, cost, start date and end date
for each SKU listed.
Deba knife:
Deba is a Japanese name. The deba knife cuts
thinner slices than any other knife. Its supersharpness makes it ideal for juliennes and for
cutting herbs without destroying their fragile
membranes. You can find a deba knife wherever
gourmet kitchen products are sold.
Debone:
To remove the bones from meat or poultry.
Decentralization of store
A shift in responsibility and accountability for
operations (food industry term): maintaining store conditions and profitability from
a store's headquarters to a store manager.
Deduct/deduction (food
An amount that is subtracted from a paycheck or
industry term):
an invoice.
Deep discount (food industry
Lowering the price of merchandise to a minimal
term):
markup over the wholesale price.
Deep fat:
Hot fat or oil which is deep enough to cover food
during frying. Ensure that you put oil into a deep
enough pot or deep fryer to prevent burning
yourself.
Deep frying:
Method of frying food by immersing it in hot fat or
oil.
Deep:fry:
To cook completely submerged in hot oil. If done
right, at the proper temperature, foods absorb
little oil and are surprisingly light. The moisture in
the food actually repels the oil, which heats the
water within the food, and steams it from the
inside out.
Deep-discount drug store (food A low-margin, GM/HBC store with 25,000 SKUs.
industry term):
These stores typically carry fewer sizes, but
more GM/HBC brands than a supermarket.
Deep-Fry:
To submerge foods in hot oil or fat while cooking.
Deep-frying
Submerging food, usually coated first in breading
or batter, into very hot fat; a dry-heat cooking
method
Defat:
To remove the fat that congeals on the top of
soups, broth, chili and sauces.
Degerminated:
A term for grain foods, such as some brands of
cornmeal, that have had the germ removed in the
milling process.
Deglaze
Swirling or stirring a liquid, such as stock or wine,
in a pan to dissolve cooked food particles on the
bottom of the pan; resulting mixture usually is
used as a base for a sauce
Deglaze:
To loosen the cooked ingredients and
caramelized juices that have stuck to the bottom
of the pan after sauteing or roasting to release

the full flavor of the meal. Usually deglazing is


done with wine or stock to create a sauce.
Deglaze:
After meat or poultry is sauteed or fried, most of
the fat and the meat are removed from the skillet.
Liquid is added to the browned residue and
heated, while stirring continuously. This mixture
is used for a base in sauces and gravies.
Deglaze:
A process of adding liquid to a hot pan in order to
collect the bits of food which stick to the pan
during cooking. This is most common with
sauteed and roasted foods. Wine, stock, and
vinegar are common deglazing liquids.
Degrease:
To skim off fat that forms on the tops of
simmering broths, sauces, and other liquids.
Degrease:
To remove the fat that congeals on the top of
broths, jus and sauces.
Dehydrate:
To remove most of the moisture from food by
drying it slowly in the oven or commercial
dehydrator.
Delete (food industry term):
To no longer stock an item in the warehouse or a
retail store.
Deli product ends (food
Meat and cheese ends used for sandwiches,
industry term):
salads or samples.
Deli-bake (food industry term): A combination in-store bakery and deli
department where equipment, floor space, and
labor are shared, usually under common
supervision.
Delicata Squash:
A green striped winter squash with pale yellow
skin. The flesh is yellow and has a taste between
a sweet potato and butternut squash. Also known
as sweet potato squash.
Delicatessen (food industry
An in-store department with cooked foods,
term):
salads, cold cuts and cheeses, etc.
Delinquent account (food
Past due customer accounts (accounts
industry term):
receivable).
Delivery cycle (food industry
The time between an order and its delivery.
term):
Delivery receipt (food industry A receipt acknowledging the product count, date
term):
and time of a delivery.
Delmonico steak:
Sometimes called a shell steak; a tender cut from
the short loin.
Demand (food industry term): The amount of goods that consumers will buy at
a specific price.
Demand item, demand brand
A product or brand whose consumer popularity
(food industry term):
makes it an essential item for a store to stock.
Demera sugar:
A light brown sugar whith large golden crystals
which is slightly sticky from adhering molasses. It
is popular in England for tea, coffee or to top hot

cereals.
A coarse, dry, raw sugar from the Demerara area
of Guyana. Its flavor is similar, but not identical,
to that of brown sugar.
Demerara sugar:
[Great Britain] Brown sugar.
Demi-glace, Demi-glaze:
A term meaning "half glaze." This rich brown
sauce begins with a basic espagnole sauce and
beef stock, and is slowly cooked with Madeira or
sherry until it has been reduced by half. The
resulting thick glaze should be able to coat the
back of a spoon and can be used as the base for
many other sauces.
Demi-Glace:
[French] a rich brown sauce comprised of
espagnole sauce, which is further enriched with
veal stock and wine and reduced to proper
consistency. This is a very long procedure and
requires constant skimming. A quick version of
this involves reducing brown veal stock to which
has been added mirepoix, tomato paste, wine,
and brown roux. The latter recipe saves time, but
never reaches the intensity of flavor as does the
former method. Due to the quantity and length of
time required to prepare it, it is not usually made
in the home. However it is available for home
gourmands.
Demitasse:
Literally means "half cup" in French; usually
refers to a tiny coffee cup used to serve
espresso.
Demitasse:
A small cup ("half cup") of black coffee, usually
served after dinner.
Demographics, demographic
A snapshot of customers, such as their age,
characteristics, demographic
ethnic group, gender, income, education or
profile (food industry term):
marital status.
Demonstration or demo (food A product promotion in a store with samples to
industry term):
eat and cooking-tip handouts and/or coupons.
Demurrage (food industry
A daily rate charged by railroads for failure to
term):
unload a rail car within a specified time frame.
Dente, al:
[Italian] "to the teeth." Not too soft; offering a
slight resistance to the teeth.
Depalletize (food industry term): To remove product from the original shipping
pallet and repalletize it for shipping or storage.
Department (food industry
An area in a retail store designated for a
term):
category of products, such as, grocery, meat,
produce, bakery, among others.
Department flow (food industry A continuous, logical flow from one commodity to
term):
another. For example, summertime fruit, to hard
fruit, to exotic soft varieties in the display.
Department i.d. Label (food
A department's label affixed to a package, so that
Demerara Sugar:

industry term):
Department sales report (food
industry term):
Depouillage:

Depreciation (food industry


term):
Derretida:
Desayuno:
Descriptive label (food industry
term):

the sale is credited to that department at the


checkout.
A daily breakdown of each department's sales.
To skim the surface of a cooking liquid, such as a
stock or sauce. Depouillage is more easily done
by placing the pot off-center on the burner and
skimming the impurities as they collect at one
side of the pot.
A reduction in a fixed asset's value over time.

[Spanish] melted.
[Spanish] breakfast.
The label showing the name of the product, price
per pound, total price and possibly the "sell by"
date or "pull by" date.
Deshebrar:
Spanish term meaning "to shred."
Dessicated coconut:
[Great Britain] Shredded coconut.
Detail person (food industry
A manufacturer's or broker's representative
term):
responsible for category conditions,
merchandising and writing credits. See retail
representative.
Detention (food industry term): A shipper's fee charged when a truck is not
loaded within a certain time frame, which holds
up the truck at the warehouse or processing
plant.
Devein:
To remove the grainy, blackish vein under the
rounded top of a shrimp by slitting the shrimp
and pulling it out.
Devil:
To mix a food with spicy seasonings and sauces.
Devilled eggs are an example.
Deviled:
Highly seasoned, often containing mustard;
frequently topped with bread crumbs and grilled.
Devon Cream:
See "Clotted Cream"
Dex/ucs (direct exchange) (food A telecommunications system between a retailer
industry term):
and supplier that allows for the exchange of
sales data, product movement, billings and
replenishment needs.
Dexter deli express (food
A free-standing computer used by customers for
industry term):
deli orders.
Dextrose:
Also dextroglucose and known as glucose, this
sugar is the chief source of energy in the body.
Glucose is chemically considered a simple sugar
or monosaccharide and naturally occurs and is
derived from plant starches such as corn.
Dextrose:
A sweetener produced from cornstarch that has
been treated with heat and acids or enzymes.
Dextrose produces a high-temperature browning

Diable:
Dial-up communication (food
industry term):
Diane:
Diary panel (food industry
term):
Dice:
Dice:
Dice:
Dice:
Dietary Fiber:
Dietetic foods (food industry
term):
Digestive Biscuits:
Digital scale (food industry
term):
Dijon Mustard:

Dijon:
Dijonnaise:
Dijonnaise:
Dill:

Dilute:
Dim Sum:

effect in baked goods.


A brown sauce with shallots, white wine, vinegar
and herbs.
A telecommunications link used to exchange
data, such as ATM and bankcard authorizations.
A peppery sauce flavored with game essence,
with added butter and cream.
A sampling technique used to spot consumer
trends. Targeted households keep a record of
supermarket purchases for a short period of
time.
To cut into smaller pieces, roughly the size of 1/4
inch.
To cut inro small cubes.
To cut into especially small pieces, roughly 1/8 to
1/16-inch.
To cut into small cubes (smaller than 1/2 inch).
The part of whole grains, fruits, vegetables,
beans, nuts and seeds that humans cannot
digest; only found in plant foods.
Low-calorie foods for special diets, such as saltfree, low-sugar, including dietetic soft drinks,
organic and health foods.
[Great Britain] Graham crackers.
A programmable scale that weighs, calculates
cost and prints a label.
A prepared mustard (originally made in Dijon,
France) which may be either mild or highly
seasoned. Most recipes when calling for Dijon
mustard are referring to the highly seasoned
variety. A good American Brand is Grey Poupon.
A prepared mustard originally from the Dijon
region of France. It has a slightly hot, spicy flavor
and is yellow-gray or brown in appearance.
Dishes that are prepared with mustard or are
accompanied by a sauce that contains mustard.
This is a name given to dishes that contain
mustard or are served with a sauce that contains
mustard.
An herb that is has feathery leaves that taste
somewhat like parsley with overtones of anise
and are used fresh or dried. The small oval,
brown seeds have a faintly bitter taste and are
used as a spice.
To add liquid to make less concentrated.
A selection of small dishes served for snacks and
lunch in China. These dishes include a wide
selection of fried and steamed dumplings, as well

as, various other sweet and savory items. The


term for this Chinese style of eating translates as
"Heart's Delight." Originally dim sum referred to
the Cantonese practice of serving small dishes in
the teahouses. The method involved food being
brought to the table on a cart or tray. The
customer would then select the items they
desired. Often their bill would be calculated by
counting the number of empty plates each
person had in front of them. This was usually a
daytime meal service. Sweet and savory dishes
were offered. Items such as steamed or fried
dumplings, spring rolls, spare ribs, pastries, and
steamed buns were commonly presented. Today
dim sum is also a term used to describe a
Chinese style appetizer or snack served in any
manner. Frequently the steamed and fried
dumplings are also referred to as dim sum.
Dip:
A thick sauce served hot or cold to accompany
raw vegetables, crackers or chips as an hors
d'oeuvre. The base is usually made of yogurt,
mayonnaise, sour cream or cream cheese base.
Direct account (food industry
A retailer who buys directly from a manufacturer
term):
and receives all manufacturer allowances.
Direct buyer (food industry
A buyer who places orders directly with a
term):
manufacturer and bypasses a wholesaler.
Direct expense (food industry An expense that directly relates to a specific
term):
segment of the business operation.
Direct Heat:
The lack of a conductor between food and the
heat source, such as grilling, broiling, and
toasting.
Direct mailing (food industry
Promotional materials for products received by a
term):
customer at home.
Direct product cost (dpc) (food A product's total distribution costs, transportation,
industry term):
handling and advertising.
Direct product profit or
A formula used to measure a product's
profitability (dpp) (food industry profitability. The formula is (Food Industry term):
term):
Gross Product Margin minus Direct Product
Costs equals Profitability. Usually expressed peritem or case.
Direct sales force (food industry A group of salespeople employed by a
term):
manufacturing company to work exclusively in
promoting and selling its own products.
Direct store delivery (dsd) (food Products delivered directly to a store by the
industry term):
vendor, such as soft drinks, beer, bread and
fresh baked goods, dairy products, potato chips
and other fragile items.
Discontinued item (food
Product no longer available to a store. See
industry term):
delete.

Discount (food industry term):

A predetermined amount, deducted from the face


of an invoice, earned for prompt payment. A
sales promotion feature that is a markdown from
the regular price for a limited time. A percentage
deducted for volume purchases.
Disjoint:
To dismember a chicken before cooking by
slicing the connective tissue and cartilage and
twisting firmly until the pieces separate.
Disk operating system (dos)
A read-only-memory in a computer's hard drive
(food industry term):
programmed to perform operations, such as
converting keystrokes to bits and bytes,
formatting, etc.
Dispatch/order processing
A supply center department that coordinates
(food industry term):
product shipments.
Display (food industry term):
A merchandising method of highlighting a
product by arranging it in a way that attracts the
attention of the customer.
Display advertising (food
Point-of-purchase signage developed to promote
industry term):
product on display.
Display allowance (food
A manufacturer's allowance to a retailer who
industry term):
displays or promotes a product.
Display case (food industry
A refrigerated or free-standing case for holding
term):
products on a sales floor.
Display module (food industry A preassembled kit for merchandise display in
term):
aisles or shipped on a pallet (generally two to
four modules per pallet).
Display pack (food industry
A case of product packaged in such a way as to
term):
be ready immediately to display on the shelf as a
unit.
Display stock (food industry
Products moved from backroom storage to a
term):
sales floor.
Display unit load (food industry A prebuilt retail display on a pallet ready for interm):
store merchandising. Also known as Display
Pallets.
Disposable (personal) income The measure of what people have available to
(food industry term):
spend in the marketplace after taxes.
Dissolve:
Stirring a dry substance into a liquid until solids
are no longer remaining. (For example, stirring
sugar into water, yeast into water, etc.).
Dissolve:
Stirring a dry substance into a liquid until solids
are no longer remaining. (For example, stirring
sugar into water, yeast into water, etc.).
Dissolve:
To merge with a liquid.
Distressed merchandise (food Salable merchandise that needs re-working,
industry term):
crisping, re-trimming or to be conditioned or
packaged to sell. Product which requires a forced
sale because of damage or deterioration. Also
known as a distressed item.

Distributing area (food industry An analysis of a market area that includes the
term):
demographics of the population, number and
kind of stores, which is used for price
comparisons, market saturation, budgeting, and
sales purposes. See trading area.
Distribution (food industry
A chain of delivery from a manufacturer to a
term):
store.
Distribution allowance (food
A manufacturer's allowance to a retailer for
industry term):
purchasing a new product in a category.
Distribution center (food
A warehouse used to receive, store and ship
industry term):
products to retailers.
Distribution cost analysis (food The accounting method that factors in the cost of
industry term):
handling and storing individual products and
product categories.
Distributor (food industry term): A person or company that supplies products to a
retailer through a distribution center.
Distributors' brand (food
A private-label, brand product packed for a
industry term):
wholesaler, cooperative or chain.
District manager (food industry See store supervisor.
term):
Ditali; Ditalini:
Italian for thimbles; very short hollow tubes of
pasta used in salads and soups. Ditalini is a
smaller version of ditali with proportionally thicker
pasta.
Ditalini:
Diagonally cut thick tubular noodles, 2 to 4
inches long. Short pasta tubes.
Diversified wholesale grocer
A wholesaler who stocks and sells product in a
(food industry term):
variety of categories.
Diverter (food industry term):
A reseller that buys "deal" product from
manufacturers to re-sell outside of a target
market area.
Divide:
Equally portioning a dough or batter before
shaping or panning prior to baking.
Dock (food industry term):
An area to receive, load and unload shipments.
Dock plate (food industry term): A built-in or free-standing metal plate that forms a
bridge between a trailer and a loading dock.
Dock:
A baking technique in which regularly spaced
holes are poked all over the surface of a dough
to promote a crisp baked surface (crackers, pet
treats, pie shells, all may be docked before
baking).
Dock:
Any of several varieties of a hardy perennial herb
belonging to the buckwheat family, all with some
amount of acidity and sourness. The mildest
variety is dock sorrel, also called spinach dock.
Docking:
Slashing or making incisions in the surface of
bread or rolls for proper expansion while baking.
Done just before baking.

Docking:

Dogfish:

Dolcelatte Cheese:
Dolci:
Dollar margin (food industry
term):
Dollarfish:

The act of piercing small holes or making cuts in


dough or crust before baking to allow steam to
escape, thus preventing the dough from rising as
it bakes.
Also known as cape shark. Fillets are longer,
more narrow, and sturdier than those of any
other white-fleshed fish. Can be substituted in
recipes that call for less tender fillets. This is the
fish most frequently used in England's fish and
chips.
A soft, mild, blue-veined cheese that can be
served as an appetizer or dessert. Also known as
Gorgonzola dolce.
Italian word for "sweets"; on a menu, the term
means desserts.
See gross margin.

This small, high:fat fish has a tender texture and


a rich, sweet flavor. Found off the coast of the
Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, this fish is also
called the "butterfish."
Dollop:
1. A spoonful of soft and usually creamy food,
such as sour cream of mayonnaise. 2. It may
also mean a dash or "splash" of a liquid like a
"splash of sparkling water".
Dolly (food industry term):
A small hand-cart with two wheels used to move
heavy objects.
Dolma:
A cold hors d oeuvre made of grape leaves
stuffed with cooked rice, lamb, and onion. They
are marinated with olive oil and lemon.
Vegetarian versions of this are also made.
Dolmades; Dolmas:
Blanched grape leaves stuffed with a seasoned
mixture of ground lamb and rice, braised in stock,
oil and lemon juice. Other foods that can be used
as casings include squash, eggplant, sweet
peppers, cabbage leaves, quinces and apples.
Dolphin fish:
Also called "Mahi Mahi" and "Dorado." Although
this fish is a dolphin, it is not a mammal. To avoid
confusion, the Hawaiian name "Mahi Mahi" is
becoming prevalent. This fish is moderately fat
with firm, flavorful flesh.
Domestic turbot:
A highly prized flatfish with a lean, firm white
flesh and a mild flavor. Turbot is also the market
name for several varieties of flounder fished from
Pacific waters.
Domestics (food industry term): Soft goods, such as kitchen items, linens and
other household textiles.
Dorado:
[Spanish] golden.

Dos (food industry term):


D-o-s (food industry term):
Dot:

Disk operating system.


Days-of-supply.
To place random bits of food (like butter) on the
surface of another food.
Double Acting Baking Powder: Releases leavening gases twice: Once when it
comes in contact with moisture and again when
exposed to heat from the oven.
Double Boiler:
Like with a bain-marie, you cook in a double
broiler without using direct heat. Two saucepans
that fit together on on top of the other. The
bottom pan contains boiling water is placed on
the heat source and the top one contains the
food to be cooked.
Double boiler:
Cooking utensil much like a bain-marie method
of cooking without using direct heat. It usually
consists of two saucepans that fit together. The
bottom saucepan is filled with water and the top
saucepan is filled with a mixture requiring nondirect heat to prepare. It is most often used to
prepare custards or melt chocolate. The
saucepans can be made from stainless steel,
aluminum, or glass.
Double cream:
[Great Britain] Whipping cream.
Double in bulk:
Refers to expansion of gluten cells in yeast bread
that has risen and is ready to be punched down.
Recipe will give a range of time. Varies with
dough and environment's temperature. May be
difficult to tell visually - Finger test used by
bakers - gently press two fingers into dough, if
marks remain unchanged, dough is ready to
punch.
Double in size:
Refers to the final rising (proofing) before bread
is baked. This is a visual measurement, subject
to guessing. Some bakers make a template for a
guide-when bread is a certain height above the
pan edge. Look for recipe or formula guide - "3/4
proof=half again as large" or "full proof=almost
double in size." May touch side of loaf very
gently-if slight print remains, bake.
Double-bagged (food industry A bagging practice used to reinforce bags of
term):
heavy items by putting one bag inside another
Double-truck (food industry
A newspaper advertisement of two facing pages.
term):
Dough keg:
An old Western term for the wooden barrel which
held the sourdough starter.
Dough scraper, dough or bench A flat, heavy metal blade (about 3 X 5-inches)
knife:
with straight sides, sharp corners and a handle
on top edge for moving, kneading, clean-cutting
dough, incising, or even cleaning work surfaces.

Dough:
Dough:

Dough:

Dpc (food industry term):


Dpp (food industry term):
Drain:
Drain:
Drained weight (food industry
term):
Drawn Butter, Clarified Butter:
Dredge:
Dredge:
Dredge:
Dredge:
Dress:
Dress:
Dressed fish (food industry
term):
Dried fruit:

A mixture of flour and liquids, and may have


other ingredients, that is thick enough to be
handled, kneaded or shaped.
A mixture of oil or shortening, flour, liquid, and
other ingredients that retains its shape when
placed on a flat surface, although may change
shape once baked like cookies and breads.
Dough is a mixture of four, liquid, and usually a
leavening agent (such as eggs or yeast), which is
stiff but pliable. The primary difference between
dough and batter is the consistency- Dough is
thicker and must be molded by hand, while batter
is semi-liquid, thus spooned or poured.
Direct product cost.
Direct product profit.
To remove liquid from a food product.
To remove liquid from, pour off, sometimes with
the use of a strainer or colander.
The weight of a canned product without the
liquid.
Butter that has been melted and skimmed of milk
solids.
To coat foods lightly with dry ingredients before
cooking. The most common dredge is flour.
To cover or coat with floor or other fine
substance.
To coat with dry ingredients such flour, corn
meal, or bread crumbs before cooking. Desserts
are dredged with sugar after baking or frying.
To coat a food, as with flour or sugar.
1. To prepare poultry for cooking. 2. To add
dressing to a salad.
To pluck, draw and truss poultry or game; to
arrange or garnish a cooked dish; to prepare
cooked shellfish in their shells.
A whole scaled, cleaned fish, sold with or without
the head.
When it is dried, fruit becomes very concentrated
in nutrients and fiber, which is why a standard
serving is quite small. Just a quarter-cup (a scant
handful) of dried fruit counts as a serving, yet it
contains the same amount of fiber found in a
whole piece of fruit or a half-cup of diced fruit
about two or three grams. Because dried fruit is
so portable, it makes an excellent snack. The
trick is to watch your portions, because calories
are concentrated and they can add up quickly.
One serving of most dried fruit contains 50 to 80

calories. That's a great bargain, because it


provides more nutrients and will probably satisfy
your hunger longer than a cookie with 100
calories or a low-fat granola bar containing 150
calories.
Dried Wood Ears:
An edible mushroom that grows on the trunks of
dead trees. It has a shallow oval cup and is
somewhat crunchy in texture. Also known as tree
ear, Jew's ear and cloud ear mushroom.
Drippings:
The fat and liquid that result when meat is
cooked.
Drippings:
Fat and juices drawn and left from meat or
poultry as it cooks.
Drizzle:
To pour a liquid over a food in a thin stream to
create a thread:like coating.
Drizzle:
To pour a light amount, from a spoon, over food.
Drizzle:
To trickler a very fine stream of liquid like a glaze
or melted butter over food.
Drop shipment (food industry A retailer's order shipped directly to a store by a
term):
manufacturer.
Drop trailer (food industry
A van filled with merchandise that a driver leaves
term):
at a store for unloading.
Drop:
To deposit even portions of dough on a baking
sheet using spoon or batter dispenser.
Drop-in display (food industry A display unit that fits into or takes the place of
term):
grocery shelves.
Drops (food industry term):
The number of retail deliveries made in a day. A
list of price reductions.
Drug wholesalers (food industry A pharmaceutical wholesaler who sells primarily
term):
to chain or single-unit drug stores.
Drum:
Any of a variety of fish named for the drumming
or deep croaking noise they make. These fish
are firm and low in fat. The drum family include
the black croaker, black drum, hardhead,
kingfish, and queenfish.
Drum:
A variety of fish so named because of the sounds
that it makes during mating. The fish is usually
quite lean and can weigh anywhere between 1
pound and 30 pounds.
Dry Aging:
An aging process that adds flavor and tenderizes
to beef through an enzyme action.
Dry Aging:
A process usually referring to beef. This process
not only adds flavor but tenderizes the beef
through enzyme action. Maximum flavor and
tenderness is achieved in 21 days.
Dry Cure:
A method of curing meat or fish by using a
combination of salts and seasonings, usually
before smoking.

Dry grocery (food industry


term):
Dry grocery non-foods (food
industry term):
Dry ingredients:

Dry measuring cups:

Dry Milk:

Dry mop (food industry term):


Dry Saute:
Dry-Curd Cottage Cheese and
Farmers Cheese:
Dsd (food industry term):
Du Jour:
Duchess:

Duck:

Duck:

Nonperishable grocery products.


Products that are not food, such as paper
products, detergents, or pet items.
Refers to the ingredients in a recipe, such as
flours, sugar, leavening, salt, baking cocoa,
spices, or herbs, that may be blended before
adding to another mixture in the recipe.
Straight-sided, graduated sizes of cups with a
handle attached at the top lip. A home baking
measuring tool used in the U.S. The common
cup sizes are ?, 1/3, , 1, and 2 cup, and are
often nested for ease in storage. They are used
to measure a standard amount of dry ingredients,
such as flour, sugar, cornmeal, or brown sugar,
for home baking recipes. The dry ingredients are
spooned into the cup and leveled off with a
straight-edged utensil.
A product made from milk from which almost all
the moisture has been removed, leaving the milk
solids in a powdery form. Dry milk comes in three
basic forms: whole milk, nonfat milk and
buttermilk. Dry milk is less expensive and easier
to store than fresh milk (though dry whole milk
must be refrigerated because of its milk-fat
content), and the taste is never quite the same
as fresh milk.
A large dust mop.
To saute food with very little or no fat; a nonstick
pan is often used for this method.
Cottage cheese with no cream added. Farmer
cheese, like cottage cheese, is curdled milk that
has been drained of whey. The major difference
is that farmer cheese is a smaller curd.
Direct store delivery.
French term meaning "of the day"; used to
indicate a special menu item.
The name for potato puree that is enriched with
cream, then piped into decorative shapes and
browned in the oven. They are often piped
around the rim of a platter onto which a roast or
whole fish may be served.
Any of a variety of species of wild or domestic
web:footed birds. Broilers and fryers are under 8
weeks old, roasters are no more than 16 weeks
old. Duck is generally higher in fat than other
domestic birds.
A variety of poultry refering to a domestic web
footed bird. It's meat is dark and has a rich, deep

flavor.
[Spanish] sweet; mild (to taste).
[Spanish] desserts and sweet dishes.
A computer terminal, also called a video display
terminal (VDT), that is linked to a remote
processor.
Dummy-up (food industry term): A false bottom for displays, which gives the
appearance of mass quantities of merchandise.
Dump display (food industry
Massive amounts of product displayed in bulk, in
term):
baskets, or in shipping containers.
Dump table (food industry
A display table where products are haphazardly
term):
piled rather than neatly arranged.
Dumpling:
A batter or soft dough, which is formed into small
mounds that are then steamed, poached, or
simmered.
Dumplings:
A small mound of dough usually pan-fried, deepfried, or cooked in a liquid mixture, such as broth
or stew. Sometimes the dumplings are flat
squares or strips.
Dungeness Crab:
A large crab found along the Pacific coast from
Mexico to Alaska. Weighing from 1 pound to 4
pounds, this variety of crab has pink flesh that is
succulent and sweet.
Durazno:
[Spanish] peach.
Durian:
A large fruit from southeast Asia that has a
creamy, gelatinous texture and a nauseating
smell similar to that of stinky feet. The flesh is
savored by many from this area, but outsiders
find it a difficult flavor to become accustomed.
Durum Flour:
High protein flour produced from durum wheat.
Durum wheat is used to make semolina, which is
combined with water to make pasta dough. It is
also known for the high amounts of gluten it
produces.
Dust collectors (food industry Slow-moving products.
term):
Dust:
To lightly sprinkle a baked product or surface with
powdered sugar, flour, or meal.
Dust:
To sprinkle food lightly with spices, sugar, or
flour.
Dust:
To sprinkle lightly, as with sugar, crumbs, flour.
Duster (food industry term):
A cleaning tool made of feathers.
Dutch Oven:
A large pot or kettle, usually made of cast iron,
with a tight-fitting lid so steam cannot readily
escape. It's used for moist-cooking methods,
such as braising and stewing. Dutch ovens are
said to be of Pennsylvania Dutch heritage, dating
back to the 1700s.
Dulce:
Dulces:
Dumb terminal (food industry
term):

Dutch oven:
Dutch process cocoa powder:

Dutch-processed cocoa:

Duxelle:

Duxelles:
Dv (food industry term):
Ean (food industry term):
Early bird allowance (food
industry term):
Earnings before interest and
taxes (ebit) (food industry
term):
Eas (food industry term):
Eatin' irons:
Eau-de-vie:

Ebit (food industry term):


Ebt (food industry term):
Eccles Cake:
Eclair:
Economy store (food industry
term):

A heavy cooking pot, usually of cast iron or


enamel-on-iron, with a heavy cover.
Treated with an alkali to neutralize its naturally
acidic taste, making it a little more mellow than
American cocoa powder; intense flavor. (See
Cocoa Powder)
Unsweetened baking cocoa that is further
processed with an alkali to neutralize cocoa's
natural acidity; Substitution guidelines - 3
tablespoons (18g) Dutchprocessed cocoa = 3
tablespoons (18g) natural cocoa powder plus
pinch (1/8 teaspoon) baking soda.
Finely chopped mushrooms that are cooked in
butter with shallots and wine. When cooked dry,
duxelle make a good filling for omelets, fish, and
meat. They may also be moistened with wine or
broth and served as a sauce. Duxelle are also
flavored with fresh herbs and brandy or Madeira.
A reduction of finely chopped mushrooms,
parsley, onions, pepper, shallots, salt and butter,
used to flavor soups, stuffings and sauces.
Daily value.
European article number.
A manufacturer's incentive offered to retailers
who order seasonal or promotional items before
the season or event begins.
A performance indicator.
Electronic article surveillance.
An old Western term for utensils; fork, spoon and
knife.
[French] "water of life," describes any colorless
brandy distilled from fermented fruit juice. Kirsch
(cherry) and framboise (raspberry) are two
popular varieties.
Earnings before interest and taxes.
Electronic benefits transfer.
a round flat cake made of pastry filled with
currants etc. This cake originated in the two of
Eccles, Lancashire, England.
[French] a small finger-shaped bun made of puff
paste with a glace icing, filled with custard or
whipped cream.
A no-frills food store that features a limited
selection of low-priced merchandise. Highvolume sales and lower operating costs offset a

smaller profit margin.


Efficient consumer response.
[French] crayfish.
A famous Dutch cheese exported in balls
covered with bright-red- or yellow-paraffin-coated
rinds; a good all-purpose cheese with a mellow
flavor. Edam is second only to Gouda as
Holland's most exported cheese.
Edi (food industry term):
Electronic data interchange.
Edlc (food industry term):
Everyday low cost.
Edlp (food industry term):
Everyday low pricing.
Edp (food industry term):
Electronic data processing.
Eel:
A long snake:like fish with smooth scaleless skin
and a rich, sweet, and firm flesh. Eels, which are
considered a fatty fish, are very popular in
Europe and Japan.
Eel:
A variety of anadromous fish with a snakelike
shape. Eels generally have firm, fatty flesh and
are gray, olive or black in color.
Eeoc (food industry term):
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Efficient assortment (food
An ECR method to maximize store volume and
industry term):
gross margins. Its key drivers are category and
space allocation targeted by store, quicker
adjustments of product in response to changes in
customer purchases, identification and emphasis
on higher volume/margin items, and improved
pricing strategies to increase return on
investment.
Efficient consumer response
A collaborative industry strategy to reduce the
(ecr) (food industry term):
costs of goods throughout the system by
automatic replenishment shipments to control
inventories and better maintain store conditions.
Distributors and suppliers work cooperatively
with the goal of reducing retail prices and
consumer choice of products.
Efficient product introductions An ECR initiative used to accurately time the
(food industry term):
introduction of new products. that are more
directly related to consumer needs.
Efficient promotion (food
An advertising strategy that causes an increase
industry term):
in sales and an improved competitive position for
the retailer.
Efficient replenishment (food
A core ECR strategy that integrates data
industry term):
throughout the food distribution system to
automatically reorder, transport, and restock
products.
Effiler:
To remove the fibrous string from a string bean;
to thinly slice almonds.
Eft (food industry term):
Electronic funds transfer.
Ecr (food industry term):
Ecrivisses:
Edam Cheese:

Egg Noodles:

The most popular type of Asian noodle, these


ribbons vary in length, width and thickness; made
from a dough of wheat flour, water and eggs and
usually boiled. Can be found fresh in some Asian
supermarkets, and are readily available dried.
Egg roll:
Usually served as an appetizer, this small, deepfried Chinese pastry is filled with minced or
shredded vegetable and often meat. Egg roll
skins are available in Asian markets and most
large supermarkets.
Egg thread:
Lightly beaten eggs that are poured slowly into a
hot broth, creating irregular shaped threads used
to garnish soups.
Egg Threads:
Lightly beaten eggs poured slowly into a hot
broth or soup.
Egg wash (food industry term): An egg-based glaze brushed on bakery items to
produce a gloss
Egg wash:
A thoroughly combined mixture of 1 whole egg,
egg yolk, or egg white mixed with 1 tablespoon
cold water or milk. This mixture is brushed on the
unbaked surface of breads, pastries, or other
baked goods just before baking to provide a rich
color or gloss to the crust.
Egg Wash:
A mixture of beaten eggs (yolks, whites, or whole
eggs) with either milk or water, used to glaze
baked goods.
Egg White Powder:
Spray dried egg albumen, which can be used in
most recipes requiring egg white. It produces an
exceptionally high volume, stable egg white foam
for use in angel food cakes, chiffon pies,
meringues, and divinity. Use egg white powder
for uncooked foods such as marzipan and
buttercream icing, or foods which are lightly
cooked (pie meringues), without the worries
associated with fresh egg white, because it is
heat treated to meet USDA standards for being
salmonella negative.
Egg yolk:
This part of the egg contains all of the fat in an
egg. Yolks are a good source of protein, iron,
vitamin A, vitamin D, choline, and phosphorus.
The egg white is a good source of protein and
riboflavin.
Egg yolk:
The yellow center portion of a whole egg; an
emulsifier contaning lecithin, vitamins, lutein, fat
and choline.
Egg:
Most eggs come from hens, but duck, goose,
and quail eggs are available too. Eggs should be
refrigerated in the original container, large end
up. Because the yolk is high in cholesterol,

Egg:
Eggplant:

Eggplant:

Eggs:

Eis (food industry term):


Ejotes:
Elasticity:
Elderberries:

Electric jack (food industry


term):
Electrolyte:
Electronic article surveillance
(eas) (food industry term):
Electronic benefits transfer
(ebt) (food industry term):

imitation eggs come from egg whites and


additives.
The hard-shelled, ovoid reproductive body
produced by a bird, consisting principally of a
yolk and albumen.
Though usually thought of as a vegetable, the
eggplant is actually a fruit related to the potato
and tomato. There are many varieties of
eggplant, with colors ranging from dark purple to
white and sizes from 2 inches to 12 inches. An
eggplant's shape can vary from oblong to round.
The most common variety of fruit in the United
States is large and pear-shaped, with a smooth,
glossy deep-purple skin.
Eggplants are native to Africa and Asia, and in
many parts of those continents, they have come
to be regarded as a satisfying substitute for
meat. Also known as an aubergine.
In home baking, neither the shell color nor the
grade of egg matter. The size standard recipes
call for is large unless stated otherwise. Eggs
perform many functions - leavening, binding,
thickening, coating or glazing, emulsifying,
moisturizing or drying, and adding color, flavor,
and nutrients to the finished product. Eggs also
may be used to retard crystallization in some
frostings.
Executive information system.
[Spanish] green beans; string beans.
Capable of recovering shape after stretching;
developed gluten in dough is elastic.
The tart fruit of the elder tree found throughout
the Northern Hemisphere. The small, dark
purple-black berry is very sour when eaten raw,
but can be quite delicious when used in jellies,
pies, tarts or syrups.
A pallet jack, equipped with a battery that
operates under its own power to move pallets
within a warehouse or store.
Dissolved compound capable of carrying an
electric current and be broken down into
elemental parts.
An electronic loss-prevention system that signals
if a product has not been de-activated at a cash
register. Used on high-ticket items, such as
alcohol and cigarettes.
A system utilizing a debit card for food stamp
recipients to use to purchase products in a retail
supermarket.

Electronic cash register (ecr)


(food industry term):
Electronic coupon clearing
(food industry term):
Electronic data interchange
(edi) (food industry term):

A stand-alone, point-of-sale terminal used by a


cashier to check or scan customer's orders.
Scanning coupons for faster processing and
control.
The use of telecommunications to exchange
business information between companies using
standard formats.
Electronic data processing
The use of computer and other peripheral
(edp) (food industry term):
equipment in all areas of the store and
headquarters to assemble, calculate and store
information. See buying, ordering; accounting
and controls; checkout operations; electronic
funds transfer system.
Electronic discounts (clipless A discount price for the future purchase of an
coupons) (food industry term): item printed on a customer's receipt.
Electronic funds transfer (eft)
The use of telecommunications systems and
(food industry term):
debit and credit cards to move funds. Paperless
system used with credit and debit cards.
Electronic mail (e-mail) (food
An electronic communications system using a
industry term):
computer that enables the user to generate and
transmit messages to other locations/addresses
via the internet.
Electronic marketing (food
The use of shopper programs to reward frequent
industry term):
customers for their loyalty. Uses a scan card to
monitor customer purchases and provide
electronic discounts on special products.
Electronic shelf labels (esl)
Liquid crystal display (LCD) shelf tags linked to a
(food industry term):
backroom computer and POS system that
automatically display price changes.
Electronic shopping (food
Digital shopping via the World Wide Web (WWW)
industry term):
on the Internet.
Electronic signature capture
A liquid-crystal touch screen that records a
(food industry term):
signature as a digital image, which reduces
paperwork.
Elephant garlic:
Elephant garlic is not true garlic but a form of
leek. Its white- or purple-skinned cloves are the
size of Brazil nuts, and their flavor mild enough to
not require cooking. Peel the cloves as you
would an onion and use as you would garlic.
Elk:
A large member of the deer family. Elk meat is
called "venison." Antelope, caribou, elk, deer,
moose and reindeer meat is also classified as
venison, the most popular large animal game
meat in the U.S.
Elotes:
[Spanish] fresh corn cut from the cob; ear of
fresh corn.
Emmental Cheese:
What most Americans know as Swiss cheese.
Switzerland's oldest and most important cheese,

Emmental cheese:

Empanada:
Empanada:

Empanaditas:
Emulsify, emulsifier:

Emulsify:
Emulsion:
En Brochette:
En crocite:
En Croute:
En Papillote:
En Papilotte:
Encebollada:
Encharito:
Enchilada:

Emmentaler has a distinctively nutty-sweet,


mellow flavor. It was named for Switzerland's
Emmental valley and is exported in giant wheels
weighing from 150 pounds to 220 pounds each.
Named for Switzerland's Emmental valley, this
mellow, sweet but nutty cheese is the best Swiss
cheese you can buy. It has big holes and a
natural, light-brown rind.
A small, savory pie that are usually filled with
meat, seafood or vegetables.
A small savory pie from Spain and South
America. Fillings may be made of meat, seafood,
or vegetables. The fillings can be seasoned in
many ways. Those from around Spain are
flavored with peppers, onions, and tomatoes.
Those from South America have a sweet/sour
undertone from the addition of raisins and green
olives. Crusts may be made from bread dough or
flaky dough like pate brisee and puff pastry.
Baked or fried pastry turnovers; stuffed with
sweet or savory fillings; a street food eaten
throughout Latin America.
Tiny turnovers; traditional New Mexican
Christmas food when filled with a Southwestern
version of mincemeat.
An ingredient such as an egg that, when beaten
with two non-mixing ingredients like oil and
vinegar, will hold them in a suspension so they
do not separate.
To bind together liquid ingredients that do not
dissolve into each other (like vinegar and oil).
A mixture of two or more liquids that don't easily
combine. such as oil and vinegar.
To cook small pieces of food on skewers.
[French] food encased in pastry.
Food baked in a crust.
Enclosing foods (like fish) in parchment paper or
foil and cooking in an oven or on a grill.
[French] Food wrapped, cooked and served in
oiled or buttered paper or foil.
[Spanish] a dish, often meat, covered with
cooked onions.
[Spanish] a huge enchilada made with a flour
tortilla; a cross between a burrito and an
enchilada.
Corn tortillas stuffed with meat, chicken, cheese
(or a combination), rolled and topped with a red
or green chile sauce.

Enchilada:

[Spanish] the word comes from the way the dish


is made, by drenching or dipping tortillas en
chile; rolled or stacked corn tortillas filled with
meat or cheese, covered with chile sauce, then
baked.
Encurtido:
[Spanish] pickled; preserved.
End aisle display, end cap, end A massive merchandise display at the end of an
display or ends (food industry aisle which is a prime selling location for high
term):
margin, impulse items.
End of month (eom) (food
An accounting term that designates the last
industry term):
calendar day of a month as the final date for
payment of bills.
Endive:
A plant with dark green, curly leaves and a
slightly bitter flavor.
Endive:
Closely related to and often confused with
chicory, endive comes in two main varieties:
Belgian and curly. Belgian endive is creamy
white and oblong with pale yellow tips; it's grown
completely in the dark to prevent it from turning
green. Curly endive has prickly dark green
leaves and a pleasantly bitter flavor.
Endosperm:
The starch granules in grain embedded in glutenforming proteins from which flour or meal is
produced; 80-85% of a wheat kernel is
endosperm.
Ends (food industry term):
The last part of whole loaves of meat and cheese
in the Deli Department.
Enebro:
[Spanish] juniper.
Eneldo:
[Spanish] dill.
Enfrijolada:
[Spanish] a type of enchilada made with corn
tortillas, refried beans and cheese.
English chop:
A double-rib lamb chop.
English Pea:
Common garden pea, also called green pea.
English Walnut:
A nut with a wrinkled tan shell and a double
lobed interior nut meat that has a sweet flavor. It
can be eaten raw or used in baking and cooking.
Enoki Mushrooms:
Small white mushrooms that grow in clumps with
long, thin stems and a mild, almost fruity flavor.
They have a crisp, crunchy texture when fresh,
but tend to become tough when heated; also
known as velvet stem, snow puff and golden
mushrooms.
Enoki:
A slender Asian mushroom sold in small
packages; good raw in salads or cooked as a
garnish. To use, just trim off the spongy base and
separate the strands.
Enrich:
To improve the nutritional value of an ingredient
or food. Baked goods may be enriched by using

milk, enriched flour, whole grain flours, eggs, soy


protein or flour.
Enriched All-purpose Flour:
Because all-purpose flour does not contain
wheat germ, U.S. law requires iron, niacin,
riboflavin and thiamin to be added. "Enriched"
appears on the label of flour with added
nutrients.
Enriched:
Resupplied with vitamins and minerals lost or
diminished during processing of food.
Ensalada:
[Spanish] salad.
Entrecete:
A steak cut from the rib section of beef. It is
boneless and has a very thin layer of fat. Though
steaks cut from the loin ends of the rib are a finer
quality steak, the whole rib may be used for
entrecete. The term is sometimes used referring
to a strip steak. This is not an accurate
description. This cut of beef is called the faux-filet
or contre-filet. The same as Delmonico steak; a
rib chop.
Entree:
In the United States an entree is the main dish of
a meal. The original French term referred to the
first course of a meal, served after the soup and
before the meat.
Entree:
Originally, a meat of fish served before the main
course; also used to designate the main dish of
the meal.
Envinado/a:
[Spanish] wine added.
Eom (food industry term):
End of month.
Epazote:
A pungent herb with a flavor similar to coriander.
Epazote is often added to beans to reduce gas.
Epazote:
Strong, bitter perennial herb used primarily to
flavor beans; also known as Mexican tea,
stinkweed, pigweed, wormseed or goosefoot;
occasionally mistaken for lamb's lettuce; grows
wild in the United States and Mexico; flavor is
intense, reminiscent of eucalyptus; used for tea,
stews, soups, green pipi ns and moles; cooked
with all types of beans to reduce their gaseous
qualities.
Epinards:
[French] spinach.
Equal employment opportunity A U.S. government agency that enforces federal
commission (eeoc) (food
legislation, which prohibits discrimination in the
industry term):
workplace.
Equipment:
Hand or electrical tools and appliances needed
to accomplish a task, craft or job.
Equivalent:
Equal or the same (Example, three teaspoons is
equivalent to one tablespoon).
Escabeche:
[Spanish] pickled; souse; vegetables, especially

Escalope, Escallop:

Escalope:
Escargot:
Escargot:

Escarole:

Escarole:
Esl (food industry term):
Espagnole Sauce:

Espinacas:
Espresso:
Essence:

chiles, marinated or pickled in vinegar. A highly


seasoned marinade used to flavor and preserve
food. Fish and chicken are the most common
foods used for escabeche. First the meat is fried
and placed in a dish large enough to hold all of
the food in one layer. Then a marinade made of
onions, peppers, vinegar, and spices is poured
over the food while hot. The whole dish is then
allowed to rest overnight and served cold.
[Italian] a thinly sliced food similar to a scaloppini.
This may consist of meat, fish, or vegetables;
food baked in layers, covered with sauce and
crumbs.
Very thin slices of meat or fish containing
absolutely no fat, skin, gristle or bones.
French term for edible snails, either terrestrial,
freshwater or marine.
An edible snail. It is the common name for the
land gastropod mollusk. The edible snails of
France have a single shell that is tan and white,
and 1 to 2 inches diameter.
A broad-leafed, pale green, mild-flavored endive.
Most often eaten raw in salads, escarole can be
briefly cooked and used in soups; also known as
Batavian endive.
See Endive.
Electronic shelf labels.
This is the foundation of all of the brown sauces.
A number of modifications have been made of
this sauce since its conception. The sauce is now
made of a rich brown veal stock thickened with a
brown roux. The sauce is then simmered with a
mirepoix, bouquet garni, and wine. The long,
slow cooking help to purify and concentrate its
flavor. It is finally strained through very fine
muslin. Demi-glace and glace de viande are all
structured around a fine espagnole sauce.
[Spanish] spinach.
This thick, strong coffee is made from French or
Italian roast - beans with a shiny, dark oily
surface.
Extract. While the words may be used
interchangeably US-Great Britain, all essences
are extracts, but extracts are not all essences. A
stock is a water extract of food. Other solvents
(edible) may be oil, ethyl alcohol, as in wine or
whiskey, or water. Wine and beer are vegetable
or fruit stocks. A common oil extract is of
cayenne pepper, used in Asian cooking (yulada).

Estilo:
Estimated inventory (food
industry term):

Estofado:
Estouffade:
Ethernet (food industry term):

Ethnic foods (food industry


term):
Etouffee:

etouffee:
Etuver:
Eulachon:

European article number (ean)


(food industry term):
European turbot:

Oils and water essences are becoming popular


as sauce substitutes. A common water essence
is vegetable stock. A broth is more concentrated,
as in beef broth, or bouillon. Beef tea is shin beef
cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a
water bath for 12 to 24 hours. Most common are
alcohol extracts, like vanilla. Not possible to have
a water extract of vanilla (natural bean) but
vanillin (chemical synth) is water solution. There
are also emulsions lemon pulp and lemon oil and
purees (often made with sugar) Oils, such as
orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted
by storing in sugar in seal ed container. Distilled
oils are not extracts or essences. Attar of rose
(for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.
[Spanish] "in the style of."
A physical inventory method used to calculate
the total cash value of a store's inventory. A
product count is multiplied by the retail price. The
estimated gross-profit margin is subtracted from
that figure to get an estimate of the worth in
dollars of items in a store.
[Spanish] stew.
A beef stew made with red wine.
A local area network (LAN) used to connect
computers, in contrast to a network used to
connect computers in a larger area, a wide area
network (WAN).
Products that a particular ethnic (racial, national)
or cultural group favor, such as Mexican,
Chinese or kosher foods.
The French term a l'etouffee, meaning "to
smother or suffocate," refers to a method in
which foods are cooked over low heat with a
minimal amount of liquid in a tightly covered pan.
Example
French for smothered and refers to a stewed dish
cooked little liquid in a tightly closed pot. Usually
served over white rice.
To braise with very little or no liquid.
A rich and oily mild:flavored variety of smelt fish.
The eulachon is also called the "candlefish"
because Indians sometimes run a wick through
their high:fat flesh and use them for candles.
A European, 13-digit bar code that identifies
products and shipping containers, which is
compatible with U.S. and Canadian UPCs,
although there are differences in format.
A highly prized flatfish found in European waters.

Evaporated Milk:

Evaporated milk:
Event merchandising/event
marketing (food industry term):
Every day low cost (edlc) (food
industry term):
Every day low price (edlp) (food
industry term):
Exception count (food industry
term):

Executive information system


(eis) (food industry term):
Exotic produce (food industry
term):
Exotic/ethnic sections (food
industry term):
Expense (food industry term):
Expert systems (food industry
term):
Expiration date (food industry
term):
Express lane (food industry
term):
Extended dating or extended
terms (food industry term):
Extenders (food industry term):
Extra Lean:

This fish has a lean, firm white flesh and a mild


flavor. Turbot is also the market name for several
varieties of flounder fished from Pacific waters.
Canned, unsweetened milk that is homogenized
milk from which 60% of the water is removed.
Available in whole evaporated milk: 7.9%
butterfat and skim cotain s1/2% or less.
Preserved milk that has much of the water
content removed through evaporation. Similar to
condensed milk, but not nearly as sweet.
A store or community wide promotion of targeted
products through a series of related activities or
using a particular theme.
A manufacturer's pricing strategy in which the
cost of goods is consistently low.
A retail pricing strategy in which the product
prices are kept consistently low. See high-low
pricing.
A physical inventory verification procedure to
identify stock conditions outside predetermined
limits. These limits generally relate to shelf
capacity and back stock, i.e., too much, too little
or out-of-stock.
Computer software used to summarize
operational data and prepare executive reports.
Fruits and vegetables not grown in North
America and considered "exotic", such as, kiwi
fruit and ugli fruit.
Unique products from all over the world. Special
sections may feature Asian, Spanish, Italian and
other foods or products.
Overhead costs that include salaries, supplies,
advertising, depreciation, and maintenance.
Software used to interpret data and highlight key
events, enabling a category manager to focus on
the most relevant problems.
A manufacturer's "sell by" date stamped on
products to indicate shelf life.
A lane used to check out customers with a limited
number of items.
An accounting term that allows longer than usual
payments for products.
Shelves, tables or baskets used along with
permanent fixtures to increase display space in a
department.
Poultry, meat, seafood or game containing less
than 5 grams of fat, less than 2 grams of
saturated fat and less than 95 milligrams of

cholesterol per serving (100 grams).


Flavors from various foods that have been
concentrated by distillation or evaporation.
Extraordinary items (food
All infrequent or unusual financial events,
industry term):
including net operating loss carryforwards to the
current period.
Extra-virgin Olive Oil:
Olive oil produced from the first cold-pressing,
considered the finest and fruitiest, with only 1
percent acid. Its color can range from clear
champagne to bright green.
Eye level (food industry term): A merchandising strategy to increase sales of a
product by placing it at a customer's eye level.
The pulling forward of product to the edge of the
Faced (food industry term):
gondola shelf to make the display appear fully
stocked. Also known as face-up or facing up.
Face-up (food industry term):
A shelf's-edge arrangement of merchandise to
make a display shelf look full.
Facings (food industry term):
The number of units in width an item occupies on
the front row of a store shelf.
Fact sheet (food industry term): A manufacturer's promotional sheet for sales
calls.
Factory pack (food industry
A standard-sized shipping carton.
term):
Faggot:
[French] a stalk of celery tied with parsley, bay
leaf and thyme. Used in cooking soups, then
discarded; Small savory cake made of pork offal,
onion and bread, then baked.
Fagioli:
The Italian term for beans, most often white
kidney beans
Fahrenheit:
A temperature scale with 32? as the freezing
point of water and 212? as its boiling point..
Failure fee (food industry term): A manufacturer's payment to retailers for
merchandise that does not sell as expected and
is being dropped from the retailer's inventory.
Faison:
[Spanish] pheasant; name given to many game
birds.
Fajitas:
A Mexican-American dish consisting of strips of
beef skirt or chicken breast strips marinated in
lime juice, garlic, red pepper and grilled with
onions and sweet peppers. The mixture is
wrapped in a four tortilla and served with sour
cream, and pico de gallo as garnishes.
Fajitas:
[Spanish] little belts; marinated and grilled skirt
steak; called arracheras in Mexico; refers to the
cut of meat, not the way it is served; a lower-fat
substitute is flank steak.
Falafel:
A Middle Eastern dish consisting of a paste made
from ground dried chickpeas and herbs shaped
Extract (Essence):

Falafel:

Fancy foods (food industry


term):
Farce:
Farce:
Farci:
Farfalle:
Farfalle:
Farina:
Farina:
Farmer Cheese:
Farmer's cheese:
Farmstead cheese:
Fast Rising Yeast:

Fat content (food industry


term):
Fat Free, Fat-free:
Fat Separator:

Fatback:

into balls and deep-fried.


A Middle Eastern specialty made up of small,
deep-fried croquettes or balls made of highly
spiced, ground chickpeas (garbanzos). They are
generally served inside pita bread, sandwich
style, but can also be served as appetizers. A
yogurt or tahini-based sauce is often served with
falafel.
Gourmet, specialty, or special-occasion foods.
French for forcemeat or stuffing.
[French] forcemeat.
[French] stuffed.
Bow tie shaped pasta. Farfallini is the smaller
version.
Bow tie shaped pasta.
Inner portion of coarsely ground hard wheat, also
known as Cream of Wheat.
[Italian] a fine meal or flour made from wheat,
nuts and potatoes. In the United States it is
known as cream of wheat.
A form of cottage cheese, pressed to remove
most of the liquid. Dry farmer cheese is firm
enough to slice or crumble.
Uncreamed cottage cheese; also called baker's
or pot cheese; dry-cured cottage cheese may be
substituted.
Made by using only the milk from the cheesemaker's own herds.
Smaller-grained than conventional active dry
yeast; speeds rising as much as 50 percent,
which may eliminate the need for a second
rising. This form of yeast measures the same as
active dry yeast and works best when mixed
directly with the dry ingredients before adding
liquid.
The amount of fat in a particular product.
A food containing fewer than 0.5 grams of fat per
serving.
A clear cup (usually made of plastic) with a long
spout set very low on the cup; used to make
lower-fat gravy. Pan drippings are poured into the
cup and the fat rises to the top. The desirable
liquid remains below and can be poured off
through the spout. Also known as a gravy
separator.
Fat from the back of a pig, used to make lard or

cracklings, as well as for seasoning.


A saltwater fish belonging to the wrasse family.
Also called "California sheepshead." Its meat is
white, tender, and lean.
Fava Bean:
A meaty, strong flavored bean that is light brown
in color, flat in shape and looks somewhat like a
large lima bean. They are available dried or
canned. They work well in side dishes, soups, or
salads.
Fava Beans:
Broad beans. A Mediterranean bean similar to
lima beans. It comes in a large pod which, unless
very young, is inedible. Fava beans can be
purchased dried, cooked in cans and,
infrequently, fresh. If you find fresh fava beans,
choose those with pods that are not bulging with
beans, which indicates age. Fava beans have a
very tough skin, which should be removed by
blanching before cooking. They are very popular
in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern dishes.
They can be cooked in a variety of ways and are
often used in soups. Also called faba bean, broad
bean and horse bean.
Fda (food industry term):
Food and Drug Administration.
Fdi (food industry term):
Food Distributors International.
Featured special (food industry A product featured in advertisements.
term):
Features (food industry term): Products featured in a current advertising
promotion to attract customers.
Fedelini:
A very fine type of vermicelli pasta.
Feed bag:
Ranch eating place; also mess house or nose
bag.
Fegato:
[Italian] liver
Feif (food industry term):
Food Executives International Foundation.
Feijoa, Pineapple Guava:
An exotic fruit from New Zealand that tastes
somewhat like a mixture of pineapple, banana
and strawberry. It has a thin green skin and can
be eaten raw or used in preserves and jellies.
Feijoa:
Fruit native to Mexico; has a thick green skin,
which should always be peeled, and pale yellow
flesh; has a subtle flavor, which is as flavorful as
pineapple, with a hint of mint; the flesh yields to
gentle pressure when ripe and can be used in
fruit sauces; pineapple with a touch of lime juice
can be substituted. Also a fruit grown in New
Zealand with a thin green skin and a flavor
reminiscent of strawberry, banana and pineapple.
Feijoada:
A Brazilian dish very similar to cassoulet, made
with black beans. Sausage, bacon, ham, and
Fathead:

Fen Berry:

Fennel seeds:

Fennel:

Fennel:

Fenugreek:
Fenugreek:
Fermentation (food industry
term):
Fermentation:

Fermented Black Beans:

various cuts of pork cooked in with the beans.


The traditional accompaniments are plain white
rice, cooked greens, fresh orange slices, and a
very hot sauce, similar to pico de gallo, called
molho carioca. Toasted cassava flour is used as
a condiment, to be added by each diner.
Another name for a small variety of cranberry,
also known as cram-berry, crawberry, mossmillions, sow-berry, sour-berry, marsh wort, bogberry and swamp red-berry. It is found in many
English recipes.
These oval, greenish seeds come from a
bulbless variety of fennel. Available whole or
ground, they have a slight licorice flavor and
aroma.
Both the seeds and the stalks from this plant are
called fennel. 1. The plant has feathery foliage
and white bulbous stalk. Fennel tastes like
licorice or anise, and commonly used in Italian
dishes. 2. The plant's oval, green-brown seeds
have prominent ridges and short, hair-like fibers.
Their taste is similar to anise seed, but sweeter
and milder. It goes well with fish but Italians add
it to sauces, meat balls, and sausages.
Fennel is a crisp, aromatic vegetable with a
licorice flavor and celery-like texture. the bulb is
delicious raw in salads (and great cooked as
well), and the feathery fronds can be used as
seasoning. The rounder bulbs seem to be more
tender than those that are really flat. (Some
markets label it anise, which it is not.)
A very hard seed grown in the Middle East and
used as a spice. It adds an earthy flavor to
chutneys and curries.
A very hard seed grown in the Middle East, which
is used as a spice. Its dominant flavor and aroma
is recognizable in commercial curry powders.
A breakdown in organic compounds caused by a
leavening agent, such as the effect of yeast on
flour.
A process by which a food goes through a
chemical change precipitated by enzymes
produced from yeast, bacteria, or
microorganisms. In baking, it refers to the first
stages (rising times) after a bread dough is
developed and before it is shaped. This stage
helps leaven the dough and develop the bread's
flavor.
Small black soybeans preserved in salt; used in

Fermented black beans:

Feta cheese:
Feta:

Fettuccine:

Fettuccini:
Ff&d standards (food industry
term):
Fiambre:
Fica (food industry term):
Ficelle:

Fiddlehead ferns:

Fideo:
Field broker (food industry
term):
Field representative (food

Chinese cuisine. Fermented black beans have a


very salty and pungent flavor. Also known as
Chinese black beans and salty black beans.
This pungent Chinese specialty consists of small
black soybeans preserved in salt and sold in
covered jars or plastic bags. Available in Asian
markets, sometimes under the name "salty black
beans." They will keep indefinitely.
A classic white Greek cheese, usually made with
sheep's milk. It's crumbly, and has a tangy flavor.
1. A salty, soft Greek cheese made from ewe's
milk and pickled in brine It has a white color,
crumbly texture and salty, sour, tangy flavor. 2. A
soft, white, flaky American feta-style cheese
made from cow's milk and stored in brine.
Long, relatively thick ribbons of pasta. A narrower
version is called fettuccelli, while a wider one is
called fettucci. Fettucine goes well with cream,
cheese, meat and tomato sauces.
Flat narrow pasta egg noodles less than wide
and a bit thicker than tagliatelle.
Federal Food & Drug Standards are federal rules
that address quality standards of foods and
drugs for human consumption.
[Spanish] cooked meat and vegetable salad that
is usually marinated.
Federal Insurance Contributions Act, a
mandatory withholding used for Social Security.
[French] string. This term is used in cooking to
describe foods that have been tied to a string
and cooked in a broth. This was a practice in
villages when a communal pot was used to cook
food. The string was used in order to allow the
owners to identify and recover their piece of
meat. This is generally applied to tough cuts of
meat that require long periods of cooking. Yet,
some restaurants are using the term to describe
a more tender cut of meat that is poached in a
rich broth. Beef filet and duck breasts are two
good choices for this type of preparation.
A barely emerged, tightly coiled (hence the
name) shoot of the ostrich fern. Their flavor is
reminiscent of asparagus and artichoke-- some
say with a touch of green beans. Available only in
spring, and locally - they will not ship.
[Spanish] vermicelli; nest of thin pasta.
A fruit and vegetable grower's representative who
sells and ships produce.
A manufacturer's or wholesaler's representative

industry term):
Fifo (food industry term):
Fig:

Figs:
Filberts:
File Powder:
File powder:

Filet mignon:
Filet mignon:
Filet, (or fillet):
Filete migon:
Filete:
Fillet (food industry term):
Fillet or Filet:

Fill-ins or fill-in order (food


industry term):
Filo, Phyllo:

Final order date (food industry


term):
Final ship date (food industry
term):

who sells products and services accounts. See


supervisor.
First in, first out.
A pear-shaped fruit that grows well in warm
regions with a thick, soft skin, sweet flavor and
many tiny edible seeds. Popular varieties usually
have dark purple skin and pink flesh or green
skin and pinkish-white flesh.
Fresh figs have soft flesh with many tiny, edible
seeds, and range from purple to green. Also
readily available dried.
Hazelnuts.
An American seasoning made of sassafras
leaves and used to flavor and thicken Creole
dishes, such as gumbo.
A powder made of dried sassafras leaves which
has a glutinous quality and gives to certain
dishes (as gumbos) a delicate flavor and
thickening.
An expensive and very tender cut of beef that is
taken from the small end of Tenderloin.
A thick, boneless and extremely tender cut of
beef from the tail side of the tenderloin. (Not
however the most flavorful of steaks.)
A piece of meat, fish or poultry which is boneless
or has had all the bones removed.
[Spanish] filet mignon.
[Spanish] filet.
A boned, trimmed, lean piece of fish.
To remove bones from a fish, so that only the
flesh remains. The process depends on the type
of fish. Though similar, it is different for flat fish,
like a flounder, or round fish, like a trout. The
best way to learn how is to purchase a cookbook
with details or watch the cooking shows. If in
doubt, your seafood monger will do it for you.
A supplementary order needed to replace
product that was either forgotten, not delivered or
out-of-stock.
Layers of paper-thin leaves of dough used in
Greek and Middle Eastern cuisine. Frozen phyllo
dough can be found in most supermarkets and
should be thawed overnight in the refrigerator.
Also spelled "phylo," "filo," and "fillo."
The last date to place an order to receive product
allowances.
The last date to ship an order to qualify for
product allowances.

Financier:

A small cake or cookie that is made with ground


nuts and whipped egg whites. These are soft like
sponge cake, and have a rich flavor of nuts.
Fine dice:
A cube:shaped cut 1/8 inch in size; brunoise.
Finely:
Especially small, as in finely chopped, but not as
small as minced.
Fines Herbes:
A mixture of finely chopped herbs made up of
equal parts chervil, tarragon, chives, and parsley
or equal parts chervil and chives (not always
limited to these combinations).
Fines Herbes:
A combination of very finely chopped fresh herbs
used for seasoning. Traditionally includes chervil,
chives, parsley and tarragon. Dried herbs may
also be used, but their delicacy is lost.
Finger-tip Test:
A method used to test whether risen dough has
doubled in size. Two fingers are pressed lightly
and quickly inch into the risen dough. If the
dents stay, the dough has doubled.
Fingido:
[Spanish] false; ersatz.
Finnan haddie:
A world:famous smoked haddock from Scotland.
Finnan Haddie:
[Scottish] smoked haddock.
Fino Olive Oil:
A blend of extra-virgin and virgin olive oils. Fino
means "fine" in Italian.
Fiori Di Sambuco:
Small star-shaped pasta used in soups.
Firkin:
The sourdough container on a chuck wagon; also
dough keg.
First in, first out (fifo) (food
An inventory rotation system to sell older
industry term):
products before newer products.
Fiscal year (food industry term): A 12-month period that a company or
government uses for bookkeeping purposes.
Fischietti:
The smallest tube-shaped pasta.
Fish Cakes, Japanese:
Fish paste molded into cakelike shapes and
grilled or deep fried. Available frozen in Japanese
markets.
Fish Sauce:
A strong, salty sauce made from fresh anchovies.
Used primarily in Thai cooking.
Fish Sauce:
A condiment made from fermented anchovies,
salt and water. Common in Cambodian,
Vietnamese and Thai cooking. The Cambodian
version nam pla, is considered the finest, and
has the richest flavor. The Vietnamese variety,
nuoc mam, most widely available, is milder. The
different varieties are interchangeable. Available
in Oriental, Asian and some supermarkets.
Fish steaks (food industry
A cross-section cut from whole fish in 3/4 to 1term):
inch thick, skin-on slices.
Fish:
Any one of a thousand species of aquatic
vertebrates with fins for swimming and gills for

Five Spice Powder:


Five spice powder:

breathing, found in saltwater and freshwater


worldwide.
A ground Chinese seasoning that contains equal
amounts of cinnamon, cloves, ground star anise,
fennel, and Szechuan peppercorns.
A dry spice mix used in Chinese cooking
consisting of cinnamon, star anise, Szechuan
pepper, clove, and fennel.
See assets, fixed.

Fixed assets (food industry


term):
Fixed costs (food industry
See costs, fixed.
term):
Fixed dating or fixed terms
An accounting term that sets a payment date.
(food industry term):
Fixture (fixturing) (food industry Displays, such as grocery shelves, a freezer
term):
case, a magazine or card rack, used to exhibit
merchandise.
Flageolet:
These immature kidney beans harvested before
maturity are medium in size (about one-half inch
long), kidney shaped, and a pale green. Quickcooking and very fresh-tasting, the classic
treatment features cream and herbs.
Flageolets:
A French kidney-shaped bean, generally
available in the United States dried or canned;
often used as an accompaniment to lamb.
Flagship store (food industry
The prototype for a retail store chain.
term):
Flake:
To gently break up into small pieces, usually with
a fork or your fingers.
Flake:
Separate cooked fish into individual flaky slivers;
grate chocolate or cheese into small slivers.
Flamb:
[French] served flaming, accomplished by
pouring spirits over food and igniting them.
Flambe:
To ignite a sauce or other liquid so that it flames.
Liquors such as brandy are essential to flambe,
since they ignite easily.
Flambe:
Dramatic presentation of food by sprinkling with
alcohol (or other flamable substance) and igniting
into flames.
Flameado:
[Spanish] flamed; flamb ; served flaming.
Flameproof:
Cookware that can be used directly on a burner
or under a broiler without damage.
Flan ring:
A metal pan for baking tarts, with low sides and a
detachable side ring.
Flan:
1. A round pastry tart that can have a sweet or
savory filling. 2. A Spanish custard coated with
caramel.
Flan:
This is a term that may be used to describe two

Flank Steak:
Flank steak:

Flanker (food industry term):


Flash sheet (food industry
term):
Flatfish:
Flatfish:

Flat-Iron Steak:
Flats (food industry term):
Flauta:
Flautas:
Flavor:
Fleisch:
Fleur de sel:

different preparations. The first use of this word is


describes an open top tart that is filled with
pastry cream and topped with fruit. Flan is used
in Spanish and Mexican cooking to describe an
egg custard that is baked in a large shallow dish,
and flavored with caramel. The dish is inverted
when served and the excess caramel is used as
a sauce for the flan. The flan may be flavored
with orange, anise, cinnamon, or liqueur.
[Spanish] traditional Mexican and Southwestern
baked caramel custard dessert; similar to the
French "creme caramel" or "creme brulee."
A long, thin, fibrous cut of beef from an animal's
lower hindquarters, usually tenderized by
marinating.
The triangular-shaped muscle from the underside
of a flank of beef; when broiled, served rare and
sliced thin, as horizontally as possible, this is
tender and juicy, and is called London Broil.
Flank steak is also served with a stuffing, rolled
and baked.
A manufacturer's product modification for an
established product., e.g., blue M&Ms.
A manufacturer's promotional summary to
promote selected sale products to retailers. Also
known as a sell sheet.
Fish that have a flat body with both eyes located
on the upper side. Flatfish swim "sideways" and
include "flounder," "halibut," and "sole."
Includes flounders, flukes, sole, dabs, and
plaices. Distinguished by their eyes (on top of
their head), and swimming style (on their side).
Have thin, fine-grained flesh; all can be used
interchangeably.
Beef shoulder top blade cut.
Platforms used to store products.
Corn tortilla wrapped around a meat or poultry
filling and fried. Usually served with guacamole
and sour cream.
[Spanish] flutes; filled, tightly rolled, and deepfried enchiladas.
To add seasoning or other ingredients to a food
or beverage to enhance taste.
[German] meat.
[French] "flower of the salt." A rare sea salt
harvested by hand in Brittany, France and
available only in limited quantities. Composed of
the natural crystal formations found on the
surface of a salt marsh. The crystals are sun-

dried only, thereby maintaining many of the


nutrients not found in typical prepared salts.
Fleur de Sel's unrefined nature lends itself to be
served as a condiment, rather than a seasoning,
adding both texture and flavor to a meal.
Fleuron:
A small crescent shaped pastry made of puff
dough that is used to garnish fish dishes and
soups.
Flexible allowance (food
Choice given to a retailer to select the payment
industry term):
method
Float (food industry term):
The amount of time that a check is in circulation;
the period between the time a check is written
and when it is cashed.
Floor care (food industry term): A specific program designed to keep floors clean
and attractive.
Floor merchandiser (food
A movable, free-standing fixture, such as (Food
industry term):
Industry term):
Floor stock (food industry
Merchandise stored by a retailer to replenish
term):
shelves between deliveries. Also known as back
stock.
Floor stock protection (food
An agreement to protect a retailer from a loss if a
industry term):
product's price goes down in a certain time
period.
Flor:
[Spanish] flower.
Florentine:
1. A cookie that contain butter, cream and often
coated with chocolate. 2. Also refers to dishes
containing spinach and usually a cream sauce.
Florentine:
[French] This is used to describe foods that are
cooked in the style of Florence. The word is most
commonly associated with dishes containing
spinach and sometimes a cream sauce. Steak
cooked ala Florentine is a large T-bone steak,
rubbed with olive oil and garlic, grilled and served
with fresh lemon on the side.
Flores:
[Spanish] blossoms.
Florets:
The small, closely bunched flowers that make up
the whole head or broccoli or cauliflower.
Flounder:
A fine:textured flatfish prized for its delicate
flavor. Some of the more popular varieties
include "Fab," "English Sole," and "Plaice."
Flounder:
A large family of flatfish, flounder generally has
lean, firm flesh and a delicate flavor. Available
whole or in fillets, the fish can be baked, boiled,
poached, steamed or sauteed. Flounder is often
marketed as sole, which (with the exception of
imported European Dover sole) is actually a
variety of flounder.
Flour Dredger:
A kitchen device similar to a large salt shaker

Flour:

Flour:

Flour:

with a handle for sifting a coating, such as flour,


cocoa powder or confectioners' sugar, onto
foods.
Flour is a major ingredient in most baked goods.
Although wheat flours are the most common and
often essential flour to a product's quality, flour
may be produced from many kinds of grains,
potatoes, legumes, beans, and seeds. Example,
Flour from soybeans, corn, oats, spelt, teff,
quinoa, amaranth, rye, buckwheat, and more.
1. (used as a verb) To lightly sprinkle or coat with
flour. 2. A powdery substance made by milling
wheat, corn, rye or other grains that are available
in various degrees of fineness.
This is the finely ground grain of wheat, corn,
rice, oat, rye, or barley. Unless specified, this
term refers to wheat flour. Flour is milled from a
variety of wheats containing different amounts of
protein. The different levels of protein give each
flour unique qualities.
All-purpose flour sometimes called generalpurpose or family flour is the most commonly
used, especially by the domestic market. This
flour is milled from both hard and soft wheats,
giving it the strength needed in bread baking, but
leaving it tender enough for cakes and pastries.
Bread flour has a higher protein content so that it
may withstand the constant expansion of the cell
walls during proofing and baking.
Cake flour is milled from soft wheat, thus
containing a very low protein content and
preventing the development of gluten. Pastry
flour is of relatively low protein content,
containing just enough to help stabilize the
products during leavening.
Other flours which are not as common are
buckwheat, corn, potato, rice, rye and soy. These
are used for special recipes or for special diets
andan be found in health food, specialty stores
and some supermarkets.
Whole-wheat flours also called graham flour or
entire wheat flour are milled from the whole
kernel, thus giving it a higher fiber content and a
substantial protein content. Semolina is milled
from hard durum wheat, being used mainly for

commercial baking and pasta production.


Wheat Flours
All-Purpose Flour: Half cake flour, half bread
flour. Suitable for all applications.
Bread Flour: A high gluten flour made from
hard wheat. Perfect for yeast breads.
Cake Flour: A high starch flour made from soft
wheat. Ideal for baking.
Self-Rising: A mixture of all-purpose flour,
baking powder and salt.
Stone Ground: Wheat that is ground between
two slowly moving stones. This process creates
less heat than the usual high speed steel
grinding. Some cooks believe the stone grinding
method produces a better product.
Whole Wheat Flour: A high fiber flour that
contains the wheat germ. Usually blended with
other flours.
Semolina: Coarsely ground, hard flour (usually
duram). Used for making pasta.
Flow through distribution (food A form of cross-docking; products are broken
industry term):
down into individual cases which are sorted,
transferred and put on pallets to ship to retail
stores.
Fluff-duff:
Ranch term for fancy foods such as cakes or
puddings.
Flute:
1. To press a scolloped pattern into the raised
edge of a pie crust. 2. To groove or slit markings
in vegetables (like cucumbers) and fruits for
decoration. 3. A tall, thin, stemmed champagne
glass. 5. A long, thin loaf of bread.
Flute:
To make decorative indentations, as on the rim of
a pie crust.
Flyer (food industry term):
An advertisement that is mailed or inserted into
newspapers.
Flying fish:
This fish, a delicacy in the West Indies and
Japan, gains speed underwater then leaves the
water except for the lower lobe of its tail. It then
vigorously beats its tail, extends its ventral fins
and can fly a 1,000 feet or more.
Fmi (food industry term):
Food Marketing Institute.

Focaccia:
Focaccia:
Focaccia:

Foie Gras:
Foie Gras:

Foil, Aluminum Foil:

Fold:

Fold:

Fold:
Fold:

Italian bakers' snack, from Latin term "focus" or


hearth. The focaccia was originally baked on a
stone hearth.
An Italian flatbread made with pizza or bread
dough. Herbs, cheese and other toppings may
be added or it can be served plain.
An Italian flatbread made with pizza or bread
dough, that can be baked plain or topped with
onions, zucchini, eggplant, cheese, or whatever
you choose.
The term means goose liver, but is used to
describe the fattened liver of both duck and
geese.
[French] literally translated, "fat liver"; but the
term is used to describe the fattened liver of both
duck and geese. The birds are force fed a rich
mixture to help expedite this process. The largest
production of commercial foie gras is done in
France and Israel. The US will only allow this
product to be imported in a cooked stage, either
canned, vacuum-sealed, or frozen. These are
inferior products and will never highlight the true
delicacy of foie gras.
A thin pliable sheet of aluminum; easily molded,
conducts heat well, can withstand temperature
extremes and is impervious to odors, moisture
and air; used to cover foods for cooking and
storage.
To incorporate dry ingredients or batter into
whipped eggs, usually an egg:white foam,
without deflating the light and airy texture
essential to the finished product. This is done
with a rubber spatula by reaching reach down
through the center of the egg foam to the bottom
of the bowl and lifting up some of the batter on
top of the foam. As you turn your wrist to deposit
the batter on top of the eggs, you turn the bowl a
few degrees, repeating the process until there
are no traces of egg white left.
To combine by using two motions, one which
cuts vertically throuth the mixture, the other with
turns over by sliding the implement across the
bottom of the mixing bowl.
To gently mix two or more ingredients together by
softly lifting up and over from the sides to the
center.
To add one ingredient or mixture to another using
a large metal spoon or spatula. Gentle process
that often keeps mixed air fluffed throughout a

Folding:

Fond:

Fondant:
Fondant:

Fondue:

Fondue:

mixture, such as in angel food cakes.


To gently combine two or more ingredients or a
delicate mixture into a heavier, thicker one by
cutting vertically through the mixture and turning
it over by sliding the mixing tool across the
bottom of the bowl or pan with each turn. To
combine without stirring or deflating a mixture.
The brown bits which stick to the bottom of a
pan. Packed with incredible flavors from the food
you have cooked. It is easy to remove by adding
a little liquid to the pan and using a wooden
spoon to dissolve it. This is called deglazing and
can be done with wine, brandy, fortified wines,
stock, cider, fruit juices or most typically a
combination of two. Be careful if you use wine to
remove the pan from the heat so the alcohol
doesn't ignite and blow up in your face.
A very sweet and thick sugar paste used in
candy making and glazing baked goods.
An icing made of sugar syrup and glucose, which
is cooked to a specific temperature and then
kneaded to a smooth, soft paste. This paste can
then be colored or flavored and used as an icing
for cakes and petit fours.
A dipping sauce such as cheese or chocolate
which is usually served warm along with the
items to be dipped such as bread, meat, fruit,
etc.
There are several different types of fondue, the
most notable of which is cheese fondue. This is a
Swiss specialty in which cheese is melted with
wine, eggs, and seasonings and served with
bread and fresh vegetables.
Fondue Bourguignonne is a pot of hot oil into
which the diners will cook strips of meat and dip
them into an array of sauces on the table.
A chocolate fondue is a chocolate bath, flavored
with liqueur and eaten with bread, cakes and
fruit, like fresh berries.
Similar to this is fondue Chinois where the hot oil
is replaced by a rich chicken or meat broth. The
meat, and fish too, are then cooked in this stock
and dipped in sauces.
The Japanese have a dish called shabu shabu,
which is similar to this type of fondue. Named for

the swishing sound that the meat makes in the


broth, this dish is also served with vegetables
and noodles in to be eaten along with the meat.
Fonduta:
An Italian style fondue made of Fontina cheese
and served over toast or polenta. Exceptional
with truffles.
Fontina Cheese:
A high-fat (about 45 percent) Italian cheese
made from cow's milk, with a mild, slightly nutty
flavor and creamy texture. Fontina has a dark
golden-brown rind and a pale-yellow interior
that's dotted with tiny holes.
Food broker (food industry
An agent who negotiates contracts, buys and
term):
sells food and other merchandise to retail food
stores.
Food cost (food industry term): A calculation of the price of each ingredient used
to prepare foods, such as potato salad.
Food distributors international (formerly NAWGA) 201 Park Washington Court
(fdi) (food industry term):
Falls Church, VA 22046 (703) 532-9400
Food executives international P.O. Box 2730 Bethesda, MD 20827 (301) 469foundation (feif) (food industry 8716
term):
Food guide pyramid (food
A federal government picture of a healthy diet,
industry term):
with the most essential items, cereals and grains,
at the bottom, and the least essential, fats and
sweets, at the top.
Food marketing institute (fmi) An international trade association of independent
(food industry term):
grocers, chain stores and wholesalers. FMI's
programs include education, research and public
affairs. 655 15th St. ., N.W. Washington, DC
20005 (202) 452-8444
Food mass merchandiser (food A supercenter that offers a wide variety of food
industry term):
and non-food merchandise. These stores
average 150,000 square feet and typically devote
40 percent of the space to grocery items and 60
percent to General Merchandise/Health and
Beauty Care (GM/HBC) and other non-food
items.
Food service (food industry
The preparation and sale of ready-to-eat food
term):
items, snacks and meals.
Food stamps (food industry
A federal benefits program for low-income
term):
families, administered by the U.S. Department of
Agriculture.
Food stand (food industry
A disposable, usually cardboard, floor
term):
merchandiser.
Food store (food industry term): A retail operation that sells food products.
Food/drug combo (food
A combination superstore-drug store under a
industry term):
single roof that share checkout lanes. General
Merchandise/Health and Beauty Care (GM/HBC)

Fool:
Footballing (food industry
term):
Footprint (food industry term):
Forced deposit (food industry
term):
Forced distribution (food
industry term):
Forcemeat:
Forcemeat:
Forecast (food industry term):
Forklift (food industry term):
Formaggio:
Formaggio:
Fortified:
Forward buy (food industry
term):
Fougasse:

Four-way pallet (food industry


term):
Foyot:
Fraises:
Framboise:
Frame (food industry term):

Frame relay network (food


industry term):

represents at least one-third of the selling area


and a minimum of 15 percent of store sales.
Cold dessert consisting of fruit puree and
whipped cream.
A competitive strategy to rapidly increase sales
volume by sharply cutting prices.
The amount of square footage in a store used by
a piece of equipment or display unit.
A fee placed on recyclable bottles to promote
bottle returns for a refund.
The total allotment of product that a retail chain
automatically distributes to its stores without
specific orders. Also called a force out.
Ground up meat(s) combined with seasonings
and other ingredients, used for stuffing.
A rich, highly seasoned paste containing meat or
fish, herbs and vegetables finely minced and
pounded, used as a stuffing or garnish.
A projection of sales volume.
A vehicle with projecting prongs that slide under
a pallet to move merchandise in a warehouse or
store.
Italian word for cheese.
An Italian cheese.
Supplied with more vitamins and minerals than
were present in the natural state.
A retail practice of holding products until the end
of a promotion to increase profits. Also known as
a buyout.
A flatbread from France that was once served
sweetened with sugar and orange water. It is
now more commonly seen as a bread eaten with
savory dishes. In this case, the dough is brushed
with olive oil and sprinkled with herbs or salt
before baking.
A pallet accessible by equipment from all four
sides.
This is a variation of a bearnaise sauce with the
addition of a well reduced meat glaze.
[French] strawberries.
[French] a raspberry-flavored liqueur with a high
alcohol content.
A module of text on the World Wide Web, which
is used to break up text that is hard to read on a
computer screen. The unit of information
transferred across a data link.
A local-area, wide-area or global network of
computers that uses nodes to send digital

messages in pieces back and forth until an open


line is found for transmission of a packet of
information, which is reassembled in the correct
order on delivery.
Franchise (food industry term): A contractual agreement on a brand, service,
name, operation or procedure.
Franchise store (food industry An independently owned store affiliated with a
term):
wholesale group and sharing a common name. A
license to use a chain's name.
Franchised department (food
See leased department.
industry term):
Franchised label or franchised A label, name, or design that a sectional
brand (food industry term):
distributor may use as its private label in an
assigned area.
Frangipane:
A candy-like pastry cream made of butter, eggs,
flour, and finely ground almonds or macaroons.
Modern versions will use a combination of
cornstarch and flour.
Frankfurter:
A smoked and seasoned precooked sausage
that is also called the "hot dog," "wiener," and
"frank." These sausages, which can be made
from beef, pork, chicken, or turkey, are America's
most popular sausage.
Frapp:
Sweetened fruit juices frozen until semi-hard,
then chilled.
Frappe:
(from the French frappe) A simple sugar syrup
mixed with fruit or other flavorings and frozen,
then processed to a slightly slushy consistency. It
can be served as a drink or a dessert. In some
parts of the United States, a milk shake is
sometimes referred to as a frappe.
Free goods promotion (food
A manufacturer's incentive to retailers or
industry term):
wholesalers that offers free product in exchange
for the purchase of a specific quantity.
Free standing (food industry
A store located by itself or in an unplanned
term):
shopping area.
Free standing display (food
A display built straight from the floor and not
industry term):
attached to a fixture.
Free standing insert (fsi) (food A manufacturer's advertisement and coupons put
industry term):
into a separate section of a newspaper.
Free time period (food industry The time period allocated to load or unload a
term):
truck or rail car without incurring additional
charges.
Free trader (food industry term): A retailer with access to capital who buys in high
volume from many suppliers on a cash basis.
Free-range chicken or turkey: In theory, these birds are much better than the
standard. They're fed differently, given fewer
drugs, and have more room to roam. However,

the quality is inconsistent and the price often


outrageously expensive.
Freeze:
To preserved food by placing it in temperatures
below 32?F (0?C) so that the moisture solidifies.
Freezer (food industry term):
An enclosed, refrigerated storage area that
preserves frozen products below 0 degree F.
Freezer burn (food industry
The loss of moisture that affects frozen food. The
term):
white or gray spots caused by improper packing
or food handling.
Freezer Burn:
A loss of moisture in foods when wrapped
inappropriately before freezing. Texture and
flavor of food is compromised and is confirmed
by dry white or gray patches on the surface of
the food.
Freezer life (food industry
The length of time a product can be stored at 0
term):
degree F and retain good proofing and baking
characteristics.
Freezer paper:
A plastic-coated Kraft paper used for wrapping
foods for freezing and for general household
purposes. The plastic coating provides a barrier
to air and moisture to protect the quality, flavor
and nutrition of foods during freezing; the paper
provides strength and durability as well as an
easy-to-write-on surface.
Freezing:
Process whereby food is solidified or preserved
through chilling and storing it at 0C or 32F
degrees.
Freight bill (food industry term): A receipt showing the total cost of a shipment.
Shippers pay for prepaid freight bills and
receivers pay destination freight bills.
Freight paid (food industry
An expense added to a product's retail price.
term):
Freight rate (food industry
The transportation costs for shipping products by
term):
rail, truck or other means that may be based on a
formula of total weight, revenue and mileage.
French chop:
A rib lamb chop.
French Fry:
To deep-fry food, such as strips of potatoes.
French fry:
To cook in hot fat which entirely covers the food,
often in a special wire basket.
Frequent shopper program
An electronic marketing program designed to
(food industry term):
reinforce customer loyalty. A scan card used to
capture customer shopping patterns and to
generate product discounts (clipless coupons).
See electronic marketing.
Fresas:
[Spanish] strawberries.
Fresco:
[Spanish] fresh.
Fresh (food industry term):
Just picked, gathered, produced, live or
unprocessed, not stale, food. A term associated

Fresh cheese:
Fresh Frozen:
Fresh Masa:
Fresh pack (food industry
term):
Fresh:

Freshness control (food


industry term):
Fresine:
Fresno chile:

Fricadillee:

Fricass e:

Fricassee:
Frijol blanco:
Frijoles Refritos:
Frijoles refritos:
Frijoles:
Frijoles:
Frisee:

with perimeter departments, including produce,


deli, bakery, or floral. Also unfrozen.
Unripened or slightly ripened curds (ricotta,
farmer, cottage, mascarpone).
Food that was frozen when it was fresh.
A dough used in the making of tamales that
consists of ground, dried corn that has been
soaked in limewater.
Seasonal food products processed quickly;
usually at the growing location.
1. A food that has been recently cooked or
baked, such as a fresh bread. 3. A food left in a
state as grown or harvested; not canned, dried or
processed and containing no preservatives.
A program to liquidate short-coded, overstocked
merchandise to prevent its accumulation.
Straight, narrow noodles similar in length to short
spaghetti.
A fresh chile; similar in size and appearance to a
ripe jalape o; bright red and thick-fleshed; great
in salsas and ceviches; usually available only in
the fall; substitute ripe jalape os if unavailable.
[French] meat balls, made with minced pork and
veal, spices, white bread crumbs, cream and
egg, then poached in stock or shallow-fried in a
pan.
[French] stew made of chicken or veal cut into
pieces and cooked in a gravy. Though chicken is
the most common form of this type of stew, fish,
vegetables, and other meats are prepared in this
manner.
A stew that contains diced meat, lightly cooked in
butter, and then simmered in liquid until tender.
[Spanish] navy bean.
Refried beans. Most commonly cooked pinto
beans that are mashed, sauteed in oil or fat, and
mixed with cheese cheddar.
[Spanish] refried beans; a paste of stewed pinto
beans fried in fat with onions and garlic and
frequently includes chiles.
Beans, most commonly referring to the pinto
bean.
[Spanish] beans; usually refers to stewed pinto
beans; varieties are Anasazi, black turtle, bollito,
pinto or red (Mexican strawberry).
A member of the chicory family with delicately
slender, curly leaves that are feathery in
appearance and mildly bitter in taste.

Fritada:

[Spanish] stew usually made with goat meat,


which always contains some animal blood.
Frito:
[Spanish] fried.
Frittata:
An Italian omelet that has additional ingredients
mixed in with the eggs rather than being folded
inside like a French omelet. It is sometimes
baked or cooked in a skillet over very slow heat
then flipped or the top browned under a broiler.
Frittata:
An Italian open-faced omelet.
Fritter:
Foods coated or dipped in batter, then deepfried.
Fritter:
Food that has been dipped in batter and deep
fried or saut ed. These may consist of
vegetables, meat, fish, shellfish, or fruit. The food
may be dipped in the batter or mixed with the
batter and dropped into the hot fat to form little
balls. Japanese tempura fried foods are a type of
fritter, though this term is not applied to it.
Fritto Misto:
An Italian platter filled with a variety of mixed
fried foods.
Fritto Misto:
An Italian mixed fried platter, similar to the
Japanese tempura platter. A mixture of
vegetables, meat, and fish are dipped in a light
batter and quickly deep fried to prevent a
saturation of grease into the food.
Fritto:
[Italian] fried
Frituras:
[Spanish] fritters.
Frizzle:
To fry thin slices of meat or other food until the
edges curl
Frogfish:
This large low:fat, firm:textured salt:water fish
has a mild, sweet flavor that compares with
lobster. Also called "angler fish," "monkfish," or
"goosefish."
Frog's legs:
The tender, faintly sweet white meat from the
hind legs of frogs. Because of their delicate
flavor, they should be cooked briefly without too
many seasonings.
Fromage Blanc:
A simple French white cheese. This soft, fresh
cream cheese has the consistency of sour
cream. Fromage blanc is usually eaten with fruit
and sugar as dessert, but it can also be used in
cooking.
Fromage:
French for cheese.
Fromage:
A French cheese.
Front desk (food industry term): A service counter.
Front end (food industry term): The designated area of a retail store for
customer checkouts and bagging stands. It may
include a Service Center, Counting Room for

Fronts (food industry term):


Frost:
Frost:

Frosting:
Frozen assets (food industry
term):
Frozen food distribution center
(food industry term):
Frozen foods (food industry
term):
Fruit paste:
Fruit Pectin:

Fruit pectin:

Fruit Sweetener:

Fry
Fry Bread:
Fry bread:

Monies, MIS Office and Manager's Office.


The number of shelf facings for a product.
To apply sugar, frosting, glaze, or icing to fruit,
cake, or other food.
to coat a cake or petit fours with an icing; to dip
the rim of a glass in egg white and caster sugar
and then chill in a refrigerator until set; to dip the
rim of a glass in lemon juice and coat with salt,
then chill in the freezer.
A cooked or uncooked sugar mixture used to
cover and decorate cakes, cookies and other
foods.
See assets, frozen.
A refrigerated warehouse for the storage and
distribution of frozen foods.
Food preserved by freezing, such as fruits,
vegetables, specialty foods, dinners and ice
cream.
A firm, but gelatinous, sweet paste of a fruit such
as mango, papaya or guava, eaten for dessert.
A substance found naturally in some fruits such
as apples that possess the ability to gel liquids. It
is an essential ingredient in making jelly and jam.
Pectin can be purchased in powder and liquid
form.
A substance found naturally in fruits such as
apples, quince, and all citrus fruits. Pectin's
ability to gel liquids makes it a key ingredient in
jelly and jam making. Pectin from citrus fruit is
refined and bottled or powdered. You can
purchase pectin in powder or liquid form, or use
high pectin fruits in the recipe. Do not substitute
one for the other.
If a recipe calls for 1/2 cup fruit sweetener,
substitute 1/4 cup concentrated apple juice plus
1/4 cup granulated fructose. Granulated fructose
can be found among the dietary foods or sugars
in the supermarket.
Cooking food in hot fat-sauteing, stir-frying, panfrying, and deep-frying; a dry-heat cooking
method
Thin, unleaved fried bread made from flour, water
or milk, and salt. Fry bread is traditionally from
Southwest Native Americans.
Indian fried bread; flat discs of dough that are
deep-fried and topped with honey or refried
beans; usually found in Arizona and New Mexico.

Fry:

Fry:

To cook in fat. Applied especially to:

(1)cooking in a small amount of fat, also


called saute or pan-frying

(2) cooking in a deep layer of fat, also


called deep-fat frying.

To cook food in hot cooking oil until it turns a light


crispy brown.
Fry:
To cook in fat in a skillet. Food must be turned to
brown and fry on all sides.
Fryer (food industry term):
A term for a whole chicken.
Fryer:
A chicken that weights 3 to 4 pounds and is 9 to
12 weeks old.
Fsi (food industry term):
Free-standing insert.
Fudge:
Candy (usually chocolate) made with sugar,
butter, milk or cream, corn syrup, and flavorings
that has a soft, creamy, smooth texture.
Fugu:
[Japanese] swellfish; globefish; blowfish;
ballonfish; puffer. Fugu is caught in winter only,
and it is eaten as chiri-nabe (hotpot) or fugusashi (raw fugu, sliced paper-thin). Only licensed
fugu chefs are allowed to prepare this fish in
Japan, since it contains a deadly poison.
Fuji Apple:
A cross between the Red Delicious and Virginia
Rawls Jennet apples. Rosy in color and striped
with green and yellow, these incredibly sweet
apples are ideal for cooking and baking,
applesauce or eating out of hand.
Ful:
An Egyptian dried bean. Available in specialty
food shops. The best are the small variety.
Full service (food industry
Merchandiser arrangements with retailers in
term):
which product prices include all services, such as
order writing, prepricing, delivery, shelf
merchandising and guaranteed sales.
Full truck (food industry term): See truckload order.
Full-line drug (food industry
A store that sells general merchandise (GM),
term):
health and beauty care (HBC), over the counter
(OTC) and prescription drugs.
Full-line wholesale grocer (food A wholesaler who provides a complete selection
industry term):
of products and services to retailers, such as
accounting services, retail training modules and
services, MIS information and reporting and
newspaper ad layouts.
Fumet:
[French] an aromatic broth made for use in soups
and sauces. The flavor of a fumet is usually
concentrated on one item, though multiple

Fundido:
Fungi:
Funnel:

Fusilier Col Buco:


Fusilli:
Fusilli:
Future order (food industry
term):

Gaeta Olive:
Galangal, Galingale Root:

Galangal:
Galantine:

Galantine:

Galette:

ingredients may be used. The stock is then


reduced to concentrate this flavor. Fish and
vegetable broths are more commonly called
fumets, but meat may also be used.
[Spanish] fondue.
Mushrooms.
A conical tool with a short straight tube at the tip
used to transfer liquids into a narrow-mouthed
vessel. Funnels are available in various materials
and some have strainers in the bottom to
separate fine particles from the liquid.
Long, thin spirals about the same length as short
spaghetti.
Literally means "Twisted Spaghetti". Popularly
known as cork-screw pasta which is shaped like
springs or screws.
[Italian] spiral shaped pasta. Some versions are
shaped like a spring. Other versions are shaped
like a twisted spiral.
An order for perishable products before the
beginning of a season; future orders are often
used as collateral for loans by
packers/manufacturers. See field broker.
Mild-flavored Italian black olives; usually dry-salt
cured, giving them a wrinkled appearance, then
rubbed with olive oil and packed with rosemary
and other herbs.
A southeast Asian rhizome with reddish skin,
orange or white flesh and a peppery, gingerlike
flavor; used particularly in Thai and Indonesian
cuisines, often as a substitute for ginger.
A root spice related to ginger, which has a musky
flavor reminiscent of saffron. It is found dried
whole or in slices, and also in powder.
A traditional French dish made from poultry, meat
or fish that is boned and stuffed with a forcemeat,
and often studded with items such as pistachio
nuts, olives and truffles.
[French] A pate-like dish made of the skin of a
small animal, most often chicken or duck, which
is stuffed with a forcemeat of this animal.
Additional strips of meat, blanched vegetables,
and truffles are also layered with the forcemeat.
This is then wrapped or tied and poached in
broth. Galantine are always served cold with their
aspic, whereas ballottines may be hot or cold.
These terms are often used interchangeably.
[French] pancake; usually sweet, made of
batters, doughs, or potatoes. Brioche-type dough

Gallina:
Gallon:
Ganache:
Gandules:
Gans:
Garam Masala:

Garam Masala:

Garbanzo Bean:
Garbanzo beans:
Garbanzo flour:

Garbanzos:
Garlic and Red Chili Paste:

Garlic chives:
Garlic Powder:
Garlic Salt:
Garlic, Mexican:

or puff pastry are often used. Small short butter


cookies were once also called galettes. The term
has now been stretched to include preparations
made of vegetables or fish. Different from a
croquette, these cakes are not breaded.
[Italian and Spanish] chicken; hen; fowl.
An American unit of measurement equal to 128
fl. ounces, 16 cups, 8 pints or 4 quarts.
A term used for a very rich chocolate filling or
thick glaze made with chocolate, shortening, and
cream used for filling and frosting.
[Spanish] pigeon peas.
[German] goose
A mixture of dry-roasted, finely ground, cumin,
coriander, cloves, cinnamon, cardamom, dried
chiles, fennel, mace, black pepper and possibly
other spices. Garam masala is similar to curry
powder and is used widely in Indian cooking.
An Indian spice mixture with a more complex
flavor and aroma than curry. The mixture is
always made fresh by the Indian cook, never
purchased pre-ground. The mixture may include
cumin, fennel, coriander, cardamom, cinnamon,
saffron, pepper, chiles, and caraway. Garam
Masala is also used as a condiment, being
added to a dish at the end of cooking.
See chickpea.
Also known as ceci or chickpeas. Very popular
legume utilized in Mediterranean and Mexican
cuisine.
Flour ground from dried garbanzo beans. Also
called ceci flour. Found in delicatessens, Italian
specialty shops, health food stores and some
supermarkets.
Chickpeas; originally from Spain; round, beige
beans with a nutty flavor.
Very hot Chinese sauce made of red peppers
and garlic. Good condiment for other Asian
cuisines as well. Found in Oriental markets some
finer supermarkets or substitute garlic and
Tabasco.
Light green in color, long thin stalks with a small
bud on the tip. Find fresh is some Asian markets.
Dehydrated garlic that is finely ground into a
powder and used as a seasoning.
A blend of salt and garlic powder garlic powder
used as a seasoning.
Mexican garlic has a dark pink-blue hue to the

Garlic:

Garlic:

Garnacha:

Garni:
Garnish (food industry term):
Garnish:

Garnish:

Garnitures:
Gaspacho, Gazpacho:

Gastronomy:
Gateau:
Gateaux:
Gateway (food industry term):

Gazpacho:

husk and is sharper than white garlic; usually


mashed or roasted for Southwestern cooking.
A highly aromatic and strongly flavored edible
bulb composed of several sections, called
cloves. Each clove is encased in a papery
covering. Garlic is used in most cuisines around
the world.
Known as the stinking rose. A member of the
onion (and thus of the lily) family is available year
round. One of the most important seasonings
and a delicious tasting cooked vegetable. Look
for hard bulbs that have not sprouted and each
clove is firm. Size and color are unimportant.
[Spanish] round antojito of tortilla dough; tartlets
of fried masa filled with black bean paste and
ground beef, covered with tomato sauce, and
sprinkled with cheese; usually served as an
appetizer.
Garnished.
A decoration on salads, such as sprigs of
watercress, lettuce or other colorful items
To present dishes with visual and flavor
enhancement using additional edible elements.
Common are herbs like parsley springs and fruit
like thin slices of lemons
You can garnish for appearance, flavor, or both.
A sprig of parsley next to a saut ed chicken
breast does little. A small handful of parsley
sprinkled over the same meat adds great flavor
and lends color contrast.
Garnishes
Cold Spanish vegetable soup made with meat
broth, crushed fresh tomatoes, and diced raw
vegetables like onions, cucumbers, and
peppers.
The art and science of fine dining, fine food and
drink.
[French] cake
French for cake.
The computer system used in a store to transmit
orders and payroll to the Office/Distribution
Center and receive price changes, PPUM Tags
and delivery schedules from the
Office/Distribution Center.
A cold spicy vegetable soup served throughout
all of the Spanish countries. The most common
version is one made with a coarse puree of fresh
tomatoes flavored with vinegar and olive oil,

Gefillte:
Gefilte fish:

Gefilte Fish:

Gefllgel:
Gehackte:
Gelati:
Gelatin, Gelatine:

Gelatin, gelatine:

Gelato:

Gelato:

Gele:
Gem irons:
Gem pan:
Gem:
Gemelli:
Gemose:
General line wholesaler (food

embellished with diced raw vegetables like


onions, cucumbers, and peppers. A light
gazpacho is made with a puree of cucumber, and
served with an array of garnishes for the diner to
choose from. Roasted almonds, avocados, and
croutons are common garnishes.
[German] stuffed/
This popular Jewish dish consists of ground fish
mixed with eggs, matzo meal, and seasonings
that have been formed into balls or patties then
simmered in vegetable or fish stock. The fish
used is usually carp, pike, or whitefish.
Jewish dish made of ground fish (usually carp,
pike and or whitefish) combined with eggs, matzo
meal and seasonings. The mixture is shaped into
balls and simmered in vegetable or fish stock.
[German] poultry.
[German] chopped.
[Italian] ice cream.
A thickener used in molded (Jello type)
desserts and dishes that has no flavor, odor or
color. It is pure protein from veal and beef bones
and by-products.
A protein produced from animals, used to gel
liquids. It is odorless, flavorless, and colorless. It
is found in granular and sheet form. It is found
available also in fruit flavored form. Fruit flavor
gelatin has sugar and flavors added.
(jeh-LAH-toh) Gelato comes from gelare, the
Italian word for "to freeze" and is the general
term for all frozen desserts. Less general, it
refers to a milk based combination with a dense,
buttery consistency similar to that of American
ice cream.
An Italian frozen dessert made of whole milk and
eggs. This gives richness without flavors
becoming masked by the fat from cream. The
flavors are very intense and the texture is soft
and silky.
[French] jellied; iced.
Cast iron muffin pans.
Muffin pan.
A muffin.
The Italian term for twins, describing two short
bits of spaghetti pasta twisted together in the
shape of a cord or rope.
[German] vegetables.
A wholesaler who only sells dry grocery

industry term):
General merchandise (gm)
(food industry term):

products.
Products other than food that are sold in
supermarkets and require special buying,
warehousing and servicing; GM classes are
(Food Industry term):
Generally recognized as safe
A food safety FDA term that indicates that all
(gras) (food industry term):
ingredients are approved for human
consumption.
Generator (food industry term): The large motor designed to run cash registers
and emergency lighting when normal power is
lost. This unit is usually powered by natural gas.
Generic, generic product or
Product packaged and sold without brand name
generic brand (food industry
or advertisements. Usually of a standard grade
term):
as opposed to grade A or top quality. Offers
customers lower quality at a lower price, and is
packed in a plain package with only a simple
product description and no brand name shown.
Products may still be quality controlled, open
dated and unit priced. Also referred to a no-name
brand.
Genevoise:
A sauce for fish made from a special white roux.
Genoise:
A cold mayonnaise sauce made with nuts and
cream.
Genoise:
[French] a very rich sponge cake made with eggs
and butter. This may be eaten as is with whipped
cream or fruit, but also used as the foundation for
many other cake preparations.
Genovesini:
Short lengths of thick tube pasta, cut diagonally
on each end.
Geoduck:
A huge, soft-shell Pacific clam. Weighing an
average of 3 pounds, but sometimes as much as
13 pounds, geoduck is distinguished by a long
neck that can reach up to 18 inches and account
for about half its body weight.
Germ:
The embryo of a kernel of grain, such as wheat,
making up about 2.5 percent of the kernel's
weight; often separated out in processed flour
because its fat content makes flour more
perishable. Wheat germ, which is left in whole
wheat flour, has a large content of complex
vitamins and trace minerals. It can also be
purchased separately.
Ghee:
This form of clarified butter is taken a step further
by simmering it until all of the moisture
evaporates and the milk solids begin to brown,
giving the resulting butter a nutty, caramel flavor
and aroma. Ghee has a longer life and much
higher smoke point than regular clarified butter.
Ghee:
[India] cooking fat. Most commonly used is

clarified butter made from the milk of buffalos


and yaks. In regions where milk is unobtainable,
mustard and sesame oil are used.
Gianduia:
a classic Italian combination of chocolate and
hazelnuts.
Giblet:
"Giblets" usually refers to the heart, liver, gizzard,
and sometimes the neck of poultry. All of these
except for the liver are normally used to flavor
stocks, soups, and gravies.
Giblets:
The gizzard, liver, heart and neck of poultry.
Giblets:
The cleaned gizzard, liver, and heart (sometimes
the neck too) of poultry, generally used to flavor
gravy.
Gill:
Liquid measure equal to 1/4 pint.
Gills (food industry term):
The breathing organs of fish, which are removed
during processing since they decompose rapidly
and may contaminate the fish.
Ginger, Ginger Root:
This knotty tuber from a tropical plant from China
is used to flavor beverages and dishes in Asian
and Indian cuisinees. It has a taupe skin, ivory
flesh and a peppery, sweet flavor with a hint of
lemon.
Ginger:
A root originally grown in the Asian tropics;
Southwestern recipes usually call for ground
dried ginger.
Ginkgo:
A nut from the center of the inedible fruit of the
maidenhair tree. This nut turns bright green when
cooked and has a delicately sweet flavor.
Giveaway (food industry term): A promotion of an item in which customers get
one free if they buy one or more products. See
loss leader.
Glace de Viande:
[French] Meat glaze or residue in the bottom of a
pan after roasting or frying meat; concentrated
meat stock.
Glace:
A very reduced stock used in flavouring sauces
and enhancing soups and stews.
Glace:
[French] a highly reduced stock used as an
essence in flavoring sauces and enriching soups
and stews. Veal glace is used for all meat
preparations and stands up the best to the long
reduction required. Fish and shellfish glaces are
used, but their flavor can become dirty tasting
and bitter from too long of a reduction.
Glass Noodles:
See "Cellophane Noodles"
Glaze:
To brush a food with sauce, icing, or other
topping to create a shiny surface. Meat is often
coated with sauce and browned in the oven for a
couple minutes to create the glaze.

Glaze:
Glaze:
Glucosa:
Gluten:

Gluten:
Gluten:

A liquid coating that gives a shiny coating to food.


It can be a savory glaze on meats or a sweet
glaze on pastry and baked goods.
To coat with a food with a thin liquid, such as
aspic, jelly, egg wash or chocolate topping, that
will be smooth and shiny after setting.
[Spanish] corn syrup.
A protein found in wheat and other cereal flours
that forms the structure of the bread dough. It
holds the carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by the
yeast and expands during fermentation. Gluten is
developed when flour is combined with water and
liquids, mixed, and kneaded. It provides the
elasticity and extensibility (stretch) in bread
dough. Glutenin and gliadin are the two proteins
that form gluten.
Protein found in flour that gives wheat yeast
dough its elasticity.
The protein found in wheat flours.
Gluten (also called vital gluten) is one of several
components of the wheat berry that is milled to
make flour. It is high in protein and contributes to
a lighter bread, higher rise, and for those at high
altitude, an elastic quality that reduces the
likelihood of a rising loaf falling. Gluten gives the
dough more stretch.
Developing the gluten is the result of mixing and
kneading that results in the elastic properties
described above being developed in dough from
gluten in it. By hand kneading, or by kneading in
an automatic breadmaker, the elasticity develops
only to the extent that gluten is present in the
flour.
Various flours have more or less gluten present.
All flour has some gluten (vital gluten). Bread
flour has considerably more gluten than, for
example, all-purpose flour. Flour with a more
gluten is good for bread making, but should not
be used for cake making.
Gluten (vital gluten) can be added to all-purpose
flour to give it the amount of gluten already in
bread flour. All-purpose flour with gluten added is
often cheaper than bread flour. It is added to
bread flour to give extra rise and consistency
(which is why bakers use it). It is added at high

altitudes to provide extra elasticity. The chemical


reason has to do with reduced density at high
elevations which causes the rising bread to fall if
the dough lacks extra elasticity.

Gluten-free:

Gma (food industry term):


Gmdc (food industry term):
Gnocchi:
Gnocchi:

Gnp (food industry term):


Go backs (backshop) (food
industry term):
Goat Cheese:

Goat cheese:

Gluten (vital gluten) is available at health food


stores. Many health food stores have it in bulk
and in boxes.
Home baking allows gluten allergy sufferers to
experiment with baking with gluten-free flours,
such as amaranth, rice, corn, milo, soy, and
potato.
Grocery Manufacturers of America, Inc.
General Merchandise Distributors Council.
Italian dumpling.
[Italian] pronounced "nyo-kee." Soft, delicate
Italian dumplings that melt in your mouth.
Contrary to what you may often find in the United
States, they're not "lead bellies'' and should
never be chewy or gummy. Homemade gnocchi
are easy to make, and once you get the knack,
you can whip up a batch in no time. Because
they freeze well, you can double the recipe and
have an extra batch on hand for a quick meal.
Traditional gnocchi are made from white
potatoes; however, creative cooks use ricotta
cheese, spinach, sweet potatoes, chopped
herbs, semolina, squash and even polenta
instead of potatoes. Once the gnocchi are made
they are cooked in boiling water, and then
sauced or tossed with melted butter. Experiment
with your favorite winter squash or organic sweet
potatoes and whole-wheat flour for a perfect,
healthy food. Finished with a simple sauce of
garlic, herbs and olive oil, these tender morsels
are irresistible. Gnocchi is also the name of a
pasta with a similar shape.
Gross national product.
The products that accumulate around a
checkstand and require reshelving. Also known
as back shop, shop backs and returns.
Known as Chevre, this fresh soft goat's milk
cheese has a distinctive tart flavor. Chevres can
range in texture from moist and creamy to dry
and semifirm.
Also packaged as "chevre," goat's milk cheese is
pure white with a distinctive tart flavor. It can
range from creamy and moist to dry and semifirm, and is packaged in a wide variety of shapes,

Goat:

Goatfish:

Golden beets:
Golden Delicious Apple:

Golden syrup:
Gomiti:
Gonch:
Gondola (food industry term):
Goose:

Gooseberries:

Goosefish:
Gorditas:
Gorgonzola Cheese:
Gorgonzola:

from cylinders to discs.


Goat meat has been eaten in other countries for
centuries, but it never got very popular in the
U.S. Most goat meat comes from kids::goats
under 6 months old. Kid meat is as tender and
delicate as lamb.
Goatfish is so named because of its two long
"whiskers" that resemble a goat's whiskers. The
meat is firm and lean. This fish is normally
available only on the East Coast and through the
Florida Keys.
Yellow ocher-colored beets. Sweeter vegetable
than red beet varieties.
A sweet, crisp, juicy all-purpose apple with yellow
skin and flesh that resists browning. This feature
makes it ideal for fruit salads. It is also suitable
for baking, cooking, applesauce and eating out of
hand.
[Great Britain] Light Karo syrup is the U.S.
equivalent.
Hollow corners of pasta similar to elbows, pipe or
small lumache.
Hook used to lift lids from Dutch ovens.
Display shelves and racks that form aisles in a
retail store. See wall shelving.
Any of many species of fatty, web:footed wild or
domesticated birds that are larger than ducks.
The female is the "goose," the male is called the
"gander." Roasted goose is traditional holiday
fare in many European countries.
Large, tart berries that grow on bushes and come
in many varieties including green, white, yellow
and red, and with skins that are either smooth or
fuzzy. Gooseberries are excellent in jams, jellies
and pies.
This large low:fat, firm:textured salt:water fish
has a mild, sweet flavor that compares with
lobster. Also called "angler fish," and "monkfish."
[Spanish] little fat ones; corn flour patties, usually
slit, then stuffed; often found unslit, with the filling
served on top or between two of them.
Similar to American blue cheese, this Italian
cow's milk cheese is rich and creamy with a
savory, slightly strong flavor.
[Italian] cheese made from cow's milk cheese
that is white or yellow and streaked with blue. It
has a distinct aroma and can have a mellow,
strong, or sharp flavor, depending on its degree

Gouda Cheese:

Gouda cheese:
Gougere:

Goujon:
Goulash:
Goulash:

Gourmet foods (food industry


term):
Gourmet supermarket (food
industry term):
Gourmet:
Grade (food industry term):
Graham, stone-ground or
whole-wheat flour:

Gram (g):
Granadilla:
Grand Marnier:
Grand Marnier:
Grande:

of maturity. Similar to American blue and French


Roquefort cheeses.
A famous cheese from Holland, thiscow's milk
cheese is a firm, smooth cheese that comes in
aged and non aged forms. It has a creamy
texture, nutty flavor and a light yellow color with
very small holes.
[Dutch] cheese made from cow's milk with a firm,
smooth texture similar to cheddar. Available in
both young and aged varieties.
A savory pastry made of choux paste flavored
with cheese. This may be made in individual
puffs or piped into a ring of puffs, which is served
with a pool of sauce in the center of the ring.
[French] Gudgeons - small fish fried and served
as a garnish.
A Hungarian style stew containing meat,
vegetables and paprika served sour cream and
noodles.
A Hungarian soup/stew made with beef and
liberally seasoned with paprika. Some versions
add gremolata at the very end of cooking or
sprinkled over the top.
Specialty and imported food products.
A supermarket offering gourmet and high-end
products, as well as standard grocery items.
Emphasis is on customer service, fresh foods,
take-out meals and catering.
French term meaning "connoisseur of culinary
delights".
A food industry classification system or standard
that indicates a quality level, such as, Grade A,
Prime, or Extra Fancy.
Made from either hard, soft or a blend of both
wheat classes. All are produced by either
grinding the whole-wheat kernel or recombining
the white flour, germ and bran to make a wholewheat flour. Coarseness may vary, but nutritional
value differs very little.
Basic measure of metric weight: 28.35 grams = 1
ounce and 1000 grams = a kilogram = 2.2 U.S.
pounds.
[Spanish] passion fruit.
Orange flavored liqueur
[French] Orange-flavored, cognac based liqueur
produced in France.
[Spanish] large.

Granita:

Granita:
Graniti:
Grano de elote:
Granola:
Granola:
Granola:

Granulated Garlic:

Granulated Sugar:
Granulated sugar:
Grape Leaves:
Grape Leaves:

Grapefruit:

Grapes:

(GRAH-nee-tah) Granita is a fruit based gelato


that has a decidedly grainy texture because it is
frozen, then scraped to form coarse ice granules.
Granita is slushy.
[Italian] water ice; a coarse fruit ice similar to
sorbet, without the meringue, which is often
flavored with liqueurs.
[French] sorbet, grained and flavored ice.
[Spanish] corn kernel.
Cereal mixture of toasted rolled oats, barley or
other grains, plus dried fruits, seeds, nuts and
sweeteners.
A combination of grains, nuts and dried fruits,
often mixed with honey, eaten as a cereal.
A combination of assorted toasted grain (oats),
dried fruits and nuts usually served as a
breakfast cereal. Some blends are sweetened
with honey and/or brown sugar.
A dried form of garlic that has been ground into
granules rather than powder. Granulated garlic
can be used much the same as garlic powder,
but has about half the flavoring power as the
same measure of garlic powder and like powder,
the granules lack in providing the garlic texture of
a fresh garlic. 1 teaspoon of granulated garlic
equals 1/2 teaspoon of garlic powder.
Regular white, refined sugar for common use.
This is the basic, refined "white sugar" for daily
use and most baking.
The leaves taken from grapevines have been
used in Mediterranean cuisine for hundreds of
years.
The leaves of the grapevine, often used in Greek
and Middle Eastern recipes to wrap food for
cooking. Pickled in jars in brine. Find in finer
supermarkets and delicatessens. May use fresh
grape leaves, but blanch them first in boiling
water for one minute.
An 18th-century hybrid of an orange and pomelo,
this large citrus fruit has a relatively thin rind that
can be yellow or rosy. Ruby grapefruits have a
yellow-pink to brilliant ruby-red sweet pulp. White
grapefruits have a yellow-white pulp and tart
flavor. This variety is better for juicing.
Very juicy berries that grow in clusters and have
a very smooth very thin skin. They come in
colors from green and red to deep purple and
can have seeds or be seedless. They are the
fruit that is process and fermented in winemaking

Graphical information system


(food industry term):
Graphical user interface (gui)
(food industry term):
Gras (food industry term):
Gras:
Grasa:
Grate:
Grate:
Gratin, au:

Gratin:
Gratinados:
Gratinee:
Grav Lax, Gravad Lax:

Gravity feed (food industry


term):
Gravy:
Gravy:
Grease:
Greaseproof paper:
Greasy sack outfit:
Great Northern Bean:
Grecque:

and dried to make raisins.


A computer program that analyzes trade areas to
help select a site to build or buy a store.
A user-friendly, non-text way to present and to
navigate World Wide Web pages using icons and
pictures and to hyperlink to other Uniform
Resource Locators (URLs).
Generally Recognized as Safe.
[French] fat.
[Spanish] shortening.
To shred food, such as cheese, into small pieces
with the use of a grater.
To break up a piece of food into smaller pieces
by abrading it against a rough, irregular surface
as in a hand grater or a food processor.
[French] dishes cooked in the oven which form a
crust on the surface. This is expedited by placing
the dish under the broiler. Bread crumbs and
cheese are often sprinkled on top of these dishes
to help form the crust.
To combine foods with a liquid based sauce in a
shallow dish and baked until set and browned on
top.
[Spanish] au gratin.
Served with a bread crumb or cheese topping.
Whole salmon fillets that have been cured with
salt, sugar, and pepper, then flavored with dill.
The salmon is then sliced paper thin and served
with pumpernickel bread, sour cream, capers,
onion, and lemon. Other spellings for this are
gravadlax and gravlax.
A display fixture that uses a product's weight to
drop products down or move them forward as an
item is removed.
Juices from cooked meat that have been
thickened with a roux.
Gravy is simply a sauce made from meat juices.
It's usually diluted with water, milk, wine, or stock,
and thickened with flour or cornstarch.
To coat a cooking vessel or sheet with a thin
layer of oil or shortening.
wax or waxed paper.
Used packouts on mules instead of a chuck
wagon.
A delicately flavored large, flat, kidney-shaped
white bean. Available dried or canned.
Foods that are prepared in the style of Greece.
This is usually used for dishes with lemon, garlic,

and olive oil. But the addition of tomatoes,


peppers, and fennel often allows a dish to be
called a la grecque.
Green and red leaf lettuce:
These basic salad greens are distinctive,
pleasantly biter loose leaf, bunching, or cutting
lettuces.
Green Bean, String Bean, Snap A thin, crisp, green pod that contains several
Bean:
small seeds and is entirely edible.
Green beans:
These may be one of any number of beans that
are eaten fresh, such as string bean, the thin
haricot vert, the yard long bean, the wax or
yellow bean, and the romano. All can be eaten
raw, briefly cooked, so they remain crunchy, or
cooked to complete tenderness. Buy beans that
snap rather than fold when you bend them.
Green onions:
Long green herb, like a large chive. Also known
commonly in some parts of the world as a
scallions.
Green sheet (food industry
A weekly, in-store ad sheet of specials, located at
term):
the front of a store for customers' convenience.
The Green Sheet may include coupons.
Greengrocer (food industry
A retailer who only sells fruits and vegetables.
term):
Greens:
A variety of vegetables are classified as greens,
broccoli raab, kale, mustard or turnip greens,
spinach, collards, chard, dandelions, escarole,
and so on. Look for bright, crisp, firm leaves with
no wilting, dry, or yellowing leaves.
Gremolata:
A mixture of chopped parsley, garlic, and lemon
peel. This is added to stews at the end of their
cooking time to add a pungency to the dish.
Used in some recipes for osso buco a la
Milanese, and Hungarian goulash.
Grenadine:
Sweet, red, pomegranate flavored syrup made
from pomegranate juice or other fruit
concentrates. Grenadine usually contains
alcohol.
Grenadine:
Syrup flavored with pomegranates, used as
flavoring and sauce.
Grenouilles:
[French] frogs, frogs' legs.
Griddle:
A flat pan, often made of cast iron or aluminum,
used to cook food with little fat or oil. Griddles are
available with a nonstick surface and usually
have either a long handle or two hand grips.
Griddle:
A flat metal surface with a handle, for making
pancakes, etc.
Grill
Heating food from a source (electricity, burning
gas, or charcoal) below the cooking surface; a

Grill:
Grill:
Grill:

Grill:
Grillade:

Grillade:
Grilling Basket:
Grind:
Grind:
Grissini:
Grissini:
Grits:

Grits:
Groats:
Grocery gross (food industry
term):
Grocery inventory (food
industry term):
Grocery manufacturers of
america (gma) (food industry
term):
Grocery store (food industry
term):
Grocery wholesaler (food
industry term):

dry-heat cooking method


To cook above a heat source, such as traditional
wood coals or charcoal, in the open air. Example
To cook by direct heat. Also a utensil or
appliance used for such cooking.
1. To cook on a grill. 2. Cooking equipment in
which the heat source (gas, charcoal, hardwood
or electric) is located beneath the rack on which
the food is placed; it is generally not enclosed,
although it can be covered.
To broil.
A Creole dish of pounded round steak served in
a sauce of tomatoes and other vegetables, and
traditionally served with grits. Grillade is also a
French word meaning grilled or broiled food.
An individual serving of round steak, usually top
round, and usually broiled.
A basket used while grilling smaller items. The
device holds food in place to keep it from slipping
through the grill.
To reduce to particles by cutting or crushing.
To process foods in a grinder or processor.
Texture can be in variable degress from finely to
coursely ground.
Italian bread sticks.
[Italian] bread sticks.
Commonly refers to coarsely ground dried
hominy and known as hominy grits, a dish of the
(American) South. Grits are generally prepared in
boiling water and served as a cereal or side
dish.
The dried kernels of white hominy (made from
corn); eaten as a cereal that is similar in texture
to pudding.
The dried kernels of wheat or oats.
See gross margin.
A count of all grocery items on hand in a store;
also refers to the process of counting products.
1010 Wisconsin Ave., N.W., Suite 800
Washington, DC 20007 (202) 337-9400
A retail store that sells a variety of food products,
including some perishable items and general
merchandise.
A middleman who buys food and supplies from
manufacturers to resell them in smaller quantities
to retailers; cooperatives and voluntaries are the

Gross (food industry term):


Gross margin (food industry
term):

Gross national product (gnp)


(food industry term):
Gross profit (food industry
term):

Gross sales (food industry


term):
Ground beef, extra lean:
Ground beef, lean:

Ground beef, regular:


Ground Beef:
Ground beef:

Ground red chiles:


Ground red pepper (cayenne
pepper):
Group advertising (food
industry term):
Group numbers (food industry
term):
Grouper:

two major types.


A unit of measure for packaged products; 144
items or 12 dozen.
An accounting term that refers to the difference
between retail selling price and the cost of goods
sold, expressed as a dollar amount or as a
percent of retail sales. Gross margin percentage
is computed by dividing gross margin dollars by
retail sales dollars. The terms "gross margin",
"margins" and "gross profit" are often used
synonymously.
The total value of all goods manufactured in a
country in a calendar year.
An accounting term that refers to a profit figure
calculated by subtracting the cost of product from
its selling price; expressed as a percentage or as
dollars and cents. See markup; margin; net profit;
spread.
The total dollar sales for a day, week, month or a
year.
Also called "ground round" or "ground sirloin, this
type of ground beef contains approximately 11%
fat.
Also called "ground chuck." The fat content is
approximately 15% to 20%. This form of ground
beef is flavorful, yet doesn't shrink
excessively::it's the favorite choice for making
hamburgers.
This form of ground beef is usually made from
the lower cost cuts such as brisket or shank. The
fat content is up to 30%.
Beef that has been ground or finely chopped;
commonly referred to as hamburger.
Simply beef that has been finely chopped,
ground beef is sold fresh or frozen. The USDA
recommends cooking to the well done stage (165
degrees F).
When finely ground from dried red chiles, it is
pure chile powder, which is different from
blended chili powder.
made from ground dried cayenne chiles.
Retailers that advertise together to save money.
See voluntary store.
The standardized classification systems used for
products.
This true sea bass, found in the Gulf of Mexico
and the Atlantic, has a lean firm flesh. Its skin

has a strong flavor and should be removed prior


to cooking. Groupers have the ability to change
to the color of their surroundings.
Grouper:
There are hundreds of varieties of this excellent
all-purpose fish with delicious, meaty, lobster-like
texture. Has white, tender, mildly flavored flesh
that pulls off the bones easily. Fillets are great for
grilling or deep-frying. Can also be "kababed."
Grouse:
A small, low:fat game bird. Quality birds should
have no odor.
Grubpile:
A call from the cook to "come 'n' get it."
Grunt and cluck:
In cowboy lingo, ham and eggs.
Grunt:
Ranch term for dough pudding.
Gruyere Cheese:
A cow's-milk cheese containing a moderate
amount of fat with a rich, sweet, nutty taste.
Gruyere:
A moderate-fat cow milk cheese with a rich,
sweet, nutty flavor that is prized for both out-ofhand eating and cooking. It is usually aged for 10
to 12 months and has a golden brown rind and a
firm, pale-yellow interior with well-spaced
medium-size holes.
Guacamole:
Mashed avocado flavored with lemon or
limejuice, and optional ingredients of chiles,
finely chopped tomatoes, green onion and
cilantro. This is an authentic Mexican dish served
as a dip, a salad or a side dish.
Guacamole:
[Spanish] a dip made of mashed avocadoes
seasoned with onions, tomatoes, garlic, chiles,
and cilantro. This is mostly eaten as a dip for
fried corn chips, but it is also very good with raw
vegetables and as a topping for various dishes..
You may also use it as a filling for burritos and
tacos.
Guajalote:
[Spanish] turkey; wild turkey.
Guajillo chiles:
Also known as chili gauque; fresh guajillo chiles
are known as mirasol chiles; medium-hot
Mexican orange-red chiles; skinny and about four
to six inches long; used in stews, soups, sauces;
go well with chicken and pork dishes, blackberry
and apple flavors, and grassy herbs such as
marjoram and thyme; New Mexico chiles may be
substituted.
Guajillo Chili Peppers:
A very hot pepper that is about 4 inches long.
When dried, the skin is a shiny deep-red and
must be soaked for a long time because of its
toughness.
Guaranteed sale (food industry The agreement to return product if items do not
term):
sell within a certain time.

Guaranteed sale program (food A program that assures customers a full refund if
industry term):
not satisfied.
Guava:
A sweet, fragrant tropical fruit. Guavas are oval,
about 2 inches in diameter, and color ranges
from yellow to bright red. The ripe fruit is often
used in jams, preserves, juices, and sauces.
Guava:
A fruit cultivated in Peru and Brazil for over 500
years; it is very sweet but has a strong odor and
many abrasive seeds; it is acid when unripe and
ripens at room temperature, at which time it has
a sweet aroma; bright yellow to hot pink flesh;
best in sorbets, beverages and sauces because
of the abundance of pithy seeds.
Guayaba:
[Spanish] guava; a yellow-green fruit with pale,
faintly pink flesh, about the size of a plum;
extremely fragrant when ripe; Guava paste is
often served with cream cheese as dessert; the
fruit is cooked with sugar until thick, then canned
or shaped into blocks.
Guero chiles:
A fresh chile; blond or light skinned; a generic
term applied to a variety of yellow chiles;
generally refers to long tapered varieties such as
banana peppers, Hungarian wax chiles and
Santa Fe grandes; mildly sweet to slightly hot,
with a waxy but tart texture; used in yellow
moles, salads, salsas and escabeches.
Gueuze:
Traditional style of Belgian beer, light, acidic,
naturally fermented with a tart taste and gentle
effervescence. Best after 3 years but can be
cellared up to 20.
Gugelhopf:
[German] a sweetened yeast coffee cake baked
in a fluted ring mold.
Gui (food industry term):
The graphical user interface of a World Wide
Web page.
Guiche:
[French] Alsatian open tart with savory filling on
top of cream and eggs. Equivalent to quiche.
Guinea fowl:
A relative to the chicken and partridge, the
female (hen) makes better eating than the male.
The taste has been described as "pleasantly
gamey." Guinea fowl were raised and eaten by
the Greeks and Romans.
Guinentos:
[Spanish] green bananas.
Guiso:
[Spanish] stew.
Gumbo:
Gumbo is a Creole stew that contains tomatoes,
okra, and other vegetables, meats or seafood. A
roux of is added for thickening the gumbo, and
file powder added for flavoring just before
serving.
Gumbo:
A thick Southern style soup/stew made with

Gut robber:
Gyro:
Gyromitres:
Gyros:

Haacp (food industry term):


Haba:
Habanero chile:

Habanero Pepper:
Habichuelas rositas:
Habichuelas tiernas:
Haddock:
Haggis:
Hake:
Halbtrocken:
Half and Half:

meat, poultry, fish, shellfish or vegetables.


Served over plain white rice. Okra, file powder,
and roux. All methods are acceptable, and all are
considered traditional.
In Western United States lingo, the cook; also
known as bean master or biscuit roller.
A Greek sandwich of finely chopped, molded and
roasted meat that is sliced and served in pita
bread with a cucumber yogurt dressing.
A European mountain mushroom outlawed for
sale due to the presence of hydragine, a
substance which is toxic if prepared incorrectly.
[Greek] a sandwich; pronounced "YEAR-os." A
blend of lamb, beef and seasonings, seared and
stuffed in a pita topped with diced tomatoes,
onions and tzatziki (pronounced "za-ZEE-kee"), a
savory yogurt sauce loaded with garlic and
cucumbers.
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point.
[Spanish] large bean.
A dried chile; Havana-like; small orange or red
chiles from the Caribbean and Yucatan; originally
from Havana, Cuba; they are the hottest peppers
in the world, about 40 times hotter than a
jalapeno; they are lantern shaped (resembling a
tam or bonnet), pungent and fruity, with an
apricot-like aroma; has tones of coconut and
papaya; other names include Scot's Bonnet or
Scotch Bonnet; jalapenos or serranos may be
substituted.
An extremely hot chile pepper with short,
squatted shape, usually orange in color. It has a
fruity flavor and is best in the summer time.
[Spanish] red beans.
[Spanish] string beans.
A North Atlantic fish, the smaller cousin to the
cod. The haddock has firm white flesh that is mild
in flavor. Smoked haddock is called "finnan."
[Scottish] a steamed pudding made of finely
minced sheep heart, lungs and liver.
This low:fat saltwater fish, related to the cod, is
found in the Atlantic and North Pacific. It's flesh
features a white, delicate flavor.
[German] means half-dry in German. Term used
in reference to German wines with 9 to 18 grams
of residual sugar per liter.
A mixture of half cream and half milk (fat content

Half-and-Half:

Halibut:

Halibut:
Halvah:

Halvah:

is 10- 12%).
This combination of equal parts cream and milk
cannot be whipped, and has between ten and
fifteen percent milk fat. Although it can be
substituted for cream in some recipes, it is mostly
used on cereal and in coffee.
A low:fat, firm white and mild:flavored fish from
the flatfish family. Resembles a gigantic flounder.
"Chicken Halibuts" weigh up to ten pounds and
are considered the finest halibut.
The largest member of the flatfish family, found in
the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, with lean, white,
firm, mild-flavored flesh.
A Middle Eastern confection made from ground
sesame seeds and honey. Sometimes dried fruit
or other ingredients are added. Halvah is
available in wrapped bars in most supermarkets.
Halvah is a unique natural delicacy that "goes
with everything" and is at the same time a perfect
food supplement. It first appeared in Northern
Epirus, during the Byzantine period of Greek
history, where renowned halvah-makers used to
live, and it soon became a favorite food of the
various peoples that lived in the eastern parts of
the empire. Today, it is traditionally produced in
countries of the Middle East .
It is made from only two natural ingredients: up to
50-55% tahini (sesame seed cream) and
sweeteners. Tahini is made from sesame seeds,
which have a high oil content and are rich in
calcium, iron, phosphorous, protein, niacin and
lecithin. Halvah contains all three groups from
which humans obtain nutrients, i.e.
carbohydrates from the sugar, and proteins and
vegetable fats from the tahini. It also contains
many B complex vitamins.
Halvah goes very nicely with breakfast meals. It
provides energy and calories, and is on its own
or with fresh bread: a tasty snack. It supplements
lunch, especially pulses and green salads. Also,
halvah with a little ground cinnamon sprinkled
over it is a pleasant way to end one's evening
wine. Halvah is also a tasty and healthful midmorning snack. In reality, it is a daily delicacy
made of natural raw materials, without animal
fats, and it can even accompany a glass of wine
at a wine bar or pub.

Ham Hock:

The lower portion of a hog's hind leg, usually


used to flavor soups, greens, beans, and stews.
Ham hock:
Cut from the hog's lower leg, often smoked or
cured. Great in bean soups and other slowcooked soups and stews, where they lend rich,
smoky flavors.
Ham:
The hind leg of a hog. The taste of ham is
affected by the age and breed of the hog, as well
as by the food that the hog was fed. The
unprocessed meat is called "fresh ham," but
most ham is cured.
Hamburger:
Ground beef formed into a patty for use in a
hamburger sandwich. The best type of ground
beef to use for this purpose is lean ground beef,
which contains about 15% to 20% fat.
Hamburger:
Ground meat, usually beef, shaped into large
patties, and saut ed, broiled or grilled. Also the
ground meat used loose in other dishes.
Hand truck (food industry term): A small two-wheeled cart used to move product.
Handbill (food industry term): A hand-delivered advertisement or promotional
piece distributed to consumers in a trading area.
Hand-held terminal (food
A portable computer terminal used for numerous
industry term):
in-store operations, such as price checks or
placing orders.
Handling allowance/charge
A manufacturer's discount paid to a wholesaler in
(food industry term):
return for handling promotional products and/or
cash coupons.
Handling unit (food industry
A term used to describe goods or an aggregation
term):
of goods bundled together for distribution and
logistical purposes.
Hang tag (food industry term): A hanging tag, also known as a shelf talker.
Hanging or dressed weight
The weight of a meat/poultry carcass before
(food industry term):
trimming and processing.
Hanging:
Suspending meat or game in a cool, dry place
until it is tender.
Hangtown fry:
Gold rush-style fried oysters.
Hard cheese:
Cooked, pressed and long-aged (parmigiano
reggiano, pecorino)
Hard sauce:
A sweet white sauce made with butter, sugar and
lemon juice, chilled until thick, served as a
dessert topping.
Hard shell lobsters (food
Mature, salable lobsters.
industry term):
Hard Tack Rolling Pin:
A rolling pin used when making hard unleavened
breads.
Hard Wheat:
Wheat high in protein and well-suited for breadmaking because it produces flour that is rich in
gluten.

Hard-Ball Stage:

A test used in making candy describing the rigid


ball formed when a drop of boiling sugar water
syrup is dropped in cold water.
Hard-Crack Stage:
A test used in making cand describing brittle
threads formed when a drop of boiling sugar
water syrup is dropped in cold water.
Hardlines (food industry term): General merchandise that includes appliances,
automotive supplies, barbecue items, batteries,
brooms, cookware, cutlery, furniture,
gardenware, hardware, photography film or
supplies and toys.
Hardtack:
hard biscuit or bread made with flour and water
only.
Hardware (food industry term): Produce such as citrus fruits, potatoes, root
vegetables and other fruits and vegetables that
will withstand handling and transportation without
refrigeration.
Haricot Verts:
Tiny, slender green string beans.
Haricot:
A generic term for all New World beans, which
includes almost everything; kidney, pinto, navy,
pea, Great Northern, anasazi, cannellini,
flageolets, appaloosa, and more.
Haricots vert:
Very small and slender green bean [syn: haricot
vert, French bean]
Harina de maiz:
[Spanish] flour made from dried corn; cornmeal;
Masa Harina is the brand name of the product
made by Quaker.
Harina de trito:
[Spanish] wheat flour.
Harina enraizado:
[Spanish] flour made from sprouted wheat; also
called panocha.
Harina:
All-purpose flour.
Harina:
[Spanish] flour; usually refers to wheat flour.
Harinilla; harinela:
[Spanish] meal made of finely ground chicos; can
be used interchangeably with masa harina.
Harira:
A thick and robust North African soup.
Harissa:
A combination of spices containing chilli that is
ground with cumin, garlic, coriander, and olive oil.
Harissa:
[North African] a spice mixture used as both a
condiment and a seasoning. Harissa contains
chiles which are ground with cumin, garlic,
coriander, and olive oil. It becomes a thick paste
that is used as is in cooking or diluted with oil or
stock to be used as a condiment.
Hartshorn:
Known as ammonium bicarbonate and used as a
levening agent before baking powder and baking
soda were readily available.
Hartshorn:
a source of ammonia used in baking cookies or,
as "salt of hartshorn," as smelling salts. Once the

word meant literally the ground horn of a hart's


(male deer's) antlers, but ammonium carbonate
was later used as a substitute, which also went
by the name of "salt of hartshorn." it is available
in American pharmacies. It is also an old-time
leavening agent, and is used occasionally in
making cookies. It is also the ingredient in some
homemade pesticides.
Hasenpfeffer:
[German]Rabbit stew.
Hash:
A dish containing chopped potatoes, meat, and
other vegetables.
Hash:
From the French hatcher, which means "to
chop," hash is a dish of chopped meat, usually
roast beef or corned beef, combined with
vegetables and seasonings and saut ed until
lightly browned. It is frequently served with a
sauce or gravy.
Hasty Pudding:
A simple dish of cornmeal mush made with water
or milk and sweetened with molasses, maple
syrup or honey. Wheat flour is used in England
instead of cornmeal. Hasty pudding is served
hot, sometimes dotted with butter and sprinkled
with cinnamon then placed under a broiler until
brown, or with milk or cream; makes a quick
breakfast or simple dessert. Also known as
Indian pudding.
Hatch chiles:
A fresh chile; close relative of the New Mexico
green chile.
Haunch:
Hindquarters; ham.
Haute Cuisine:
French term for the highest quality restaurant
food available. The ingredients in this cuisine are
not only of the finest quality, but the food is
elegant and elaborate as well.
Havarti Cheese:
A mild, semisoft Danish cheese that is pale
yellow and has small irregular holes. It becomes
sharper as it matures.
Hazard analysis critical control A federal guideline to ensure safe food handling
point (haacp) (food industry
and preparation from receiving to point of sale.
term):
Hazelnut Oil:
An aromatic, full-flavored oil pressed from
hazelnuts; has the strong, distinct flavor of the
roasted nut.
Hazelnut paste or hazelnut
roasted hazelnuts cooked with sugar then ground
praline:
to make a smooth sweet paste used to flavor
butter cream icings, puddings, ice cream,
chocolates and fudge. Praline paste is usually
made with hazelnuts although it can also be
made with almonds.
Hazelnuts:
Also called filberts, hazelnuts are rich, sweet nuts

Hba (food industry term):


Hbc (food industry term):
Hbc/cosmetic (food industry
term):
Hcfc (food industry term):
Head cheese:

Head Cheese:

Header card (food industry


term):
Headspace:
Health and beauty aids (hba)
(food industry term):
Health and beauty care (hbc)
(food industry term):
Heart:

Hearts of palm:

Heat-and-eat (food industry


term):
Helado:
Held at store (food industry
term):
Herb Bouquet:
Herba santa:

that are often ground or roasted in pastries,


cookies, and other desserts.
Health and beauty aids.
Health and beauty care.
A retail store that sells health and beauty care
(HBC) products and/or cosmetics, but not
prescription drugs.
Hydrochlorofluorocarbon.
This is not a cheese, but a sausage made from
the edible parts of a calf's or pig's head that are
combined with a gelatinous meat broth.
Ingredients include cheeks, snouts, underlips
and sometimes brains, hearts, tongues, and
feet.
Despite its name, this is a sausage, not a cheese
product. Head cheese is made of finely chopped
meat from the head of a calf or pig. The meat is
seasoned and cooked in a gelatinous broth and
molded.
See case card.
Space left at the top of a container to allow for
the expansion of food when frozen or processed.
A category now called Health and Beauty Care
(HBC).
Cosmetics, toiletries and home remedy products
sold in food stores. Formerly called health and
beauty aids (HBA).
The heart of most animals and birds are used in
cooking. Some say that the best hearts are calf's
or lamb's hearts. Hearts are sometimes stuffed
with breadcrumbs and herbs or used in making
gravies.
Tender inner portion of a palm tree; eaten as a
vegetable or used as a garnish for salads;
available only canned in the United States, but is
eaten fresh in Latin America.
A precooked food that requires heating before
consumption.
[Spanish] ice cream.
Unprocessed invoices at the time of inventory; a
list is made to account for outstanding invoices.
A mixture of tied herbs used for seasoning in
soups, sauces, and stocks.
[Spanish] holy herb; often labeled as hoja santa,
it contains licorice and sassafras flavors; has a
broad, flat leaf; equal parts fresh basil and
tarragon may be substituted using about half as

Herbaceous:
Herbes de Provence:

Herbs:
Herbs:

Herkimer Cheese:
Hermit:
Hermitage:

Hernia-size (food industry


term):
Herring:

Herring:

Hfc (food industry term):


Hibachi:
Hibiscus blossoms:

Hi-cone packaging (food

much by volume as hierba santa.


A term used in describing the aroma of herbs in
the following wines: Sauvignon Blanc, Cabarnet
Sauvignons, and Merlots.
A French term for a mixture of dried herbs,
usually containing basil, marjoram, rosemary,
sage, summer savory, lavender, thyme, and
fennel seed.
Diverse flavorings that are made of stems,
leaves, flowers and seeds of various plants. Most
herbs are available both fresh and dried.
Culinary herbs, which are available fresh or
dried, include basil, bay leaf, chervil, marjoram,
mint, oregano, parsley, rosemary, sage, savory,
tarragon and thyme. Used for their aromatic
properties, flavor and texture.
Smooth, cheddar-like cheese, named after the
county in New York where it was first produced.
An old-fashioned cookie that contains chopped
dates, raisins, nuts, and molasses or brown
sugar.
A French appellation located in northern Rhone.
Its highly regarded red wines, made from Syrah
grapes, and white wines, made from Marsanne
and Rousanne, are the epitome of a world class
wine.
Extra-large sizes of packaged goods, such as dry
pet foods.
A small salt:water fish related to the shad,
alewife, sardine, and the freshwater cisco.
Herring is often pickled, smoked, and dressed in
numerous sauces.
A large family of fish found around the world.
Herring are silver-blue in color, have a
moderately high fat content, and are fairly strong
in flavor. Their average market size is about 8
ounces.
Hydrofluorocarbon.
Small, portable charcoal grill.
Also called sorrel blossoms, these make a
delicious iced tea. Find in Latin and Caribbean
markets. Jamaica is the Spanish name; the
blossoms of this tropical plant provide a brilliant
color and an intense blackberry and dried cherry
flavor to cocktails, marinades and vinaigrettes;
Jamaica is also a beverage made from this
blossom.
Single products packaged together to make a

industry term):

multiple unit, such as beverages and small bags


of chips.
Higado:
[Spanish] liver.
High Altitude Baking:
Because of lower air pressure, baking at
elevations of 3,000 or more feet above sea level
requires special adjustments. The USDA has the
following guidelines: at 3,000 feet decrease the
amount of baking powder called for in a recipe by
1/8 teaspoon; at 5,000 feet decrease by 1/8 to ?
teaspoon; and at 7,000 feet decrease by ?
teaspoon. Reducing the amount of sugar by 1 to
3 tablespoons may also be helpful. Melting butter
or chocolate in microwave ovens can also take a
few seconds longer at higher altitudes. Regionspecific guidelines may be available from your
state department of agriculture.
High Fiber:
A food containing 5 grams or more of fiber per
serving.
High fructose corn syrup (hfcs): Primarily used in commercial beverages and
foods, HFCS is made when corn starch is
converted to dextrose-rich syrup; using
isomerization, the dextrose-rich corn syrups are
further processed to create fructose. The
fructose is then blended with dextrose syrup to
produce the commercial corn syrups with 42% to
95% fructose. Fructose is 130 to 180% sweeter
than sugar.
High-altitude baking:
Adjustments to liquids, leavening agents, sugar,
and oven temperature are needed at altitudes
over 3,000 feet.
High-altitude baking:
At altitudes above 5,000 feet, batters and doughs
behave differently from the way they do at sea
level. You may compensate for the lower
atmospheric pressure in several ways. Increase
oven temperature by 25 F. Shorten rising time for
yeast doughs, letting your eye or the finger
poking method be your guide. In batters
containing baking powder, reduce the baking
powder by 1/4 teaspoon for every teaspoon
called for; do not change the amount of baking
soda. In batters containing beaten egg whites,
underbeat the egg whites somewhat. For more
information about high-altitude cooking, consult
the home economics department of your state
university.
High-low pricing (food industry A marketing strategy in which a product
term):
maintains a high retail price, but is frequently
offered as an ad special with a deep discount
(low price).

Hijiki:

A form of dried seaweed. Found in Japanese


markets.
Hinojo:
[Spanish] fennel.
Historical margin (food industry The profit margin figured on a product or
term):
category of products.
Hock:
A joint in the hind leg; British term for Rhine
wines derived from the German wine town of
Hochhheim.
Hoe cakes:
Corn cakes cooked on a hoe. Also known as
johnny cakes - pancakes made with cornmeal.
Hog Jowl:
The fatty cheek of a hog that is smoked and
cured. Used as as a seasoning like bacon or salt
pork.
Hog maws:
A pig's stomach, often stuffed with a sausage
mixture, simmered, then baked.
Hog side:
Salt pork used in cooking and some baking; also
called Old Ned.
Hoisin Sauce:
A rich, dark, sweet barbecue sauce made of soy
beans and seasonings, used in Chinese cooking
for marinades and basting. Hoisin sauce is easily
recognizable in Mu Shu pork and Peking duck.
The sauce is made from soybean flour, chiles,
red beans, and many other spices. Sold in cans
or jars. Store tightly sealed, refrigerated. It is also
known as Peking sauce.
Hoisin, Peking Sauce:
Sweet and spicy sauce made from soybeans,
garlic, chiles and a variety of spices. Hoisin is
used as a condiment and flavoring in Chinese
cuisines. Can be purchased in jars.
Hoja santa:
[Spanish] large leaf used in cooking in southern
Mexico.
Hojas de maiz:
[Spanish] corn husks.
Hojas de platano:
[Spanish] banana leaves.
Hojas:
[Spanish] leaves.
Holding power (food industry
See shelf capacity.
term):
Holistic pilots (food industry
Test projects in which trading partners implement
term):
one or more aspect of ECR across multiple
disciplines and functional boundaries within the
companies. They document the experience and
measure its success.
Hollandaise Sauce:
A sauce made from egg yolks and butter and
flavored with lemon juice or vinegar.
Hollandaise Sauce:
This is the most basic of the egg and oil
emulsified sauces. The only flavoring is fresh
lemon juice. This sauce must be kept warm, as
excessive heat will cause it to break. Because
this is kept warm, it is not safe to keep it for long

periods of time and should never be reused from


another meal period.
Holy Trinity of chiles:
ancho, mulato and pasilla.
Homard:
French term for lobster.
Homard:
[French] Lobster.
Home delivery (food industry
Direct delivery of groceries to a customer's home
term):
by a retailer or separate delivery service.
Home health care (food industry A store that sells medical supplies, bathroom
term):
safety equipment, physical therapy needs,
wheelchairs, walkers, etc.
Home meal replacement (food Foods prepared in a store and consumed at
industry term):
home or in-store which require little or no
preparation on the part of the consumer.
Home office (food industry
The headquarters of a company.
term):
Home page (food industry
The main entrance to a World Wide Web site.
term):
Home shopping (food industry Electronic shopping on the Internet.
term):
Hominy:
Dried yellow or white corn kernels with the hull
and germ removed. Served as a side dish and
used in some Mexican stews.
Hominy:
A traditional Native American food (also known
as pozole or posole), hominy is dried yellow or
white field corn kernels that have been soaked in
slaked lime to remove their husks with the hull
and germ removed. When ground, hominy is
called grits.; available canned, frozen or dried.
Homogenization:
A process used to break down the fat globules in
milk and distribute them evenly throughout the
liquid. This is done by spinning the milk at very
high speeds through an ultra-fine mesh.
Commercial salad dressings often are similarly
processed to emulsify the mixture.
Homogenized:
With fat broken down into such small particles
that it stays suspended in liquid, rather than
rising to the top.
Honey:
An all-natural sweetener produced by bees from
flower nectar. Color and flavor vary due to the
nectar the bees find available. Honey develops
golden crust color and holds moisture in baked
goods.
Honey:
A thick, sweet liquid made by bees from flower
nectar and stored in the cells of the hive for food.
Used as a sweetner.
Honey:
The original and all-natural sweetener. Honey is
a sweet, thick syrup produced by honey bees.
Sold in the comb, as the extracted liquid, and in

solid and granular forms.


Honeydews are bluntly oval in shape and weigh
anywhere from 4 pounds to 8 pounds. Their rind
is yellowish-white and a creamy color indicates
ripeness. These fruits are available almost yearround.
Hongos:
[Spanish] mushrooms.
Honor system (food industry
A practice of receiving merchandise without
term):
systematically counting the product or checking
the contents of cases, but rather trusting that the
vendor and shipper have complied with the order.
Spot counts are normally conducted in
association with an honor system.
Hopping John, Hoppin' John:
A southern U.S. dish of black-eyed peas and
white rice seasoned with ham hock.
Hops:
A vining plant of Europe and Asia that produces
conelike flowers and tender edible sprouts. The
flowers are dried and are used to give the slightly
bitter taste to beer.
Horchata:
[Spanish] beverage made with rice or melon.
Horizontal display (food
Stocking a line of similar products so they form a
industry term):
horizontal pattern across a single shelf. Also
known as Horizontal Set, Horizontal
Arrangement. See vertical arrangement.
Horizontal selling (food industry A wholesaler's marketing plan to sell to all types
term):
of related industries, retailers, commissaries,
institutional and food service. See vertical
selling.
Horn of Plenty Mushroom:
This is a wild mushroom with a hollow, funnelshaped cap and is dark gray or black in color.
Because of this, it also has the name etrumpet of
deathe. This mushroom is somewhat stringy, but
has a robust flavor and may be used to flavor
sauces, soups, or any other mushroom
preparation.
Hornos:
[Spanish] outdoor ovens; beehive ovens.
Hors d'Oeuvre:
Small, bite-size foods served as an appetizer.
Hors d'oeuvres:
Savory, usually small, foods served before or as
an introduction to the main meal; appetizers.
Horse meat:
Taboo for Jews, horse meat is eaten in many
parts of the world, particularly France and
Belgium. The flesh is on the sweet side and can
be mistaken for beef if flavored with garlic or
some other strong herb. May be cooked like
beef.
Horseradish:
An ancient bitter herb. Originally grown in
eastern Europe, horseradish can be used in a
variety of ways. The spiky leaves can be used in
Honeydew Melon:

Horseradish:

Host computer (food industry


term):
Hot Cross Buns:
Hot Pepper Oil or Chili Oil:
Hot Sauce:
Hot-pot:
Hotte:

House brand or house label


(food industry term):
House organ (food industry
term):
Housekeeping (food industry
term):
Housewares (food industry
term):
Huachinango:
Huauzoncle (guauzontle):
Hubbard Squash:
Huckleberry:
Huevo:
Huevos con tostaditos:
Huevos Rancheros:
Huevos rancheros:
Huevos:

salads, while the white pungent root is most often


grated and used in sauces or as a condiment.
Long, coarse-looking root whose intense heat
nearly vanishes during cooking. Fresh
horseradish is simply grated; "prepared"
horseradish is combined with vinegar and sold in
jars (red horseradish is colored with beet juice).
Used mostly as a condiment.
A computer's processor that each week sends
new and sale items to scanning stores.
Sweet yeast buns with currants, slashed
crosswise before baking, then glazed as they
come from the oven.
May be purchased in Oriental markets and finer
supermarkets.
A seasoning sauce containing chile peppers, salt
and vinegar.
Mutton and vegetable stew.
Grape picking basket worn on the backs of
French grape pickers. It is traditionally made of
wood, but today can be found made of metal or
plastic.
A private label brand of products offered by a
wholesaler or manufacturer.
A company's employee newsletter.
Operational procedures to ensure cleanliness,
safety, sanitation and maintenance for a store or
warehouse.
General merchandise items used in a kitchen
and home, e.g., baking pans, mops.
[Spanish] red snapper.
[Spanish] wild green with thin serrated leaves.
A very large winter squash with a thick, bumpy,
hard shell ranging in color from dark green to
bright orange.
A wild, dark blue berry with hard seeds which
resembles the blueberry. They can be eaten plain
or baked in in pies and muffins.
[Spanish] egg.
[Spanish] eggs with tortilla chips; migas.
A Mexican dish that contains fried eggs on a corn
tortilla topped by a green or red chile sauce,
salsa, onions and cheese.
[Spanish] ranch-style eggs. A Mexican dish of
fried eggs served atop a tortilla and covered with
a tomato sauce.
[Spanish] eggs

Huitlacoche:

[Spanish] corn fungus delicacy; sleepy


excrement (Aztec); common in central Mexico;
during the rainy season, a fungus develops
between the husks and the ripe kernels where
the kernels will blacken, contort and swell to form
this musty fungus; valued for centuries in Mexico;
has an earthy and distinct taste finally similar to
mushrooms or truffles; lends a black hue and
resonant aroma to stuffings for empanadas,
tamales and quesadillas; makes distinctive
sauces; usually sold cut from the cob and frozen;
needs cooking to release flavor and aroma; often
sauteed with roasted garlic and onions, and
either fresh marjoram, oregano or epazote, then
simmered with a little water or stock; harvested
during the rainy season, usually late spring to
early fall.
Hull:
To remove the outer covering from fruits, nuts or
seeds.
Hull:
To remove the leafy parts of fruits such as
strawberries, blackberries or raspberries.
Hull:
To remove the outer covering, or pull out the
stem (the green calyx) and leafy top portion, of
berries, especially strawberries.
Hultres:
[French] Oysters
Human resources (food
A department in a company that is involved in
industry term):
every aspect regarding employees hiring,
training, payroll, evaluation, among others.
Hummus:
Also spelled "humus" and "houmus." Middle
Eastern dish made from mashed chickpeas,
tahini (sesame seed butter), olive oil, garlic and
lemon juice. Can be used as a sandwich filling,
spread or dip.
Hummus:
Thick Middle Eastern puree of mashed chickpeas
seasoned with tahini (sesame paste), garlic.
lemon juice, and other varying spices. Great dip
and sandwich spread.
Hundred-weight (cwt) (food
A transportation measure used to determine
industry term):
transportation charges in 100-pound increments.
Hushpuppy:
A small, fried cornmeal dumpling, flavored with
chopped green onion. Hushpuppies are a
traditional southern U.S. accompaniment to fried
catfish and slaw.
Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (hcfc) A refrigerant used in display cases and
(food industry term):
warehouse storage facilities.
Hydrofluorocarbon (hfc) (food A man-made chemical used as a refrigerant.
industry term):
Hydrogenated Fats:
Fats that have gone through hydrogenation to
prolong their shelf life. Trans-fatty acids that are

Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil:


Hydrogenation:

Hydrometer (food industry


term):
Hypermarket (food industry
term):
Hyssop:
Hyssop:

I/t (food industry term):


Iarw (food industry term):
Ibarra chocolate:

Ice Bath:
Ice burn (food industry term):
Ice cream salt:

Ice Cream Soda:

Ice Milk:

created by this process act like saturated fats,


thus increasing the cholesterol production in the
body. Hydrogenated fats can be found in some
vegetable oils, margarine and snack foods.
Oil that has been modified from a liquid to a solid
or semisolid state through hydrogenation.
The process of hardening an unsaturated fat by
adding hydrogen atoms to an unsaturated fat
molecule. This enables the fat to remain solid at
room temperature. Margarine is a good example.
A glass cylinder with a suction bulb on one end
,that is used to measure the salt level of a lobster
tank.
A combined supermarket and discount store, at
least 200,000 square feet or larger, that sells a
wide variety of food and general merchandise at
a low price.
Various herbs belonging to the mint family.
Any of various herbs belonging to the mint family
with aromatic, dark green leaves that have a
slightly bitter, minty flavor. Hyssop adds intrigue
to salads, fruit dishes, soups and stews. It is also
used to flavor certain liqueurs such as
Chartreuse.
Information technology.
International Association of Refrigerated
Warehouses.
The traditional Mexican chocolate; contains
cinnamon, ground almonds and sugar; the
modern version of an Aztec chocolate drink that
sometimes contained chiles; ideal for making hot
chocolate, but should not be substituted for
regular chocolate in most other recipes; there are
a few dessert recipes which call for Ibarra
chocolate; can be purchased in most grocery
stores throughout the Southwest.
A bath of ice and water used to chill a food or
beverage very quickly.
A contact "burn" of raw fish iced too long.
A coarse rock or solar salt added to ice for
cooling when making ice cream. It is not food
grade and should not be used in baking. Also,
see Salt glossary listing.
A beverage comprised of carbonated water,
flavored syrup, (or a commercial flavored
carbonated beverage) and a scoop or two of ice
cream.
Ice milk is made like ice cream, except it contains

Ice Pick:
Ice:

Iceberg Lettuce:

Icing Syringe:

Icing, Frosting:
Icing:
Iddba (food industry term):
Identification label (food
industry term):
Ifma (food industry term):
Imbottito:
Impact (food industry term):
Impact (food industry term):
Impulse buy (food industry
term):
In-ad coupon (food industry
term):
In-and-out promotion (food
industry term):
Inbound (food industry term):

Incentive plan or incentive


program (food industry term):

less milk fat and milk solids. It has less calories,


is lighter and less creamy than ice cream.
A tool with a single long, needle-like metal shaft
stemming from a weighted handle, and used to
chip pieces of ice from large blocks.
1. To chill by placing a glass or serving dish in a
freezer so that a coat of frost forms on its
surface. 2. Frozen water. Freezing point for water
is at 32?F (0?C).
The many varieties of this green leafy vegetable
all differ in size and crispness. The most common
types found in the supermarket are butter,
iceberg and romaine. Iceberg has tight, compact
heads with little flavor (except for the heart), but
a very crisp texture.
A cake-decorating tool. The icing syringe is
composed of a tube, plunger and various tips.
The tips can be quickly exchanged to form a
multitude of patterns with the same icing color.
A covering and/or filling which contains large
amounts of sugar used for cakes and pastries.
Sweet coating for cakes and pasties - most often
sugar-based and flavored.
International Dairy-Deli-Bakery Association.
The label showing name, age (or pasteurization)
and the identity of cheese.
International Foodservice Manufacturers
Association.
[Italian] stuffed
Inventory management program and control
technique.
A measurement of customer reaction to
advertising and merchandising.
An unplanned purchase promoted by visual or
other sensory stimulation.
A manufacturer's cents-off coupon appearing in a
retailer's ad.
A retail promotion for a limited selling period that
features product types or quantities not regularly
stocked (e.g., lawn mowers, Christmas
ornaments).
The path customers follow as they enter a store
and begin shopping. The term can also refer to
the flow of products into a warehouse prior to
order selection.
Monetary compensation to employees for
meeting and/or exceeding sales, and other profit
performance goals.

Income statement (food


industry term):
Incremental (food industry
term):
Independent store (food
industry term):
Index (food industry term):

See operating statement.

An increase in product sales volume attributed to


a special promotion or merchandising plan.
A retailer with 1-10 stores with similar operational
policies and programs.
An alphabetical list of products and prices
handled by a wholesaler.
Indian cress:
Nasturtium leaves and flowers, used in salads.
Indian meal:
Yellow cornmeal.
Indian Pudding:
A spicy cornmeal and molasses pudding usually
served with whipped cream, hard sauce, or
cream.
Indirect account or indirect
A retailer purchasing products directly from a
buying group (food industry
wholesaler, rather than manufacturers. See direct
term):
account.
Indirect chain (food industry
A group of retail stores that purchases products
term):
from a wholesaler instead of operating its own
warehouse.
Indirect expense (food industry An expense that does not directly relate to a
term):
specific segment of the business operation.
Indirect selling (food industry A sale of goods by a manufacturer to a service
term):
merchandiser or other wholesaler, who in turn
sells the products to chain store companies or
independent stores.
Individually quick frozen (iqf)
A food processing technique that freezes
(food industry term):
products in the final stage of processing. It is
then wrapped and packaged for shipment.
Industry trade association (food A nonprofit organization that represents
industry term):
members and provides services, e.g., referrals,
direct purchases, lobbying, education services.
Informal display (food industry A haphazard product display, purposely jumbled
term):
in bins or on tables to project a buy-me, wellshopped image. See dump display; jumble
display; mass display.
Information technology (i/t)
Integrated computer systems that provide
(food industry term):
information for business decisions.
Infuse:
To submerge teas or other flavoring ingredients
in a hot liquid in order to extract the flavor into
the liquid.
Infusion Coffee Maker:
This type of coffee maker consists of a glass pot
with a mesh covered plunger that is pressed
downward to trap the coffee grounds after
steeping. Also known as cafetiere or French
press.
Infusion:
The flavor that is extracted from any ingredient
such as tea leaves, herbs or fruit by steeping
them in a liquid such as water, oil or vinegar.

In-line product (food industry


term):
Inner pack (food industry term):
In-pack promotion (food
industry term):
Insalata:
Inset (food industry term):
Inside sales rep (food industry
term):
Inspection report (food industry
term):
Instant redeemable coupon (irc)
(food industry term):
Instant Rice:
Instant Yeast:

Instant-read thermometer:

Institutional advertising (food


industry term):
Institutional and industrial
buyers (food industry term):
Institutional sizes (food
industry term):
Institutional wholesale grocer
(food industry term):
In-stock (food industry term):
In-store advertising (food
industry term):
In-store bakery (food industry
term):

Products that are permanently ordered and


stocked for a store.
A sub-package within a master package.
A coupon packaged with a product.
[Italian] salad
A drop-in fixture used to modify standard grocery
shelving. Used to break up the monotony of
gondola shelving.
See telephone sales rep.
A lost/damage claim describing the condition of
the product.
A coupon located with or attached to a product
for the customer to use immediately or save for
future use.
Fully cooked and flash-frozen rice that can be
rehydrated in boiling water. It is quick but lacks
flavor.
A specially processed form of active dry yeast;
can be mixed into a dough dry (rather than
dissolved) and reduces rising time by up to 50
percent.
A stainless-steel probe thermometer indicating
the temperature of a liquid, mixture, dough, or
meat almost instantly. It is an excellent baker's
tool for yeast bread baking.
Advertising conveying a company's general
image or philosophy as opposed to specific
product information. Also known as image
advertising.
Hospitals, restaurants, schools and other
institutions that buy food and supplies from a
wholesale grocer for consumption, not for resale
Large cans and packages of food products used
in food service preparations, e.g., commissaries,
restaurants.
A wholesaler selling to related businesses in the
food industry; e.g., commissaries, hotels,
restaurants, etc.
Products regularly carried, currently stocked on
the shelves and available for purchase. See outof-stock.
Signage used by a retailer to merchandise
products within a store.
A bakery department producing baked goods in
the store using one of two baking methods:
scratch using ready-made mixes and frozen

dough. making products according to a formula


or bake-off -using ready-made mixes and frozen
dough.
In-store banking (food industry A franchise department in a retail store that
term):
provides full or partial banking services to
customers.
In-store coupon (food industry A coupon only offered to customers who shop in
term):
the store.
In-store demonstrators (food
An employee or temporary person conducting
industry term):
tastings, samplings, and product preparations to
encourage impulse buys from customers.
In-store processor (isp) (food
An in-store computer system that operates the
industry term):
various systems., e.g., point-of-sale register
system, ATM cards, inventory.
In-store signs/promotions (food Signage used by a retailer to merchandise
industry term):
products and displays within the store.
Insulated bakeware:
Metal bakeware constructed of two layers which
are separated by an insulating cushion of air.
Benefits of baking with insulated bakeware
include even baking and consistent results with
less bottom crust browning. With insulated
baking pans, the oven temperature for cake and
brownie mixes should be set 250F higher. For all
other baked goods, use the recommended
temperatures, but longer bake times may be
needed.
Insulated containers (food
Containers used to hold hot or cold products to
industry term):
ensure that they will be in good condition when
they get to the customer's home.
Integrated approach (food
Creating opportunities for solution selling of
industry term):
products throughout all departments in a store.
Integrated edi (electronic data A term applied to the direct entry of information
interchange) (food industry
received electronically into the recipient's
term):
computer system (e.g., the entry of a transmitted
invoice directly into the accounts payable ledger).
Integrated EDI eliminates manual checking,
saving time and costs. It requires the sender to
adhere strictly to standard formats. Some
programs that depend on integrated EDI are
computer assisted ordering, continuous
replenishment and direct store delivery.
Integration (food industry term): General merchandise and health and beauty aids
shelved in aisles with food, not in a separate
store area.
Intercom (food industry term): An in-store communication system used by
employees to speak with one another.
Interest expense (food industry The cost of borrowed money including all interest
term):
charges on short- or long-term debt and capital
lease obligations.

Intermodal (food industry term): Transporting products by a variety of


transportation vehicles.
Intermodal container (food
See container.
industry term):
Internal audit (food industry
A staff department that is responsible for
term):
performing operational audits of the stores. The
areas audited include pricing, receiving,
bookkeeping and security areas.
Internal borrowing rate (food
The rate at which money can be borrowed within
industry term):
the company.
International dairy-deli-bakery P.O. Box 5528 313 Price Place, Suite 202
assoc. (iddba) (food industry
Madison, WI 53705-0528 (608) 238-7908
term):
Internet (food industry term):
A global computer network. The system allows
you to send and receive communications;
conduct research; access public or private
databases and advertise products and services.
Internet coupons (food industry Electronically redeemed coupons using the
term):
Internet.
Interstore transfer (food
An invoice showing a transfer of merchandise or
industry term):
wages between separate stores.
Intranet (food industry term):
An internal computer network to facilitate
corporate communications with access limited to
a company.
Introductory allowance (food
One-time manufacturer's discount for an initial
industry term):
purchase of a new or existing product.
Introductory offer (food
A manufacturer's incentive on a new or improved
industry term):
product. See handling charge.
Inventory (food industry term): Stock-on-hand. An analysis of inventory in the
store which provides the company with valuable
information regarding shrink, inventory level and
management performance.
Inventory carrying cost (food
The total dollar value of all products carried by a
industry term):
retailer.
Inventory control (food industry The management of product-flow through the
term):
retail/ wholesale system.
Inventory loss (food industry
A condition that occurs when there is less
term):
product on hand than should be; resulting in
lower sales and shrink.
Inventory management program A purchasing software program that facilitates
and control technique (impact) inventory control, including ordering, shipping
(food industry term):
and distributing products.
Inventory turnover (food
The rate at which products must be restocked
industry term):
because of customer sales.
Invert sugar:
Sugar syrup exposed to a small amount of acid
and heating to break sucrose into glucose and
fructose to reduce the size of the crystals. Invert
sugar is used for fondant icings for cakes.

Invoice (food industry term):


Invoice adjustment (food
industry term):
Involtini:
Iodized Salt:
Iph (food industry term):
Iplermagronen:
Iqf (food industry term):
Iraqi Cuisine:

An itemized statement of products received


showing items shipped, price and total amount
billed.
Plus or minus on an invoice due to damaged
goods, shortage, etc.
Thin slices of meat or fish which are stuffed and
rolled. They may then be saut ed, grilled or
baked.
Table salt (sodium chloride) containing potassium
iodide, a source of the essential nutrient iodine.
Items per hour.
Swiss specialty of macaroni, potatoes, onions,
cheese and cream.
Individually quick frozen.
Iraqi food is rich and diverse, incorporating
spices typical of Arabic cooking, such as saffron
and mint. The preferred meats in Iraq are lamb,
beef, goat, mutton and poultry; Muslims do not
eat pork or pork products. As in other Middle
Eastern countries, Iraqi meat dishes often
combine vegetables and rice. Iraqui popular main
courses include kebabs, which are skewered
chunks of grilled meat; quzi, roasted and stuffed
lamb; and kubba, which is minced meat with
nuts, raisins and spices. Masgouf is a special
dish made from fish that live in the Tigres river.
Another popular dish is tripe, a dish made of
cow's stomach. Most meals are accompanied by
flat rounds of bread (samoons).
For dessert, people enjoy some of Iraq's local
fruits, rice pudding, Turkish Delight, sesame
cookies, or baklava, a pastry made with honey
and pistachios layered between filo sheets.

Irc (food industry term):


Irish coffee:
Irish Soda Bread:

The most widely consumed drinks in Iraq are


coffee and tea. Arabic coffee is famous for its
strong flavor. In Iraq, people brew their coffee
thick and bitter, and serve it black. Tea is usually
served in small glasses and drunk sweetened,
without milk. Fruit juices and soft drinks are also
popular.
Instant redeemable coupon.
Coffee flavored with Irish whiskey and topped
with thick cream.
A traditional Irish quick bread that uses baking
soda as its leavener. It's usually made with
buttermilk and may include currants or caraway
seed.

Irish stew:
Iron:

A stew including mutton and vegetables.


A mineral used by the blood for forming
hemoglobin. Red meat, fish, eggs, and legumes
are significant iron sources.
Irradiation (food industry term): A food preservation process that utilizes radiation
to control bacteria growth and increase shelf-life.
Isinglass:
Gelatin made from fish viscera.
Island display (food industry
A free-standing retail display built in the center of
term):
wide aisles to divert traffic. Products may be
case-stacked on the floor or placed on portable
tables or fixtures.
Isp (food industry term):
In-store processor.
Italian Parsley:
Parsley with flat leaves. Italian parsley has a
stronger flavor than curly leaf parsley.
Italian sausage:
A popular pizza topping consisting of pork
flavored with garlic and fennel. Available in sweet
and hot styles, the latter of which contains hot
peppers.
Italian Sausage:
Coarse sausage usually seasoned with garlic
and fennel seed or anise seed; generally sold in
plump links in two varieties, hot (flavored with hot
red peppers) and sweet (no added peppers).
Italian sausage:
This pork sausage is available in two forms, hot
(spiced with hot red peppers) and sweet, and is
usually seasoned with garlic.
Italian Seasoning:
A blend of dried herbs used in Italian cuisine,
containing basil oregano, rosemary, thyme, sage,
marjoram, and red pepper.
Item (food industry term):
Products carried in-stock by a retailer or
wholesaler.
Item maintenance (food
An EDI transaction, UCS 888, used by sellers to
industry term):
electronically provide customers with physical
product parameters for consumer item, unit of
sale, unit, and unit load. Parameters include
identification codes, size, weight, cube and
descriptions.
Item pricing (food industry
Attaching the retail price to each product.
term):
Item re-order point (food
A designated inventory level at which additional
industry term):
product should be ordered. Re-order points are
generally related to shelf capacity and item case
pack.
Items per hour (food industry
An average amount of items checked/scanned in
term):
an hour by a cashier.
[Spanish] wild boar.
Jaban:
Jack (food industry term):
A wheeled device with lifting capabilities, used to
move pallets or heavy loads of product (often

Jackfruit:

Jackrabbit:

Jaggery:
Jaiba:
Jalapeno cheese:
Jalapeno peppers, fresh:

Jalapeno Peppers:

Jalapenos en escabeche:
Jam:
Jam:
Jamaica:

Jambalaya:

onto skids or pallets).


A very large (up to 100 pounds) tree-borne fruit
from East India. Related to the breadfruit in the
mulberry family, it has thick flesh with a flavor
suggestive of a pineapple and banana with
edible seeds. Can be used as a starchy
vegetable when green; once ripe, used as a
dessert or dried.
A hare native to North America; originally called
"jackass rabbit" because of its long ears; fivepound jackrabbits are about one year old and are
best for roasting; the meat is dark, rich and more
gamey than rabbit.
Coarse brown sugar made from the sap of the
palmyra palm. Also known as palm sugar. It can
be found in East Indian markets.
[Spanish] small, hard-shelled crab.
Asadero cheese blended and molded with
jalapeno chiles; jalapeno jack may be
substituted.
The dark green jalapeno is the unripe version of
the red which often ships with white veins on the
outer skin. This does not affect the flavor or
quality. They are about 3 inches long, with a
rounded tip. They ripen to red and range from hot
to very hot, the smallest being the hottest; they
take their name from Jalapa, the capital of
Veracruz, Mexico; sold fresh, canned or pickled;
when dried and smoked, they are called chipotle
peppers. Delicious when roasted, stewed or
pickled; both are a delight stuffed with cheese or
peanut butter and grilled. Jalapeno Poppers
became popular in the 90s. Heat ranges from hot
to very hot.
A short, dark green, tapered chile pepper with
thick flesh. It is moderately hot and available
fresh or canned. Dry, smoked jalapenos are
known as chipolte peppers.
[Spanish] pickled jalapenos.
A thick, cooked mixture of fruit, sugar, and
usually pectin.
Thick syrupy mixture of fruit and sugar.
[Spanish] hibiscus; deep red calyxes that cover
the blossoms before the flowers open; used to
flavor beverages; commonly labeled sorrel in
markets.
A Creole dish of ham, shrimp, crayfish and or
sausage cooked with rice, tomatoes, green
peppers, onions and seasonings.

Jambalaya:

Jambolan:

Jambon:
Jamon:
Jarabe:
Jardiniere (a la):
Jardiniere:
Jarlsberg Cheese:
Jarlsberg cheese:
Jarros:
Jasmine Rice:
Jasmine rice:
Javelina:
Jell:
Jelly Roll Pan:
Jelly Roll:
Jelly:
Jelly-roll pan:

Jengibre:
Jerk:

The Cajun-Creole version of paella, though more


highly spiced. The only consistent ingredients
among all of the jambalaya recipes are rice,
tomatoes, peppers, and onions. Ingredients used
for jambalaya are ham, oysters, chicken,
Andouille sausage, duck, shrimp and game birds.
Also known as the Java plum, this fruit is native
to India and parts of southeast Asia. It is known
for its pear-like shape and purple skin. The flesh
can be slightly purple or white with a tart flavor.
[French] ham.
[Spanish] ham.
[Spanish] syrup.
Garden vegetables used as a garnish, usually
carrots, green beans, onions and turnips.
Garnished or served with diced vegetables.
A Norwegian cow's milk cheese, similar to Swiss
cheese, that is firm in texture and nutty in flavor.
[Norwegian] cow's milk cheese that is firm in
texture and nutty in flavor. Similar to Swiss
cheese.
[Spanish] pitchers.
An aromatic long-grain rice from Thailand that is
soft and sticky when cooked.
Fragrant long grain rice from Thailand that is
distinctly aromatic when cooked. The length of
each grain is four to five times its width.
Collared peccary; small wild pig found in the
Southwest.
To congeal
A 1-inch-deep rectangular baking sheet used for
making the thin sponge cakes used for jelly rolls.
A cake made of a layer of sponge cake spread
with jelly or other filling then rolled up.
A clear, cooked mixture of fruit juice, sugar, and
usually pectin.
A rectangular baking pan that features a 1-inch
edge and is usually 18 x 13 inches in size commercially known as a "half-sheet pan." In
home baking, sizes vary; a common size listed in
recipes is 15 x 10 x 1 inch. It is preferred for
baking sheet cakes, sponge cakes, or bars. (It
gets its name because the sponge cake for a
jelly roll cake is baked in this pan.)
[Spanish] ginger.
A Jamaican process where meat and poultry are
marinated in herbs and spices, then cooked over
a pimento (allspice) wood fire. Jerk spices are

Jerky:
Jerky:

Jerky:
Jerusalem artichoke
(sunchoke):

Jerusalem Artichoke:

J-hook (food industry term):

Jicama:

Jicama:

Jigger:
J-i-t (food industry term):
Jitomate:
Job description (food industry
term):

available commercially.
Meat that is cut into long, narrow, strips then
dried. Beef is the most commonly used meat for
jerky. Also known as "Jerked Meat."
Thin strips of dried meat. Jerky is traditionally
made from beef and dried in the sun, but can be
made from other meats and prepared in an oven;
it has a salty flavor and tough, chewy
consistency.
highly seasoned dried meat in strips.
Knobby root (tuber) which keeps well under
refrigeration; they discolor after peeling, so dip
them in lemon water as the flesh is exposed.
They have a very firm flesh and a flavor
reminiscent of globe artichokes. These are used
as a vegetable, in soups, or cooked and served
in salads.
A tuber, also called sunchoke, with a very firm
flesh and a flavour reminiscent of globe
artichokes. These are used as a vegetable, in
soups, or cooked and served in salads.
A wire clip-on hook that attaches to the front
edge of a grocery gondola and is used to display
high-impulse products and gadgets, usually
packaged on punched cards. Also called profit
hooks or profit pegs.
A brown-skinned root vegetable with a crunchy
white flesh and mildly sweet flavor, jicama is
good both raw and cooked. Also referred to as
the Mexican potato.
Nicknamed yam bean and Mexican potato; a
low-calorie thick brown-skinned root vegetable
with white crunchy flesh that tastes like a cross
between a water chestnut and a potato; after the
fibrous skin has been pared away, jicama flesh
will not discolor; primarily used in salads; when
eaten raw, it is usually sprinkled with lime juice
and chili powder; the smaller jicama are the most
sweet and moist. Its flavor is mild and sweet. It is
a fair source for vitamin C and potassium.
A liquid measure equal to 1 1/2 fluid ounces.
Just-in-time delivery.
[Spanish] word for the tomato most commonly
used in Mexico's interior.
A written statement communicating an
employee's function within the workplace. It
specifies the job duties or assignments for a
position and the standards by which the
employee will be judged.

Jobber (food industry term):

A full-line wholesaler capable of providing a


variety of retail services including product
distribution, ordering, stocking, advertising,
financial information and reporting. See rack
jobber.
Jocoque:
[Mexican] sour cream that has equal or less fat
content than American sour cream. Also referred
to as salted buttermilk, although thicker. Its
flavors range from mildly tangy to refreshingly
sharp.
Johnny cakes:
See "Hoe Cakes."
Johnnycake, Johnny Cake, Hoe A mixture of cornmeal, salt, and boiling water or
Cake:
cold milk that is shaped into a large patty shape
and fried like a griddlecake.
Joint:
Prime cut of meat for roasting; to divide meat,
game or poultry into individual pieces.
Journal (food industry term):
A printed tape inside a cash register that records
all ongoing customer transactions. Also known as
Journal Tape.
Jugged:
Meat or wild game dishes, such as jugged hare,
which is stewed in a covered pot.
Jugo:
[Spanish] juice.
Juice:
The liquid extracted from any raw food, usually
fruit.
Jujube:
A datelike fruit, most often red with yellow flesh,
whose taste resembles that of a prune. Originally
from China, jujube is now also cultivated in
California.
Julep:
A sweet alcoholic drink flavored with the leaves
of an aromatic plant; from the Arab "julab," for
rosewater. The most famous julep is the
American mint julep.
Julienne:
To cut food, usually vegetables, into thin
stick:shaped pieces.
Julienne:
To cut into slivers resembling matchsticks.
Julienne:
To cut into long thin match-size strips,
approximately 1/8-inch wide and 2-inches long.
Julienne:
To cut into thin match-like, narrow strips. The
term is usually associated with vegetables, but
may be applied to cooked meat or fish.
Jumble display (food industry A dump display of a variety of similarly priced
term):
products. See dump display; mass display.
Jumble:
An rich old-fashioned sugar cookie.
Juniper berries:
Strong, piney, and slightly sweet berries from an
evergreen tree. Most often used in making gin,
the berries are good in making marinade for
poultry, game and fish, or added to sauerkraut.
The blue-green berries can be purchased dried.

Sold as a bottled spice in most supermarkets.


Aromatic blue-black berry of an evergreen bush
native to Europe and America. Juniper berries
are most often found dried, as they are too bitter
to eat raw, and are used to flavor meats
(especially game), sauces, stews, and gin.
Crushing before use helps release their flavor.
This fruit is also known as a box huckleberry.
Junket:
Sweetened milk, thickened with rennin and used
as a cream substitute or dessert. Junket is
usually served cold and can be accompanied by
fruit.
Jus, au:
[French] meat served with its natural juices.
Jus:
Natural juices released by roasting meats.
Jus:
[French] a rich, lightly reduced stock used as a
sauce for roasted meats. Many of these are
started by deglazing the roasting pan, then
reduced to achieve the rich flavor desired.
Just-in-time delivery (j-i-t) (food An inventory control system that replenishes and
industry term):
delivers products to a retailer just as a current
supply is depleted
[German] coffee.
Kaffee:
Kaffeekuchen:
[German] coffee cake.
Kaffir lime leaves:
Dried leaves from the Kaffir lime tree. Pale green
in color, resembling a bay leaf. Purchase in
packages in Oriental markets.
Kaffir Lime:
The Kaffir lime is widely grown throughout southeast Asia. The rind and leaves are used for
flavouring Thai curries. The fruit is yellow when
mature but harvested while still green.
Kahlua:
A coffee-flavored liqueur form Mexico.
Kahlua:
dark Mexican coffee liqueur.
Kaiser Roll:
A large, round yeast roll with a crisp crust, used
for making sandwiches or served as a breakfast
roll.
Kalakukko:
A Finnish dish of bread filled with fish.
Kalamata Olives, Calamata
A dark purple, fruity Greek olive.
Olives:
Kalamata olives:
[Greek] also Calamata. Purplish-black Greek
cured in vinegar.
Kale:
Curly-leafed member of the cabbage family
which grows in loose bunches. The strongtasting leaves are rich in vitamins A and C,
potassium, calcium and iron; frequently eaten
boiled or used as garnish.
Kale:
Flavorful, curly-leafed green, widely available.
Collards and kale may be substituted for each
Juniper Berry:

Kamoboko:
Kampyo:
Kamut:

Karo:
Kartofflen:
Kase:
Kasha:
Kasha:

Kasseri Cheese:

Kataifi:

Katsuo:

Kebab, Kabob, Kabab:

other.
A variety of Japanese fish paste cake.
Japanese gourd shavings that are a popular
stuffing for sushi. Find in Japanese markets.
Kamut was cultivated in Egypt more than 4,000
years ago, the name itself comes from the
ancient Egyptian word for "wheat." Kamut does
contain gluten, but most people who are allergic
or sensitive to wheat can tolerate it. Its grains
look something like thick, slightly flattened rice
grains, and it has a nutty, almost buttery flavor.
Kamut flour can be substituted for wheat flour in
most recipes. Combine cooked kamut with dried
cranberries and feta cheese for a quick cold
salad, or use it as a base for pilafs.
Commercial brand of syrup that is available in
dark or light.
[German] potatoes.
[German] cheese.
Buckwheat grouts.
Toasted, hulled and crushed buckwheat groats
(seeds) with a mildly nutty taste. Common in
Middle Eastern, Russian and Jewish dishes. Find
in large Jewish markets.
Greek cheese made from sheep's or goat's milk,
with a sharp, salty flavor. As it matures, it
develops a hard texture that is perfect for grating.
This white cheese is delicious plain, grated over
hot foods or used in cooking, and is the cheese
used in the Greek dish saganaki. An American
version of kasseri is made with cow's milk.
A popular Middle Eastern pastry made with a
special form of shredded phyllo dough which is
also called kataifi. Most forms of kataifi are
sweets, typically with nuts and honey which
make them flavorful, crunchy, and very sweet.
However, some cooks also use kataifi dough to
make unique savory appetizers which may be
made with ground meat or vegetables. Many
Middle Eastern bakeries stock kataifi, and it is
also possible to make pastries with kataifi at
home, for cooks with steady hands and patience.
This small tuna (6 to 8 pounds) has a
light:colored meat similar to yellowfin. "Katsuo" is
the Japanese name for this fish. The Hawaiians
call it "aku."
Cubes of food (meat, poultry, seafood, fruit or
vegetables) placed on a skewer then marinated

Kebab, kebob:
Kedgeree:

Kedgeree:

Kefir:

Kelp:

Ketchup, Catsup:
Ketchup:

Kettle:
Key account (food industry
term):
Key Lime:
Key limes:

before cooking. Vegetables and fruit can be


alternated with the meat and then grilled.
[Turkish] also spelled kabob, these are skewers
of meat, fish, or vegetables grilled over a fire. All
countries serve some version of this dish.
An Indian dish containing rice, lentils and onions.
An English variation adds smoked fish, hardboiled eggs and a cream curry sauce. Also
known as kegeree.
A British variation of an Indian dish with rice,
smoked fish, hard cooked eggs, and bechamel
sauce flavored with curry. Finnan Haddie is most
often used, but smoked sturgeon or salmon are
excellent substitutes.
A fermented milk drink similar to a lassi, flavored
with salt or spices. Where available, kefir is made
with camel milk. The word "kefir" is derived from
the Turkish word keif, which loosely translates to;
good-feeling, feeling of well-being or feelinggood. Kefir is a refreshing probiotic cultured-milk
beverage, which is believed to originate in the
Northern Caucasus Mountains many centuries
ago. Kefir has a uniform thick creamy
consistency, a slightly sour refreshing taste, with
a mild aroma of fresh yeast. Kefir also has a
slight naturally carbonated effervescent "zest". To
round this all off, kefir may contain between 0.08
to 2 % alcohol. Many aromatic compounds
contribute to kefir's unique flavor and distinctive
pleasant aroma.
Dried seaweed used for making dashi stock.
Kombu, a dried rolled kelp, is used as a flavoring
in Sushi Rice. Found in health food stores,
Japanese or Korean markets.
A thick and spicy tomato sauce used as a
condiment or a cooking ingredient.
Also spelled "catsup." A term derived from Asian
cookery, this sauce is known to be a sweet sauce
made from tomatoes. Other forms of ketchup are
made from walnuts, mushrooms, and grapes.
A large metal pot, usually made of iron, with a
looped handle and a lid.
A wholesaler's or manufacturer's primary
customer that provides the majority of sales
volume.
Small, tart, yellowish limes from Florida.
Small, yellow-green limes that are tarter in flavor
than the more common Persian limes. They are
most famous for their role in key lime pie, the

tangy custard pie made with a meringue topping.


Key limes are often hard to find.
Kick plate (base) (food industry A metal sheet, usually at the bottom of doors, for
term):
protection purposes.
Kiddie corral (food industry
An area dedicated for children's play in a store.
term):
Kidney Bean:
A medium-sized, kidney-shaped bean with a dark
red skin, cream-colored firm flesh and a bland
flavor. Available fresh, dried and canned.
Kidney bean:
This reddish-brown dried bean is up to an inch
long and, naturally kidney shaped. Virtually allpurpose, the are good cooked alone or added
into any variety of dishes.
Kidney:
The kidneys are a pair of glandular organs in the
abdominal cavities of mammals and reptiles.
Calf's and lamb's kidneys are amongst the most
delicate. Pig's kidneys are larger and coarser and
make good pates.
Kielbasa, Kielbasi, Kielbasy,
A seasoned and smoked sausage usually made
Polish Sausage:
from pork.
Kielbasa:
A highly seasoned smoked sausage of Polish
origin made from pork and (sometimes) beef. It is
flavored with garlic and other spices. Can be
served cold or hot.
Killing the Onion:
A Turkish technique for taming onions is
described as "killing" the onion - soaking it in
salted water to draw out some of its harshness.
Kim Chee Cucumber:
A very spicy pickled cabbage mixture of Korean
origin. Also known as Korean cabbage pickle.
Kimchi (kimchee):
The fiery cabbage-based staple of Korea, heavily
seasoned with garlic and chile.
King crab:
A giant crab that can grow up to 10 feet,
claw:to:claw. It has snowy white meat edged in
red. Because their numbers are rapidly
decreasing, the catch is rigidly quota:controlled.
King prawns:
[Great Britain] Jumbo shrimp.
King salmon:
Considered the finest Pacific salmon. This
high:fat, soft textured fish can reach up to 120
pounds. Also called the "Chinook Salmon."
King, a la:
Food served in a cream sauce, often on toast.
Kingfish:
Any of several varieties of drum found along the
Atlantic coast.
Kiosk (food industry term):
An interactive, video terminal featuring recipes or
product locations for customer service.
Kipper:
Salted, smoked herring.
Kippered Herring:
Smoked or dried herring.
Kippered snack:
Herring that is split, cured by salting, drying, and
cold:smoking. Also called "Kippered Herring" and

Kirsch:
Kirsch:
Kitchen Bouquet:
Kitchen Bouquet:

Kitchen paper:
Kitchen Shears:

Kitchen String:
Kitchen:
Kites (food industry term):
Kiwi:

Kiwi; Kiwi Fruit; Kiwifruit:

Knackwurst:

Knackwurst; Knockwurst:

"Kippers."
A clear brandy distilled from cherry juice and pits.
Usually added to cherries jubilee or fondue
sauces
A clear brandy distilled from cherry juice and pits.
In cookery, it is most prominently known as a
flavorful addition to fondue and Cherries Jubilee.
A trade name for a bottled sauce used for flavor
and color enhancement.
Brand name for a bottled seasoning used to
flavor and color gravy. It is also known as
"baker's caramel (burnt sugar caramel)" or
"blackjack." You can make your own by
combining 1 cup firmly packed brown sugar and
2 tablespoons water in a saucepan and cook,
stirring constantly, until sugar is dissolved (about
2 minutes). Gradually add 1 cup boiling water;
continue cooking until it becomes syrupy (about
15 minutes).
Paper towel.
Strong, sharp scissors with multiple uses
including cutting fish, poultry, meat and produce.
One blade may have a serrated edge. This tool
can snip herbs and crack nuts too.
Linen string used for trussing poultry and
securing stuffed or rolled pieces of meat before
cooking. Also known as butcher's twine.
The place in a home where cooking takes place.
A price list that includes wholesale/retail costs
and advances.
The kiwi fruit is originally from China, but is now
widely grown in all moderate climates. Its stark
green color makes it a popular garnish, but it is a
pleasant tasting fruit on its own.
A small ovoid shaped fruit with a greenish-brown
skin covered with fuzz, lime green flesh that
becomes more yellow toward the center, many
small, edible black seeds and a sweet-tart flavor.
A smoked and cooked sausage made from beef
and/or pork. It is shorter and larger in diameter
than a frank and is strongly seasoned with
garlic.
A plump German sausage made from beef and
pork and seasoned with garlic; can be boiled,
broiled or grilled and is traditionally served with
sauerkraut. The name resulted from the cracking
sound the casing makes when first bitten into:
"knack" is the German word for crack.

Knead
Knead:
Knead:
Knead:
Kneading:
Knives:

Knudel:
Kohlrabi:

Kohlrabi:
Kolbassy:

Kombu (Konbu):
Kombu:
Korean Pickling Salt:
Kosher (food industry term):
Kosher salt:

Kosher Salt:

Kosher salt:

Working dough by hand or in a mixer to combine


ingredients and develop proper consistency
To manipulate with a pressing motion
accompanied by folding and stretching.
To work dough with the heels of your hands in a
pressing and folding motion until it becomes
smooth and elastic.
To work dough with the hands, folding over,
pressing down and turning repeatedly.
Working with dough with the heels of your hands
by pressing and folding it and turning the dough
a quarter turn after each press and fold.
Knives come in many shapes and sizes, but all
have at least one thing in common. A knife, by
definition, is a sharp-edged cutting instrument
with a handle.
[German] dumpling.
A hybrid of cabbage and turnips; the pale green
or pale purple bulbous stem is mild and sweet
when young. The bulb tastes like a mild, sweet
turnip. Kohlrabi is available from midspring to
midfall.
A bulbous member of the cabbage family that
resembles a turnip in appearance and flavor, and
can be treated as such.
A highly seasoned smoked sausage of Polish
origin made from pork and (sometimes) beef. It is
flavored with garlic and other spices. Can be
served cold or hot. Also called "polish sausage"
or "Kielbassa."
A large edible seaweed used in Japanese
cooking.
A large edible seaweed used in Japanese
cooking.
A coarse salt used in making Korean delicacies
like Kimchee. Substitute kosher salt if necessary.
Items prepared in accordance with Jewish
dietary law under the guidance of a Rabbi.
A coarse-flake salt used for koshering meats, for
topping baked goods, or where a coarse salt is
preferred. It is not iodized, but may contain an
anti-caking agent.
urified, refined rock salt approved for use on
kosher meats. It is also used for pickling because
it contains no magnesium carbonate and will not
cloud brine solutions. Also known as coarse salt
or pickling salt.
Coarse-grained salt that is easy to handle; keep

a container near the stove and use it while you


cook.
Kosher:
Food prepared according to Jewish dietary laws.
Kosher dietary laws identify three classifications
of foods: meat, dairy and pareve. Pareve (parve)
refers to a neutral food that can be used with
either meat or dairy.
Kosher:
Ritually fit for use in accordance with Orthodox
Jewish law.
Krusten:
[German] pastries.
Kuchen:
[German] cake, usually yeast cake.
Kugelhopf:
A Central European yeast cake filled with raisins
(or currants), nuts and candied fruit and baked in
a special fluted tube pan.
Kugelhopf:
A yeast cake from Alsace baked in a large crownlike earthenware dish. It is similar to brioche,
though less rich, and flavored with currants or
golden raisins and almonds. This is mainly eaten
for breakfast.
Kuminost Cheese; Kumminost: Danish semifirm cheese made from whole or
skimmed cow's milk, having either a natural or
waxed rind and a pale yellow to orange interior;
flavored with cumin, caraway seed and clove.
Kuminost is excellent in casseroles and for
snacks and sandwiches. Also known as
nokkelost.
Kumquat:
A fruit which looks like a tiny orange. The rind is
sweet and the flesh is tart. The fruit can be eaten
rind and all. Usually found pickled, candied or in
preserves or marmalade.
Kumquat:
A very small citrus-like fruit (it actually isn't one
although it looks and acts like one) with the
unique quality of having a sweet skin and bitter
flesh. These are used in pastry making,
preserves and chutneys.
Kwik-indexes (food industry
A list of the leading 200 supermarket operators
term):
and the top 50 convenience store companies,
ranked by sales volume.
Naan:

a white flour Indian flat bread. It is one of the


most loved Indian breads. A trip to an Indian
restaurant usually involves the ordering of some
kind of Naan. It is traditionally made in a brick
and clay tandoor oven. Traditionally served as an
accompaniment with an Indian curry, Naan's can
also be used to wrap seasoned grilled meats,
seafood, or vegetables. A naan should be served
hot and eaten immediately or else it tends to get
chewy.

Nabo:
Nacds (food industry term):
Nachos:
Nachos:
Nacs (food industry term):
Nage:

Nam Pla:
Nantua:
Napa Cabbage:

Napa cabbage:
Naranja agria:
Naranja dulce:
Naranjas:
Nasft (food industry term):
Nasturtium:

Nasturtium:
Natilla:

National association of
wholesale -distributors (nawd)
(food industry term):
National association. For the
specialty food trade (nasft)
(food industry term):
National brand (food industry
term):

[Spanish] turnip.
National Association of Chain Drug Stores.
An hors d'oeuvre of tostados topped with jack
cheese, sour cream, and jalapeno chile.
[Spanish] tortilla chips that are topped with
cheese, chiles, etc., then heated until the cheese
melts; originated in El Paso, Texas.
National Association of Convenience Stores.
An aromatic broth in which crustaceans are
cooked. The shellfish is then served with this
broth. The most notable of these dishes is lobster
la nage.
See "Fish Sauce."
A name given to dishes containing crayfish. This
includes crayfish tails and sauces made with a
crayfish fumet.
This oval-shaped broad-leafed head has very
crisp, pale green crinkled leaves and a sweet,
delicate flavor. It is used extensively in stir-fried
dishes and soups, and absorbs flavors
beautifully.
Sometimes called Chinese celery cabbage.
Found in many supermarkets and Oriental
markets.
[Spanish] sour orange.
[Spanish] sweet orange.
[Spanish] oranges.
National Association for the Specialty Food
Trade.
All parts of the nasturtium are eaten, except the
roots. The leaves and stems are peppery, and
may be added to salads or sandwiches. Whole
flowers may be used as a garnish, and seeds
and buds can be pickled like capers.
See "Indian cress."
[Spanish] custard dessert; similar to floating
island, with stiffly beaten egg whites layered on
top of an egg custard; often accompanied with
fresh or poached fruits.
1725 K St., N.W., Suite 710 Washington, DC
20006 (202) 872-0885
8 W. 40th St. New York, NY 10018 (212) 9211690
A product distributed and sold nationwide.
Usually nationally advertised with strong
customer loyalty.

National broiler council (food


industry term):
National fisheries institute (nfi)
(food industry term):
National food brokers
association (nfba) (food
industry term):
National food processors
association (nfpa) (food
industry term):
National frozen food
association inc. (nffa) (food
industry term):
National grocers association
(nga) (food industry term):
National livestock & meat board
(food industry term):
National restaurant association
(nra) (food industry term):
National soft drink association
(nsda) (food industry term):
National voluntary wholesale
grocer (food industry term):
Natto:

Natural-rind cheese:
Navarin:
Navarin:
Navy Bean:

Nawd (food industry term):


Neapolitan:
Near-pack premium (food
industry term):
Nectarine:

1155 15th St., N.W. Washington, DC 20005 (202)


296-2622
1525 Wilson Blvd., Suite 500 Arlington, VA 22209
(703) 524-8880
1010 Massachusetts Ave., N.W. Washington, DC
20001 (202) 789-2844
1401 New York Ave., N.W. Washington, DC
20005 (202) 639-5900
P.O. Box 6069 4755 Linglestown Rd., #300
Harrisburg, PA 17112 (717) 657-8601
1825 Samuel Morse Dr. Reston, VA 22090 (703)
437-5300
444 N. Michigan Ave. Chicago, IL 60611 (312)
467-5520
1200 17th St., N.W. Washington, DC 20036 (202)
331-5900
1101 16th St., N.W. Washington, DC 20036 (202)
463-6732
A franchised member wholesaler of a national,
voluntary group corporation that can offer
retailers franchises and supply products.
A Japanese flavoring and table condiment made
from soybeans that have been steamed,
fermented and mashed. Natto has a gummy
texture and strong cheeselike flavor; often mixed
with other ingredients such as soy sauce and
mustard.
Self-formed thin rinds, no molds or washing
(English stilton, mimolette, tomme de savoie).
French stew made with mutton or lamb and
onions, turnips, potatoes, and herbs.
A stew of browned lamb.
A variety of kidney bean; small and ovoid with a
white skin and flesh; a staple of the U.S. Navy
since the 1880s, it is also known as the beautiful
bean, Boston bean, and Yankee bean.
National Association of Wholesale Distributors
[Italian] Ice creams and sweet cakes in layers of
different colors and flavors.
A special premium offered to customers who buy
a product that is displayed close to that product
or at the front end of the store.
A sweet, firm relative of the peach with smooth
skin. Select nectarines that have rich color (red
swatches over a bright golden yellow

background), a fragrant aroma and a plumpness


that gives slightly to the touch.
Nectarine:
A smooth-skinned variety of the peach family.
Negative check authorization
A denial of a customer's check by a checking
(food industry term):
service or in-store database.
Negro:
[Spanish] black.
Neighborhood shopping center A planned center that has several stores,
(food industry term):
anchored by a supermarket .
Nesselrode:
A mixture of candied fruit, nuts and cherries used
in desserts.
Nesselrode:
A dessert or sauce with rum and fruit flavor, often
with chestnuts.
Net profit (food industry term): The difference between gross profit and the cost
of doing business. Commonly expressed as a
percentage of sales. The dollar amount that
remains after goods are sold and all costs are
subtracted. Usually reported two ways by
corporations: before and after taxes.
Net property and equipment
The value of all property, plant and equipment,
(food industry term):
including capital leases minus accumulated
depreciation and amortization.
Net sales (food industry term): Gross sales minus adjustments and returns. The
final figure.
Network exchange (nex/ucs)
An electronic communication, utilizing public
(food industry term):
telecommunications networks, that facilitates the
exchange of data and information between
office-based computer systems. See UCS;
DEX/UCS.
Neufchatel Cheese:
A soft unripened cheese originally from
Neufchatel-en-Bray, France. It has a fat content
of 44-48%. Philadelphia sells it as low-fat cream
cheese in the U.S.
Neufchatel:
[French] A soft unripened cheese originally from
Neufchatel-en-Bray, France. It has a fat content
of 44 to 48%. Also available as low-fat cream
cheese in the U.S.
Neutralizing charge (food
A fixed weekly fee, charged to retailers who are
industry term):
stockholders in a wholesale operation, that
covers an increased cost of service that was not
billed on an original invoice for merchandise.
New distribution (food industry An authorization to receive and stock a new
term):
product.
New distribution allowance
See distribution allowance.
(food industry term):
New Mexican chiles:
Formerly known as Anaheim chiles; long green
chiles grown in New Mexico; poblanos may be
substituted.
New Mexico red chiles:
A fresh chile; mild to medium hot; keeps its same

name in both dried and fresh forms; mild chile


with an earthy flavor, slightly tart with a hint of
dried cherry; seen often strung in ristras for
drying; used in pipiens, salsas and barbecue
sauces.
New product information sheet A buyer's data sheet listing product and
(food industry term):
promotional information and allowances that
must be completed by the seller at the buying
office.
Newburg:
A rich dish of cooked lobster, shrimp, or other
shellfish in a sauce made of cream, butter, egg
yolks, sherry, and seasonings. The dish is often
served over toast points.
Newburg:
Served with a hot cream sauce containing sherry
and pieces of lobster.
Nex/ucs (food industry term):
Network exchange.
Nfba (food industry term):
National Food Brokers Association.
Nffa (food industry term):
National Frozen Food Association Inc.
Nfi (food industry term):
National Fisheries Institute.
Nfpa (food industry term):
National Food Processors Association.
Nga (food industry term):
National Grocers Association.
Niche marketing (food industry Advertising and marketing tailored to a specific
term):
demographic population with similar purchasing
behaviors. Also known as target marketing.
Nicoise and Gaeta Olives:
Small black olives from the south of France and
from Italy. They have a pure olive taste and come
packed with their pits. Green Nicoise olives come
already pitted. Their flavor is more tart than the
black olives.
Nicoise Olive:
Small French black (harvested fully ripe) olive
with a high pit-to-meat ratio. Nicoise olives are
brine-cured and packed in olive oil, often with
herbs. They can vary in color from purple-brown
to brown-black, and have a rich, nutty, smooth
flavor.
Nicoise, A La:
Food cooked in the manner of the chefs of the
French city of Nice, generally includes a garnish
of garlic, tomatoes, anchovies, black olives,
capers and lemon juice.
Nicoise, Nigoise:
[French] foods cooked in the style of Nice. These
dishes may include garlic, Nicoise olives,
anchovies, tomatoes, and green beans. Salad
Nicoise is the most famous of all these dishes,
consisting of potatoes, olives, green beans, and
vinaigrette dressing. Also, a garnish of garlic,
tomatoes, capers and lemon.
Night crew (food industry term): A group of retail associates who restock
merchandise after normal store hours or at night

Nixtamal:
No frills (food industry term):
Noci:
Nogada:
Noisette Butter:
Noisette:
Noisette:
Noix:
No-knead:

when business is slower. Also known as night


stockers.
[Spanish] hominy; lime-slaked corn; used to
make posole or ground into masa, or dough, to
make tortillas.
A limited-assortment store, which does not
provide customer services.
[Italian] nuts.
[Spanish] walnut sauce.
Whole butter which has been cooked until it
reaches a rich, nutty brown color and aroma.
Very small medallions of meat.
A small round steak, made of lamb or beef
tenderloin.
[French] nut.
This home baking method refers to yeast breads
that require no kneading. They also are called
"batter breads."
See generic product.

No-name brand (food industry


term):
Nonfoods (food industry term): General merchandise sold in food stores, e.g.,
appliances, electronics, hardware, toys.
Nonpareil:
A tiny hard candy used to decorate cookies,
candy, cakes, etc.
Non-Reactive Pan:
A non-porous pan which does not produce a
chemical reaction when it comes into contact
with acidic foods. An aluminum pan is reactive,
while stainless steel, glass, and enamel are not.
Nonsponsoring wholesaler
A wholesaler that does not offer memberships
(food industry term):
that serves single or multi-unit retailers.
Non-Stick Cookware:
Cookware that has been coated with teflon that
allows for cooking with little or no oil or grease.
Nonstick:
A coating which is either applied through a high
temperature process called coil-coating on metal
before the pan is formed, or spray coated on
after the pan is formed. It may be silicone-based
or a PTFE-based (polytetrafluorethylene or
teflon) formulation. Benefits of nonstick - These
vary depending on the coating, but relate to the
ease of removal and cleanup of baking pans.
Most nonstick coatings darken pans. Look for
packaging instructions regarding the lowering of
baking time or temperature for best results.
Noodles:
Flat ribbon pasta made from flour, water and egg,
then dried and rehydrated during boiling in water.
Noodles - Chinese:
Cellophane Noodles: Also known as slippery
noodles or bean threads, these noodles are

made from the starch of mung beans, a.k.a.


"sprouts" to most of us. Dried they're translucent,
but softened in hot water and cooked they
become gelatinous and transparent. Although
they don't have much taste on their own they do
have a knack for picking up the flavors other
ingredients they're mingled amongst. To cook:
soften in hot water for 15 minutes, then boil or
stir fry for 1 minute. Or deep-fry briefly in hot oil
until puffed and lightly golden and use to garnish
anything from quirky Asian-inspired appetizers to
salads.
Egg Noodles: Well-stocked Asian markets
usually offer a selection of dried and fresh egg
noodles, both thin and thick. Although they are
often neon yellow, some of the dried varieties are
made without eggs. If you can't find Chinese egg
noodles, substitute fresh or dried Italian pasta. To
cook egg noodles boil fresh noodles for 2 1/2 to 4
minutes or dried noodles 4 1/2 to 5 minutes.
Wheat-Flour Noodles: Made with wheat flour and
water, this is the oldest noodle form found in
China. Still made by hand in fine restaurants
around the world, they are created from a soft
dough, resulting in a silky texture. They do vary
in thickness and may be round or flat. The
thinnest are used in refined soups, whereas the
thicker varieties stand up to heartier soups and
casseroles. Although these noodles come in
shrimp-, chicken- and crab-flavored varieties the
quality can vary dramatically along with their
flavor. To cook wheat-flour noodles boil fresh
noodles for 2 1/2 to 4 minutes or dried ones for 4
1/2 to 5 minutes.
Noodles - Japanese:
Soba Noodles: The brownish buckwheat soba
noodles from Japan are becoming more popular
as their beguiling nutty flavor and nutritional
value engage the attention of Western cooks.
Rich in protein and fiber, they are most
commonly served cold with a dipping sauce or
hot in soups. Soba noodles are extraordinarily
versatile and lend themselves to salads and stirfried dishes as well. You can find soba noodles
flavored with green tea, lemon zest, or black
sesame seeds. For the best-quality check out the
Japanese brands. To cook boil fresh noodles 1 to
1 1/2 minutes or dried ones 4 to 4 1/2 minutes.*

Udon Noodles: Fat, slippery white noodles found


bobbing about in soups or casseroles, udon
noodles are made from a wheat-flour-and-water
dough and may be round, square, or flat in
shape. In most recipes, udon noodles are
interchangeable with soba noodles and Chinese
wheat-flour-and-water noodles. Boil the fresh
variety for 2 to 2 1/2 minutes and the dried
anywhere from 4 to 4 1/2 minutes.*
Ramen Noodles: Most of us recognize ramen
noodle from the dried, curly variety found in
those inexpensive instant noodle soup packages.
Made with an egg-based dough, ramen are
usually served with meat and vegetables in a
flavorsome broth. Because fresh ramen is not
always easy to find, fresh or dried Chinese egg
noodles or Italian pasta make an adequate
substitute.*
Somen Noodles:The most delicate of all the
Japanese noodles, somen are often
distinguished by their elegant packaging. Made
from a wheat-flour dough with a touch of oil
added, like soba noodles they are often served
cool with a dipping sauce, but don't forget they
also make a light and delicate garnish for hot
soups. To cook somen noodles just boil for 2 1/2
to 3 minutes.
Noodles - Korean:
<b< b="">One of the most popular varieties of
noodles among the Koreans are the brownish
noodles known as "naengmyon" which are sold
dried. They are made with buckwheat flour and
potato starch and are slightly chewier than soba
noodles. To prepare buckwheat noodles boil for 3
to 3 1/2 minutes. Naengmyon are mostly used in
soups.
Sweet Potato Noodles: "Tangmyon" or sweet
potato noodles are similar to cellophane noodles,
and they are often made with mung bean starch.
Like cellophane noodles, they become
translucent once cooked and will absorb the
flavors of the foods they are cooked with. Used in
stir fry dishes, to cook simply soften noodles in
hot water for 10 minutes then stir-fry for 45
seconds to 1 minute.

Noodles:
Nopal (nopales):

Nopalitas:

Nopalitos:
Nori:

Normal stock (food industry


term):
Normande:
Norte, norteno:
Norway haddock:

</b<>
Type of pasta made from durum flour, water and
egg solids. By federal regulations, pasta made
without egg solids cannot be defined as noodles.
[Spanish] paddles (leaves) of the prickly pear
(nopal) cactus; they are firm and crunchy; the
smaller the paddle, the more tender; nopales
have a flavor similar to green beans and can be
eaten raw or cooked; sliced green beans can be
substituted.
Fleshy leaves of the prickly pear, or nopal cactus.
Nopales have a tart, green bean-like flavor. The
thorns are shaved off before using, then they are
usually simmered until tender then used in
salads, scrambled eggs, and other dishes.
[Spanish] cactus paddles cut into strips or dices;
usually refers to the canned and pickled cactus.
Thin dry sheets of seaweed used in Japanese
cooking. It is mainly used to wrap sushi and as
garnish for other cold presentations. See
"Seaweed sheets, dried."
An amount and mix of products that a retailer
needs to meet normal sales volume for a specific
period of time, i.e., day, week, month.
A cream sauce containing fish essence,
mushrooms and egg yolks.
[Spanish] north; of the north.
This important commercial fish is a member of
the rockfish group. Also known as "ocean perch,"
although it is not a true perch.
An item that a store is not allowed to carry.

Not authorized (food industry


term):
Not-on-file (food industry term): A product not entered into a store's inventory file,
therefore it will not scan at checkout.
Nougat:
A candy made from sugar and honey mixed with
nuts. This mixture is then formed into slabs and
sliced.
Nougat:
A candy made from sugar and honey mixed with
nuts. This mixture is then formed into slabs and
sliced.
Nougatine:
A darker candy, made of caramel syrup and nuts.
This is rolled into thin sheets and formed into
cups or bowls to serve as a vessel for other
candy or fruit.
Nouilles:
[French] noodles.
Nra (food industry term):
National Restaurant Association.
Nsda (food industry term):
National Soft Drink Association.
Nudeln:
[German] noodles.

Nuevo:
Nuez moscada:
Nuoc Mam:
Nusskuchen:
Nut flour:
Nut Mill:

[Spanish] new.
[Spanish] nutmeg.
See "Fish Sauce."
[German] Nutcake.
Nut meats, toasted or untoasted, that are finely
ground for pastry crusts, breads, cakes, and
cookies.
A hand-crank tool used to produce nut flour.
Shelled nuts are placed in a hopper on top of the
unit and the crank is rotated, pressing the nuts
against a grating drum. The nuts are powdered
without releasing their natural oil.

Nut Pastes:
Almond Paste: a blend of ground, blanched
almonds cooked with sugar to make a creamy,
firm paste. It is used as an ingredient in cakes,
cookies, ice cream, pastries tarts. (It is the secret
ingredient in rainbow and pignoli cookies,
macaroons, kranskage, Danish pastries and
Swedish mazarins.) And almond paste can be
used to make marzipan, a sweet almond
confection. [see below] Quality almond paste
usually contains more than 50% almonds and the
balance is sugar.
Marzipan: a sweet confection made from ground
blanched almonds and sugar, some of which is
liquid sugar to make a soft pliable paste. While
there are no hard-and-fast rules, Marzipan
typically contains more than 60% sugar some of
which is liquid sugar. Marzipan is like edible
modeling clay. It can be sculpted into fanciful
shapes, rolled to decorate cakes or coated in
chocolate to make a candy center. It has been
enjoyed in Europe since the Middle Ages. It is
believed that when the Crusaders opened up
trade routes to the Near East, they brought the
taste for this Arab sweet back to Europe. There,
almond paste and nougat candies made their
way into the Mediterranean pastry and candy
traditions, as well as in Germany, the British
Isles, and Scandinavia.
Hazelnut paste or hazelnut praline: roasted
hazelnuts cooked with sugar then ground to
make a smooth sweet paste used to flavor butter
cream icings, puddings, ice cream, chocolates
and fudge. Praline paste is usually made with

hazelnuts although it can also be made with


almonds.
Lekvar: a Hungarian-style fruit puree, usually
made from dried plums or apricots cooked with
sugar to make a smooth, thick fruit filling. Lekvar
is used in hamantaschen, Danish pastries, and
sweet yeast breads.
Nutella:
A commercial brand of gianduja. This is a creamy
paste of chocolate and hazelnuts treasured in
Italy. This is used in candy making, for flavored
milk drinks, and when thinned out, spread on
bread as a quick snack.
Nutmeg:
The hard seed of a yellow fruit from a tree
(Myristica fragrans) native to the East Indies; has
an oval shape and smooth texture with a strong,
sweet aroma and flavor; used ground (grated) in
sweet and savory dishes.
Nutmeg:
Oval-shaped, brown, wrinkly seed of the nutmeg
tree. In its grated for is primarily utilized in sweet
and savory dishes including cakes, custards,
souffles, meatballs and soups.
Nutrition labeling (food industry An accurate list of ingredients printed on food,
term):
beverage and drug labels.
Nuts:
The dry fruit of trees, legumes, or seeds; an
edible kernel encased in a hard, dry shell. Rich in
nutrients, flavor, and texture, nuts provide
sensory appeal to baked goods and other menu
items. Nuts may be as high as 90 percent fat, but
the fat is primarily the healthful,
monounsaturated type.
An oily, marble size, white nut with a buttery rich
Macadamia Nut:
flavor. The macadamia nut's shell is exceptionally
hard. It has an extremely high fat content.
Macadamia nut:
Also known as the Queensland nut, it is a fleshy
white nut with a coconut-like flavor. In Asia, it is
used in savory soups and stews. In the U.S., the
macadamia is used mostly in sweets. The nuts
have an extremely high fat content.
Macaire:
A potato pancake made with seasoned potato
puree.
Macaroni:
Pasta made from semolina and water, usually
refers to tube shapes, but can also include
shells, twists and ribbons.
Macaroni:
A general name for the pastas which are made
into various shapes and sizes, as spaghetti,
linguini, vermicelli, etc.; actually tubular-shaped
pasta.
Macaroon:
A small round cookie that has a crisp crust and a

Macarronada:
Mace:
Mace:
Macedoine:
Macedoine:

Macerate:
Macerate:

Machaca:

Machacado:
Mache:

Mache:

Machine readable (food


industry term):

soft interior. Many versions bought commercially


have been thoroughly dried. These cookies may
be made from almonds, though coconut is
common in the US. The may also be flavored
with coffee, chocolate, or spices. Amaretti, from
Italy, are a type of macaroon.
[Spanish] macaroni.
A sweet, but pungent spice, made from the outer
covering of the nutmeg, and has a very similar
flavor.
The outer covering of nutmeg, reddish-orange
and lacy. Used as nutmeg or cinnamon, with
nutmeg flavor.
Small dice - 1/4" square
[French] A mixture of fruit or vegetables.
Vegetable macedoine are cut into small dice and
used as a garnish to meats. Fruit macedoine are
cut in larger pieces and often marinated in sugar
syrup with liqueur.
To soak fruit or other food in liquid to infuse it
with the flavor of the liquid.
To soak fruit or vegetables in wine, liquor, or
syrup so that they may absorb these flavors. Salt
and sugar macerations are used to draw excess
moisture out of the food for a secondary
preparation. This is done for canning, jam and
preserve making, and to remove bitter flavors
from vegetables.
[Spanish] from the verb machacar, which means
to pound or break something into small pieces;
meat that has been stewed, roasted or broiled,
then shredded; it is typical of Sonoran cooking.
[Spanish] mashed; name of a dish of scrambled
eggs and shredded dried meat.
A plant with small, tender, dark green leaves and
a slightly nutty flavor; used in salads or cooked. It
is often found growing wild in cornfields, but it is
difficult to find in stores and can be quite
expensive.
A wild lettuce with small round leaves that may
be used for salads or cooked and used as you
would spinach. The taste is a little less
pronounced than spinach. Mache grows wild,
and can be found in the fall. It is cultivated in
France, Italy, and the US from September to
April. It is also known as lamb's lettuce and field
salad.
A scannable bar code.

Mackerel, king:
Mackerel, pacific:

Mackerel:

Mackerel:

Madeira:
Madeleine:
Madeleine:

Madire, au:
Madrilene:
Mafalda, Mafalde(pl):
Maggi Seasoning:

Magnetic stripe reader (food


industry term):
Magret:

Maguey:
Mahi Mahi, Dolphinfish:

Also called the "kingfish," this is the most popular


variety of mackerel. This fish has a firm, high:fat
flesh with a savory flavor.
Also called the "chub," this species of Pacific
mackerel is also found in the Mediterranean. Like
other mackerels, this fish is fatty and has a
strong flavor.
A long, slender saltwater fish. The flesh is firm
and fatty, with a distinctive savory flavor. The
most popular mackerel is the king mackerel, also
known as the "kingfish."
The king mackerel (also known as kingfish) is
probably the best known of this family of
saltwater fish found in the Atlantic Ocean.
Mackerel has firm, savory flavored flesh and is
available fresh, smoked or salted.
A sweet, Portuguese desert wine often served as
an aperitif or as an after dinner drink.
A small, scalloped, shell shape cake from a
butter and egg rich batter.
A small scalloped or shell shaped cookie or cake
made from a rich batter similar to genoise. These
may be flavored with almonds, lemon, or
cinnamon.
Made with Madeira wine.
A clear chicken consomme flavored with tomato
juice.
Wide, flat noodle with ruffled edges, resembles a
lasagna noodle, only narrower.
Dark brown, bottled sauce that resembles soy
sauce; it adds salt and depth of flavor to dishes;
do not overdo using this sauce as it will
overpower the dish; regular soy sauce may be
substituted, if necessary.
A peripheral hooked to a computer that reads
magnetic strips on the back of bankcards and
credit cards.
The breast meat from a mallard or Barbary duck.
These ducks are specially raised for foie gras.
Their breasts are large and have a much thinner
layer of fat than do the Peking or Long Island
duckling.
Cactus plant (Agave americana) from which
tequila, mescal and pulque are made.
Though this fish is actually a type of dolphin, it
should not be confused with the dolphin that is a
mammal. Mahi mahi is a firm, flavorful fish,
excellent grilled or broiled.

Mahi mahi:

Also called "dolphin fish." Although this fish is a


dolphin, it is not a mammal. To avoid this
confusion, the Hawaiian name "Mahi Mahi" is
becoming prevalent. This fish is moderately fat
with firm, flavorful flesh.
Mahi-mahi:
Contrary to popular belief, mahi-mahi is not a
mammalian dolphin. A warm-water fish with dark
meat that turns brown after cooking. Mahi-mahi
is a great alternative to swordfish.
Maigre:
French term for a dish containing no meat. It may
also refer to lean or low-fat cooking.
Mailer (food industry term):
An ad circular direct mailed to customers.
Mail-in blanks (food industry
An order form used by retailers to obtain
term):
advertising or promotional materials from a
manufacturer.
Mail-in premium (food industry A point-of-sale promotional offer in which a
term):
customer receives a bonus for mailing a coupon
or label to a manufacturer.
Mainframe (food industry term): A non-networked, large computer, the
predecessor of personal computers.
Main-line (food industry term): A store's primary display area, which has
permanent display fixtures.
Maintenance cost (food
An average inventory's storage expense.
industry term):
Mais:
[French] corn.
Maitre d'hotel butter:
This is the most common of all the compound
butters. It is flavored with lemon and chopped
parsley and used to garnish fish and grilled
meats. Garlic may be added, but it would then be
called escargot butter.
Maiz:
[Spanish] maiz; corn.
Maizena:
[Spanish] cornstarch; a product of Mexico which
comes in almond, chocolate, cinnamon, coconut,
guava, mango, pineapple and vanilla flavors;
commonly used to make Atole.
Mako shark:
Fairly inexpensive fish with ivory-pink flesh that
resembles swordfish in color and texture (but not
in appearance). Other available shark includes
dusky, black tip, silky, lemon, bull, tiger, or
hammerhead shark.
Malanga:
A tuber sold in all Latin American markets and
some supermarkets; you might find it under the
name "yautia." Raw, it has the texture of jimica,
but it is not eaten raw. It's best boiled, fried, or
included in stews, in short treated exactly as a
potato. Peel and trim before cooking.
Mallet:
A tool usually made of sturdy hard wood with a
metal-reinforced striking surface; used to flatten

Malt:

Maltagliate:
Management information
services (mis) (food industry
term):
Manchamantel:
Manchego:

Mandarin:

Mandatory recycling (food


industry term):
Mandel:
Mandoline:
Mandoline:
Mango:

Mangos:

thin cuts of meat or poultry and for cracking the


shells of cooked crabs and lobsters.
1. A fountain drink that is a thick blend of malted
milk powder, ice cream, milk and flavoring. 2. A
grain like barley that has been sprouted, kilndried and ground into sweet-flavored powder.
The malt powder is used to brew beer, make
vinegar and is used as an additive to many
foods.
Irregular, triangle- or diamond-shaped pasta
pieces, half the size of a postage stamp, often
used as an ingredient in soups.
A computer system, based on a mainframe or
minicomputer, designed to provide managers
with current information about a company's
performance, e.g., inventory and sales.
[Spanish] "tablecloth stainer." Usually refers to
sauces that do not wash out easily.
[Spanish] an aged sheep's milk cheese that is
dry and crumbly; packed in straw and weighted;
usually grated for use in quesadillas and
empanadas; substitute good Parmesan or aged
white Cheddar.
1. A cooking style from China. The word
mandarin literally means "Chinese official,"
suggesting the style is the aristocratic epitome of
Chinese cuisine. 2. A citrus fruit with loose yellow
to reddish-orange rind that is very easy to peel.
The flesh is orange in color and has a sweet
flavor.
A requirement by jurisdictions that residents
dispose of used plastic, paper and aluminum in
separate collection bins or centers in order to
reduce the waste that goes to dumps or landfills.
[German] almond.
A hand-operated slicing and cutting apparatus.
Mandolines are used to cut fruits and vegetables
evenly.
The original food processor, and still highly
useful, the mandoline is the easiest way to cut
thin slices of vegetables.
A beautiful tropical fruit which grows in a variety
of shapes and sizes; the skin may be green, rosy
red, gold or all three as the fruit ripens. The juicy,
smooth, golden flesh is fragrant and sweetly tart,
with one large flat seed.
[Spanish] mangoes; one of the most popular
fruits in the Southwest and Mexico; it has a
peach-like taste and flowery aroma; the skin is

Manhattan Clam Chowder:


Manicotti:
Manicotti:
Manifest (food industry term):
Manioc:
Mano:
Manteca:

Mantequilla:
Manufacturer brand (food
industry term):
Manufacturer's coupon (food
industry term):
Manufacturer's representative
(food industry term):
Manzanas:
Manzanilla Olive:
Map (food industry term):
Maple sugar:

Maple Syrup:
Maple syrup:

pink, red, gold and green; the flesh is deep


yellow and juicy; to slice the fruit, free it from the
flat, oval pit in large pieces. There are some two
hundred varieties. They are usually eaten ripe,
as a fruit or in salsa. Green mangoes make great
salads and chutneys.
Chowder made with quahog clams, tomatoes,
onions, celery, and potatoes.
Large, tube shaped pasta that is normally stuffed
with a meat, vegetable and cheese mixture and
topped with a red sauce and baked.
Rolled pancakes (crepes), stuffed with cheese.
Pasta tubes may also be used.
See loading sheet.
[Spanish] yuca; cassava; see "yuca."
[Spanish] hand; implement used to grind corn
and chiles on a metate.
[Spanish] lard; fat; probably the most frequently
used ingredient in traditional Mexican cooking;
has approximately half the cholesterol of butter;
fresh rendered lard is best; it is usually best to
substitute vegetable shortening unless fresh lard
is available.
[Spanish] butter.
A manufacturer's product distributed by more
than one wholesaler or retailer in a territory.
A magazine advertisement or direct mail coupon
for a product..
A sales representative responsible for the sales
and distribution of manufacturer's products.
[Spanish] apples.
Spanish green olive, lightly lye-cured then
packed in salt and lactic acid; available unpitted
and/or stuffed.
Modified atmosphere packaging.
Made by the evaporation of maple sap or maple
syrup. Usually pressed into fancy shapes and
sold as a candy. It is not generally used for
baking or cooking.
Maple sap that has been reduced by boiling until
a thick syrup with a sweet distinctive taste is
formed.
Thick and sweet syrup used on pancakes and
waffles or as an ice cream topping. Pure maple
syrup is made by the evaporation of the sap from
maple trees. Maple-blended syrup is a mixture of
maple syrup and cane syrups, resulting in a
milder and less costly product.

Maquereau:
Maraschino Cherry:
Marble:
Marbling:

Marchand de vin:
Marengo:
Marengo:

Margarine (oleo,
oleomargarine):

Margarine:

Margarine:

[French] mackerel.
A pitted cherry soaked in a flavored, sugar syrup
and dyed red or green. Maraschino cherries are
used for drink and food garnishes.
To smoothly whirl one food into another.
The streaks of intramuscular fat found in meat
(especially beef) which add to the meat's flavor
and tenderness. Marbling is a primary factor in
determining a meat's quality grade.
A dark brown sauce made with meat and wine.
A chicken dish containing mushrooms, wine,
tomatoes, pearl onions and garlic.
A chicken stew made with wine, tomatoes, and
garlic. The stew is served over toast, garnished
with crayfish and fried eggs. The modern
versions of this omit the eggs and substitute
shrimp for the crayfish. Of course, other liberties
have been taken with this recipe to include black
olives, peppers, and veal. The dish is rumored to
have been named for the dish served to General
Bonaparte after his army s defeat of the
Austrians in the battle of Marengo.
Comes in several forms. Regular margarine, with
80% fat is usually interchangeable with butter.
Soft margarine is readily spreadable even at
refrigerated temperatures. Whipped margarine
has air beaten in to increase volume. Imitation or
diet margarine has greatly reduced fat content
and Half the calories, sometimes less, of regular
margarine. Margarine was first invented to
replace butter in cooking and baking. It was then
made solely of beef fat. Margarine is now made
with a variety of fats, alone or with others, along
with the addition of water, whey, yellow coloring,
and vitamins. Beef fat is still used today, but with
a higher consciousness toward a healthier diet, it
is very rare.
Developed as a butter substitute in the late
1800s, margarine is 80 percent vegetable oil that
is partially hydrogenated to hold a solid form. The
remaining 20 percent is liquids, flavoring,
coloring, and other additives. Margarine may be
salted or unsalted. For best results in home
baking, recipes that call for margarine should use
margarine and not a spread, whipped, or
reduced-fat form.
A solid fat invented in 1869 to replace butter in
cooking and baking. Originally, it was composed
entirely of beef fat. Today, margarine is made

with a variety of fats (usually vegetable), water,


whey, yellow coloring, and nutritional additives.
Margin (food industry term):
The difference between the cost and the retail
selling price of goods.
Margin blending (food industry A combination of higher- and lower-margin
term):
products to achieve an overall margin figure.
Marguery:
A Hollandaise sauce made with shellfish essence
and wine.
Marina:
[French] Pickled, marinated.
Marinade, To Marinate:
A liquid seasoning blend or dry spice rub for
foods, used for flavor enhancement and
tenderizing. Marinades are added to foods and
then allowed to set for a period of time. Liquid
marinades are usually acid-based with wine,
vinegar, yogurt or lemon juice with added spices.
Marinade:
A seasoned liquid, usually containing an acid, in
which foods such as meat or vegetables are
soaked (marinated) before cooking.
Marinade:
A seasoned liquid, often containing vinegar and
oil, in which food is soaked to improve flavor.
Marinara Sauce:
Literally, "sailor-style" in Italian, this sauce can be
made either red or white, but it always contains
garlic, tomatoes, olive oil, oregano, and vinegar
and/or wine.
Marinara:
A spicy tomato and garlic sauce.
Marinate
Soaking or coating a food in a seasoned liquid to
absorb flavors and tenderize the food prior to
cooking
Marinate:
To soak a food, usually meat, seafood, or
vegetables, in a seasoned liquid mixture, the
marinade, so that the food absorbs the flavors of
mixture. Marinades also help to tenderize tough
meat. Macerate is the term for soaking fruit in a
similar manner. Example
Marinate:
To let food stand in a marinade which is a liquid,
usually an oil-acid mixture such as French
dressing.
Marinate:
To soak meat, vegetables or fish in seasoned
liquid.
Mariscos:
[Spanish] seafood dishes.
Marjoram, Sweet Marjoram:
A Mediterranean herb of the mint family that has
short oval, pale green leaves, a sweet flavor
suggestive of thyme and oregano and a strong
aroma.
Marjoram:
Sometimes called "wild oregano," it is an herb in
the mint family and is related to thyme; often
confused with and substituted for oregano; grows
up to 2 feet high with closely bunched purple and

white flowers that resemble knots; used to


season game or pork; often labeled as sweet
marjoram.
Markdown (food industry term): A price reduction of merchandise to sell older
merchandise or for a specific sale period.
Market development funds
A manufacturer's money offer to retailers in a
(mdf) (food industry term):
market to advertise or introduce their products.
Market profile (food industry
A marketplace analysis that describes the
term):
number and types of customers in a retail area
and other retail stores.
Market research (food industry A study of product performance or consumer
term):
acceptance; a basis for marketing plans and
decisions.
Market, market area (food
See trading area.
industry term):
Marketing (food industry term): The strategy or creating of an image, designed to
attract customers to buy specific products or
services or shop in particular stores.
Marketing plan (food industry A strategy to increase sales and profits on a
term):
product or brand, using ads, signs, displays,
promotional incentives and certain performance
criteria.
Marketing system (food
The path merchandise travels from a producer to
industry term):
a customer.
Markup (food industry term):
The percentage of increase in a wholesale price
when sold at a retail price. See margin.
Marmalade:
A jellied fruit preserve that contains pieces of rind
(usually citrus fruit).
Marmalade:
A preserve of citrus fruits (most commonly
oranges) and sugar.
Marmite:
[French] a rich meat soup or stock; an
earthenware stock pot.
Marrons glaces:
Chestnuts preserved in syrup or candied.
Marrons:
Chestnuts.
Marrow:
Bone substance and gut eaten by Native
Americans and pioneers.
Marsala:
An Italian, dessert wine, served as an after
dinner drink or as an aperitif. Marsala is available
in dry and sweet.
Marzipan:
A mixture of almond paste, sugar and egg whites
(of ground almonds, sugar, and egg whites) used
to cover dessert cakes or to mold and shape for
decorations on pastries.
Marzipan:
A sweet confection made from ground blanched
almonds and sugar, some of which is liquid sugar
to make a soft pliable paste. While there are no
hard-and-fast rules, Marzipan typically contains
more than 60% sugar some of which is liquid

sugar. Marzipan is like edible modeling clay. It


can be sculpted into fanciful shapes, rolled to
decorate cakes or coated in chocolate to make a
candy center.

Masa Harina:

Masa, Masa Harina:

Masa:

Mascabado:
Mascarpone Cheese:
Mascarpone:
Mash:
Mash:
Mask:

It has been enjoyed in Europe since the Middle


Ages. It is believed that when the Crusaders
opened up trade routes to the Near East, they
brought the taste for this Arab sweet back to
Europe. There, almond paste and nougat
candies made their way into the Mediterranean
pastry and candy traditions, as well as in
Germany, the British Isles, and Scandinavia.
Instant corn flour, dough flour; a product
developed by the Quaker Oats Company at the
request of the Mexican government; used to
make dough for tamales and corn tortillas;
uncooked corn kernels that have been ground
into flour.
Masa is the plain, wet stone ground dough made
with a special corn known as Nixtamal. Fresh
masa is sold two different ways: prepared and
unprepared. Prepared masa is plain masa which
has been mixed with lard and salt only. This type
of masa yields heavy, greasy, drier dough. Masa
is the dough used mainly for tortillas and
tamales. It is made from dried corn kernels which
has been cooked in limewater, then ground while
wet. Masa Harina is flour made from dried masa.
[Spanish] dough; dough of ground dried corn and
flour; usually refers to ground nixtamal; instant
corn flour tortilla mix; cornmeal dough made from
dried corn kernels that have been softened in a
lime solution, then ground; fresh frozen masa is
available in supermarkets throughout the
Southwest; comes finely ground in a dehydrated
form and can be used to make tortillas and
tamales.
[Spanish] brown sugar.
An extremely rich cream cheese from Italy.
A rich triple cream, fresh cheese from Italy with a
texture resembling that of solidified whipped
cream.
To crush, beat or squeeze food into a soft state
by using a fork or a masher.
To press or crush a food into a smooth mixture.
To cover a dish with sauce or aspic after it has
been cooked but prior to serving. It also refers to
over-seasoning a dish to the point where all other

Mask:
Mass display (food industry
term):
Mass merchandiser (food
industry term):
Master broker (food industry
term):
Mastic:

Matafan:

Match cut:
Matelote:
Matelote:

Matjes herring:
Matzo Meal:

Matzo, Matzoth:

flavors are indiscernible.


To cover completely, as with mayonnaise, jelly,
ganache, aspic, etc.
A large display of items, used to create an
impression of abundance and value.
A general merchandise retailer offering a large
quantity of products at low prices.
A broker supervising other brokers that represent
the same manufacturer. See agent.
a resin that gives a sour flavor to dishes. A shrub
rarely growing higher than 12 feet, much
branched, and found freely scattered over the
Mediterranean region, in Spain, Portugal,
France, Greece, Turkey, the Canary Islands, and
Tropical Africa. The best Mastic occurs in
roundish tears about the size of a small pea, or in
flattened, irregular pear-shape, or oblong pieces
covered with a whitish powder. They are pale
yellow in color, which darkens with age. The odor
is agreeable and the taste mild and resinous, and
when chewed it becomes soft, so that it can
easily be masticated. This characteristic enables
it to be distinguished from a resin called
Sanderach, which it resembles, but which when
bitten breaks to powder.
A thick pancake eaten sweet as a snack, or
savory as an accompaniment to cheese. They
are also made with bacon, spinach, and
potatoes.
A long thin cut, ? x ? x 3 inches; alumette.
Stew containing freshwater fish, wine and
aromatics.
[French] in the sailor's style. A fish stew made
with wine. The Alsatian version of this dish is
made with freshwater fish, Riesling wine, and
thickened with cream and egg yolks. The
Normandy version includes seafood and is
flavored with cider and Calvados. These stews
are normally embellished with pearl onions and
mushrooms. Also, asauce made with court
bouillon and red wine.
A reddish herring that has been skinned and
filleted before being cured in a spiced sugarvinegar brine.
Ground matzo (unleavened bread made of only
wheat flour and water), which is used in a variety
of foods including matzo balls (dumplings) and
pancakes.
Thin, unleavened, Jewish flat bread made of flour

Mayonnaise:

Mayonnaise:

Mdf (food industry term):


Mead:
Meal:
Measuring cups and spoons:
Measuring Cups:
Meat tenderizer:

Meat tonnage (food industry


term):
Meat:
Meatball:
Medallion:
Medallion:
Mediano:
Mejillones:
Mejorana:
Melange:
Melba Sauce:

Melba Toast:
Melba:

and water.
A creamy, thick white sauce consisting of oil and
vinegar emulsified with egg yolks. It is used as a
spread or dressing. It is sold commercially and
comes in reduced fat and non fat varieties.
This is the mother of all of the cold egg and oil
emulsified sauces. Commercial versions are
made with inferior oils and are far to thick for
proper utilization. A hand made version has a
rich, subtle flavor and silky texture. You should
always use a neutral oil or a good olive oil. Avoid
using an extra-virgin olive oil, which will offer too
strong a flavor for most usage.
Market development funds.
A fermented beverage consisting of water, honey,
and yeast (or hops) with flavorings.
Grain or seeds milled or ground more coarsely
than flour.
Containers or spoons that come in graduated
sizes and are used to accurately measure dry or
liquid ingredients when cooking or baking.
Containers used to measure the volume of dry or
liquid foods.
A food product obtained from the papaya, which
works on the fibers of raw meat to make it tender,
regardless of kind, grade, or cut. When the meat
is cooked all tenderizing action stops.
The total amount of meat that the meat
department processes.
1. The flesh (muscles, fat and related tissues) of
animals used for food. 2. The edible part of nuts.
Chopped meat formed into balls and cooked.
Additional ingredients are sometimes added to
the meat.
A very small, round cut of pork, veal, or beef.
[French] the "eye" of a rib lamb chop.
[Spanish] medium hot (to taste).
[Spanish] mussels.
[Spanish] marjoram; wild oregano.
A mixture
A sauce composed of pureed, strained fresh
raspberries, red currant jelly, sugar and
cornstarch. It is traditionally served with Peach
Melba, but can be used as a topping for other
desserts.
A very thin and very dry toast that is served with
soups and salads.
The name of a popular dessert invented by

Melon:
Melon:

Melon:
Melt:
Melt:
Membership club store (food
industry term):
Membrillo:
Menta:
Menudo:

Auguste Escoffier. Poached peach halves are


served with vanilla ice cream and topped with
fresh raspberry sauce.
A member of the gourd family. There are two
groups of melons: muskmelon and watermelon,
of which there are many varieties.
There are three kinds of melons (aside from
watermelon, a different species entirely). Small
melons with ridged skin, such as the charentais,
more common in Europe; and those with a
meshed rind, such as cantaloupe; and those with
a smooth rind, like the honeydew. When looking
for ripe melons, an appetizing smell is a good
sign. Shake the melon. Loose seeds are a fairly
good indication of ripeness. Squeeze the ends,
especially the one opposite the stem; it should be
fairly tender, almost soft.
[Spanish] cantaloupe.
Heating a solid food such as butter or sugar until
it is liquid.
To alter a food from a solid to a liquid by heat.
See club store.

[Spanish] quince.
[Spanish] mint.
A Mexican soup containing tripe, green chiles,
hominy and spices.
Menudo:
[Spanish] tripe and cow's foot soup or stew; fiery
Mexican "hangover cure," traditionally eaten on
Saturday and Sunday; traditional dish for New
Year's Day; normally served with lime wedges,
oregano, red pepper flakes and hot tortillas.
Mercados:
[Spanish] markets.
Merchandise mix (food industry The selection of products and categories that
term):
comprise a basic store set or distribution center
layout. Competing brands within a category.
Merchandiser (food industry
A person who designs a store's layout, selects
term):
and prices products and decides which signs to
use to maximize sales volume. Also, a movable,
free-standing fixture.
Merchandising (food industry The creative handling and presentation of
term):
products at the point of sale to maximize their
sales appeal.
Merchandising allowance (food A manufacturer's incentive offered to wholesalers
industry term):
and retailers to advertise and display products for
a specific period of time. Also known as a
Performance Agreement.
Merchandising calendar (food The annual merchandising schedule of the food

industry term):

industry coordinating seasonal, ethnic and


traditional events.
Merchandising committee (food A retailer/wholesaler management group that
industry term):
selects new products and accepts manufacturer's
allowances and special promotions. See advisory
board; buying committee; plans committee.
Merchandising department
A division of a food store company that procures
(food industry term):
products and develops retail sales programs.
Merchandising technique (food An attractive shelf display of products, e.g.,
industry term):
hand-stacked; case-packed; tray-packed; lacing.
Merchant discount (food
A processing fee that retailers pay banks for
industry term):
credit card transactions.
Merienda:
[Spanish] afternoon tea following the daily siesta.
Meringue:
Egg whites beaten until they are stiff and creamy,
then sweetened. Primarily used as the topping
for cream pies, or baked as cookies.
Meringue:
[French] whipped egg whites to which sugar has
been added to form a stiff paste. These are used
to lighten mousses, cakes and pastry creams.
Unsweetened versions are used to lighten
forcemeats.
Mesa:
[Spanish] table.
Mescal:
[Spanish] liquor distilled from fermented juice of
the maguey cactus.
Mesclun:
French word for "mixed" that refers to a salad of
assorted small salad leaves and herbs.
Mesclun:
A word used to describe a mixture of a dozen or
more wild and cultivated greens. Often this mix is
stretched with herbs or flower sprigs and bitter
greens. These greens should be dressed very
lightly, with only best oil and vinegar, so that their
flavor will not be masked.
Mesophilic:
Cheesemaking term which describes the
temperature at which the culture thrives. From
the Greek words meso, meaning intermediate
and philic, which means loving. Mesophilic
cultures thrive around room temperatures.These
terms describes at the temperature the culture
thrives at. Mesophilic (from the Greek words
meso meaning intermediate and philic, which
means loving) cultures thrive around room
temperatures. Mesophilic cultures require a
temperature than thermophilic cultures.
Mesquite:
A hardwood tree grown in the Southwest US,
used to impart a distinct flavor in barbecue and
smoked foods.
Mesquite:
Hardwood tree, the dry wood of which is used to
fuel fires in Southwestern cooking; the beans are

a Native American staple.


Old Native American utensil, made of volcanic
rock; used for grinding corn, mesquite beans,
etc.
Meuniere a la, Meuniere:
Fish or seafood sauteed and served in brown
butter. Also, with sauce of butter, lemon juice and
parsley.
Mexican chocolate:
A mixture of chocolate, almonds, sugar and
sometimes cinnamon and vanilla, ground
together and formed into octagonal tablets;
Ibarra is the most common brand in the United
States; can be used in desserts, chocolate
beverages and some mole sauces; the best
substitute is to add a dash of cinnamon to
bittersweet chocolate.
Mexican mint marigold:
Also known as "sweet mace"; flavor of the leaves
is similar to tarragon with a subtle anise flavor;
both the leaves and petals can be used in
sauces and relishes and as a garnish.
Mexican oregano:
Much larger leaves and a different appearance
from the oregano most commonly found in the
United States; almost always sold dried in the
United States; used in many traditional recipes
for red sauces, moles and stews; should be
toasted slightly before using to enhance the
flavor.
Mexican strawberries:
Cowboy term for red beans.
Mezzani:
Smooth tubular pasta.
Miaz azul:
[Spanish] blue corn.
Microbe (food industry term):
A microorganism that can cause disease.
Bacteria, molds and yeast that can grow on
various food and equipment surfaces; the main
cause of discoloration in meat and food
poisoning.
Micromarketing (food industry A marketing plan focused on a defined segment
term):
of the marketplace, rather than the entire
marketplace.
Microwave Cooking:
A heating method that cooks with high-frequency
radio waves that cause food molecules to pulse,
creating friction that heats and cooks the food.
Microwave oven (food industry An oven that cooks foods quickly using
term):
microwaves.
Middleman (food industry term): An intermediary in the purchase and/or flow of
products from producers to customers.
Miel:
[French and Italian] honey.
Migajas:
[Spanish] crumbs.
Migajon:
[Spanish] soft inside of bread.
Migas:
A mixture of bread or tortilla crumbs with
Metate:

Migas:

Mignon, Migonette:

Milanese:
Milch:
Mild chiles:
Milk chocolate:
Milk Chocolate:

MILK chocolate:
Milk chocolate:

Milk Shake:
Milkfish:

Mille-feuilles:

Millet flour:
Millet:

scrambled eggs, chiles, onions and seasonings.


Occasionally, chorizo (sausage) is added to the
dish.
[Spanish] leftovers; crumbs; a dish made of eggs
scrambled with chorizo, tortilla chips, onions,
tomatoes, cheese and chiles, it is normally eaten
for breakfast; also called huevos con tostaditos.
This is a term used to describe coarsely ground
pepper used for au poivre preparations and in
bouquet garni. This is also used to describe
small round pieces of meat or poultry.
[Italian] used to describe foods that are dipped in
egg and bread crumbs, sometimes parmesan
cheese, and fried in butter.
[German] milk.
New Mexico or Anaheim chiles.
Sweetened dark chocolate (at least 10 percent
chocolate liquor) with additional milk solids (at
least 12 percent).
Popular form of eating chocolate because of its
mild, mellow flavor and usually contains about
12% milk solids. Milk chocolate has a less robust
flavor than sweet or semisweet chocolates.
Sweetened chocolate with milk solids (or cream)
added. It's usually eaten as is or used for candy
making.
Most popular form of eating chocolate in the
United States due to its mild, mellow flavor. It has
only 10% chocolate liquor and usually contains
about 12% milk solids. Milk chocolate has a less
robust flavor than sweet or semi-sweet
chocolates.
Milk, ice cream, and a syrup or other flavorings
mixed in a blender until the ice cream is soft
enough to be sipped through a straw.
An important food fish of the Indo:Pacific region
that offers a tender, white flesh. Hawaiians use
milkfish for making fish cakes and sashimi. Also
called "awa."
Small rectangular pastries made of crisp layers
of puff pastry and pastry cream. This may also
include savory fillings of similar presentation. The
word mille-feuille means a thousand leaves.
Finely ground flour from whole millet; a starchy,
low-gluten flour with a texture similar to rice
flour.
A small, round grain boiled or grounded into flour.
It does not contain gluten.

Milnot:
Milpa:
Mince:
Mince:
Mince:
Mince:
Mincemeat:
Mincemeat:

Minestrone:
Minestrone:

Mini-club (food industry term):


Minimum carload weight
requirement (food industry
term):
Minimum order requirement
(food industry term):
Minimum truckload weight
requirement (food industry
term):
Mint Julep:
Mint:
Minute steak:
Mirabelle:
Mirasol chiles:

Milnot is canned evaporated milk that can be


whipped. It is only marketed in a handful of
states.
[Spanish] cornfield.
To cut into very fine pieces using a knife, food
grinder, blender or food processor.
To cut or chop into very small pieces.
To cut into extremely fine pieces.
[Great Britain] Ground beef.
A spicy, sweet combination of candied and fresh
fruits, wine, spices, and beef fat. Primarily used
filling for pies.
A sweet spicy mixture of candied and fresh fruits,
wine, spices, and beef fat. Earlier recipes for this
used beef or venison meat and beef fat. It is
used primarily as a filling for pies served during
the Christmas holiday season.
An Italian all-vegetable soup containing an
assortment of vegetables and pasta or beans or
rice.
A thick Italian vegetable soup with beans and
pasta or rice. This may contain any number of
vegetables, but for authenticity, meat is never
added.
A scaled-down wholesale club, which carries
about 60 percent of the SKUs offered in a larger
store.
A minimum weight or quantity needed to qualify
for a railcar shipping rate.
A minimum quantity, set by a manufacturer or
supplier, for a retailer or wholesaler to order at a
time to qualify for a certain price or discount.
A minimum weight or quantity required to qualify
for a truckload shipping rate.
A popular drink from the southern U.S. containing
fresh mint, bourbon, and crushed ice.
An herb with a fresh, peppery flavor. Mint is
available fresh, dried, and as an extract.
A tender and juicy very thin steak cut from the
top round, which can be quickly saut ed, broiled
or pan-broiled.
[French] small yellow plum, used as tart filling; a
liqueur made from small yellow plums.
Mirasol means looking at the sun; also called
chile travieso, or naughty chile; the dried pods
are used like dried red New Mexican chiles in

corn dishes, meat dishes, sauces and stews;


when fresh and green, it can be substituted for
the serrano chile mochomos: cooked or roasted
meat, shredded and fried crisp.
Mirepoix:
[French] a mixture of chopped onion, carrot, and
celery used to flavor stocks and soups. Ham or
bacon are sometimes added to a mirepoix,
depending on the specific preparation.
Mirepoix:
Mixed vegetables diced very small and cooked
with diced ham, often used as a garnish.
Mirin:
A sweet, rice wine used in cooking Japanese
cuisine.
Mirin:
[Japanese] sweet rice vinegar. May substitute by
adding a little sugar to regular rice-wine vinegar.
Mirliton (vegetable pear):
A vegetable resembling a pale green squash.
Mirlitons are also referred to as vegetable pears
or chayote squash. You can find them on vines
growing in Louisiana back yards. Their delicate
flavor generally absorbs the taste of other foods
they come in contact with. They are also used as
an ingredient in Caribbean as well as Latin and
Southwestern American dishes.
Mis (food industry term):
Management information services.
Mise en place:
[French] mise (to put) en (in) place (place). A
French term well-known to any professional
cook. It means "putting in place," and refers to
the many prepped ingredients that must be on
hand in order to be ready for meal service.
Miso, light or dark (red):
Fermented soybean paste used as a basic
ingredient in many Japanese dishes.
Miso:
Fermented soybean paste that is an
indispensable Japanese flavoring ingredientIt is
used in sauces, soups, marinades, dressings,
dips and main dishes.
Mis-pick (food industry term): An improperly slotted or selected item that
results in the wrong item being shipped and/or
billed to a retailer by a wholesaler.
Mis-redemptions (food industry A cashier's mistake processing a coupon, such
term):
as credit for the wrong item, an expired coupon
or over/short on the exchange amount.
Mis-stock (food industry term): An item stocked in the wrong place or incorrectly
stocked.
Mix (food industry term):
See product mix.
Mix Until Just Moistened:
To combine dry ingredients with liquid ingredients
until the dry ingredients are thoroughly
moistened, but the mixture is still slightly lumpy.
Mix:
To combine ingredients in any way athat affects a
distribution.

Mix:

To combine ingredients with a spoon or beaters


until well integrated.
Mix-and-match (food industry A display of various items to offer a selection for
term):
a single price point, e.g., five for $1.
Mixed car or mixed truck (food A shipment of a variety of products by rail or
industry term):
truck to a specific location that qualifies by weight
as a railcar load or truckload.
Mixing:
Stirring, usually with a spoon, until the
ingredients are well-combined (no individual
ingredients can be seen or identified).
Mobile (food industry term):
A hanging sign that moves with air flow or is
powered by electricity.
Mocha:
A coffee and chocolate mixture.
Mocha:
Flavoring of coffee or made by combining coffee
and chocolate.
Mochi:
Japanese confection; a small, round rice cake
which can be eaten with condiments such as
kinako (roasted soy bean flour), manju (sweet
red bean paste), soy sauce dip, andseaweed.
Traditionally, mochi is made by pounding
steamed glutinous rice in a large wooden mortar,
called the usu, with a wooden mallet called the
kine. Mochi-tsuki is the Japanese term for the
old-style method of pounding the steamed
glutinous rice used to make mochi.
Mock Duck:
Fresh, organic wheat gluten that is folded and
pressed creating a meat substitute to duck in
Buddhist and other vegetarian dishes. Available
canned in Asian markets.
Mode of shipment (mos) (food The means used to ship items, such as a railway
industry term):
or truck line.
Mode, a la:
A food which is braised; also, pies and cakes
served with a garnish of ice cream.
Modem (food industry term):
Modulator/demodulator; a telephone-like device
that transmits and receives data.
Modified atmosphere packaging A packaging technique that uses a gas-flushing
(map) (food industry term):
process to reduce oxygen and maximize a
product's shelf life.
Mojo de ajo:
[Spanish] soaked in garlic.
Mojo:
Cuban seasoning mix made of garlic, olive oil,
and sour oranges It is used as a dip, marinade,
or sauce for vegetables and meats.
Mojo:
[Mexican] A spicy, rich sauce consisting of nuts,
seeds, spices, chocolate, and peppers.
Molasses:
A thick, sweet, brownish-black liquid that is a byproduct of sugar-refining; used in breads,
cookies and pastries for its distinctive, slightly
bitter flavor and dark color.

Molasses:

This is a syrup resulting from the crystallization of


raw sugar from the sap. Additional processing
results in darker and stronger tasting molasses
called black strap.
Molcajete Y Tejolete:
The Mexican term for mortar (molcajete) and
pestle (tejolete); sometimes made from volcanic
rock.
Molcajete:
[Spanish] mortar made from volcanic stone used
for grinding chiles.
Mold:
To shape food, usually by pouring the liquefied
food into a mold. When the liquid is cooled it will
retain the shape of the mold.
Molding, shelf (food industry
A grooved strip on a facing of a gondola shelf
term):
used to attach price tags and shelf-talkers. Also
called shelf channel.
Mole negro:
[Spanish] the best known of Oaxaca's famous
"seven moles."
Mole:
A Mexican specialty, mole is a dark, reddishbrown sauce, often served with chicken or turkey.
Mole is made from a variety of ingredients,
including ground seeds, chile peppers, onion,
garlic, and chocolate.
Mole:
[Spanish] taken from the Nahuatl word "Molli,"
meaning concoction; an assortment of thick
sauces used in Mexican cooking made of chiles.
These sauces are made with one or many chiles,
and flavored with cumin, coriander, cinnamon,
nuts, seeds, and chocolate. one of the most
common ingredients of mole sauce is chocolate;
one of the oldest known sauces. Their flavor is
rich, smoky, and very complex. Some recipes are
made with fresh herbs and have a green color.
Chicken, turkey, and pork are then simmered in
this sauce.
Molinillo:
[Spanish] a wooden whisk used to whip hot
chocolate; the handle is rolled between the
palms of the hands, whipping the mixture until it
is frothy.
Mollejas:
[Spanish] sweetbreads.
Molletes:
[Spanish] yeast rolls flavored with anise; toasted
open-faced sandwich filled with refried beans
and cheese.
Molokhia (Melokiyah, Moloheia, Traditional dish in Egypt and Sudan -- some
etc.):
people believe it originated among Egyptians
during the time of the Pharaohs. Others believe
that it was first prepared by ancient Jews.
Molokhia is a mucilaginous, nutritious soup made
from a type of greens, known as molokhia or
Jew's mallow (also called Nalta jute, Tussa jute,

Mom and pop store (food


industry term):
Monaco, la:
Money gram (food industry
term):
Monkfish:

Corchorus olitorius), which is found throughout


Egypt, the Levant, and similar climes elsewhere.
Dried or frozen molokhia greens may be
obtained from Middle Eastern or Asian grocery
stores worldwide.
A family-owned food store operated by a
husband and wife and/or other family members.
Served with a green pea and caper sauce.
A person-to-person electronic transfer of money

This large low:fat, firm:textured salt:water fish


has a mild, sweet flavor similar to lobster.
Sometimes referred to as "poor man's lobster."
Also called "Angler," "Lotte," "Belly:Fish,"
"frogfish," "Sea Devil," and "Goosefish."
Monkfish:
A saltwater fish of which only the tail meat is
eaten.
Monkfish:
Known as the poor man's lobster, because of its
extremely firm, meaty texture. Highly versatile.
Remove any membrane that remains on the fillet
before cooking.
Monosodium Glutamate, MSG: A white, crystalline salt found in wheat, beets,
and soy bean products. It is used extensively in
Chinese cookery, and thought to help accentuate
the flavors of certain foods. Many people suffer
serious allergic reactions to this so widespread
use has been reduced to the commercial food
processing industry.
Monosodium Glutamate:
A sodium salt found in wheat, beets, and soy
bean products. It is used extensively in Chinese
cooking, and thought to help accentuate the
flavors of certain foods. However some people
have shown an allergic reaction.
Monounsaturated Fat:
Monounsaturated fats have been shown to
reduce LDLs, but have relatively no effect on
HDLs, except for olive oil, which can increase the
beneficial HDLs. Other sources of
monounsaturated fat can be obtained from
canola oil, peanut oil, avocados, almonds,
cashews and peanuts.
Mont Blanc:
A classic French dessert made with sweetened
chestnut puree. The puree is passed through a
ricer and formed into a fluffy mound on a platter.
The dessert is then topped with whipped cream.
Mont blanc:
A rich dessert of chestnut puree and whipped
cream.
Monter au beurre:
To whisk cold butter into a hot liquid to give the
liquid a silky consistency and depth of flavor.
Monterey Jack Cheese:
Deriving its name from the California city where it

Monterey jack:
Montmorency:
Moochim:
Moose:

Mora chiles:

Morcilla:
Morel mushroom:

Morel:
Morello cherries:
Mornay Sauce:
Mornay Sauce:

Mortadella:

Mortadella:

originated, this cheese is very versatile. Usually


available unaged, it is mild and has an ivory
color.
Mild, buttery-flavor cheese usually sold in blocks;
melts easily; also made with jalape os.
A sauce made with cherries; also, a garnish
made with artichoke hearts.
A Korean:style dried fish with soy sauce.
A large member of the deer family with enormous
palmate antlers. Moose meat is called "venison."
Antelope, caribou, elk, deer, and reindeer meat is
also classified as venison, the most popular large
animal game meat in the U.S.
A dried chile; a more subtle variety of smoked
jalapeno than chipotles, they have a long
mesquite flavor with tones of dried fruit; moras
grandes are a larger version of the same type of
chile, while smaller ones are often labeled
"moritas." Use chipotles as a substitute for any of
these chiles.
[Spanish] pork mixed with pig's blood and spices
and steamed within the animal's stomach.
This is a wild mushroom with a honeycomb cap
and hollow stem. These are very dirty
mushrooms and must be cleaned carefully.
Morels possess a wonderful earthy flavor,
making them good candidates for soups, sauces,
and fillings. Morels are most readily available
dried.
A variety of wild mushroom, the morel is coneshaped and has a nutty, earthy flavor.
Pie cherries.
A basic bechamel sauce to which cheese has
been added. It is sometimes varied with the
addition of eggs or stock.
A sauce similar to bechamel sauce but with
Gruyere cheese, sometimes enriched with egg
yolks. It is used mainly for fish and vegetable
preparations.
A smoked sausage from Bologna, Italy, the city
that brought us "bologna" sausage. Made from
finely ground beef, pork, cubes of pork fat, and
seasonings.
Large, lightly smoked sausages made of pork,
beef, or veal. These are specialties of Bologna,
which is where the US version of this sausage
gets its name. Mortadella is a very smooth, pink
sausage with a subtle creamy texture. They are
studded with cubes of pork fat and peppercorns.

Mortar and Pestle:

Mos (food industry term):


Mostaccioli:
Mostarda di Cremona:

Mostaza:
Mother Sauces:

Motor room (food industry


term):
Mouler:
Moules:
Mountain oysters:
Moussaka:
Moussaka:
Mousse:

Mousse:

Mousseline:

A bowl and blunt tool for pounding seasonings


into a paste or powder. Often made of marble.
The traditional method of making basil pesto is to
place all ingredients into the mortar and blend.
See mode of shipment.
Literally means "Small Mustaches". This tubular
pasta goes well with sauce, used in salads,
baked in casseroles, or made into stir fry dishes.
[Spanish] These are fruits cooked and marinated
in a spicy, mustard flavored syrup. It is a classic
accompaniment to bollito misto. These fruits are
also used in sauces for veal, and assorted
stuffed pasta fillings.
[Spanish] mustard.
A French concept that classifies all sauces into
five foundation sauces called "mother" or "grand
sauces." From these five sauces, all sauces can
be made. They are: 1. Demiglace or brown; 2.
Veloute or blond; 3. Bechamel or white; 4.
Hollandaise or butter; 5. Tomato or red.
A room that houses mechanical and electrical
motors that power a store. Also known as the
compressor room.
[French] To grind soft food into a puree or dry
food into a powder.
[French] mussels.
Roasted calf testes eaten as a between-meal
snack.
A layered dish of eggplant and lamb with
tomatoes and onions in a white sauce.
[Greek] A layered dish of eggplant and lamb with
tomatoes and onions. This is all bound with
bechamel sauce and cooked au gratin.
A sweet or savory dish, mousse is usually made
with egg whites or whipped cream to give the
light, airy texture. In French, the word means
"froth" or "foam."
Sweet or savory dishes made of ingredients
which are blended and folded together. These
mixtures may be hot or cold, and generally
contain whipped egg whites to lighten them.
Cream is also used to lighten these dishes,
though when used in large quantities, these
preparations are called mousselines.
As described above, these are fine purees or
forcemeats that have been lightened with
whipped cream. The term is also used to
describe a hollandaise sauce which has

unsweetened whipped cream folded into it.


A wild mushroom with an off-white to beige color.
The flavor is full-bodied and the texture is fleshy
like bolets.
Moutarde:
[French] mustard.
Mouton:
[French] mutton.
Movement (food industry term): A tracking of a product's sales by units or cases
for a certain time.
Movement allowance (food
A case allowance given to a wholesaler for
industry term):
turning products through the warehouse within a
specific timeframe.
Mozzarella Cheese:
Mozzarella is known as a mild cheese with an
elastic texture. It is fairly soft, requires little
ripening time, and has excellent melting qualities.
Mozzarella:
A mild white-yellow cheese which melts easily.
MSG:
This natural amino acid is found in seaweed,
vegetables, cereal gluten and the residue of
sugar beets, and is used as a flavor enhancer.
Muenster Cheese; Munster
A semi-ripe Alsatian cheese made with whole
Cheese:
cow's milk, flavored with caraway and cumin. It
may cure up to three months before
consumption.
Muesli:
The German term for mixture, muesli may
contain raw or toasted grains (wheat, oats,
barley, etc.) nuts, bran, dried fruits, wheat germ,
sugar and dried milk solids. Muesli is often eaten
like cold cereal with milk, or with yogurt or fruit
juice.
Muesli:
[Swiss] Dish of raw rolled oats, coarsely grated
apple, nuts and dried fruit served with cream or
whole milk.
Muffin pans:
Muffin pans come in many sizes and shapes,
even "muffin tops." The standard muffin pan
called for in many recipes has 6 or 12 cups that
measure 2 inches across the top. For best
results, always line with paper liners or grease
just the bottoms and lower thirds of the muffin
cups. Mini-muffin tins, also called "tea muffins,"
are popular in 12-cup and 24-cup pan sizes.
Also, see Insulated, Nonstick, and Baking pans
glossary listings.
Muffin:
A drop batter baked in individual pans and
served as a quick bread.
Mulato chile:
A dried chile; in Mexican cooking it refers to the
chile mulato, a dark black-brown dried chile
famous for its use in Mole Poblano; tastes of
licorice, chocolate and dried fruit; used in many
dark moles; if unavailable, use anchos or
Mousseron mushroom:

pasillas.
To flavor a beverage, such as cider or wine, by
heating it with spices or other flavorings.
Mullet:
This term is used to describe several families of
important food fish. In general, they are saltwater
fish with a moderate to high fat content and flesh
that is tender, white, and firm textured. They
have a sweet, nut:like flavor.
Mulligatawny:
A curried chicken soup adapted by the British
from India. Originally the soup was enriched with
coconut milk and embellished with almonds and
apples. Newer versions make a lighter broth and
flavor this with curry and coconut.
Multideck (food industry term): A display case/fixture with shelves placed
vertically, one above the other.
Multipack (food industry term): A multi-item pack of products with the same
UPC.
Multiple pricing (food industry A pricing policy based on the theory that pricing
term):
of two or more units for a single price (e.g.,
3/$.99) encourages multiple purchases.
Multiple-unit sales (food
Selling in lots of more than one.
industry term):
Multipoint private network (food A networking system that links the computer
industry term):
systems of a number of stores on a single leased
line. Also called multidrop private network. See
frame relay network.
Mung beans, dried:
A versatile tiny (about one-eighth inch in
diameter), dried bean is common throughout
Asia. The bean or pea is also the source of bean
sprouts, also used to make bean-thread noodles.
Mung Beans:
Small green beans used in both Indian and
Chinese cooking. They do not require presoaking
and cooked mung beans have a tender texture
and slightly sweet flavor. The sprouts are also
used in salads.
Muscadine Grape:
A thick-skinned purple grape with a musky flavor,
muscadine grapes are found in the Southeastern
United States. The grapes are eaten as is, and
often used to make jelly and wine.
Muscoli:
[Italian] mussels.
Muscovado sugar:
See Barbados Sugar.
Mushroom:
Any of many species of cultivated or wild fleshy
fungus, usually consisting of a stem, a cap
(which may have gills) and mycelium; available
fresh or dried and eaten raw, reconstituted or
cooked.
MUSHROOMS:
Chanterelle: Meaty and fleshy texture; nutty
flavor with a hint of apricot. Best sauteed with
Mull:

poulty or fish.
Chinese: Find in Oriental markets. Soak in water
before cooking. Trim the stems and save for
making soup.
Crimini: Firm, dense consistency; earthy flavor.
Best used stuffed with herbs and nuts.
Dried European: Cepe, boletus, or porcini. Keep
in a tightly sealed jar in your refrigerator. Will
keep about 1 year.
Enoki: Crisp texture, like bean sprouts; clean and
fruity flavor. Best used raw in salads and
sandwiches.
Morel: Wild mushroom with a honeycomb cap
and hollow stem. These are very dirty
mushrooms and must be cleaned carefully.
Morels possess a wonderful earthy flavor,
making them good candidates for soups, sauces,
and fillings. Morels are most readily available
dried.
Oyster: Tender caps, chewy stems; slight
peppery bite. Mix into cream sauces.
Porcini: Rich and velvety texture; woodsy flavor
which is stronger when dried. Simmer in soups
and sauces.
Portobello: Thick-fleshed with sanity caps; rich
and hearty flavor. Best used for grilling, burgerstyle.
Shiitake: Spongy caps, tough stems; complex
and smoky flavor. Best used in polenta or risotto.

Music roots:
Muskellunge:

Muskmelon:

Wood ear: Crunch and chewy texture; subtle and


mild flavor. Best used in spicy soups and stirfries. "
sweet potatoes; so called because of the
gaseous effect.
A freshwater pike that averages between 10 and
30 pounds. Some specimens, however have
reached 60 pounds and up to six feet in length.
Muskellunge offers a lean, firm, low:fat flesh.
One of the two broad classes of melon.
Muskmelons have been grown for thousands of

years by many cultures. The two main skin


textures are netted (such as cantaloupe), and
smooth (crenshaw or honeydew).
Muskrat:
Also known as a "marsh rabbit" and "musquash,"
this animal is a large, aquatic, North American
rodent with a red, gamey flesh. Muskrat has a lot
of bones, but it makes a good stew.
Mussel:
A bivalve mollusk with worldwide distribution.
There are salt and freshwater varieties. The thin
shell means there is more meat compared to the
same weight of clams or oysters. The yellow
meat has a sweet and delicate flavor.
Mussel:
A bivalve mollusk with an extremely thin, oblong
shell that can range from dark blue to bright
green to yellowish-brown. The creamy-tan meat
has a slightly sweet flavor. Mussels can be
cooked in a variety of ways including steaming,
frying, baking or used as an ingredient in dishes
such as paella.
Mussels:
Much less expensive than clams. Look for clean,
not muddy, mussels. When steaming mussels,
add a bit of saffron for additional great flavor.
Must:
a sweet, viscous liquid that is red-yellow in color.
It comes from fresh grape must, known as
"stafilopat." In other parts of Greece it is known
as "petmezi."
Mustard Greens:
Leaves of the mustard plant, mustard greens are
a very popular vegetable in the South. The
leaves have a pungent mustard flavor, and may
be found fresh, frozen, or canned. Mustard
greens must be washed thoroughly, then may be
steamed, sauteed, or simmered. They're usually
cooked with seasonings and ham, pork, or
bacon.
Mustard:
A spice with a pungent flavor, available as seeds
or ground, or a condiment prepared with it.
Mutton:
The flesh of sheep over one year old.
Muttonfish:
A marine fish of the eelpout family found mainly
in the Pacific. The flesh is sweet and white and
contains very few bones. Also called "ocean
pout."
Muy sabrosa comida:
[Spanish] very delicious food.
An allowance given to a distributor by a packer
Label allowance (food industry when the distributor supplies their own labels to
term):
that packer. The allowance is usually granted for
private label processed foods packed for the
distributor.
Label gun (food industry term): A tool used to price merchandise.
Label peeler (food industry
A device used to remove price labels from

term):
Labor (food industry term):
Labor scheduling software
(food industry term):

Lachs:
Lacing (food industry term):
Ladle:
Ladyfingers:

merchandise when repricing due to a price


change.
All employees except managers that work at a
retail store or distribution center.
A computer software program that creates
weekly work schedules for employees and
departments. The software program inputs
company parameters such as vacation, holidays,
work availability, hours of operation, peak sales
periods, etc.
[German] salmon
A shelf display of overlapped, bagged products to
form an attractive arrangement.
1. To move portions of a food using a ladle. 2. A
utensil with a cup-like bowl and a long hooked or
pierced handle used to pour sauces and liquids.
Known in Italy as "savoiardi." Sweet, light,
delicate sponge cake roughly shaped like a
rather large, fat finger. It's used as an
accompaniment to ice cream, puddings and
other desserts. Ladyfingers are also employed as
an integral part of some desserts, including
Charlottes. Ladyfingers can be made at home or
purchased in bakeries or supermarkets."
According to the Parisian cooking school, Le
Cordon Bleu, leftover sponge cake, brioche, or
genoise cake may be used in place of
ladyfingers. They advise cooks to be careful, for
ladyfinger batter is very fragile. They recommend
folding the flour and yolks in very carefully into
the meringue so that the whites don't lose their
volume.

Lagniappe:
Lait, au:
Lait:
Lake herring:

Lamb, Yearling:
Lamb:

Ladyfingers may be stored up to a week in an


airtight container. They may also be frozen to
extend their useful life.
An old Creole word for "something extra." Soup
meat is the lagniappe from vegetable soup
preparation.
Food prepared with milk.
(French) Milk.
One of the most prized whitefish found in the
Great Lakes and in Canada. May be prepared in
any manner suitable for salmon. Also called
"cisco" and "chub."
The meat of a sheep slaughtered when less than
1 year old.
A sheep under 1 year old. "Baby lamb" in

Lamington tin:
Lan (food industry term):
Land cress:

Langostino:
Langouste:

Langoustine:

Langue de chat:
Langue:
Lapin:
Lard:

Larding or Larder:
Larding:

Lardons:
Larrup:
Lasagna, Lasagne:

slaughtered at between 6:
[Australia] 13 x 9 x 2-inch baking pan.
Local area network.
Land cress, curly cress, broadleaf cress and
upland cress are all quick-growing, delicate
textured greens that have the sharp, peppery
flavor of watercress. Great in salads and
sandwiches or paired with delicate vegetables
such as beets or potatoes.
The Spanish word for "prawn."
[French] spiny lobster, differentiating from Maine
lobsters in that they have no claws. Langoustes
are warm water crustaceans that can be found in
the south Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea
and off the coasts of South America, Australia
and the West Indies.
[French] Dublin prawn. These are small pink
crustaceans resembling crayfish, with a taste and
texture closest to lobster. Their claws are quite
long but have no edible meat in them. Like the
langouste, these are found in warm waters.
[French] Flat, finger-shaped, crisp biscuit or
cookie served with cold desserts.
[French] tongue
[French] rabbit
The fat separated from the fatty tissue of pork. It
has a characteristic nutty flavor, and is usually
white in color. Often used in pie crusts, biscuits
and other baked goods. The mainstay of
AmeriMex cooking. Used in making tamales.
Also, to cover with strips of fat, or to insert fat
strips into meat with a larding needle.
To insert strips of fat into pieces of meat, so that
the cooked meat stays moist and juicy.
To introduce fat to lean meat by threading slivers
of bacon or salt pork through it. Or to thread
vegetables into the meat. Larding with
vegetables gives the meat a contrast of color
plus the addition of flavor. This practice is not
used as often now because of the higher quality
of meat available.
Strips of fat, bacon or salt pork for larding meat;
inserted in lean meats to add flavor.
molasses; also called blackstrap.
Sheets of pasta which are layered with sauce
and cheese and baked au gratin. Meat, fish,
shellfish and vegetables are all used as fillings
for this dish.

Lasagna:

Lassi:
Last in, first out (lifo) (food
industry term):
Lattice topping:
Laurel:
Lavender:
Layer (food industry term):
Layer quantity (food industry
term):
Layer-loaded unit load (food
industry term):
Layout (food industry term):
Layover (food industry term):

1. Wide, flat Italian pasta sheets with ruffled or


smooth edges. 2. An Italian dish made with
boiled lasagna layered with ricotta and
mozzarella cheese, meats and/or vegetables and
topped with a tomato or meat sauce and baked.
[Indian] A frothy yogurt drink, sweet or salty,
flavored with pistachios, cardamom, cumin or
rose water.
The most recently acquired product is the first
sold.
A topping consisting of strips of dough
crisscrossed atop a pie.
Tree on which bay leaves are grown; used as a
seasoning in many dishes, the leaves should
always be removed before serving.
This aromatic relative of the mint plant is often
used to make herb tea.
A row of similar products stacked on a pallet or
shelf.
The number of similar product cases used to
make a pallet layer.
A pallet loaded with different layers of products.

See store layout.


A shelf-stocking technique that displays the top
of a product to customers.
Lci (food industry term):
Learner-controlled instruction.
Lcl (food industry term):
Less-than-carload.
Lead time (food industry term): The time between an order and a delivery.
Lean:
The FDA approved food labeling term used to
describe meat, poultry, game, fish or shellfish
that contains less than 10 grams of fat, less than
4 grams of saturated fat, and 95 mg of
cholesterol per serving or per 100 grams.
Learner-controlled instruction A self-paced, training method.
(lci) (food industry term):
Lease-back (food industry
A process of financing a building; then selling it to
term):
an outside company and paying rent. Options
and protective clauses apply to the tenant.
Leased department (food
A retail department that is leased to, and
industry term):
operated by, a separate company. Also known as
a franchised department.
Leased inventory (food industry An accounting method used to finance the
term):
opening inventory of a new retail store. Product
is leased to the operator and secured by the
wholesaler's lien on daily cash receipts.
Leased line (food industry
A dedicated, private telephone line used for data
term):
transmission.

Leaven (food industry term):


Leaven:

Leavening agent:

Leavening:

Leber:
Lebkuchen:

Leche de cabra:
Leche de coco:
Leche quemada:
Leche:
Lechuga:
Leek:

Leeks:

Lefse:

Legumes:

A substance, such as yeast, used to produce


fermentation in dough to cause it to rise or
lighten.
To insert gas into a dough or batter by adding an
ingredient, such as yeast, baking powder or
baking soda, causing it to expand, or rise,
lightening the texture of the baked product.
An ingredient that causes dough or batter to rise,
lightening its texture and increasing its volume,
such as beaten eggs or egg whites, baking
powder, baking soda and yeast.
Process of producing gas in a dough or batter.
Agents such as baking soda, baking powder and
yeast that are used to lighten the texture and
increase the volume of baked goods with the
production of carbon dioxide. Eggs also are
leavening agents. In earlier days, leavening
agents were called "lifters."
[German] liver
A thick, cake-like German cookie made with
honey, spices, citron and ground almonds. The
dough is often cut into shapes or baked in
decorative molds, then topped with a hard
confectioner's sugar glaze.
[Spanish] goat's milk.
[Spanish] coconut milk.
[Spanish] burned milk.
[Spanish] milk
[Spanish] lettuce.
Has a thick, cylindrical white stalk with a slightly
bulbous root end and dark green leaves. The
tender, white stalk has a flavor that is sweeter
and stronger than a scallion but milder than an
onion.
Leeks look like very large green onions (scallion)
in the produce section. The leek is related to both
garlic and the onion even though its flavor and
fragrance are milder and more subtle. Because
they are so sweet, leeks are often cooked and
served as a side vegetable. Wash carefully to
remove the dirt between the layers. Look for
leeks with lots of white.
[Norwegian] A thin, flat potato pancake, about the
consistency of a tortilla and cooked by similar
method. Very mild, starchy, slightly sweet taste.
Lefse is enhanced by the addition of peanut
butter, brown sugar or lutefisk.
Plant species that have seed pods that split

Legumes:

Lekvar:

Lemon Grass:
Lemon grass:

Lemon sole:
Lemon verbena:
Lemon zest:
Lemon:
Lemon:

Lengua:
Lenteja:
Lentils:
Lentils:

Letter of authority (food


industry term):
Letter of intent (food industry
term):

along both sides when ripe. Some edible


legumes are beans, lentils, peas, etc.
[French] vegetables; plants with seed pods, such
as peas and beans. Seeds of a legume are most
often soaked and used in soups, stews and
baked dishes.
a Hungarian-style fruit puree, usually made from
dried plums or apricots cooked with sugar to
make a smooth, thick fruit filling. Lekvar is used
in hamantaschen, Danish pastries, and sweet
yeast breads.
Light green stalks with a citrus flavor and scent
used in Thai and other Asian cuisines for
flavoring.
Pale green stalk about 18 inches long,
resembling a scallion or green onion. While not
related to a lemon, it imparts a flavor much like
the fruit. Found in Asian markets and some
supermarkets.
A small flat fish resembling sole or flounder.
Fragrant, sweet, lemony herb that makes a good
tea and adds delicate flavor to custards and
similar desserts.
The outer part of the lemon skin (yellow part of
the peel only), grated fine and used as a
flavoring agent or garnish.
A citrus fruit with a bright yellow pitted skin, juicy
flesh and a very tart, sour flavor.
The most useful of all fruits in European cooking
(the lime being the most useful in Asian and
tropical cooking), the lemon adds mild, flavorful
acid to dishes.
[Spanish] tongue.
[Spanish] lentil.
A legume with small flat seeds used in soups and
stews.
Flat and round, lentils are the fastest cooking of
all dried beans. The three major varieties are Le
Puy, the most intensely flavored lentil; common
green or brown lentils; and yellow or red lentils,
which are popular in Indian cooking-- particularly
Dal.
An agreement for a wholesaler to order, deliver
and bill promotional products to a retailer. See
automatic distribution.
A legal promise to perform some activity at a
future date in return for money received
beforehand.

Lettuce:

Levadura:
Liabilities, current (food
industry term):
Liability (food industry term):
Liability policy (food industry
term):
Liaison:
Liaison:

Library (food industry term):


License plate (food industry
term):
Lick:
Licuadora:
Lien (food industry term):
Lifo (food industry term):
Light:
Lighter Bake:

Lightnin' bread:
Liguria Olive:
Lily buds:

Any of a variety of plants of the genus Lactuca


grown worldwide. Lettuce leaves are consumed
fresh in salads or used as a garnish. There are
three principal types of lettuces: butterhead, crisp
head (iceberg) and leaf.
[Spanish] yeast.
Money or obligations owed to other companies or
individuals, which must be paid in a year or less.
A debt owed by a business to creditors.
A manufacturer's or wholesaler's insurance policy
to cover legal expenses in case a customer or
retailer sues.
A mixture of cream and egg yolks used to thicken
and enrich soups and sauces.
The process of thickening a sauce, soup or stew.
This includes all rouxs, starch and water mixtures
(slurries), beurre marni and egg yolks with or
without cream. Egg yolks must be tempered with
hot liquid before adding to the liquid in order to
prevent curdling.
A storage/retrieval site in a computer program
An identity label assigned to a container making
that container unique from any other container.
Typically used for tracking unit loads, but may be
used on cases and trailers.
molasses; also called blackstrap or larrup.
[Spanish] electric blender.
A legal claim upon real or personal property to
satisfy a debt or obligation; a mortgage.
Last in, first out.
FDA term used to define food that has 33 percent
fewer calories, 50 percent less fat, or 50 percent
less sodium than the regularly used food.
made by Sunsweet: a 100% fat- and cholesterolfree baking ingredient that replaces butter,
margarine, oil or shortening in scratch recipes
and packaged mixes. Made from a blend of dried
plums and apples, this new fat "imposter" creates
moist, chewy baked goods that are lower in fat.
Lighter Bake is located in the cooking oil or
baking ingredients section of supermarkets
nationwide.
Quick breads leavened with baking soda or
baking powder.
An Italian salt-brine-cured black olive with a
strong flavor; sometimes packed with stems.
[Chinese] Also known as tiger lily buds or golden
needles. Dried day lily buds that are nutritious

and sweet.
[Spanish] Bitter lime used in Yucatan.
There are two common varieties of lima beans:
the Fordhook and the baby (also called sieva).
The pale green bodies of both varieties have a
slight kidney-shaped curve. The Fordhook is
larger and plumper than the baby lima. Limas
can be used as a side dish, in soups and in the
traditional dish succotash.
Lima beans:
Flat, green-tinged beans (called butter beans in
the South), which can be parboiled and buttered
or used in stews and soups.
Lima:
[Spanish] lime.
Limburger Cheese:
An extremely strong-smelling, semihard,
fermented cheese first made in Limburg,
Belgium, but now more commonly produced in
Germany. Limburger has a yellow to reddishbrown rind, a yellow interior and a paste-like
consistency.
Lime:
A small ovoid citrus fruit with a thin, pitted, green
skin. Limes have juicy, pale green pulp and a
very tart flavor.
Lime:
Stronger and less fragrant than the lemon. Its
juice can be used instead of lemon in almost
every instance. The zest of the lime is as useful
as lemon zest.
Limited assortment store (food Food stores restricted in size, services, fixtures
industry term):
and variety in order to reduce operating costs
and sell goods at the lowest possible prices. Also
known as box stores, no-frills stores.
Limited distribution (food
An introductory offer on a new national or
industry term):
branded product introduced in a specific
geographic area.
Limon:
[Spanish] Lemon; in Mexico it usually refers to
the small tart Mexican lime.
Limoncello:
[Italian] Lemon liqueur; a digestif made only in
Italy along the Amalfi Coast and on the islands of
Ischia and Capri. It is pronounced lee-moanchello.
Limones:
[Spanish] Limes.
Limousin Beef:
A breed of cattle which is naturally lower in fat
and cholesterol. These cattle were brought to the
United States from France around 1930.
Line number (food industry
A manufacturer's processing key that identifies a
term):
product and its pack size.
Line of credit (food industry
The amount of money that a company may
term):
borrow from a bank..
Linear shelf feet (running feet) The length of a shelf or shelves upon which a
Lima agria:
Lima Beans:

(food industry term):


Lingcod:

product or product group is displayed.


A North American Pacific coast fish with a mildly
sweet flavor and a firm, lean texture.
Linguine:
Long, narrow, moderately thick strands of pasta.
Linguine:
Long, oval-shaped pasta noodles. Hand cut
versions of this are very narrow flat noodles.
Linzertorte:
An Austrian pastry comprised of a short crust
dough flavored with ground almonds and
hazelnuts, cinnamon, and lemon zest. This is
then spread with raspberry jam and topped with
a cross-hatch of dough. Almond paste is
sometimes layered underneath the raspberry
jam. Other versions of this use fresh cranberries
or apricots in the filling.
Liquados:
[Spanish] Fresh fruit drinks.
Liqueur:
A sweet, aromatic alcoholic drink typically served
after a meal. Liqueurs are often used as
flavorings in baked desserts and dessert
sauces.
Liqueur:
Sweet alcoholic beverages flavored with fruits,
herbs or spices, usually served after dinner.
Some, such as Amaretto and Grand Marnier, are
useful as flavorings in desserts.
Liquid measure:
A clear, hard, plastic or glass cup with a lip for
pouring. The cup is usually a pint or quart
measuring tool marked with lines to measure
liquid ingredients in home baking. It will have
lines to mark ounces, milliliters, and 1/8, ?, 1/3,
, 2/3, ? and 1 cup or more. Liquid ingredients
should be measured in this cup, with the cup
placed on a flat surface for accuracy in home
baking.
Liquid Smoke:
Find in the condiment section of supermarkets.
List price (food industry term): The price at which items are listed for sale before
discounts or allowances.
Listing (food industry term):
One line about a product in a retailer's
newspaper ad.
Listing allowance (food industry Money that a manufacturer/wholesaler gives a
term):
retailer to advertise a product.
Litchi, Lychee:
A small fruit from China and the West Indies, with
a hard shell and sweet, juicy flesh. The flesh is
white with a gelatinous texture and a musky,
perfumed flavour.
Littleneck clams:
There are essentially two types of clams: the
softshell (or steamer) and the hardshell (or
quahog). Littlenecks are the smallest of the
hardshells.
Liver:
This nutritious organ meat filters toxins from the

blood. Select the youngest liver you can find.


Poultry generally offers the mildest flavored and
most tender livers; pork has the strongest and
toughest liver of those commonly available.
Liverwurst:
German for "liver sausage." Liverwurst is a
ready:to:eat sausage of at least 30% ground pork
liver plus other meats combined with spices and
seasonings. The most famous liverwurst is called
"Braunschweiger."
Livornaise:
A sauce made with olive oil, egg yolks and
anchovy paste.
Lo Mein:
1. A dish consisting meat and poultry with water
chestnuts, bamboo shoots, green onions,
mushrooms and Chinese egg noodles. 2. Fresh
Chinese egg noodles.
Load strap (food industry term): A restraint in a cargo vehicle used to secure
product during shipment.
Loading sheet (food industry
A shipping list of all products in a railcar or truck
term):
trailer.
Loaf cheese (food industry
A long, rectangle of uncut cheese.
term):
Loaf Pan:
A deep rectangular baking pan available in
various sizes; used for baking breads, cakes and
meatloaf.
Lobster mushroom:
A wild mushroom that has a firm texture and a
red and orange color like lobster shells.
Lobster:
This crustacean was used as bait until around
1880. Because dead lobsters spoil quickly, they
should be cooked live if possible. (Live lobsters
curl their tails under when picked up.) Look for
curled tails on precooked lobsters.
Lobster:
Any of several varieties of saltwater crustaceans;
with a long jointed body, large tail and front
claws, and legs surrounded by a reddish-brown
or blue-black shell which turns bright red when
cooked. The firm white meat has a rich, sweet
flavor.
Lobster:
Lobster is available in many forms: frozen,
canned, and as fresh cooked meat. But for "live
lobster" the most crucial part of preparing lobster
is in the purchase. Be sure to chose a freshly
caught, lively one, that flips its tail and legs about
in and out of the water, and one with a rock-hard
shell if possible. A 2 1/4 to 2 1/2 pound live
lobster will serve one person amply and, if
prepared with a stuffing or crumb topping, two
persons.
Local area network(lan) (food
A small, computer network of terminals and
industry term):
processors.

Lockout (food industry term):

Loganberries:

Logistics (food industry term):


Lomo de puerco:
London broil:

London broil:
Longhorn cheese:
Loose-loaded (food industry
term):
Lop Chong:
Loquat:
Loss leader (food industry
term):
Lotte:

Lotus leaves, dried:


Lovage:
Low Calorie:
Low Cholesterol:
Low Fat, Low-fat:
Low Saturated Fat:

An agreement between competing companies to


close during a strike, or an arbitrary suspension
of operations during a contract dispute with a
union.
Possibly a raspberry-blackberry hybrid, this berry
is juicy, sweet and tart. Plump, purple-red
loganberries can be used to make jams and
preserves.
Activities associated with the procurement,
warehousing and transportation of goods for
sale.
[Spanish] pork loin.
A flank steak that has been cut into large pieces,
tenderized by marinating, broiled or grilled, then
sliced into thin strips across the grain before it is
served.
See "Flank steak."
Mild Cheddar cheese produced in the United
States; any mild Cheddar can be substituted.
A shipping practice of loading and unloading
products by hand on a trailer. Also known as a
dead-pile loaded; floor-loaded; loose-caseloaded.
[Chinese] sweet pork sausage. Find in any
Oriental market.
A small pear-shaped fruit native to China, though
also known as a Japanese medlar or Japanese
plum; has yellowish-orange skin and juicy flesh.
An item sold with little, if any, markup, or at a
loss, to attract shoppers. See giveaway.
This large low:fat, firm:textured salt:water fish
has a mild, sweet flavor that compares with
lobster. Sometimes referred to as "poor man's
lobster." Also called "angler fish," "monkfish," and
"goosefish."
Very large leaves that, after reconstituting, can
be used as wrappers in Asian cuisine.
A large, celery-like herb with a thick stalk and a
lemony, musky, celery-like flavor.
A food containing 40 calories or less per serving.
A food containing 20 milligrams or less of
saturated fat and 2 grams or less of saturated fat
per serving.
A food containing 3 grams of fat or less per
serving.
A food containing 1 gram of fat or less per
serving and not more than 15 percent of its
calories from saturated fatty acids.

Low Sodium:

A food containing 140 milligrams or less per


serving.
Low-temp (food industry term): A refrigerator that holds product at a belowfreezing temperature, 32 degrees F or less.
Lox:
Very thinly sliced brine-cured, cold-smoked
salmon; slightly saltier than other forms of
smoked salmon.
Lox:
Smoked, oiled salmon.
Loyalty marketing/cards (food Customers' plastic store cards used to reward
industry term):
frequent shoppers and to collect data on
purchasing habits.
Lp (food industry term):
Liability policy.
Ltl (food industry term):
Less-than-truckload
Lug (food industry term):
A gray, plastic tub used to transport and store
products.
Lugano Olive:
Italian black olive, sometimes packed with olive
leaves; usually very salty.
Lumache:
Italian term for snails; describes large pasta
shells designed for stuffing.
Lumpers (food industry term): Temporary employees of motor carriers, shippers
or receivers, hired to load or unload trucks.
Lumpia:
Very like a large egg roll wrappers. Find frozen in
Filipino and Asian markets.
Lutefisk:
[Norwegian] fish dish of dried cod, cured in lye,
then reconstituted by boiling. Traditionally served
with clarified butter or in white sauce and served
with lefse. In its finest form, lutefisk has a
delicately mild buttery flavor and flaky
consistency. In its not-so-fine form, it is
reminiscent of fish-flavored gelatin.
Lychee:
A small fruit from China and the West Indies, with
a hard shell and sweet, juicy flesh. The flesh is
white with a gelatinous texture and a musky,
perfumed flavor.
Lyle's Golden Syrup:
[Great Britain] Light Karo syrup is the U.S.
equivalent.
Lyonnaise Potatoes:
A French side dish of sliced potatoes sauteed
with onions.
Lyonnaise Sauce:
A classic French sauce preparation made with
sauteed onions, white wine and demi-glace. The
sauce is strained before being served with meats
and sometime poultry.
Lyonnaise:
[French] In the Lyons style, traditionally with
onions.
Profit and Loss Statement.
P&l sheet (food industry term):
Pacanas:
[Spanish] pecan nuts.
Pachola:
[Spanish] thin, half circle-shaped piece of ground

meat.
Pack (food industry term):
A standard number of items in a case.
Pack box/repack (food industry A large case of merchandise broken down and
term):
combined with other products into smaller case
packs for distribution to retail stores.
Pack date (food industry term): The date on which a product was made or
packaged for sale.
Pack out (food industry term): Placing merchandise on shelves from cases or
containers to maximize shelf capacity. Total
capacity of a shelf in units when fully stocked.
Packed:
Pressed or mashed together tightly, filling the
measuring utensil with as much of the ingredient
as possible.
Packer (food industry term):
A company that processes foods for consumption
by customers, e.g., meat, poultry, fruits,
vegetables.
Packer's label (food industry
A label that lists a product's content, quality and
term):
the processor.
Packing slip (food industry
A handling slip that tracks shipping and loading
term):
of merchandise.
Packing supplies (food industry Various paper and plastic bags for bagging
term):
customer purchases at a check stand.
Paella:
A Spanish dish consisting of rice, saffron, a
variety of meat and shellfish, garlic, onions, peas,
tomatoes, and other vegetables. It's named for
the wide, shallow pan it's cooked in.
Paella:
A Spanish rice dish originating in the town of
Valencia. There are hundreds of recipes for
paella, all claiming to be authentic. The only
ingredients that are necessary for paella are rice,
tomatoes, and saffron. Other ingredients are
chicken, chorizo, mussels, squid, peppers, and
beans. More elaborate preparations include
shrimp, lobster, and duck.
Paid outs (food industry term): Money paid out for goods or services, usually in
cash at a store.
Paillard:
A piece of meat or fish that has been pounded
very thinly and grilled or sauteed.
Pain Perdu:
"Lost bread." French toast.
Pain:
[French] bread.
Palatability (food industry
The sensation of taste on the palate of the mouth
term):
from pleasant-tasting or acceptable food.
Palillo:
[Spanish] toothpick.
Pallet (food industry term):
A standard-sized base for assembling, sorting,
stacking, handling and transporting goods as a
unit. The industry standard is GPC-spec-4-way
entry, 48" x 40" hardwood pallets.
Pallet display (food industry
A manufacturer's display unit that is shipped to a

term):

retailer on a pallet, which when placed on a sales


floor serves as a free-standing, advertising
display that saves time and labor.
The number of cases on a pallet.

Pallet factor (food industry


term):
Pallet jack (food industry term): A hand- or battery-powered device used to move
pallets or products.
Pallet shipper (food industry
A combination of different products stacked
term):
together and shrink-wrapped on a pallet for
shipment to a retailer.
Palletized shipment (food
See unitized shipment.
industry term):
Palletizing (food industry term): Storing and/or shipping of products on standard
sized pallets.
Palm Hearts:
Hearts of young palm trees.
Palm Sugar:
Known as gula jawa (Indonesian), gula Malacca
(Malaysian), nahm tahn beep (Thai). Ivory to light
caramel colored sugar cakes. Its flavor is
extracted from coconut flower or palm. It is
similar to brown sugar. In fact, if you can't find it,
you can substitute maple sugar or brown sugar
blended with a little maple syrup (to moisten) for
palm sugar.
Palmier:
A cookie made of sheets of puff pastry that are
rolled in sugar and folded to resemble palm
leaves. These cookies are baked until the sugar
becomes caramelized.
Pampano:
[Spanish] pompano.
Pan dulce:
[Spanish] sweet bread.
Pan Fry:
To brown and cook foods in fat in a shallow pan,
where the fat does not completely cover the
food.
Pan:
[Spanish] bread.
Panache:
[French] mixed.
Panada:
A thick paste used as a binding agent for
forcemeats. Flour panadas are made in a style
similar to choux paste. Other types use bread
crumbs or potato puree.
Panaderia:
[Spanish] bakery.
Pan-bagnat:
A sandwich from southern France, consisting of
small round loaves of bread which have been
hollowed out and filled with onions, anchovies,
black olives, and tuna, then drenched in extra
virgin olive oil.
Panbroil:
To cook a food in a skillet without added fat,
removing any fat as it accumulates.
Pan-broil:
To cook uncovered on a hot surface, usually in a
fry pan. Fat is poured off as it accumulates.

Pan-broil:
Pancetta:
Pancetta:
Pancita:
Pane:
Panela:

Panetone:

Panforte:
Panforte:
Pan-fry
Panfry:

Pan-fry:
Panino:
Panko:

Panna:
Panning (panning out) (food
industry term):
Panning:

To cook quickly in a hot skillet with very little fat


or a sprinkling of salt.
An Italian cured meat made from the belly
(pancia) of the big (the same cut used for bacon).
It is salted but lightly spiced, but not smoked.
Cured pork belly that is rolled and tied. Unlike
American bacon, this is not smoked.
[Spanish] stuffed sheep's stomach.
[Italian] bread.
[Spanish] white cheese made with rennet; slightly
salty; it holds its shape when melted; normally
sold in blocks or rounds; often sliced thick and
broiled or baked; Monterey Jack can be
substituted.
An Italian cake made with a dough rich in egg
yolks, traditionally served around Christmas time.
The dough is studded with raisins, candied fruits
and occasionally pistachios.
A dense, flat Italian cake filled with hazelnuts,
almonds, honey, candied citron and citrus peel,
cocoa and spices.
A rich dense torte made of candied fruit and nuts.
Cooking food in a shallow pan that is filled with
hot fat; a dry-heat cooking method
Panfry and saute both mean to cook quickly in a
small amount of hot oil, butter, or other fat.
Strictly speaking, panfrying means to cook larger
pieces, like meat, in a hot pan, turning only once
or twice. Sauteing means to toss foods over high
heat.
To cook in a small amount of fat. (See Fry and
Saute.)
[talian] sandwich.
Also known as Japanese breadcrumbs; coarse
dry white breadcrumbs used for breading
rellenos and other fried foods; similar to
untoasted coconut in appearance; provides a
nuttier, crispier crust than regular breadcrumbs;
found in Asian markets and many grocery stores;
ordinary breadcrumbs may be substituted if
necessary.
[Italian] cream.
A bakery term for putting raw dough on a cooking
sheet.
Method of cocoking vegetables in their own
juices in a tightly covered pan. Small amount of
fat is used to moisten the pan before juices
escape.

Panocha:
Panques:
Pansit:

Mexican brown sugar.


[Spanish] pancakes.
Wild rice noodles used in Filipino cooking. Soak
in warm water for 15 minutes until supple, and
drain before using.
Pansotti:
A stuffed, triangular pasta popular in the Italian
region of Liguria.
Pantry audit (food industry
A survey of consumers about grocery brands,
term):
products, and quantities in their homes.
Pantryload (food industry term): A stock-piling of sale products by customers to
take advantage of low prices, e.g., carbonated
beverages.
Panzanella:
A salad consisting of toasted cubes of bread
tossed with vegetables and vinaigrette. The
salad is then marinated for at least one hour. The
bread should be very firm so that it will endure
the soaking of dressing. Vegetables can include
tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, and onions. Lots
of garlic, capers, black olives, and anchovies are
added to the salad.
Papadum:
Flat lentil wafers that puff up when deep-fried.
Used in Indian cuisine.
Papas:
[Spanish] potatoes.
Papaya:
Native to North America, the papaya is a large
fruit which is golden yellow when ripe. Ripe
papaya has an exotic sweet-tart flavor. The fruit
is sometimes called pawpaw.
Papaya:
Almost oval melon-like fruit with creamy golden
yellow skin, orange yellow flesh and many shiny
black seeds right in the center; when slightly
under-ripe, the flesh is firm, and at this point it is
good for making relishes; it is soft and very juicy
when ripe; the skin contains a natural enzyme
that tenderizes meat and is frequently included in
marinades for that reason. Some weigh up to ten
pounds, but most are about the size of a mango.
Papaya will ripen at room temperature, so you
can buy them firm; but eat when soft.
Papel:
[Spanish] paper.
Papillote, En:
A food (ex. fish with a vegetable garnish)
enclosed in parchment paper or greased paper
wrapper and baked; the paper envelope is
usually slit open tableside so that the diner can
enjoy the escaping aroma.
Papilotte, en:
Baked in an oiled paper bag.
Pappardelle:
Plain pasta, usually homemade, shaped in broad
ribbons with fluted edges, cut into short pieces
(?-inch wide by 12 inches long).

Pappardelle:
Paprika:

Paprika:

Paraffin:
Parathas:

Parboil:
Parboil:
Parboil:

Parboil:
Parcel pickup (food industry
term):
Parch:
Parchment Paper:
Parchment paper:

Parcook:
Pare:
Pare:

Wide flat pasta noodles served with rich, hearty


sauces.
A blend of dried red-skinned chiles; the flavor can
range from slightly sweet and mild to pungent
and moderately hot and the color can range from
bright red-orange to deep blood red; used in
Central European and Spanish cuisines as a
spice and garnish; also known as Hungarian
pepper.
[Hungarian] translated to sweet red pepper. A
spicy seasoning ground from a sweet variety of
red pepper. It is used to season ragouts,
stuffings, and sauces, and as a garnish.
A waxy substance used for coating items such as
cheese and the tops of jars of jams and jellies to
keep air out, thus preventing spoilage.
[Indian] triangular shaped, fried flaky breads. Like
chapatis, they are made out of whole wheat flour,
but they are prepared using a slightly different
method. The dough for parathas is oiled, rolled,
and folded several times, giving this bread its
distinctive flaky texture. The result is a bread
crispy on the outside, soft on the inside.
To cook partially in boiling water.
To boil until partially cooked. Usually cooking is
completed by another method.
To boil a food briefly, until partially done. A food
might be parboiled before adding it to fastercooking ingredients to insure all ingredients are
evenly cooked.
Boil for a short time to partially cook.
A driving lane in front of a store where customers
pick up their purchases.
To dry; to cook in dry heat until almost scorched.
A heavy moisture and grease-resistant paper
used to line baking pans and wrap foods to be
baked.
A silicon based paper that can withstand high
heat. Often used to prepare sugar and chocolate
confections because they do not stick to the
paper at all. Parchment paper may be reused
several times.
To partially cook an item before storing or
finishing by any number of other cooking
methods.
To cut off the outside covering. Pare is applied to
potatoes, apples, etc.
To cut off the outside covering.

Pare:
Pareve:

Parfait:
Parfait:
Parfum:
Parisienne:
Parity pricing (food industry
term):
Parmagiano-Reggiano:

Parmentier:
Parmesan Cheese:
Parmesan:

Parmigiana:
Parrilla:
Parrillada:
Parrot fish:

To remove skins and peels from fruits or


vegetables with a small knife or peeler.
A Jewish term which describes food made
without dairy or animal ingredients. According to
Jewish dietary laws, animal food can't be eaten
at the same meal with dairy food, but pareve
food may be eaten with either.
A dessert consisting of ice cream, layered with a
dessert sauce, fruit, or liquer.
[French] A dessert made of layers of fruit, syrup,
ice cream and whipped cream, frozen and
served in tall slender glasses.
[French] flavor.
A white sauce with egg yolks.
Pricing products at the same margin as
competitors in an area.
Cheese developed in northern Italy in the Parma
and Reggio Emilia regions, the original
Parmagiano-Reggiano reflects 800 years of
tradition and is considered one of the great
cheeses of the world. This hard cheese, aged 12
to 24 months or longer, is produced by artisans
from the raw milk of cattle fed fresh fodder in
their spring and summer pasture. Its uniform
color ranges from a pale straw yellow to a deep
yellow shade, and it is dotted throughout with
barely visible holes. It has an exceptionally fine
flavor, full but not pungent. Whole Parmesan
cheeses are large and drum-shaped and may
weigh 40 to 55 pounds (18 to 25 kg). Methods of
production vary from one region to another, with
different aging times and temperatures.
[French] any dish prepared with potatoes. The
term is derived from Antoine Parmentier who
introduced the potato to France.
A cow's milk cheese whose taste ranges from
sweet to sharp. It is a hard cheese, most suitable
for grating. Most often served with Italian food.
[Italian] made from cow's milk, this nutty-sweet
dry cheese is the best for grating. There is only
one true Parmesan and that is ParmigianoReggiano.
Prepared with Parmesan cheese.
[Spanish] broiler or grill.
[Spanish] grilled items.
Any of various chiefly tropical marine fish,
especially those of the family Scaridae. These
fish are called parrot fish because of the brilliant

Parsley:

Parsley:
Parsnip:
Parsnip:
Partially Set:
Party platters (food industry
term):
Pasa:
Pasilla chiles:

Pasilla Chili Peppers:

Pasilla:

Passion Fruit:

Passion fruit:

coloring and the shape of their jaws. "Also called


"Pollyfish."
An herb (Petroselium crispum) with long, slender
stalks, small, curly dark green leaves and a
slightly peppery, tangy fresh flavor (the flavor is
stronger in the stalks, which are used in a
bouquet garni); generally used fresh as a
flavoring or garnish; also known as curly parsley.
Whether curly or flat leafed and indispensable
herb in cooking and garnishing. Flat leafed
parsley has slightly better flavor.
A long, white root vegetable with feathery green
leaves. Its look and taste is similar to a carrot
and it can be cooked in much the same way.
Root vegetable that looks like a white carrot.
Great in soups and stews, or pureed.
Term for the state of a gelatin mixture that has
thickened to the consistency of unbeaten egg
whites.
Large, circular flats of selected deli items.
[Spanish] raisin.
Called a chilaca in its fresh form. The mature
chilaca turns from dark green to dark brown.
After drying (when it becomes a pasilla) it
changes to a blackish-brown. It has a rich hot
flavor and is generally ground and used for
sauces. Pasilla means little raisin; in some
places the Ancho chile is called pasilla chile;
long, thin and dry with a dusky flavor; they are
hot; thin fleshed, with flavors of dried fruit and
licorice; anchoes may be substituted.
Medium-hot chili peppers that are generally 6
inches to 8 inches long and 1 inch to 2 inches in
diameter. These rich-flavored peppers are
blackish-brown in color and sometimes referred
to as chile negro.
(pah-SEE-yah) Long and narrow; dried, it is
nearly black and wrinkled; soak then puree for
complex, medium-hot red sauce; used in chili
powder and mole; fresh, it is used like poblanos.
This purple fruit has a smooth skin that wrinkles
as it ages and highly fragrant orange pulp filled
with many tiny edible seeds. The flavor is tangy
but sweet. It can be chilled and eaten as is,
added to fruit salads or used as a flavoring for
baked goods, preserves and beverages.
Purplish-brown on the outside, filled with (edible)
pits and orange flesh inside. Unadulterated, it is

Pasta e Fagioli:

Pasta:

Pasta:

tart and hard to take. Passionfruit get its name


from its flowers, which Spanish missionaries
thought resembled symbols of Christ's Passion,
such as the crown of thorns.
A rich bean soup with pasta, in which a large
sausage (such as cotechino) has been cooked.
The soup is eaten first, followed by the sausage
served with mustard and bread.
Pasta may refer to any of a wide variety of
noodles from a variety of countries. Italian pasta
is usually made with a dough of durum or
semolina wheat flour, liquid, and sometimes egg.
Pasta made with semolina flour is generally
superior, since it doesn't absorb too much water
and stays somewhat firm when cooked al dente.
" All macaroni products. Any form of spaghetti or
noodles.
Angel Hair: In Italian, capelli d'angelo,this fine
spaghetti is called capelli d'angelo. Goes best
with light, delicate sauces. Cooks in six minutes.
Campanelle: This fancy-looking pasta with a
cone shape and wavy edges traps and holds
chunky sauces with meat and vegetables. Cooks
in 13 minutes.
Castellane: The ridges and conch-shell shape of
this pasta help trap hearty sauces. Cooks in 13
minutes.
Elbows: Short, curved tubes of pasta are
available in different sizes. Most often associated
with macaroni and cheese, elbows also can be
used with other creamy sauces or with meat
sauce. Cooks in seven minutes.
Farfalle: Also called bow-ties or butterflies. They
come in small, medium and large. Their large,
flat surface makes them best for tomato, ,meat
and vegetable sauces. Cooks in 11 minutes.
Fettuccine: Translates to ""little ribbons."" This
pasta is usually 1/4 inch thick and available
straight or in coils. Its thickness makes it perfect
for heavier sauces, such as alfredo. Cooks in 12
minutes.
Fiori: In Italian, fiori means flower. This pasta has
rounded petals that provide extra surface area

for chunky tomato-based sauces. Has lots of kid


appeal. Cooks in seven minutes. ""
Penne: Quill-shaped pasta tubes with smooth
sides. Those with ridges are called penne rigati.
These are also called mostaciolli. Large quillshaped tubes are called manicotti.
Rigatoni: Ridged tubes about 2 inches long and
1/2 inch wide. This hearty pasta should be
served with hearty, chunky sauces. Cooks in 13
minutes.

Pastel:
Pasteles:
Pastelon:
Pasteurize:

Pasteurize:

Pasticceria:
Pasticcio:
Pastilla (Bistella):
Pastina:
Pastina:
Pastrami:

Pastrami:
Pastry Bag:

Rotini: Short, 2-inch-long, corkscrew-shaped


pasta that's good with chunky sauces. Cooks in
eight minutes."
[Spanish] cake; pie.
[Spanish] envelopes of dough made of plantains
filled with tasty ingredients.
[Spanish] pie.
To kill bacteria by heating liquids to moderately
high temperatures only briefly. French scientist
Louis Pasteur discovered the solution while he
was researching the cause of beer and wine
spoilage.
[French] to sterilize milk by heating it to 60 to
82C or 140 to 180F degrees to destroy harmful
bacteria. The term is derived from Louis Pasteur,
who developed the method.
[Italian] pastry.
[Italian] pie.
A Moroccan pie made with chicken wrapped in
phyllo dough. When finished cooking, the pastilla
is dusted with sugar and cinnamon.
A small pasta, of any shape but frequently round;
used in soups.
Tiny bits of noodles.
A highly seasoned preserved meat made from
beef dry:cured with salt or saltpeter. The
seasonings include garlic, ground pepper,
cinnamon, red peppers, cloves, allspice and
coriander seeds. Commonly served as a
sandwich on rye bread.
Highly, spiced smoked beef, usually prepared
from the shoulder cuts.
A cone-shaped bag with openings at both ends.
Food is placed into the large opening then
squeezed out the small opening which may be
fitted with a decorator tip. It has a variety of uses,

Pastry Blender:

Pastry Brush:
Pastry cream:
Pastry flour:

Pastry Wheel:

Pastry wheel:
Pastry:
Pasty:
Pat:

Patatas:
Patate:
Pate a Choux:
Pate a Foncer:
Pate Brisee:
Pate Choux:

including decorating cakes and cookies, forming


pastries, or piping decorative edgings. Bags may
be made of cloth, plastic, or other materials.
A kitchen utensil with several u-shaped wires
attached to a handle. It's used to cut solid fat (like
shortening or butter) into flour and other dry
ingredients in order to evenly distribute the fat
particles.
A brush used to apply glaze or egg wash to
breads and other baked goods either before or
after baking.
A cooked custard thickened with flour. Some
versions may use cornstarch or a mixture of the
two starches.
A fine-textured, soft wheat flour with low-gluten
and high-starch content. It may be bleached,
unbleached, or whole wheat. Soft red or white
wheat may be used to produce this flour.
A utensil with a cutting wheel attached to a
handle. It's used to mark and cut rolled-out
dough, and may have a plain or decorative
edge.
Small, serrated wooden or metal wheel-like
utensil for cutting and fluting pastry.
Dough made with flour, butter and water and
baked or deep-fried until crisp.
Small pastry pie with a savory filling of meat,
potatoes and onion.
To take the underside of the hand and gently
press a food. The purpose might be to pat dry
ingredients onto the surface so they will adhere
during cooking, or to pat with a towel to remove
excess moisture.
[Spanish] potatoes.
[Spanish] sweet potato.
Cream puff paste. It is a mixture of boiled water,
fat, and flour, beat in whole eggs.
A shortcrust pastry dough made with butter and
strengthened with water. Used as a lining for
meat or fish pies.
A short crust pastry dough made with butter and
eggs.
A paste used to make cream puffs, eclairs, and
other more elaborate pastries. It is made by
adding flour to boiling water or milk, which has
been enriched with butter. Eggs are then added
into the paste to leaven it. Savory pastries such
as gougere may also be made with this paste.

Pate de foi gras:


Pate Feuilletae:

Pate Sable:
Pate Sucree:
Pate:

Pate:

Pate:

Pates:
Patisserie:
Pato:
Patronage dividend or rebate
(food industry term):
Patty cups:
Patty shell:
Patty:
Patty:

A paste made of finely ground goose livers.


A dough comprised of many alternating layers of
butter and pastry. This is an extremely versatile
dough though preparation of it is labor intensive
and very difficult.
Another type of sweet, short crust dough.
A sweet, short crust dough for tarts and tartlets.
A well:seasoned French preparation using a
meat or fish paste filling. Sometimes a fruit or
vegetable mixture is used. Can be smooth or
coarsely textured. Pates may be served hot or
cold, usually as a first course or appetizer.
An appetizer, pate usually consists of seasoned,
finely ground or strained meat, poultry, or fish.
Pate is usually cooked in a crust or mold (may be
called terrine) and is often served with crackers
or toast.
[French] a term referring to many different
preparations of meat, fish and vegetable pies.
The definitions of which have been altered
through the years. Originally pat referred to a
filled pastry much like American or English pies.
Now the term pate en croute is used to describe
these preparations. Pate en terrine has been
shortened to either pate or terrine. A terrine is
generally a finer forcemeat than that used for
pate, and is always served cold. Pates are
coarser forcemeats and, as stated before, are
often prepared in a pastry crust. We now use
these terms interchangeably and inclusive of all
styles of forcemeat. Look for definitions under
ballottine and galantine.
[French] pasta.
[French] pastry.
[Spanish] duck.
A wholesaler's refund to a member retailer to
distribute profits. Determined by totaling
purchases for a given time period or of specified
items.
Paper cupcake holders.
A shell made from puff paste to hold creamed
mixtures or fruit.
A thin, round piece of food, such as a hamburger
patty or a peppermint patty.
Small, flat, round or oval shaped cake of food,
such as potato cake or fish cake, which is served
hot; small, flat, individual pie, such as a chicken
patty, which is served hot or cold; small, round

Paupiette:
Paupiettes:
Pave:

Pavo (guajolote):
Pay directs (food industry
term):
Pay for performance (food
industry term):

form for meats such as hamburger.


[French] a thin slice of meat, like a scallopine,
which is stuffed and rolled. These may also be
made of fish or vegetables.
Thinly sliced meats wrapped around fillings.
[French] cold savory mousse mixture set in a
square mold coated with aspic jelly; square
sponge cake, filled with butter cream and coated
with icing.
[Spanish] turkey.
Coupons refunded directly to a retailer.

A manufacturer's requirement that a retailer must


prove performance for a promotion before
reimbursement.
Payable (food industry term):
See accounts payable.
Payback, payoff (food industry A profit made by a retailer on a special program.
term):
Payload (food industry term):
A trucking practice; after delivery of a shipment, a
trucker picks up another shipment before
returning to a warehouse. Also known as
backhaul.
Paysanne:
French name avariety of vegetables cut in a
small square, usually about 1/4". Used in soups
or granish for meats and seafood.
Paysanne:
A dish prepared country-style. A vegetable
garnish.
Peach Melba:
A dessert created in the late 1800s by the
famous French chef Escoffier for Dame Nellie
Melba, a popular Australian opera singer. It's
made with two peach halves that have been
poached in syrup and cooled. Each peach half is
placed hollow side down on top of a scoop of
vanilla ice cream, then topped with Melba sauce
(a raspberry sauce) and sometimes with whipped
cream and sliced almonds.
Peach:
A medium-sized stone fruit (Prunus persica)
native to China; has a fuzzy, yellow-red skin, pale
orange, yellow or white juicy flesh surrounding a
hard stone and a sweet flavor; available as a
clingstone and freestone.
Peaks:
The mounds made in a mixture. For example egg
white that has been whipped to stiffness. Peaks
are "stiff" if they stay upright or "soft" if they curl
over.
Peanut Oil:
Clear oil pressed from peanuts; very useful in
cooking and as a salad oil. Peanut oil has a
delicate flavor and high smoke point, making it

Peanut oil:

Peanut:

Peanut:
Pear:

Pearl barley:
Pearl Onions:
Pearl onions:

Peas:

Pease pudding:
Pecan:

Pecans (Sp: pacanas):


Peche Melba:

perfect for deep-frying.


This flavorful oil borders on all-purpose. Its flavor,
though distinctive, is not overpowering, and it is a
great oil for cooking (especially highly spiced
foods and Asian dishes in which olive oil is out of
place).
A legume and not a nut (Arachis hypogea), it is
the plant's nut-like seed that grows underground;
the hard nut has a papery brown skin and is
encased in a thin, netted tan pod and is used for
snacking and for making peanut butter and oil;
also known as a groundnut; earthnut, goober
(from the African work nguba) and goober pea.
Ground nut, eaten plain or roasted - sometimes
salted and sometimes not. Used to make peanut
butter and oils.
A spherical to bell-shaped pome fruit (Pyrus
communis), generally with a juicy, tender, crisp
off-white flesh, moderately thin skin that can
range in color from celadon green to golden
yellow to tawny red and a flavor that can be
sweet to spicy; pears can be eaten out of hand or
cooked and are grown in temperate regions
worldwide.
De-husked barley grains, primarily used in
soups.
Mild-flavored onions about the size of a small
marble; often cooked as a side dish or pickled as
a condiment or garnish.
Tiny, marble-size onions that are difficult to peel
but make a good side dish or addition to soups
and stews. Frozen ones are easier to handle, but
less flavorful.
The edible seeds contained within the pods of
various vines; the seeds are generally shelled
and the pod discarded; although available fresh,
peas are usually marketed canned or frozen.
Puree of cooked, dried peas which is made into
puddings, boiled and traditionally served with
pork.
The nut of a tree of the hickory family (Carya
oliviformis), native to North America; has a
smooth, thin, hard, tan shell enclosing a bilobed,
golden brown kernel with beige flesh and a high
fat content.
An oil-rich native American nut; probably
originated in Texas; grown commercially in
Arizona, Georgia, New Mexico and Texas.
Peaches served with a raspberry sauce.

Peche:
Pecorino Romano:

[French] peach.
The Pecorino cheeses are made from sheep's
milk in Italy. Romano is the best known.
Parmesan is a good Romano substitute.
Pecorino Romano:
Hard grating cheese made from sheep's milk with
a nutty, earthy flavor.
Pectin:
Pectin is a natural substance used to thicken
jams, jellies, and preserves. Pectin is naturally
present in fruits, but most don't have enough to
jell. The alternative is to cook the mixture until it's
reduced to the desired consistency. Pectin will
only work when combined with a specific balance
of sugar and acid.
Pectin:
Found naturally in fruits and vegetables, gelatinlike pectin is used as a thickener in jellies and
jams. Available in liquid and dry forms.
Peel:
To strip of the outer covering. Peel is applied to
oranges, grapefruit, etc.
Peel:
To strip off the outside covering.
Peel:
To remove the outside covering, such as the rind
or skin, of a fruit or vegetable with a knife or
vegetable peeler.
Peel:
A large tool, that looks like a shovel, used to slide
pizza onto a hot stone.
Pegboard (food industry term): A display used for small products or individual
items.
Pemmican:
Of Native American origin; dried, pounded meat
mixed with fat and berries, pressed into cakes for
survival food; was later adapted by the U.S.
Army.
Pennant (food industry term): A display poster with three visible sides.
Penne:
Italian for pen or quill and used to describe short
to medium-length straight tubes (ridged or
smooth) of pasta with diagonally cut ends.
Penne:
Diagonally cut smooth tubes are great for
trapping sauces. Those with ridged sides are
called penne rigate. Cooks in 12 minutes.
Penne:
Quill-shaped pasta tubes with smooth sides.
Those with ridges are called penne rigati. These
are also called mostaciolli. Large quill-shaped
tubes are called manicotti.
Peperoni:
Made with peppers.
Pepinos:
[Spanish] cucumbers.
Pepitas:
[Spanish] pumpkin seeds with the shells
removed.
Pepper steak:
A beefsteak sprinkled with black pepper, sauteed
in butter and served with a sauce made from the
drippings, stock, wine, and cream. Also refers to

Pepper:

Peppercorn:

Peppermint:

Pepperoni:

Peppers:

a Chinese stir:fry of steak strips, green peppers,


and onion cooked in soy sauce.
The fruit of various members of the Capsicum
genus; native to the Western hemisphere, a
pepper has a hollow body with placental ribs
(internal white veins) to which tiny seeds are
attached (seeds are also attached to the stem
end of the interior); a pepper can be white,
yellow, green, brown, purple or red with a flavor
ranging from delicately sweet to fiery hot; the
genus includes sweet peppers and hot peppers.
Peppercorns are small berries from a vine plant.
The black peppercorn is picked when it is almost
ripe, then dried. Whole ground or cracked, black
peppercorns produce our everyday black pepper.
The milder white pepper is made from the dried
inner kernel of the ripe berry.
An herb and member of the mint family (Mentha
piperita); has thin stiff, pointed bright green,
purple-tinged leaves and a pungent, menthol
flavor; used as a flavoring and garnish.
A highly spiced dry sausage made of pork and
beef. Seasoned with salt, black pepper, cayenne,
and garlic. Often thin sliced and served as an
appetizer or as a topping for pizzas.
"
Anaheim: (ANN-uh-hime) Fresh, six inches long,
can be green or red; mildly hot and fleshy, good
for stuffing and grilling.
Ancho: (AHN-choh) Wrinkled skin, squat, dark
red-brown; lots of pulp; sweet and medium hot,
lots of flavor; used for making mole.
Arbol: (ARE-bowl) Skinny, small, hot; red or
green when fresh; reddish brown dried; adds
heat and flavor to tomato and tomatillo salsas.
Banana: Fresh, can be mild or slightly hot; roast
on the grill to eat or use to season tacos.
Cascabel: (KAS-kuh-behl) Dry, smooth skin,
brick red, one and one-half inches wide; fairly
hot; woodsy, tobacco flavor; great in sauces.
Cayenne: (KI-yehn) Red fresh or dry; long,
extremely hot; associated with Cajun food.

Chipotle: (chih-POHT-lay) Smoked jalapeno;


dried, dull brown skin up to three inches long;
also sold canned in adobo sauce; widely popular
in United States to season simultaneously with
heat and smoke. ""
Guajillo: In Italian, fiori means flower. This pasta
has rounded petals that provide extra surface
area for chunky tomato-based sauces. Has lots
of kid appeal. Cooks in seven minutes.
Serrano:: (seh-RRAH-noh) Fresh, two or three
inches long in red or green; hot; used to season
green sauce and fresh foods such as salsa and
guacamole.
Habanero: (ah-bah-NEH-roh) When fresh,
orange to red; extremely hot and beloved for
underlying fruitiness.
Jalapeno: (hah-lah-PEH-nyoh) Fresh, favorite
supermarket pepper in green and red; mediumhot; thick flesh; roast and use as seasoning;
chop for fresh and cooked foods.
Mata: (MAH-tah) Small; when fresh, extremely
hot; use in fresh sauces or stir-fry into oil before
adding vegetables; add to shaker jar with vinegar
to make hot sauce.
Mora and morita: (MO-ruh and mo-REET-uh)
Dried red jalapeno, two or three inches long, redbrown; smoked flavor; medium hot; used in
salsas, soups, etc. (Moritas are smaller.) "
Pera:
[Spanish] pear.
Percent of profit (food industry The selling price of an item minus its cost,
term):
expressed as a percentage of its selling price.
Also referred to as margin or percent of margin.
Perch:
Any of a number of spiny:finned freshwater fish
found in North America and Europe. The best
known U.S. perch is the "yellow perch." Perch
have a mild, firm, low:fat flesh. The saltwater
white perch and ocean perch are not true
perches.
Perciatelli:
Pasta whose shape is similar to that of spaghetti,
but with a hollow center; also called bucatini.
Perciatelli:
Long macaroni.
Percolator:
Two-part coffee pot which forces boiling water
from lower half up through coffee grains

Perdrix:
Perejil:
Performance allowance (food
industry term):
Performance requirements
(food industry term):
Perigeux:
Perigourdine:
Perilla:
Perimeter department (food
industry term):
Perishables (food industry
term):
Peron or Manzana:

Perpetual inventory system


(food industry term):
Persil:
Persillade:
Persillade:
Persimmon:

Persimmon:

Pescado:
Pesce:
Pesto:

contained in upper half, and finally filtered


through a fine sieve.
[French] partridge.
[Spanish] parsley.
A manufacturer's allowance to a retailer on
completion of a promotion.
Specific promotional activities that a
manufacturer requires before a retailer can
receive a performance allowance.
A brown sauce made with Madeira wine and
truffles.
A P rigeux sauce with added goose liver.
A Japanese herb that has a dark, russet-purple
dentate leaf.
An outer wall of a retail store where the meat,
dairy, produce, deli and bakery departments are
typically located in a store.
Foods requiring refrigeration or special handling
because they spoil easily, such as meat,
seafood, produce, deli, bakery and dairy.
(pay-RHON or mahn ZAHN-ah) Fresh, thin
fleshed, meaty; medium hot to extremely hot;
add to sauces or roast and peel for stuffing or
rajas.
A system that maintains an expected inventory
level within a store that reflects all physical
product movement sales, deliveries, credits, etc.
[French] parsley.
A mixture of paste garlic, finely chopped parsley,
a little olive oil, and sometimes bread crumbs.
A combination of chopped parsley and garlic,
usually added to dishes at the end of cooking.
nice combined with breadcrumbs as a crust.
A round fruit with a glossy skin that can range in
color from yellow to deep orange with sweet,
creamy orange flesh. All persimmons have a
characteristic astringent flavor that causes the
mouth to pucker when they are not ripe.
A brilliant orange, smooth-skinned fruit that is
terribly tart when unripe, but very sweet when
fully ripe. Unlike most other fruits, there is no
such thing as an overripe persimmon.
[Spanish] fish.
[Italian] fish.
Pesto is an Italian basil sauce. Many variations of
this sauce exist including different nut based
pestos, different herb based pestos, sun dried
tomato pesto, and black olive pesto.

Pesto:

[Italian] a delicious sauce used for pastas, grilled


meats, and poultry. This is made of fresh basil,
garlic, olive oil, and parmesan cheese. Some
versions will also add parsley and walnuts or
pine nuts. The ingredients are ground into a
paste and moistened with the olive oil. Pesto is
also used to describe similar sauces that contain
other herbs or nuts.
Pet food institute (pfi) (food
1101 Connecticut Ave., N.W., Suite 700
industry term):
Washington, DC 20036 (202) 857-1100
Pet foods and supplies (food
An area of the grocery department designated for
industry term):
food and supplies for domestic pets. Often
considered a profit center.
Petit Four:
Small bite-size cakes, petits fours are usually
square or diamond-shaped. They're typically
coated with icing and decorated.
Petit Four:
Small, decoratively iced, rich cookie or cake
served on elaborate buffets or at the end of a
multi-course meal.
Petit pain:
[French] a roll.
Petit pois:
[French] Tiny young green peas.
Petite marmite:
A rich meat and vegetable soup.
Pfeffer:
[German] pepper.
Pfeffern sse:
[German] Peppernuts; Small spicy cake balls,
dusted with confectioners sugar.
Pfi (food industry term):
Pet Food Institute.
Pharmacy (food industry term): A place where prescription medicines are
compounded and dispensed.
Pharmacy only (food industry A store that generates at least 95 percent of
term):
sales from prescription drugs.
Pheasant:
A medium:sized game bird related to the
partridge and the quail. The female's flesh is
plumper, juicier, and more tender. Farm:raised
birds have a somewhat milder flavor than wild
varieties.
Pheasant:
A game bird with dark flesh and an average
weight of 1.5 to 2 lbs.
Phyllo Dough (Filo):
Paper-thin sheets of pastry dough for Middle
Eastern baking. Can be found in most
supermarkets frozen in boxes. Used for Greek
Baklava and many other baked dishes.
Phyllo:
A Greek pastry, phyllo is made up of tissue-thin
layers of dough. The dough is used for dishes
such as baklava and spanikopita. It can usually
be found frozen in supermarkets. Phyllo is
sometimes spelled filo.
Physical distribution (food
The process of planning, storing, order picking,
industry term):
and shipping of products through the supply

chain.
A written accounting of salable stock on hand as
of a specified date, valued at actual or
replacement cost.
Pib, pibil:
Yucatecan pit barbecue; barbecued.
Picadillo:
A Spanish dish made up of ground pork and
beef, tomatoes, garlic, onions, and other foods,
depending on the region. In Mexico, picadillo is
used as a stuffing.
Picadillo:
[Spanish] hash; shredded or ground beef, spices
and other ingredients; normally used as a filling.
Picante:
Spanish for flavored with hot peppers (chiles).
Picante:
[Spanish] sharp, hot and spicy (to taste).
Piccata:
[Italian] chopped meat.
Picholine Olive:
French green olive, salt-brine cured, with a
subtle, slightly salty flavor; sometimes preserved
with citric acid in the United States.
Pichon:
[Spanish] squab; domesticated pigeons.
Pick ticket (food industry term): A small label that warehouse selectors use to
select items to be shipped.
Pick to belt (food industry
Warehouse selectors select items or cases,
term):
apply price labels, place them on an automated
conveyor to the dock to ship to a retailer.
Pick to light (food industry
A lighting system that guides warehouse
term):
selectors to the correct products.
Pick to pack (food industry
A selector at a warehouse finds, prices and
term):
packs small items in totes and transports them to
the dock for shipping.
Pickapeppa Sauce:
A sweet and sour, mild hot pepper sauce from
Jamaica.
Pickerel:
A small (between two and three pound) variety of
the freshwater pike. Pickerel are know for their
lean, firm flesh.
Pickle:
To preserve food in a vinegar mixture or
seasoned brine. Cucumbers, cauliflower, onions,
baby corn, and and watermelon rind are some of
the most popular foods to pickle.
Pickle:
To preserve food in a vinegar or brine mixture.
Pickling salt:
A fine-grained salt without iodine, used in pickled
meat dishes. Found in all supermarkets.
Pickling Spice:
A combination of spices usually including
mustard seed, bay leaves, cinnamon, pepper,
allspice, ginger, turmeric, and cardamom.
Pickling spices are used primarily for pickling
foods, but may also be used to season certain
dishes.
Pickup (cash) (food industry
The removal of surplus cash from registers to
term):
prevent losses.
Physical inventory (food
industry term):

Pickup allowance, cpu


A manufacturer's discount offered to wholesalers
allowance (food industry term): who pick up orders at the manufacturing site or
distribution center rather than having them
delivered. See customer pickup.
Pickups (food industry term):
An out-of-stock product purchased to complete
scheduled orders or to fill a store shelf until a
scheduled delivery arrives.
Pico de Gallo:
Literally rooster's beak, a coarse uncooked
tomato salsa.
Pico de Gallo:
[Mexican] "beak of the rooster"; salsa cruda; very
hot, raw salsa with tomatoes, onions, cilantro and
serrano chiles; called salsa m xicana in Mexico.
Picoso:
[Spanish] hot (to taste).
Piece count (food industry
A receiving method for checking a load against
term):
the invoice by counting cases instead of each
item.
Pierogi:
Polish dumplings filled with a minced mixture,
such as pork, onions, cottage cheese and
seasonings.
Pigeon:
A widely distributed bird that is normally eaten
only when young. Squabs are young pigeons
that have never flown are therefore very tender.
Squabs are normally under a pound and about 4
weeks old. May be prepared like chicken.
Piggyback (food industry term): The transporting of a loaded truck trailer on a flat
railcar. See trailer on flat car.
Pignoli:
Pine nuts.
Pig's feet:
The feet and ankles of a pig. Available fresh,
pickled, and smoked. Fresh and smoked pig's
feet are used in sauces, soups, and stews. Pig's
feet are called "trotters" in England.
Pike:
A family of fish that includes the pike, pickerel,
and the muskellunge. These freshwater fish have
long bodies, pointed heads, vicious teeth, and
provide a lean, firm, bony flesh. Used in French
"quenelles" and the Jewish "gefilte fish."
Piki:
Indian bread baked as thin and crisp as paper.
Pilaf, Pilau:
An Armenian, Greek or southern Russian rice
dish with seasonings, often with meats,
vegetables or poultry added.
Pilaf:
A side dish of rice or other grains cooked in a
broth with seasonings and sometimes tossed
with vegetables or meat. Also known as pilau.
Pilferage (food industry term): Shoplifting, theft of money, or product tampering
by employees or customers.
Piloncillo:
[Spanish] an unrefined cane sugar that is
purchased in molded hard cones; It is beige to
brown in color; the deeper the color, the more

molasses flavor it has; dark brown sugar may be


substituted.
Pilot store (food industry term): A prototype store used to test management
practices, systems and products.
Pilze:
[German] mushrooms.
Pimenton:
Mexican paprika; similar in taste to New Mexico
ground red mild chile peppers.
Pimentos:
A name used for roasted red peppers that have
been canned or bottled in liquid. Used for stuffing
green olives.
Pimienta negra:
[Spanish] black pepper.
Pimienta:
[Spanish] pepper.
Pimiento chile:
Meaty and luscious with a tinge of spice; grown
in California and southern United States; when
dried, is ground into paprika; use fresh red bell
peppers if pimientos are unavailable.
Pimiento or Pimento:
A large red, sweet pepper. Pimientos are usually
found diced in cans and jars and are added to
dishes to enhance the color and flavor.
Pimientos dulces:
[Spanish] sweet peppers.
Pin bone steak:
A steak cut from the sirloin.
Pinas:
[Spanish] pineapples; used in salsas, relishes,
desserts and cocktails.
Pinch:
As much of an ingredient that can be held
between the thumb and forefinger. A very small,
approximate amount.
Pine Nuts:
The blanched seeds from pine cones. Other
names are: Indian nut, pinon, pignoli, and
pignolia.
Pine nuts:
Also pignoli nuts, small, pellet-shaped nuts.
Expensive (wonderfully sweet and rich) little nuts
that come from a large pinecone of Italy. May
substitute slivered almonds. The Southwestern
Pignons are similar.
Pineapple:
A tropical fruit (Ananas comosus) with a spiny,
diamond-patterned, greenish-brown skin and
swordlike leaves; the juicy yellow flesh surrounds
a hard core and has a sweet-tart flavor.
Pink salmon:
A lower fat variety of salmon. Also called the
"humpback salmon."
Pinon:
Pine nuts, seeds of large pine cones. Used in
deserts and breads or roasted and enjoyed as
nut meats.
Pinones:
[Spanish] pine nuts, pignolis; seeds of the pi on
pine which ripen in the crevices of pine cones
throughout the desert Southwest; delicious raw
or toasted; store tightly covered and either
refrigerate or freeze them, depending on how

Pint:
Pintade:
Pinto Bean:
Pinto beans:

Pipe:
Pipe:
Pipeline (food industry term):

Pipian:
Piquant, Piquante:
Piquant:
Piquante Sauce:
Piquin:
Piroshki:
Pissaladiere:

Pit:
Pit:
Pita bread:
Pita:

soon they are to be used.


A unit of volume measurement equal to 16 fl. oz.
in the U.S. system.
[French] Guinea hen.
A medium-sized pale pink bean with reddishbrown streaks; available dried; also known as a
crabeye bean and a red Mexican bean.
Name taken from pintar (to paint); reddish-brown
speckled beans that turn pink when cooked;
used in traditional Mexican cookery; when a
recipe title says "frijoles," it is most likely referring
to pinto beans. Pinto beans make great refried
beans; they are also good for beans and rice,
chili, or served as a puree.
To squeeze icing or other soft food through a
pastry bag to make a design or decorative edible
edging.
To squeeze a paste-like mixture (usually frosting)
through a pastry bag.
The stock flow s from producers to consumers
necessary in all inventory locations throughout
the channel to keep product on the retail shelf
available for customers to purchase.
[Spanish] sauce containing ground nuts or seeds
and spices; Indian stew or fricassee thickened by
its ingredients rather than by flour.
Spicy or sharp in flavor.
A term which generally means a tangy flavor.
A sauce made with shallots, white wine vinegar,
gherkins, parsley, and a variety of herbs and
seasonings.
(pay-KEEN) Small, dried, red; extremely hot;
simmer in cooked sauces, soups, stews.
Small Russian meat pies, like empanadas, eaten
for lunch or snacks.
A southern French pizza consisting of a thick
bread crust covered with cooked onions flavored
with garlic. The pizza is then topped with black
olives and anchovies.
To remove the seed from a piece of fruit by
cutting around the sides of the fruit and pulling
the seed away from the flesh.
(Or "stone.") To remove the pit or seed from a
fruit or olive.
Flat round bread made with or without a pocket.
A round, Middle Eastern flat bread made from
white or whole wheat flour. When a pita is split,
the pocket may be filled to make a sandwich.

Pitch book (food industry term): A salesperson's loose-leaf notebook that lists
prices, product specifications and other selling
information.
Pith:
The white cellular lining of the rind covering the
flesh of citrus fruits.
Pizza:
[Italian] Flat baked dough covered with various
combinations of tomatoes, olive oil, anchovies,
sausage, cheese, etc.
Pizzaiola:
[French] meat or chicken, cooked in red wine,
tomato sauce and flavored with garlic; plat du
jour - dish of the day.
Pizzelles:
Thin decoratively patterned Italian wafer cookies
that are made in an iron similar to a waffle iron.
They may be flat or rolled into ice cream cones.
Placement (food industry term): The initial selling and subsequent establishment
of a product brand or pack on a store shelf that
previously did not stock or purchase it; a "new
sale."
Placement allowance (food
A manufacturer's allowance for ordering new or
industry term):
promotional products.
Plank:
An oiled, grooved hard-wood platter, usually oak,
on which meat is served and carved. Also,
sometimes roasted on.
Planogram (food industry term): A department, shelf, or display schematic for
allocating products by the number of facings
and/or the depth of the display.
Plans committee (food industry A management group that approves product mix,
term):
formulates advertising and merchandising
programs and projects sales volume. See
advisory board; buying committee;
merchandising committee.
Plantains:
Also known as machos. The plantain is a green
skinned, pink fleshed banana which is usually
flatter and longer than a regular banana. It also
contains more starch and less sugar. It is usually
eaten fried, mashed, or in stews in South
American, African, and West Indian cuisine.
Plantains:
Vegetable banana. Resemble bananas in size
and shape but are starchier and not sweet. Both
green (hard) and brown (ripe) are used in the
cuisines of the Caribbean and South America.
Ripe plantains can be peeled like bananas but
not green ones. Most commonly sliced thin and
fried. Found in some larger supermarkets,
Hispanic and Caribbean markets. Also known as
machos.
Plants:
Four sacred plants of the Southwest Indians are
beans, corn, squash and tobacco.
Plastic Wrap:
A thin sheet of clear polymers such as polyvinyl

chloride; clings to surfaces and is used to wrap


foods for storage.
Platano macho:
[Spanish] plantain; a tropical plant resembling the
banana; very large with a thick skin; the fruit is
deeper yellow than that of the banana; cooked,
unripe platana is eaten like a potato; when ripe,
the skins are black, and this is when they are
sweetest; platanas will ripen after being
harvested.
Platano:
[Spanish] banana; coarse-textured banana that
cannot be eaten raw.
Platter cart (food industry term): A wheeled rack used to transport deli trays.
Plma (food industry term):
Private Label Manufacturers Association.
Plu (food industry term):
Price look-up.
Pluck:
Offal; to remove the feathers from a
domesticated or game bird.
Plugra butter:
also known as European-style butter, has a
higher butterfat and lower moisture content than
regular butter, which makes pastries flakier and
sauces smoother.
Plum Sauce:
Also known as duck sauce, plum sauce is a
Chinese condiment made from plums, apricots,
vinegar and sugar. It has a thick, jam-like
consistency and tart-sweet flavor. Plum sauce is
used predominately as a dipping sauce for
roasted meats and fried appetizers.
Plum sauce:
An Asian sweet-and-sour sauce made from
plums, apricots, sugar, and other seasonings.
Sold in jars or cans, store tightly covered, in the
refrigerator.
Plum tomatoes:
These oval-shaped tomatoes have great flavor.
They are the best sauce tomato, because is quite
thick in comparison to the round tomato.
Plum:
A small to medium-sized ovoid or spherical stone
fruit (Prunus domestica) that grows in clusters;
has a smooth skin that can be yellow, green, red,
purple or indigo blue, a juicy flesh, large pit and
sweet flavor.
Plus out (food industry term): A forced distribution of products from the
warehouse to the retail stores of a chain
operation.
Pm (food industry term):
Push money.
Pm allowances (food industry Promotional money paid by vendors for
term):
advertising allowances.
Pma (food industry term):
Produce Marketing Association.
Po (food industry term):
Purchase order.
Poach
Submerging food into a hot liquid (approximately
1600 F-1800F)

Poach:
Poach:
Poach:

Poach:
Poblano chiles:

Poblano Chili Pepper:


Poblano:

Poele:
Poi:
Point of sale (pos) (food
industry term):

Point-of-purchase (food
industry term):
Point-of-sale advertising (food
industry term):

Point-of-sale system (food


industry term):
Poisson:

To cook in liquid held just below boiling so it just


shimmers slightly on the surface. Example
Puree:
To cook in a hot liquid, using precautions to
retain shape. The temperature used varies with
the food.
To cook food in liquid, at or just below the boiling
point. For eggs, meat, or fish, the liquid is usually
water or a seasoned stock; fruit is generally
poached in a sugar syrup.
To cook food simmered in a liquid, just below the
boiling point.
"People chiles"; in dried form, known as ancho
chiles; frequently used for chiles rellenos; dark
green, almost black, ranging from mild to hot,
they look like deflated bell peppers; normally
roasted before using; when dried, it is called the
ancho chile; in California it is usually called a
pasilla chile; preferred choice for making chiles
rellenos.
A dark, sometimes almost black green chili
pepper with a mild flavor. Best known for its use
in "Chili Rellanos".
(poh-BLAH-noh) Fresh, dark green or red; up to
five inches long and three and one-half inches
wide; medium-hot; always roasted before using
for stuffing or rajas.
A method of cooking (usually in a covered pot)
where foods are cooked in their own juices. Also
referred to as butter roasting.
A Hawaiian dish made from cooked taro root that
has been pounded to a smooth paste and mixed
with water.
The place in a retail store where products are
scanned through the register system, data is
collected, and sales are tendered. POS also
describes sales data generated by checkout
scanners.
The locations within a retail store where a
customer purchases products.
Signs, recorded messages or gimmicks in a store
that direct attention to products on sale. They
may be either supplied by a manufacturer and
mention specific brand names, or they may have
been made by the retailer himself to call attention
to a special.
An electronic register system that scans
purchases and collects data.
[French] fish.

Poivrade:
Pole display (food industry
term):
Polenta:
Polenta:

Polish sausage:

Pollack:

Pollo:
Pollo:
Pollyfish:

Polyunsaturated Fat:
Pomegranate molasses:

Pomegranate:

Pomegranate:

Made with pepper.


An advertising display that is mounted on a pole
and placed above a product, e.g., produce
displays, meat signs, coffin cases signs.
A mush made from cornmeal, polenta may be
eaten hot or cooled and fried. Polenta is a staple
of northern Italy.
The Italian version of cornmeal mush. Coarsely
ground yellow cornmeal is cooked with stock or
water and flavored with onions, garlic, and
cheese. Polenta may be eaten fresh out of the
pot, as a perfect accompaniment to stews.
Polenta may also be poured into a greased pan
and allowed to set. It is then sliced, saut ed, and
topped with cheese or tomato sauce.
Also called "kielbasa," this is a highly seasoned
smoked sausage of Polish origin made from pork
and (sometimes) beef. It is flavored with garlic an
other spices. It can be served cold or hot.
This low to moderate fat fish has firm, white,
flesh with a delicate, somewhat sweet flavor.
Pollack is often used to make imitation crab
meat. Also known as "Coalfish" or "Saithe," this
saltwater fish is a member of the cod family.
Spanish term for chicken.
[Spanish] chicken.
Any of various chiefly tropical marine fish,
especially those of the family Scaridae. These
fish are called parrot fish because of the brilliant
coloring and the shape of their jaws. "Also called
"parrot fish."
A fatty acid with two or more double bonds
between carbon atoms; the good kind of fat.
[Middle Eastern] also known as pomegranate
syrup. Condiment prepared from yellow sour
pomegranates cooked with sugar. Provides fruity
and tangy flavor to savory dishes.
A red to purple fruit with thin leathery skin and
hundreds of crunchy seeds encased in
translucent, sweet-tart flesh. The seeds are
separated from the flesh by a bitter membrane
that should be discarded.
A strangely constructed fruit - a labyrinth of
seeds wrapped in fruit buried in a mass of
inedible flesh surrounded by a tough skin. The
pulp and juice surrounding the tiny seeds have a
sweet-tart flavor. Pomegranate juice is used in
making Grenadine and pomegranate molasses is
available in Middle Eastern stores.

Pomfret:

This small, high:fat fish has a tender texture and


a rich, sweet flavor. Found off the coast of the
Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, this fish is also
called the "butterfish."
Pomidoro:
[Italian] tomato.
Pomme de terre:
[French] potato.
Pomme:
[French] apple.
Pompano:
This saltwater fish is a succulent, fine:textured
fish with a mild delicate flavor. This expensive,
moderately fat fish is considered by many
experts as America's finest fish.
Pone bread:
Corn bread.
Pone:
A round, flat food, such as corn pone.
Pooch:
Cowboy favorite of stewed tomatoes, sugar and
biscuits.
Pool car (food industry term): A rail car shipment of the same brand of
products, shipped to one geographic area, but
delivered to different retailers.
Pop (p-o-p) (food industry
Point-of-purchase signage. See point-ofterm):
purchase.
Pop radio (food industry term): Advertising a particular product on radio.
Popover:
Indian fry bread.
Poppy Seed or Poppyseed:
Tiny bluish-gray seeds of the poppy plant. Poppy
seeds are often sprinkled on food, used as a
filling, or added to a variety of foods, such as
cakes, breads, and salad dressings.
Porcini:
A large wild mushroom with a smooth cap and
thick stem. Porcini mushrooms have an earthy
flavor.
Porcini:
[Italian] also called c pes, these meaty, largetopped mushrooms are a treat. Most frequently
sold dried but becoming increasingly available
fresh.
Porgy:
Also know as "Scup" or "Porgie." These saltwater
fish are generally lean, and coarse:grained.
Porgy is often grilled, poached, and pan:fried.
Porgy:
Widely known as sea bream, there are many
different varieties of this fish family in the United
States and around the world. The most popular
United States porgy is the scup, which is found in
Atlantic waters. Porgies have a firm, low-fat flesh
with a delicate, mild flavor. Although some grow
to 20 pounds, most fall into the 1/2- to 3-pound
range. They're available fresh and frozen, and
are generally sold whole. The porgy is suitable
for almost any method of cooking, including
baking, grilling and frying.
Pork chitterlings:
The small intestines of freshly slaughtered pigs.

Pork:

Pork:
Porridge:
Portabella:
Porter house steak:
Porterhouse Steak:

Portion pack (food industry


term):
Portobello mushrooms:

They are cleaned and simmered until tender.


Chitterlings are served with sauce, added to
soups, battered and fried, and used as sausage
casings.
The flesh of domestic swine. Today's pork is
leaner (1/3 fewer calories) and higher in protein
than a decade ago. And with improved feeding
techniques, trichinosis has become extremely
rare. Most pork is slaughtered at 6 to 9 months.
The flesh of hogs, usually slaughtered under the
age of 1 year.
Hot cooked (usually oatmeal) cereal.
A very large crimini; the mushroom has a dense
texture and a rich, meaty flavor.
A steak cut from the thick end of the tenderloin,
or short loin, of beef.
A cut of meat from the rear end of the short loin.
The name originates from the days when it was
served in public alehouses that also served a
dark beer called porter. It consists of a hefty
chunk of tenderloin with an even heftier chunk of
sirloin tip. Some folks like to remove the
tenderloin to serve separately as filet mignon.
A product package of single-service portions.

Enormous version of cremini with robust flavor.


Great when grilled, broiled, or saut ed.
Pos (food industry term):
Point of sale.
Positive check authorization
A database management system that allows a
(velocity-based) (food industry company to track and manage check
term):
authorizations through or with an electronic POS
system.
Posole, Pozole:
Hominy stew made with dried lime-treated corn
and combined with pork and seasonings.
Posole, pozole:
Corn that has been treated with slaked lime to
remove the tough outer husks of the kernels,
then dried; thick stew made with hominy as an
ingredient; the stew usually includes pork and
chiles; also another name for hominy. The base
of the soup is water flavored with onions,
tomatoes (or tomatillos), and herbs. Hominy is
cooked into this broth and condiments include
minced onion, avocado, lime wedges, oregano,
queso fresco, and fried pork skin.
Posting bills (food industry
The entering of all transactions onto the proper
term):
receiving records at a store.
Postre:
[Spanish] dessert.
Pot Liquor, or Pot Likker:
The liquid left after cooking greens, vegetables,

Pot Roast:
Pot roast:
Pot Sticker Wrappers:

Potage:
Potage:
Potassium:

Potato starch or flour:


Potato:

Pot-au-feu:
Pothook:
Pots de cr me:
Potted meat:
Poule:
Poulet:
Poultry Seasoning:
Poultry Seasoning:
Poultry:
Pound:
Power wing (food industry
term):

or other food. It's traditionally served with


cornbread in the South.
A large piece of meat browned in fat quickly and
then cooked in a covered pan.
Beef cooked in a manner similar to braising, but
on top of the stove.
Very thin sheets of dough made from flour, eggs
and salt; used for small meat and vegetable filled
dumplings known as pot stickers, as well as for
won ton and egg rolls.
French term for a thick soup intended to serve as
a complete meal. It defines a soup with a
thickness that is between consomme and soupe.
[French] thick soup.
A mineral used primarily to assist the
transmissions of nerve impulses and to develop
protein. Good potassium sources include green
vegetables, kiwi, bananas and other fruits.
Starch made from dried potatoes ground into
flour. Find in some Scandinavian shops,
delicatessens and health food stores.
The starchy tuber of a succulent, nonwoody
annual plant (Solanum turberosum) native to the
Andes Mountains; cooked like a vegetable, made
into flour, processed for chips and used for
distillation mash.
A combination of stock with meat, bones, and
vegetables, cooked together but often served as
separate courses.
Bent iron for hanging a kettle over the fire.
Small custards, variously flavored.
A meat that has been cooked and ground to a
fine paste, lightly seasoned, and packed.
[French] chicken.
[French] young chicken.
A blend of herbs and spices, poultry seasoning
usually contains sage, celery seed, thyme,
savory, marjoram, onion, and pepper.
Equal amounts of dried sage, dried thyme and
dried marjoram.
Any domesticated bird used for food; the USDA
recognizes six kinds of poultry: chicken, duck,
goose, guinea, pigeon and turkey.
A basic measure of weight in the U.S. system; 16
ounces = 1 pound, 1 pound = 453.6 grams or
0.4536 kilogram .
Gondola extensions used to display promotional
products.

Ppo (food industry term):


Ppum (food industry term):
Prairie coal:

Preferred provider organization.


Price per unit measure.
Cow or buffalo manure, dried and used in
campfires.
Prairie strawberries:
Red beans; also called Arizona strawberries.
Praline:
A confection made with pecans and brown
sugar.
Praline:
In French cookery this is a powder or paste
made of caramelized almonds and/or hazelnuts.
American cookery refers to a candy consisting of
caramel and pecans. Candy eaten in the
Southwest; made from brown sugar and pecans.
Prawn:
Term commonly used for any large shrimp,
although a true prawn has a thinner body and
longer legs than a shrimp, and an average
market length of 3 inches or 4 inches.
Prawns:
For culinary purposes, the same as shrimp. In
the U.S., large shrimp are sometimes called
prawns. The true prawn is a small shellfish
closely related to shrimp, but it is European.
Pre-built display (food industry See prepack.
term):
Preferred provider organization A healthcare provider group that offers reduced
(ppo) (food industry term):
medical costs to members.
Preheat:
Heating the empty oven to the recommended
temperature before placing the product to be
baked in it.
Preheat:
To allow the oven or pan to get to a specified
temperature before adding the food to be
cooked.
Preorders (food industry term): Future advertised items that are ordered in
advance from the warehouse.
Prepack (food industry term):
A shipping container designed to display
products on a retail sales floor. Also called a
shipper, pre-built display or display case.
Prepackaging (food industry
A manufacturer's packaging and pricing of
term):
products before delivery to the retail store. e.g.,
display-ready packs of produce and meat.
Prepricing (food industry term): Items priced by a manufacturer before delivery to
the retail store, e.g., produce and meat.
Preprint order form (food
A printed inventory guide for a warehouse that
industry term):
lists current inventory available to retailers for
ordering.
Prescription drugs (food
Medicines that can be obtained only by means of
industry term):
a physician's written order.
Preserve:
To prepare foods for long storage. Some ways to
preserve food are drying, refrigeration, freezing,
canning, curing, pickling, and smoking.

Preserves:

A thick cooked mixture of whole or cut up fruit,


sugar, and usually pectin.
Preserves:
Fruits or vegetables, whole or chopped,
simmered in a sugary syrup.
Pressure Cooker:
A cooking pot made to cook food under pressure.
The pressure cooker has a locking lid and a
valve system to regulate the internal pressure.
Cooking time may be reduced by as much as
50% without destroying the nutritional value of
the food.
Price book (food industry term): A manufacturer's or a wholesaler's printed
current list of products and correct prices.
Price brand (food industry
A featured brand of product on sale to attract
term):
customers.
Price card (food industry term): Display signs indicating the cost of a featured
product.
Price changes (food industry
The reduction or increase in the selling price of a
term):
product.
Price discrimination (food
Discounting a product's price for one customer
industry term):
and not for others within a trading area.
Price fixing (food industry
An illegal practice among competitors of setting
term):
the same price for a product. Also known as price
gouging.
Price leader (food industry
A brand of product featured at a low price point to
term):
increase sales volume.
Price list (food industry term): A manufacturer's listing of all products by UPC
and price.
Price look-up (plu) (food
Codes assigned to products that are normally not
industry term):
bar-coded, such as fast-moving items and
weighed produce, to allow for fast and accurate
pricing.
Price maintenance (food
The upkeep of a central pricing database to
industry term):
ensure accurate and consistent pricing.
Price marking (food industry
Placing the retail price on a package using
term):
labels, stamps or other means.
Price per unit measure (ppum) A label used on items stocked on shelves. Used
(food industry term):
for ordering and to help customers compare
prices.
Price protection (food industry A manufacturer, wholesaler or retailer agreement
term):
to maintain a product's price for a set period of
time.
Price verification (food industry A cross check of a product's shelf price
term):
compared with the scanned price at the register.
Price war (food industry term): A price war among retailers designed to retaliate
against each other for price reductions.
Price zones (food industry
Price categories in an area that reflect a local
term):
market's competition and local warehouse costs.
Pricing integrity (food industry A matching of the price of a product and the price

term):
Pricing office (food industry
term):
Pricing zones (food industry
term):
Prick:
Prickly pear:
Primavera:
Prime Rib:
Printanier:
Private label (food industry
term):

Private label manufacturers


association (plma) (food
industry term):
Processed cheese:

charged on the electronic scanner at the


checkout.
An area in-store where scanning coordinators
change prices, enter new items, maintain the
item file on the computer database and generate
reports.
See zone pricing.
To make small holes in the surface of a food,
usually using the tines of a fork. Pie crust is
usually pricked.
Egg-size fruit of the prickly pear cactus; the fruit
is referred to as tuna; flesh is garnet-colored.
Often made in to prickly pear jelly.
Italian for "spring style," this term refers to the
use of fresh vegetables as a seasoning or
garnish in a dish.
Meats found in supermarkets labeled "prime rib"
are most often actually rib roasts.
[French] garnish of spring vegetables.
A product line exclusively distributed by a
wholesaler/ retailer, which may be manufactured
under contract for the private label user. See
controlled brand; franchised label; house
brands.
369 Lexington Ave. New York, NY 10017 (212)
972-3131

Some amount of cheese cooked together with


dyes, gums, emulsifiers and stabilizers
(American cheese, Laughing Cow, rambol).
Processor (food industry term): A company that produces consumer products
from raw goods or materials. Also known as a
packer.
Produce (food industry term): Fresh fruits and vegetables.
Produce marketing association 1500 Casho Mill Rd. Newark, DE 19714-6036
(pma) (food industry term):
(302) 738-7100
Producer (food industry term): A grower or processor.
Product liability (food industry A legal term in tort law that means consumers
term):
can sue manufacturers, distributors or retailers
for defective or unsafe products
Product line (food industry
A group of products with similar uses and
term):
characteristics.
Product lookup number (food A number assigned to a coupon or produce
industry term):
product that, when entered into the register,
retrieves a product's name and price.
Product mix (food industry
A variety and size of products comprising the
term):
total assortment of products that a retailer offers

for sale.
Product movement (food
An item's rate of sale.
industry term):
Product movement record (food Data showing the volume of each product's sales
industry term):
by day, week, period and/or quarter.
Product recall (food industry
The mandatory withdrawal for public safety
term):
reasons of a product that is for sale.
Product sampling (food
A consumer promotion in which small sizes of
industry term):
products, usually new, are sold at a low price to
encourage consumers to try them. Free tastings
or demonstrations to introduce consumers to a
new item.
Productive labor (food industry An accounting term used for the hours charged
term):
to the normal operation of the store.
Productivity measures (food
Standards or benchmarks used to improve
industry term):
productivity, business processes and
organizational performance.
Profit and loss statement (p&l) A financial statement of gains and losses for a
(food industry term):
specific time period.
Profit items (food industry
Products that have a high profit margin.
term):
Profit opportunity (food
Products that enjoy a higher gross margin.
industry term):
Creative displays of such items will return a
larger than average margin of profit.
Profit sharing (food industry
A company's incentive program whereby
term):
employees share a percentage of net profits.
Profit, gross (food industry
See gross profit.
term):
Profit, net (food industry term): See net profit.
Profitability (food industry
A calculation of the profit of a product by the
term):
number of product turns and gross profit.
Profiterole:
Tiny cream puff, filled with sweet or savory
mixtures, served as dessert or hors d'oeuvres.
Progressive grocer (food
A monthly magazine for the food industry,
industry term):
published by
Progressive grocer associates, 23 Old King's Highway, South Darien, CT 06820
llc (food industry term):
Projections (food industry
The process of determining what and how much
term):
product will be sold at what price during a
predetermined time period.
Promotion (food industry term): A marketing campaign to increase sales through
advertising, merchandising, signage, and special
events.
Promotion allowance (food
A discount offered by manufacturers to
industry term):
wholesalers and retailers to advertise, reduce the
price of, or provide a special display of a product
during a sales promotion period. See advertising
allowance.

Promotion money (food


industry term):
Promotional business (food
industry term):

See push money.

A product that is sold under promotional


allowances or other price considerations as a
buyer's incentive to support a specific
merchandising program. See turn business.
Promotional licensing (food
A marketing agreement between a manufacturer
industry term):
and a celebrity to use his or her image in
promoting a product.
Proof box (food industry term): A piece of equipment, in which heat and humidity
are controlled in order for dough to rise in
preparation for baking.
Proof Box:
A sealed cabinet that allows control over both
temperature and humidity.
Proof of performance (food
A retailer's certification to a manufacturer that
industry term):
promotional performance requirements were met
and allowances should be paid.
Proof of purchase (food
Evidence used by a customer to verify the
industry term):
purchase of a product and mailed to a
manufacturer to receive a premium, refund or
rebate.
Proof:
In bread baking, this term indicates the period of
time a product is allowed to rise after it is shaped
and placed on or in pans. Products are usually
proofed until doubled in size, or when a finger,
lightly placed on the side of the loaf, leaves an
indentation. Products are "proofed" in a humid,
draft-free, 950F to 1000F place. In homes, a
barely damp, clean, non-terry cloth towel or
plastic wrap sprayed with pan spray may be
lightly placed over the product to prevent the
crust from drying. Some ovens have a proofing
feature. Follow the manufacturer's use guide.
Proof:
1) To "prove" yeast is alive by dissolving it in
warm water and setting it aside in a warm place
for 5 to 10 minutes. If it swells and becomes
bubbly, it is alive. 2) Proof is an indication of the
amount of alcoholic content in a liquor. In the
U.S., proof is twice the percentage of alcohol. If a
liquor is labeled 80 proof, it contains 40%
alcohol
Proofing/rise (food industry
A fermentation stage in the baking process in
term):
which dough rests after kneading and before
baking.
Proportionate shelving (food
A space management procedure that utilizes
industry term):
share of sales to determine the number of
facings for a product on a shelf.
Prosciutto:
An unsmoked, seasoned, salt:cured, and
air:dried ham. The meat is pressed to produce a

Prosciutto:
Prosciutto:

Protein:

Provencale:
Provolone Cheese:

Prune:
Prune:
Puchero:
Pudding:
Puerco:
Puerro:
Puesto:
Puff paste, pastry:
Puff Pastry:

Pull date (food industry term):

firm texture, then sliced very thin. "Parma ham" is


the true prosciutto. "Prosciutto cotto" is cooked
ham, "Prosciutto crudo" is raw.
The Italian word for ham.
The Italian word for ham, usually referring to the
raw cured hams of Parma. Though once
impossible to obtain in the United States due to
USDA regulations, fine prosciuttos from Italy and
Switzerland are now being imported. These
hams are called prosciutto crudo. Cooked hams
are called prosciutto cotto. Prosciutto is best
when sliced paper thin served with ripe figs or
wrapped around grissini.
Protein can be found in both animal and
vegetable sources, and provides the body with
energy while performing a large number of other
functions.
[French] in the Provence style; served with a
spicy garnish of tomatoes, mushrooms and garlic
in oil.
Pale yellow, sharp Italian cheese originating in
the southern province of Catania, made from
cow's or buffalo milk. Most provolone is aged for
two to three months, though some is aged six
months to a year or more.
A dried red or purple plum.
dried plum.
[Spanish] stew.
Like custards, thick, creamy mixtures of milk,
sugar, and flavorings. Custards are thickened
with eggs, puddings with cornstarch or flour.
[Spanish] pork.
[Spanish] leek.
[Spanish] a stand in the market or on the street.
Layers upon layers of pastry dough, each
separated by a film of butter. Time-consuming
but fairly easy to make.
A rich, multilayered French pastry made with
butter, flour, eggs, and water. Puff pastry is made
by placing chilled butter pats between layers of
dough, then rolling the dough, folding it in thirds
and letting it rest. The process is repeated
several times, producing a dough with hundreds
of layers of dough and butter. When baked, the
moisture in the butter creates steam, which
causes the dough to separate into flaky layers.
The date by which a product must be either sold
or pulled from a shelf.

Pull down (food industry term): Organizing merchandise so lower product layers
are full on the shelf.
Pulla:
(POO-yah) Dried, up to five inches long, light
reddish brown; hot; used like arbol in sauces and
for seasoning soups and stews.
Pulp:
The succulent flesh of a fruit.
Pulque:
[Spanish] beer made by fermenting the juice of
the maguey cactus (century plant).
Pulse:
An action used with processors and blenders. If a
recipe tells you to pulse, turn the start button on
and off rapidly serveral times or until the
ingredients are appropriately processed.
Pulverize:
To reduce to powder or dust by pounding,
crushing or grinding.
Pulverize:
To break a food down to powder by crushing or
grinding.
Pumate:
Italian for sun-dried tomatoes.
Pumate:
[Italian] sun-dried tomatoes.
Pumpernickel:
A medium- to coarsely ground, rye flour, light
brown in color. It may be labeled "medium rye." A
mixture of rye and wheat flour used to produce a
distinctive bread. Molasses are usually used to
add color and flavor.
Pumpernickel:
A course black bread made with rye flour.
Pumpkin seeds:
[Sp.] pepitas; husked inner seed of the pumpkin;
seeds are roasted and used as a snack or
garnish; when seeds are roasted and ground,
used as a thickener and flavoring agent.
Pumpkin:
A spherical winter squash with a flattened top
and base, size ranging from small to very large,
fluted orange shell (yellow and green varieties
are also available), yellow to orange flesh with a
mild sweet flavor and numerous flat, edible
seeds.
Punch down:
In reference to bread dough - when dough has
doubled in size or when a dent remains after two
fingers are lightly pressed inch into the dough,
make a fist and push it into the center of the
dough. Pull the edges of the dough to the center
and turn the dough over. Cover and let rest or
rise again before shaping.
Punch Down:
To deflate a risen dough. With your hand, press
on the dough until the gas escapes.
Purchase allowance (food
A manufacturer's deal to retailers and
industry term):
wholesalers to lower the case price if an order is
received during a promotional time period.
Purchase order (po) (food
A form used to order products.
industry term):

Purchasing power (food


industry term):
Puree:
Puree:

A measure of a family's or individual's disposable


income.
Food that has been mashed or sieved.
A thick soup made from a pureed vegetable
base. To finely blend and mash food to a smooth,
lump-free consistency. You can puree foods in a
blender, food processor, or food mill.
Purse:
[French] sieved raw or cooked food; thick
vegetable soup which is passed through a sieve
or an electric blender or food processor.
Purslane:
A small plant with reddish stems and rounded
leaves. Purslane can be eaten cooked or raw
and has a mild flavor.
Purslane:
Pink-stemmed purslane weed used as a
vegetable and in salads.
Push items (food industry
Products that receive maximum marketing and
term):
merchandising attention to increase their sales
volume.
Push money (pm) (food
A manufacturer's incentive to wholesalers to
industry term):
actively market their products. Usually payments
are based on the number of cases sold. Also
called promotion money or a spiff.
Push/pull (food industry term): A marketing concept in which product is "pushed"
by a manufacturer with a special promotion
(advertising, merchandising) and "pulled" out of
the store through customers' demand created by
the promotion.
Put-away (food industry term): Reshelving items not purchased by customers in
a store.
Puttanesca:
A piquant pasta sauce made of tomatoes,
onions, black olives, capers, anchovies, and chile
flakes.
Puttanesca:
A piquant pasta sauce made of tomatoes,
onions, black olives, capers, anchovies, and chile
flakes. The hot pasta is tossed in this sauce prior
to serving. Some recipes leave the ingredients
raw, allowing the heat of the pasta to bring out
the flavors.
Pyramid (food industry term): A hand-stacked, triangular display.
Pyramide Cheese:
A truncated pyramid is the shape of this small
French chevre that is often coated with dark gray
edible ash. The texture can range from soft to
slightly crumbly and depending upon its age, in
flavor from mild to sharp. It is wonderful served
with crackers or bread and fruit.
[Spanish] radishes.
Rabanos:
Rabbit:
Rabbit meat is mostly white, fine textured and

mildly flavored. Domesticated rabbit is generally


plumper and less strongly flavored that wild
rabbits. Rabbit can be prepared in any manner
suitable for chicken.
Raccoon:
A North American mammal that served as an
important food source for pioneers. The flesh is
mostly dark meat, and the fat is strong in flavor
and aroma. Young raccoons are usually roasted;
older raccoons should be braised or stewed.
Rack (food industry term):
A floor or counter display unit with shelves and
hooks for merchandise.
Rack jobber (food industry
A wholesaler or vendor that orders and delivers
term):
product and services a non-food department in a
food store on a contract basis, e.g., health and
beauty care (HBC).
Radicchio:
A variety of chicory, radicchio leaves are red with
white ribs, and are slightly bitter. The leaves are
most often used in salads, but may be grilled,
sauteed, or baked.
Radicchio:
A member of the chicory family with red and
white leaves. The different varieties range from
mild to extremely bitter. The round Verona variety
are the most common in the US. Radicchio is
peppery, crunchy, and, like all members of the
chicory clan, it usually has bright red leaves and
a tight head. Used most often in salads, but is
quite suitable to cooked preparations.bitter
Radish:
A member of the mustard family grown for its root
(Raphanus sativus); generally, the crisp white
flesh has a mild to peppery flavor and is usually
eaten raw.
Ragout:
Ragout is derived from the French verb ragouter,
which means "to stimulate the appetite." A ragout
is seasoned stew, usually made with meat,
poultry, fish, and often vegetables.
Ragout:
A French term for a well seasoned stew made of
meat, fish, or vegetables.
Ragu:
Meaty, slow-cooked tomato sauce, ideal with
lasagne, raviloi, and other fresh pasta.
Railcar (food industry term):
A railroad car.
Raincheck (food industry term): A chit that stores give customers for sales items
that are sold out. It allows the customer to return
at a later date and purchase the item at the sale
price.
Raisin:
A sweet dried grape.
Raita:
A yogurt salad consisting of yogurt and a variety
of chopped vegetables, fruits and flavored with
garam masala, herbs and black mustard seeds.
Raita originates from East India.

Rajas:
Ramekin:
Ramekins:

Ramen Noodles:
Ramp:
Ranchero:
Random weight (food industry
term):
Ras el Hanout:

Rascasse:
Rasher:
Raspberry:

Ratafia:
Ratatouille:

Ratatouille:
Ravigote:
Ravioli:

[Spanish] strips; usually refers to strips or ribbons


of roasted or sauteed green chiles and onion.
A small baking dish resembling a souffle dish, a
ramekin usually measures from 3 to 6 inches in
diameter and is used for individual servings.
Individual ovenproof baking dishes made of
ceramic, porcelain or glass and used in the
preparation of custards and other miniature
sweet or savory dishes.
Fine Japanese deep-fried wheat noodles, which
are commonly available packaged with a broth
mix.
A wild onion which resembles the leek, the ramp
has a strong onion-garlic flavor. It may be used
as a substitute for leeks, scallions, or onions.
[Spanish] country-style.
Perishable, bulk products priced and sold by the
pound. Also called variable weight.
This is a powdered spice mixture, used in Arabic
and north African cooking, with a sweet and
pungent flavor. See the definition under
charmoula for a description of the ingredients
and its applications.
A type of scorpion fish which achieved glory in
Provence for its starring role in the region's
famed saffron-scented bouillabaisse.
A strip of meat, such as bacon. Rasher may also
mean a serving of 2 to 3 thin slices of meat.
A small ovoid or conical-shaped berry (Rubus
idaeus) composed of many connecting drupelets
(tiny individual sections of fruit, each with its own
seed) surrounding a central core; has a sweet,
slightly acidic flavor; the three principal varieties
are black, golden and red.
Flavoring made from bitter almonds; liqueur
made from fruit kernels; tiny macaroon.
A French vegetable stew that combines a variety
of vegetables and herbs simmered in olive oil;
can be served hot or cold as a side dish or
appetizer.
[French] a vegetable stew consisting of onions,
eggplant, sweet peppers, zucchini, and tomatoes
flavored with garlic, herbs, and olive oil.
A velout sauce with added onions, herbs, white
stock and vinegar; served cold.
Italian for little wraps; used to describe small
squares or rounds of pasta stuffed with meat,
cheese or vegetables.

Ravioli:

[Italian] little pasta pillows filled with cheese,


meat, vegetable(s), or other fillings served in
broth or with sauce.
Raw sugar:
A coarse, tan granulated product similar to
turbinado sugar; an intermediate product in cane
sugar production. The raw sugar is then shipped
to a refinery for final processing. Raw sugar is
available to consumers.
Raw Sugar:
Sugar that hasn't been refined enough to achieve
a granulated quality. It looks like coffee crystals.
This coarse sugar is harder to dissolve, making it
a nice choice for sprinkling on foods.
Raw sugar:
Sugar that has not been refined. Appears much
like coffee crystals. Coarse or raw sugar is more
difficult to dissolve. Makes a wonderful garnish.
Raw-milk cheese:
Made with unpasteurized milk (parmigiano
reggiano, Swiss gruyere, French roquefort,
traditional cheddars).
Ray:
This kite:shaped fish features edible fins. The
fish is firm, white, and sweet; similar to the
texture and taste of scallop. Also known as a
"Ray."
Razor clam:
A long, thin, razor-shaped clam, considered one
of the most delicious of clams; eaten raw or
cooked.
Rba (food industry term):
Retailer's Bakery-Deli Association (formerly,
Retail Bakers of America).
Rda (food industry term):
Retail display allowance.
Rdi (food industry term):
Reference daily intake.
Reach-in case (food industry
A refrigerated display case with a self-service
term):
door used for perishable products.
Ready-to-eat (rte) (food industry A product designed and processed to be
term):
consumed at the time of opening the package.
Rebate (food industry term):
An advertising allowance or refund that reduces
a retail price for a product if a customer mails a
proof-of-purchase. See floor stock.
Rebuyer (food industry term): A person in a distributor's organization
responsible for routine reorders of product.
Recado:
[Spanish] seasoning.
Receivable (food industry term): See account receivable.
Receiver (food industry term): An authorized associate of a warehouse or retail
store who receives and checks deliveries for
condition and an accurate amount. The first
handler of the delivery receipt or invoice.
Receiving (food industry term): A door or dock of a warehouse or store
designated for receiving merchandise from a
supplier. The procedure for physically and legally
accepting a shipment of product.

Receiving clerk (food industry


term):
Receiving door (food industry
term):
Receiving log (food industry
term):
Recess cake tin:
Receta:
Recipe:

See receiver.
See receiving.

The record or listing of products received with


appropriate entries.
Sponge flan pan.
[Spanish] recipes.
A set of written instructions for producing a
specific food or beverage; also known as a
formula (especially with regards to baked
goods).
Reclaimed goods (food industry Unsalable product at the time of delivery that is
term):
returned to a wholesaler/vendor for reclamation.
Reclamation center (food
A distribution center department that sorts and
industry term):
processes damaged or outdated products, sent
by stores, for reimbursements.
Recondition (food industry
To repair or restore a product's appearance, e.g.,
term):
trimming, re-crisping, taping on labels or other
method.
Reconstitute:
To restore concentrated foods such as dry milk or
frozen orange juice to their normal state by
adding water.
Reconstitute:
To restore condensed, dehydrated or
concentrated foods to their original strength with
the addition of liquid, usually water.
Reconstitute:
To bring a dried, dehydrated food back to its
original consistency by adding a liquid.
Reconstitution program (food A bakery shrink program that makes efficient use
industry term):
of unsold products.
Red Beans:
Dark red beans similar to red kidney beans, but
smaller; popular in chili and as refried beans.
They stay firm when cooked and are excellent
when accompanying rice. They are available
dried in most supermarkets; also known as
Mexican Red Beans.
Red beans:
Sometimes referred to as "the Mexican
strawberry" in the Southwest; brighter in color
than the pinto bean and lacks the surface streaks
of the slightly smaller pinto bean; similar to and
interchangeable with pinto beans. Medium-size,
dark red beans akin to kidneys and pintos.
Red Chili Paste with Garlic:
See "Garlic and Red Chili Paste."
Red Curry Paste:
A spicy condiment used in Thai cooking. Rather
hot, with it's main ingredient being red chili
peppers. Found in some supermarkets and
Oriental markets.
Red Delicious Apple:
A sweet, juicy, red variety of apple; perfect for a

Red pepper flakes:


Red perch:
Red snapper:

Red Snapper:

Red wheat:

Redemption (food industry


term):
Redemption center (food
industry term):
Redeye Gravy:

Redeye salmon:
Redfish:
Redhead:
Reduce or reduction:

Reduce:
Reduce:

snack, but does not cook well. See also apples.


The dried flakes of dried ripe red hot chile
pepper. Most are quite hot.
This important commercial fish is a member of
the rockfish group. Also known as "ocean perch,"
although it is not a true perch.
This is the most popular of a few hundred
species of snapper. This is a lean, firm:textured
saltwater fish. Some species of rockfish and
tilefish are also called snappers, but are not.
A saltwater fish with red eyes, reddish-pink skin
and very lean, firm, white flesh. The average
market weight is 2 to 8 pounds, and fresh
snapper is available whole, or cut into steaks or
fillets.
In the U.S., wheat is classified into six classes three of the classes have a bran coat that is
considered "red" in color. These classes are hard
red winter wheat, hard red spring wheat, and soft
red winter wheat. Also, see glossary listing for
White wheat.
To cash coupons or return bottles to obtain
money or discounts.
A manufacturer's clearinghouse for coupon
reimbursements.
A southern gravy made by adding water and
sometimes hot coffee to ham drippings. It's
usually spooned over biscuits which are served
with the ham.
Prized for canning, the sockeye salmon has a
firm, red flesh. Also known as the "sockeye
salmon."
This important commercial fish is a member of
the rockfish group. Also known as "ocean perch,"
although it is not a true perch.
A saltwater fish belonging to the wrasse family.
Also called "California Sheesphead." Its meat is
white, tender, and lean.
The technique of cooking liquids down so that
some of the water they contain evaporates.
Reduction is used to concentrate the flavor of a
broth or sauce and, at times, to help thicken the
sauce by concentrating ingredients such as
natural gelatin.
To boil a liquid until a portion of it has
evaporated. Reducing intensifies the flavor and
results in a thicker liquid.
To cook a liquid, usually a sauce or stock, over

high heat, thereby decreasing its volume and


intensifying its flavor.
Reduced Cholesterol:
A food containing a minimum of 25% less
cholesterol and 2g or less of saturated fat per
serving than reference food.
Reduced Or Fewer Calories:
A food containing a minimum of 25% fewer kcal
per serving than a reference food.
Reduced Or Less Fat:
A food containing a minimum of 25% less fat per
serving than a reference food.
Reduced Or Less Saturated Fat: A food containing a minimum of 25% less
saturated fat per serving than a reference food.
Reduced Or Less Sodium:
A food containing a minimum of 25% less sodium
than a reference food.
Reduced product (food industry An item reduced in price for quick sale that must
term):
be sold by the indicated date or properly
discarded.
Reduced Sugar:
A food containing at least 25 percent less sugar
per serving than a reference food.
Reduction sauce:
A sauce that uses as its base the pan juices that
are created from the stove-top cooking or ovenroasting of meat, fish, poultry, or vegetables.
Reefer (food industry term):
A refrigerated trailer used to ship perishable
products.
Reference daily intake (rdi)
The standardized daily vitamin and mineral
(food industry term):
intake needed by the average adult diet.
Refresh:
To rinse just:boiled vegetables under very cold
water to stop their cooking.
Refresh:
To pour cold water over freshly cooked
vegetables to prevent further cooking and to
retain color.
Refrigerated case liner (food
A disposable sheet placed under Vexar, which
industry term):
helps keep a case clean and aids in
housekeeping.
Refrito:
[Spanish] refried; usually describes beans that
are cooked, mashed, and fried in lard.
Refund (food industry term):
A consumer promotion in which the purchase of
a product entitles a consumer to a cash refund, a
discount or a coupon good for a discount on a
next purchase.
Refund offer (food industry
A manufacturer's promotion that reimburses a
term):
customer for all or part of a product's retail price
with a proof-of-purchase.
Regional chain (food industry A group of retail stores owned and operated by
term):
the same company, and located in the same area
of the country.
Register (food industry term): A cash register that adds up the sales of goods,
holds money, and provides a display of the sales
for the customer.

Register balance (food industry


term):
Regular stock (food industry
term):
Rehydrate:
Reis:
Related item tie-in (food
industry term):

Related items (food industry


term):
Relish:

Relish:
Relleno:
Remodel (food industry term):
Remoulade:

Remoulade:

Render:
Render:
Rennet:

Rennin:

To verify a cashier's till amount against the


register reading.
Normal inventory carried to maintain store
conditions and sales volume. See authorized
stock item; overstock.
To soak, cook, or use other procedures with
dehydrated foods to restore water lost during
drying.
[German] rice.
Merchandising compatible products together that
are often consumed or used together to
encourage the sale of both items, e.g., pie shells
and canned fillings, tortilla chips and salsa. See
cross-merchandising.
Products consumed or used together, e.g., wine
and cheese. See related item tie-in.
A cooked or pickled sauce usually made with
vegetables or fruits and often used as a
condiment; can be smooth or chunky, sweet or
savory and hot or mild.
Sharp or spicy sauce made with fruit or
vegetables which adds a piquant flavor to other
foods.
[Spanish] stuffed.
To modify or enlarge a retail store or department,
i.e., expansion, new equipment, new sign
package.
Spicy sauce for seafood consisting of
mayonnaise, mustard, chopped pickles, tarragon,
parsley, chives and spices. It is served cold with
shellfish and can sometimes include anchovies.
This classic French sauce (or salad dressing) is
made by combining mayonnaise (usually
homemade) with mustard, capers and chopped
gherkins, herbs and anchovies. It is served
chilled as an accompaniment to cold meat, fish
and shellfish.
To extract the fat from meat by cooking over low
heat. Rendered fat is strained of meat particles
after cooking.
To cook a food over low heat until it releases its
fat.
An extract from the fourth stomach of lambs and
calves used in cheese making to coagulate milk
or in making junket pudding. There are also
rennets obtained from vegetables such as
cardoons.
An acid-producing enzyme obtained from a calf's

stomach. Rennin aids in coagulating milk and is


used in cheese-making and junket; available in
many supermarkets in powdered or tablet form.
Renuevos de rastrojo:
[Spanish] tumbleweed shoots; they have a wild
bean flavor and can be used as a vegetable or in
salads.
Reorder point (food industry
The inventory level established to trigger a
term):
buyer's replenishment order.
Repack (food industry term):
To use loose items to make up a case of
products.
Repeat (food industry term):
A customer's repeat purchase of a product.
Repollo:
[Spanish] cabbage.
Reps (food industry term):
Manufacturer's representatives, food brokers or
vendors selling products on commission.
Res:
[Spanish] beef.
Resale price maintenance (food Using a manufacturer's suggested price as the
industry term):
retail price.
Reserve stock (food industry
Product that is not on display and is instead
term):
stored in the cooler, freezer or back room.
Reset (food industry term):
To totally remerchandise a category or
department according to a planogram.
Resources:
Materials, time, money and abilities available for
use that can be drawn upon for aid or to take
care of a need.
Resquesin:
[Spanish] curd cheese; often called queso fresco
or queso blanco.
Resting:
To allow a roasted meat to sit for 20 to 30
minutes after removing from the oven before
serving. Roasted meats should always be loosely
covered with aluminum foil during resting to keep
them warm, but allow the juices to distribute fully
throughout the meat.
Restock (food industry term):
To fill or replenish a product to the normal stock
level.
Restricted items (food industry Products restricted from sale in a state or
term):
location and sold legally in another state.
Retail audit system (food
A retail computer system that tracks and
industry term):
analyzes store conditions, e.g., pricing, stock
levels, out-of-stocks.
Retail cooperative (food
A group of retailers that purchase, warehouse
industry term):
and advertise together to achieve economies of
scale.
Retail display allowance (rda)
Monies paid by a manufacturer to have their
(food industry term):
products on display, usually in a certain location.
Retail representative (food
A manufacturer's marketing employee that
industry term):
provides services to retailers, including
promotional deals, ordering, merchandising
techniques, etc.

Retail unit (food industry term): The typical product size offered for sale.
Retail value (food industry
A product's regular retail price.
term):
Retailer (food industry term):
A store owner or operator who sells products
directly to customers, sets or implements retail
policies and procedures and is responsible for
store conditions and profitability.
Retailer-controlled brands (food Brands and/or private label products exclusively
industry term):
sold by a retailer in a market area.
Retailer-owned wholesale
See co-op wholesaler.
grocer (food industry term):
Retailer's bakery association
(formerly, Retail Bakers of America) 14239 Park
(rba) (food industry term):
Center Dr. Laurel, MD 20707 (301) 725-2149
Retailers' service program (food A wholesaler's marketing program designed to
industry term):
assist retailers with economies of scale
resembling a chain operation, e.g., advertising,
deal promotions, merchandising.
Retarder (food industry term): The equipment into which dough is placed and
allowed to thaw or slack out. Conditions must be
controlled to 36 degrees to 38 degrees and 80
percent relative humidity.
Return on assets (roa) (food
A ratio in dollars of a company's net profit in
industry term):
relation to its net worth, calculated by dividing the
company's net profit after taxes by its net worth.
Return on equity (food industry Earnings divided by net assets.
term):
Return on inventory investment A performance index that identifies the number of
(roii) (food industry term):
dollars returned each year for each dollar
invested in inventory. Calculated by dividing total
gross profit dollars by the cost of the average
inventory on hand. It relates profits to the money
used to produce profits. Also called return per
dollar invested.
Return on investment (roi) (food The total gross profit that one dollar, initially
industry term):
invested in inventory as it is depleted, will return
during a period of time. Computed by dividing the
total Gross Profit generated by the item by the
amount of the initial investment in inventory.
Returns (food industry term):
Unsold, damaged, or defective merchandise sent
to a supplier or distributor for credit or refund.
Returns (to warehouse) (food
An authorization by the warehouse to return
industry term):
merchandise on a certain date indicated.
Revoltijo de huevos:
[Spanish] scrambled eggs.
Rework (food industry term):
Perishables: To crisp or trim a product that looks
case- worn. Grocery: To re-affix labels. To refine
a category or shelf set.
Re-wraps (food industry term): Products that are removed, reconditioned (if
salable) and displayed with limited sell- by

Rf (food industry term):


Rhubarb:

Rhubard:

Ri ones:
Rib steak:
Rib:
Ribbon (food industry term):
Ribbon:

Ribeye steak:
Rice noodles:

Rice Paper Wrappers:

Rice paper:

Rice Stick Noodles:

dates.
Radio frequency.
A celery-like vegetable we treat as a fruit (in fact
a court case once decided it was a fruit). Never
eat the leaves of a rhubarb, which contain
poisonous levels of oxalic acid.
A perennial plant with thick red stalks and large
green leaves which are poisonous. The stalks
have a tart flavor and are often used in pies and
tarts.
[Spanish] kidneys.
A steak cut from the rib portion, that part of the
beef from which the standing rib roast or rolled
rib roast is also taken; a club steak.
A single stalk of a bunch of celery, also called a
stalk.
A shelf merchandising technique of arranging
size, color, flavor and/or brand vertically on a
shelf. See billboard.
The term describing the texture of egg yolks
which have been beaten with sugar. When
beaten sufficiently, the mixture forms a thick
"ribbon" when the beater is held up over the
bowl. The ribbon makes a pattern atop the batter
which disappears into the batter after a few
seconds.
A tender, flavorful beef steak that comes from the
rib section between the chuck and the short loin.
Common in Southeast Asia, we can find these
dried in supermarkets and in Asian markets. Can
be served after soaking in hot water, but best
when soaked and then boiled quickly.
Circular sheets made from rice flour measuring
approximately 8 inches in diameter, rice paper
wrappers are brittle and translucent. They must
be softened by dipping in hot water for a few
seconds and draining. Once softened they can
be used to make fresh Vietnamese-style salad
rolls or deep-fried spring rolls.
[China] an edible paper made from rice and used
to wrap dumplings, Vietnamese summer rolls,
and other Asian foods; edible, glossy white paper
made from the pith of a tree grown in China.
Frequently used for macaroon base.
Made from rice flour and water, these noodles
are translucent when cooked. They are usually
softened by soaking in hot water for 10-15
minutes before cooking with other ingredients.
Fine rice stick noodles can also be deep fried to

Rice sticks:
Rice Vinegar:

Rice vinegar:

Rice Wine:

Rice wine:
Rice, Arborio:

Rice, Aromatic:

Rice, Black:

Rice, Brown:

Rice, Pearl:
Rice, red:

Rice, Valencia:

create a crispy garnish often used in Chinese


chicken salads.
Clear noodles made from ground rice. Available
in varying widths. Found in most Asian markets
and larger supermarkets.
Used in both Japanese and Chinese cooking,
rice vinegar is made from fermented rice and
comes in several varieties, each differing in
intensity and tartness. In general they are all
fairly mild compared to European and Americanstyle vinegars. They can be used in dressings,
marinades, as dipping sauces and condiments.
Delicately flavored vinegar with lower acidity than
many other commercial vinegars, which makes it
nice for vinaigrettes. Sold in most supermarkets
and all Asian stores.
A clear, sweet wine made from fermented rice.
Rice wines are usually lower in alcohol and can
be served hot or cold. Sake and Mirin are two
popular Japanese rice wines. Chinese versions
include Chia Fan, Hsiang Hsueh, Shan Niang
and Yen Hung.
Called shao hsing in Chinese markets. A good
dry sherry is a fine substitute.
One of the Italian medium-grain rices used to
make risotto. Once grown only in Italy, Arborio
has become so popular it is now being cultivated
in California and Texas.
A broad term for a group of mostly long-grain
rices with a pronounced nutty aroma. Basmati,
Texmati, Wild Pecan and Jasmine are all
aromatic rices.
Rice with a black-colored bran layer, popular in
Asian cuisine, that sometimes lightens to a deep
purple when cooked. There are many varieties of
black rice from China, Thailand and Indonesia.
Rice that has not had its bran layer removed and
therefore has a slight chewy texture and nutty
taste. Long-, medium- and short-grain brown and
brown basmati are four popular varieties.
A short-grain sticky rice, sometimes called sushi
rice. It is grown across Asia, California and
Arkansas.
Rice with a reddish-brown bran layer, a nutty
taste and chewy consistency. Red rice is often
marketed as Wehani (also called Russet),
Bhutanese red rice and Thai red rice.
Valencia rice (sometimes sold as paella rice), is a
large white oval grain. Grown in Spain, it is

Rice, Wild:

Rice:

Rice:

Rice-flour Noodles:

Ricer:
Ricotta Cheese:

Ricotta Salata:
Ricotta:

Riddling:

similar to Arborio. It's the rice used for paella, the


Spanish dish that pairs rice with seafood,
chicken, rabbit or chorizo and vegetables.
Wild rice looks like rice but is actually an aquatic
grass. Native to North America, today most wild
rice is cultivated in man-made paddies from the
northern Great Lakes to California.
1. Rice (verb) To press cooked food through a
utensil called a ricer. The food comes out in
"strings" which vaguely resemble rice. 2. The
starch seed of a semiaquatic grass (Oryza
sativa), probably originating in Southeast Asia
and now part of most cuisines; divided into three
types based on seed size; long-grain, mediumgrain and short-grain, each of which is available
in different processed forms such as white rice
and brown rice.
Long-grain rice (including basmati rice) cooks in
firm, dry kernels; short-grain or medium-grain,
rice cooks up moist and slightly sticky, as its
outer outer layer absorbs more liquid than longgrain rice.
Extremely thin noodles, resembling translucent
white hairs, made from rice flour. They explode
upon contact with hot oil, becoming a tangle of
light, crunchy strands. They are a traditional
ingredient in Chinese chicken salad, and can be
pre-soaked and used in soups and stir-fries.
A plunger-operated utensil that is the best tool for
making mashed potatoes. It also rices potatoes
for potato dumplings.
Ricotta is a soft, unripened Italian curd cheese. It
is the by product of the whey of other cheeses. It
is sweet in flavor and grainy in texture. Ricotta is
used often in Italian sweets (most notably
Cassata alla Sicilian) and in savory dishes as
pasta stuffing.
[Italian] a lightly salted cheese produced from
sheep milk that has been pressed and dried.
[Italian] rich, fresh, moist cheese resembling
cottage cheese, that may be made with whole or
skim milk. Originally Ricotta was made from
sheep's milk.
An important step in removing sediment from
Champagne. Bottles are placed in racks and
then turned by hand or machine over weeks or
months until they are upside down and the
sediment has settled on top of the corks,
whereby the sediment is readily removed.

Rigatoni:
Rigatoni:
Rigatoni:
Rijsttafel:

Rillette:

Rind, rindfleisch:
Rind:
Ring (food industry term):
Ring tin:
Ring up (food industry term):
Ripened (aged) cheese:

Ris:
Riser (food industry term):
Risotto:

Risotto:

Rissole:

A large, grooved pasta. Rigatoni's ridges and


holes are perfect with any sauce, from cream or
cheese to the chunkiest meat sauces.
Italian for large groove and used to describe
large grooved, slightly curved pasta tubes.
[Italian] large pasta tubes with ribbed sides.
A Dutch word, meaning "rice table." It is a Dutch
version of an Indonesian meal consisting of hot
rice accompanied by several (sometimes 20 or
40) small, well-seasoned side dishes of
seafoods, meats, vegetables, fruits, sauces,
condiments, etc.
A coarse, highly spiced spread made of meat or
poultry and always served cold. This is called
potted meat because rillettes are often covered
with a layer of lard and stored for a period of time
to age the mixture.
[German] beef.
The tough outer peel of a food.
Scanning a product or tabulating a retail price on
a register system.
Baking pan
To scan and complete a customer's transaction
at the front end.
The drained curds are cured by heat, bacteria
and soaking. Salt, spices and herbs or natural
dyes (certain cheddars) may be added. Aging in
a controlled environment begins.
[French] sweetbreads.
A shelf that extends above the normal top shelf
to give a higher profile.
Rice sauteed in butter then cooked and stirred as
stock is slowly added in portions. As each
addition of stock is absorbed, another is added
until the rice is creamy and tender. Vegetables,
meat, seafood, herbs, cheese, wine, and other
ingredients may be added.
A classic dish of Northern Italy whose
preparation of rice results in a creamy liaison
with stock and butter. Usually made with Arborio
rice. This may be served as a first course, main
course, or side dish and embellished with meat,
seafood, cheese, or vegetables. The best known
version of this dish is Risotto a la Milanese, with
saffron and Parmagiano Reggiano cheese.
Small pies similar to empanadas and piroshki.
They are filled with meat, vegetables, or cheese
and deep fried.

Ristra:
Roa (food industry term):
Roast

Roast:

Roast:

Roast:
Roasted Garlic Process:

Roaster:
Roasting:
Rbalo:
Robert:
Robinson-patman act (1936)
(food industry term):

Rocambole:
Roccal (food industry term):
Rock Cornish Hen:
Rock Salt:
Rockfish:

[Spanish] string of red chiles for drying in the


sun.
Return on assets.
Surrounding food with hot air, either in an oven or
over a fire-usually applies to meat, poultry, game,
or vegetables/potatoes; a dry-heat cooking
method
To cook in an uncovered pan in the oven to
produce a well:browned exterior and a moister,
cooked interior. During roasting, no liquid (such
as water or wine) comes into contact with the
food. Example
To cook uncovered in hot air. Meat usually is
roasted in an oven or over coals, ceramic
briquettes, gas flame, or electric coils. The term
also applies to foods such as corn or potatoes
cooked in hot ashes, under coals, or on heated
stones or metal.
To cook a food in an open pan in the oven, with
no added liquid.
Cut the top third of the garlic head off and
discard it. Drizzle the remainder with olive oil and
put it in aluminum foil. Bake in a 400 degree F
oven until edges of the garlic are caramelized
(about 40 min.).
A size classification for a chicken about 5 pounds
in weight and from 10 to 20 weeks old.
Cooking method utilizing the oven with radiant
heat, or on a spit over or under an open flame.
[Spanish] bass.
A spicy brown sauce containing onions and
vinegar, served with game and other meats.
Federal legislation that prohibits discrimination
through price discounts, special terms or
services, or other means, e.g., false brokerage
payments; promotion allowances for certain
customers.
Rocambole is similar to both garlic and leeks. It
looks like a leek yet has a taste similar to garlic
and is found predominantly in Europe.
A chlorine-based agent to sanitize sink and food
preparation areas.
A hybrid chicken, Rock Cornish Hens are very
small. The average whole hen is from 1 to 1 1/2
pounds.
A crystalline form of salt that is mixed with
cracked ice to freeze ice cream.
A low:fat fish of the Pacific Coast. There are two

Rockfish:

Rockmelon:
Roe:
Roe:

Roe:

Roggenbrot:
Rognoni:
Rognons:
Roi (food industry term):
Roii (food industry term):
Rojo:
Roll:
Roller (food industry term):
Rolling Boil:
Rolling Mincer:

Rolling Pin:

Rolling stone (food industry


term):
Roll-out (food industry term):
Romaine (Cos) lettuce:

categories
Firm, white- and sweet-fleshed fish that is the
West Coast equivalent of red snapper. Tasty a
highly versatile, although not sturdy enough to
grill, then can be considered and all-purpose fish.
[Great Britain] Cantaloupe.
A seafood delicacy with two varieties
Fish eggs. This delicacy falls into two categorieshard roe and soft roe. Hard roe is female fish
eggs, while soft roe (also called white roe) is the
milt of male fish. Salting roe transforms it into
caviar. Roe is marketed fresh, frozen and
canned.
A word used to refer to either a female fish's
eggs or male fish's milt, or sperm. May come
from carp, mackerel, or herring, but Americans
seem to focus on the roe of shad. Roe should
smell fresh and be firm. Milt of the male fish is
called soft roe. Eggs of the female fish are called
hard roe. Shellfish roe, called coral, because of
its color.
Rye bread.
[Italian] kidneys.
[French] kidneys.
Return on investment.
Return on inventory investment.
[Spanish] red.
To coat lightly with a powdery substance; to
dredge.
A conveyer that moves merchandise cases.
A very fast boil that doesn't slow when stirred.
A tool with several circular blades arranged in a
row with a handle. The mincer is used by rolling
the device over vegetables and herbs in a back
and forth manner.
A cylindrical kitchen utensil with many uses,
which include rolling pastry, crushing bread
crumbs, and flattening other foods. Though the
most common is hardwood, rolling pins may be
made from other materials, such as ceramic,
marble, metal, and plastic.
A food store on wheels from which a retailer sells
merchandise house-to-house. Usually found in
rural areas.
A marketing campaign to introduce a new
product.
This lettuce has long, narrow leaves, crunchy
ribs and a slight tang. Also called Cos lettuce

because of its origin on the Aegean island of


Cos.
Romano Cheese:
Named for the city of Rome, this hard grana
cheese has a brittle texture and pale yellow-white
color; mostly used for grating after aging for one
year.
Romano:
[Italian] prepared in the style of Rome.
Romero:
[Spanish] rosemary.
Rompope:
Mexican eggnog.
Roquefort Cheese:
One of the oldest and best-known cheeses in the
world, this French cheese made from sheep's
milk is considered the prototype of blue cheeses.
Rosbif:
[French] roast beef.
Rose water; rosewater:
[Middle East] an aromatic liquid made by distilling
rose petals. Frequent found in pastries of the
Middle East.
Rosefish:
This important commercial fish is a member of
the rockfish group. Also known as "ocean perch,"
although it is not a true perch.
Rosemary:
An herb (Rosmarinus officinalis) with silvergreen, needle-shaped leaves, a strong flavor
reminiscent of lemon and pine and a strong,
sharp camphor-like aroma; available fresh and
dried.
Rosette and Rosette Iron:
A fried pastry made by dipping a rosette iron into
a thin (usually sweet) batter then into hot, deep
fat. The fried pastries are then drained and
sprinkled with a mixture of cinnamon and sugar.
The rosette iron is a metal rod with a heat-proof
handle. Decorative shapes--to be dipped in the
batter--are attached to the end.
Rosti:
A Swiss potato pancake made from cooked
potatoes, sometimes flavored with bacon.
Rotation (food industry term): A shelf-stocking procedure that ensures first-in,
first-out by pulling older stock forward and
placing newer stock at the back during
restocking. See stock rotation.
Rotation list (food industry
A manufacturer's marketing process of featuring
term):
certain products at the same time each year.
Rti:
[French] roast.
Rotini:
("Spirals" or "Twists"): This pasta's twisted shape
holds bits of meat, vegetables and cheese, so it
works well with any sauce, or you can use it to
create fun salads, baked casseroles, or stir-fry
meals.
Rotisserie (food industry term): A rotating grill with an electrically turned spit that
cooks meats.
Rotisserie:
A device which contains a spit with prongs. Food

Rotisserie:
Roto (rotogravure) (food
industry term):
Roto ad (food industry term):
Rotogravure (food industry
term):
Rouille:

(usually meat or poultry) is impaled on the the


spit, fastened securely then cooked. Most
rotisseries are motorized so they automatically
turn the food as it cooks.
[French] rotating spit used for roasting or grilling
meat or poultry.
A colorful; circular that advertises a retailer's
featured sale items, included inside a newspaper
or delivered directly to homes.
A corporate level ad generated for an entire
company and distributed throughout a trade
area, e.g., newspaper, home delivery.
See roto.

A thick sauce similar to aioli, made of dried


chiles, garlic, and olive oil. Rouille is traditionally
served with bouillabaisse and soup de poisson.
Other recipes also add saffron and tomatoes.
Roulade:
A thin piece of meat which is stuffed with a filling,
secured with picks or string, then browned and
baked.
Roulade:
[French] rolled meat, chocolate cake, vegetables,
etc.
Round steak:
Meat from the thick central portion of the hind
leg.
Route list (food industry term): A daily list of retail stores on a delivery schedule.
Roux:
A mixture of fat and flour which is blended and
cooked slowly over low heat until the desired
consistency or color is reached. Roux is used as
a base for thickening sauces.
Roux:
[French] a mixture of flour and fat used to thicken
sauces, soups, and stews. Though usually made
with butter, roux is also made with bacon or
poultry fats, margarine, and vegetable oil. The
mixture is cooked for a brief time to remove the
raw taste of the starch from the flour. Longer
cooking results in a darker color, which is
favorable in Creole cooking where roux are
cooked for long periods until they reach a dark
brown color with a nut-like flavor and aroma.
Rows (food industry term):
See facings.
Royal Icing:
An icing which hardens when dried. Royal icing
is made with confectioners' sugar, egg whites,
flavoring, and sometimes food coloring.
R-t-e (food industry term):
Ready-to-eat.
Ruote:
Wheel shaped pasta. Ruote is Italian for
"cartwheels."
Russe, a la:
Served with sour cream.

Russian dressing:
Rutabaga:
Rutabaga:

Rye flour:

Rye Flour:
Sabayon:
Sabayon:

Sable:
Sablefish:

Sabrosas:
Saccharin:
Sachertorte:
Sachet Bag:
Sack (food industry term):
Saddle blankets:
Saddle:
Safety cutter (food industry
term):
Safety stock (food industry
term):
Saffron:

Basically a simple mixture of mayo and ketchup.


A member of the cabbage family with firm, paleyellow flesh and a slightly sweet flavor. Also
known as a Swedish turnip.
A root vegetable that is not a turnip, but is treated
like one, the rutabaga (also sold under the name
"Swede" or Swedish turnip) is larger and
somewhat coarser in texture than its cousin.
Milled from rye grain, the flour is darker, heavier,
and low in gluten. It is sold as light, dark, or
medium for home baking. The light and medium
rye flour have most of the bran removed. Dark
rye flour is whole grain. Also, see Pumpernickel
in the glossary listing.
Finely ground flour made from rye grain; the
most important bread flour after wheat.
A frothy custard of egg yolk, sugar, and wine that
is made by whisking the ingredients over
simmering water. Served warm as a dessert or
sauce.
Also known as zabaglione. A delicious dessert
containing egg yolks, wine, cream, and sugar.
Can be eaten by itself or served as a sauce for
other desserts.
A rich short cookie similar to shortbread.
This saltwater fish has a soft:textured flesh and a
mild flavor. Its high fat content makes it a good
fish for smoking. Called "Alaskan cod," "Black
Cod," "Butterfish," and "Skil," although it is
neither a cod nor a butterfish.
[Spanish] tasty.
A product made from coal tar, used as a
substitute for sugar. Saccharin has no food
value.
[German] a rich chocolate cake.
Cloth bag filled with select herbs used to season
soups or stocks.
To bag purchases at the checkout. See bagger.
Cowboy name for large pancakes.
The undivided loins of an animal, roasted as a
unit.
A case cutter used to open cases of product.
A back-stock of products kept to replenish
shelves.
An expensive spice made from the stigmas of the
crocus flour. Saffron gives food a yellow color
and exotic flavor. The spice can usually be found

Saffron:

Sage:

Sage:
Sago Pearls:
Saguaro:
Saignant:
Sake:

Sake:

Sal:
Salamander:

powdered or as whole threads (stigmas).


Fragrant, thread-like, hand-picked stigmas of the
autumn Crocus sativus plant, originating in the
eastern Mediterranean, now grown as well in
Spain, France, and South America. It has a
characteristic pungent aroma and flavor and
bright yellow color. It is also very expensive and
used sparingly. It takes only a few threads to
achieve the desired flavor and color. Saffron is
indispensable in paella and bouillabaisse. A good
substitute for the yellow color is turmeric, though
nothing can replace its unique flavor. [Sp.] azafr
n.
An herb (Salvia officinalis) native to the
Mediterranean region; has soft, slender, slightly
furry, gray-green leaves and a pungent, slightly
bitter, musty mint flavor; used for medicinal and
culinary purposes; available fresh or dried, used
chopped, whole or rubbed.
A relative of the mint, it is the predominant spice
in American turkey stuffing.
Made from the starch of the sago palm, they can
be used as a thickener in desserts.
Tall cactus found in Arizona; its fruit is made into
jams and jellies.
[French] referring too meat preparation - undone.
The traditional Japanese wine made from white
rice and malt. Sake has a relatively low alcohol
content of 12 percent to 16 percent and can be
used in sauces and marinades.
Japanese rice wine. Necessary to good
Japanese cooking. The term "Ginjo" on the label
means "superior." The term "Dai-ginjo" on the
label means "superior premium." These indicate
the highest grades of both pure rice (from which
all sake is derived) and fortified sake. "Futsushu" is the lowest grade sake and is used in
Japan most often as cooking wine. "Honjozoshu" is a slightly better grade and is stronger and
fuller; it can be served hot or cold. "Junmai-shu"
is made from koji rice, yeast and water, and is
usually served at room temp. "Kijo-shu" is
sweeter and is generally served as an aperitif.
And "Nigori," which is cloudy or "impure" and
effervescent, is slightly sweet and therefore
served at the end of a meal. Found in Japanese
markets, larger supermarkets and liquor stores.
[Spanish] salt.
1. A tool consisting of a heavy iron disk attached

to a long metal shaft with a wooden handle. The


disk is heated over a burner and held closely
over food to quickly brown the top; also used to
quickly caramelize the surface layer of sugar on
dishes such as creme brulee so the custard
below remains cold. 2. A small overhead broiler
unit in a professional oven that quickly browns
the tops of foods.
Salami:
Any of a family of boldly seasoned sausages
similar to "cervelats," except that they tend to
contain more garlic and are coarser and drier
than cervelats. Salamis are rarely smoked.
"Pepperoni" is a popular type of salami.
Salami:
A family of uncooked sausages which are safe to
eat without heating because they have been
cured.
Salami:
[Italian] spiced pork sausage, prepared fresh or
smoked.
Salchicha:
[Spanish] sausage.
Sales (food industry term):
The dollar amount of products or services sold.
Sales analysis (food industry
An analysis of sales by week, month, period or
term):
year to project trends, identify problems and
measure a retailer's performance.
Sales area (food industry term): An area designated in a retail store to display
and merchandise products, provide customer
service and check out. It does not include the
back room, coolers, (stock area) or maintenance
areas.
Sales log (food industry term): A sales record by store and department, which
provides sales trends, competitive factors,
staffing, weather, holidays, etc.
Sales per associate hour/sales A productivity measure that quantifies the total
per labor hour (spah/splh) (food dollars of sales for every labor hour used.
industry term):
Sales per square foot (food
A measure of store and department profitability.
industry term):
Calculated by dividing the daily, weekly or
monthly sales by the number of square feet of
floor or shelf space.
Sales projection (food industry A sales forecast based on sales for the same
term):
period last year.
Sales representative (food
A marketing person employed by a manufacturer
industry term):
or wholesaler to represent certain product brands
within a given sales area.
Sales representative's premium A premium or prize given to a manufacturer's or
(food industry term):
wholesaler's marketing person for achieving
benchmark sales.
Sales service (food industry
Fee-based services for retailers provided by a
term):
manufacturer's or wholesaler's marketing staff on

Sales service representative


(food industry term):
Salisbury steak:

Salisbury steak:
Salmagundi:
Salmis:
Salmon:

Salmon:

Salmon:

Salpicon:
Salsa cruda:
Salsa de rojo:
Salsa:

a fee per service basis, e.g., merchandising the


store, advertising, management information
services (MIS).
A marketing person who provides services for a
fee to a retailer, e.g., merchandising, advertising,
or layout.
A ground beef patty seasoned with onions and
seasonings before it is broiled or fried and served
with gravy. Named after Dr. J. H. Salisbury who
recommended eating a lot of beef for a wide
variety of ailments.
A restaurant term for quality hamburger, made of
chopped sirloin.
A mixture of many foods cut into pieces: meat,
chicken, seafood, cheese, vegetables, combined
with or without a sauce, served cold.
A fricassee or stew made from game birds.
Perhaps the best:known of all fish, pictures of
salmon from 12,000 B.C. have been found.
Salmon migrate from the seas into freshwater to
spawn. Over the years, some varieties have
become landlocked in lakes.
A succulent fish that lives most of its life in the
sea but returns to freshwater to spawn. Salmon
is usually available whole, cut into steaks or
fillets, or canned. Fresh salmon can be poached,
grilled or baked.
One of the most popular fin fish, rich, oily
(beneficial oil). and highly flavorful. Many
markets sell "Norwegian" salmon as if it were a
distinct species; but it is actually Atlantic salmon
(and Atlantic salmon is now grown in the Pacific
Northwest, northern Europe, Chile, and any
place else there is cold, protected sea water).
There are five species of wild Pacific salmon:
king (or Chinook) and sockeye, which are leaner
than Atlantic salmon; coho (silver); and chum
(keta).
[Spanish] shredded or finely cut; Mexican
shredded meat salad; hash. Cooked food cut into
tiny pieces, usually as a filling for pastry.
[Spanish] uncooked sauce.
[Spanish] red chili sauce.
1. Spanish for sauce. 2. Traditionally, a Mexican
cold sauce made from tomatoes flavored with
cilantro, chiles and onions. Green salsa, usually
made with tomatillos and green chile, is called
"salsa verde." 3. Generally, a cold chunky
mixture of fresh herbs, spices, fruits and/or

Salsa:

Salsify:

Salt cod, dried:

Salt hoss:
Salt Pork:
Salt substitute mixtures:

Salt substitute:
Salt:

Salt:

Saltimbocca:
Saltpeter:
Salvage (food industry term):

vegetables used as a sauce or dip.


[Spanish and Italian] sauce. Salsa refers to
cooked or fresh combinations of fruits and/or
vegetables. The most popular is the Latino
mixture of tomatoes, onion and chile peppers.
Also called the oyster plant, (See Oyster plant)
because it, at least theoretically, tastes like an
oyster. Grayish or black (in which case it is called
scorzonera) on the outside and pearly white on
the inside, this root should be peeled and
dropped into acidulated water to prevent
discoloration.
Codfish that has been cured with salt, common in
Mediterranean and Caribbean cooking. Also
known as baccal . Must be soaked in water for at
least 18 hours, changing the water several times,
before you cook it. Buy in Delicatessens and
seafood shops.
Cowboy term for corned beef.
Salt-cured pork which is essentially a layer of fat.
Salt pork is from the pig's belly or sides. It's used
to flavor beans, greens, and other dishes.
Usually a blend of granular potassium chloride
and sodium chloride, intended for lowering
sodium usage; tastes similar to regular table salt.
Morton Lite Salt Mixture is a leading brand.
Usually potassium chloride in granular form,
intended for lowering sodium intake; generally
bitter in taste. It is not recommended for baking.
Salt (Sodium Chloride - NaCl) can be produced
three ways - Open-air evaporation of salt brine in
shallow ponds. By mining of rock salt deposits.
By boiling and evaporation of higher purity brine.
Salt contributes to flavor in baked goods, and
controls fermentation of yeast in breads. Coarse
grades are available for use as toppings on soft
pretzels and other specialty breads.
1. A substance resulting from the chemical
interaction of an acid and a base, usually sodium
and chloride. 2. A white granular substance
(sodium chloride) used to season foods.
An Italian dish comprised of thin slices of veal,
rolled around ham and cheese, seasoned with
sage and braised in butter until tender.
Potassium Nitrate. A common kitchen chemical
used in preservation of meat or preparing corned
beef or pork. May be purchased at drugstores.
Product containers/shippers (bales, pallets,
containers) that must be returned or recycled to

defray operational costs.


[Spanish] sage.
An anise-flavored Italian liqueur.
An anise-flavored, not-too-sweet Italian liqueur
which is usually served with 2 or 3 dark-roasted
coffee beans floating on top.
Samosa:
An Indian snack of deep-fried (sometimes baked)
dumplings stuffed with curried vegetables meat
or both. Most common of the fillings is potatoes
or cauliflower with peas.
Samovar:
[Russian] metal tea urn heated from an inner
tube, in which charcoal is burnt.
Sampling (food industry term): A marketing program used to prompt impulse
buying. Particularly useful in the Deli and Bakery
Departments. The customer is encouraged to
sample products from a prepared sample tray.
Sandia:
[Spanish] watermelon.
Sangria:
[Spanish] drink made from sweet red wine,
pieces of fresh fruit (usually orange and lemon),
spices (cinnamon, cloves).:
Sangrita:
[Spanish] tequila and chile cocktail.
Sanitize (food industry term):
The last part of the cleaning procedure of food
equipment and surfaces to reduce microbial
counts to a safe level within the department.
Sardine:
The name describing several varieties of
weak:boned fish including the Alewife, French
Sardine, Herring, and Sprat. Named after the
French island of Sardina. Often salted, smoked,
or canned and packed in oil, tomato, or mustard
sauce.
Sardine:
Small, silvery fish with rich, tasty dark flesh.
Enormously popular in Europe as an appetizer.
Fresh sardines should be iced immediately after
catching and are great broiled.
Sardines:
The common name for any of several small, softboned, saltwater fish including sprat, young
pilchard and herring. The term "sardine" may be
derived from Sardinia, one of the first areas to
pack pilchards in oil.
Sarton:
[Spanish] skillet.
Sasafras:
[Spanish] sassafras.
Sashimi:
A Japanese specialty, sashimi is raw fish sliced
paper-thin, garnished with shredded vegetables
and served with soy sauce, grated fresh ginger
and wasabi (green horseradish). Because it's
served raw, only the freshest and highest-quality
fish is used.
Sashimi:
A Japanese dish of raw fish, shellfish, and
Salvia:
Sambuca:
Sambuca:

mollusks served with soy sauce, wasabi, and


pickled vegetables. Sushi is similar but it is
served with vinegared rice, and may also include
nori seaweed, vegetables, and strips of cooked
eggs similar to omelets. A common
accompaniment to this is pickled ginger.
Satay:
A dish in which small pieces of meat (chicken,
beef or lamb) are barbecued on a skewer and
served with a spicy peanut sauce.
Satay:
Also spelled sate and sateh. These are pieces of
meat or fish threaded onto skewers and grilled
over a flame. Several variations of these are
seen throughout Southeast Asia. A spicy peanut
sauce is served with meat satay in Vietnam and
Thailand.
Satellite network (food industry A communications system that utilizes satellites
term):
to relay data and information. Also known as
Satellite Communications.
Satellite stores (food industry Retail stores that are serviced by the same
term):
distribution center; or outlying stores in a
shopping center.
Saturated Fat:
This type of fat comes from animal sources and
is generally solid at room temperature. The
intake of saturated fats should be limited since
they are associated with high cholesterol levels
and the cause of some forms of cancer.
Saturated fat:
Mainly derived from animals, although some
vegetables are also highly saturated. A good clue
that a fat is saturated is that it is solid at room
temperature.
Sauce piquante:
A thick, sharp-flavored sauce made with roux and
tomatoes, highly seasoned with herbs and
peppers, simmered for hours.
Saucisse:
[French] a very small sausage.
Saucisson:
[French] sausage.
Sauerbraten:
A German dish using beef marinated for several
days in vinegar, red wine, garlic and various
herbs and spices. When the beef has been
thoroughly marinated, it is dried and cooked in
bacon fat and served with sour cream and a
sauce made from the marinade.
Sauerbraten:
[German] sweet and sour beef in gravy.
Sauerkraut:
[German] sour cabbage; shredded and pickled
cabbage.
Saumon:
[French] salmon.
Sausage casings:
Made from beef or pork products, available by
special order from good meat markets or by mail
order.

Sausage:

Saut?:
Saute
Saute:
Saute:

Saute:
Savarin:
Savory:

Scald:
Scald:
Scald:

Scale (food industry term):


Scaler (food industry term):
Scaling (food industry term):
Scallion:

Scallions:
Scallop:

Basically, sausage is ground meat with fat, salt,


seasonings, preservatives, and sometimes fillers.
They may be smoked, fresh, dry or semi:dry,
uncooked, partially cooked, or fully cooked.
There are thousands of variations of sausage.
Cooking or browning food in a small amount of
hot oil or fat until softened and the flavors are
released.
Transferring heat from a hot pan to the food with
a small amount of fat, usually done at very high
temperatures; a dry-heat cooking method
To brown or cook in a small amount of fat. (see
Fry.)
To cook quickly in a pan on top of the stove until
the food is browned. Sauteeing is often done in a
small, shallow pan called a saute pan. You can
saute in oil, wine, broth or even water.
[French] to prepare food by rapidly friying in
shallow, hot fat, and turned until evenly browned.
[French] rich yeast cake, which is baked in a ring
mold and soaked in liqueur-flavored syrup.
Served cold with cream or cream sauce.
Related to the mint family, savory has a flavor
and aroma similar to a cross between mint and
thyme. There are two varieties, summer and
winter. Winter savory has the stronger flavor.
(1) To heat milk to just below the boiling poin,
when tiny bubbles form at the edge. (2) To dip
certain foods in boiling water. (see Blanch.)
To heat milk or cream to a temperature just
below the boiling point.
To prepare milk or cream by heating it to just
below the boiling point; to prepare fruit or
vegetables by plunging into boiling water to
remove the skins.
A machine used to weigh products.
A special hand tool with ridged teeth for scaling
fish.
The pricing of merchandise on the basis of
weight and retail price.
Actually a green onion, a scallion is an immature
onion with a white base (not yet a bulb) and long
green leaves. Both parts of the scallion are
edible.
The immature green stalks of a bulb onion.
A bivalve mollusk with a ribbed, fan:shaped shell.
In U.S. markets, only the adductor muscle, which
opens and closes the shell is available. The Bay

scallop is smaller, sweeter and a bit more


succulent that their deep sea counterparts.
Scallop:
To bake food (usually cut in pieces) with a sauce
or other liquid. The food and sauce may be
mixed together or arranged in alternate layers in
a baking dish, with or withour a topping of
crumbs.
Scallop:
1) A dish cooked in a thick sauce, such as
"scalloped potatoes." 2) To form a decorative
edging along the raised rim of pie dough or other
food. 3) A mollusk with fan-shaped shells. Bay
scallops and the larger sea scallops are the
types commonly found in supermarkets.
Scallop:
A mollusk with creamy texture and subtle but
distinctive flavor. True bay scallops and se
scallops are the best. Bake in layers with sauce.
If desired top with crumbs.
Scaloppini:
An Italian cooking term referring to a thinly sliced,
boneless, round cut of meat that is slightly
floured (or breaded) and quickly sauteed.
Scaloppini:
[Italian] veal slices pounded very thin.
Scampi:
The Italian name for the tail portion of any of
several varieties of miniature lobsters. In the
U.S., the term refers to large shrimp that are split
and brushed in a garlic oil or butter, then broiled.
"Scampo" is the singular form.
Scampi:
Another word for langoustine, or shrimp. This
word is used in the U.S. as a description of
shrimp broiled with butter, lemon, and garlic.
Scan and bag (food industry
The system or technique whereby a cashier bags
term):
purchases while scanning.
Scan bars (food industry term): The standardized coding system (Universal
Product Code) that encrypts individual product
pricing and identification information within a
series of vertical lines.
Scan down (food industry
Data obtained from a secondary source, e.g.,
term):
A.C. Nielsen or Information Resources, Inc.
Scan integrity (food industry
The quality of the inventory and pricing data that
term):
ensures that items have been added, deleted
and correctly priced.
Scan ratio (food industry term): An inventory correction calculation to adjust for
physical inventory differences based on the
percentage of items scanned to the total items
sold.
Scan-based trading (food
A new way of doing business between direct
industry term):
store delivery manufacturers and retailers.It
incorporates daily point-of-sale data to pay for
product, electronic communication technologies
to eliminate discrepancies and inefficiencies, and

various store-level operating improvements, such


as open delivery windows and elimination of
check-in, to speed product flow."
Scannable coupons (food
Coupons with a scannable bar code used to
industry term):
identify the promotional program and product and
to deduct the correct value from a customer's
receipt.
Scanner (food industry term): An electronic register system that automatically
records the product description and retail price
for an item by reading a UPC code with a laser.
Scanner allowance (food
A manufacturer's performance criteria based on
industry term):
the number of products scanned during a
promotion.
Scanning (food industry term): A process of moving items over a laser in order
to record a transaction.
Scant:
As in "scant teaspoon," not quite full.
Schematic (food industry term): See planogram.
Schnecken:
[German] round yeast coffee cakes.
Schnitzel:
[German] veal cutlets.
Schwarzbrot:
[German] dark whole grained bread.
Schwein:
[German] pork.
Scones:
[Great Britain] Biscuits; a small, lightly sweetened
pastry similar to American biscuits, often flavored
with currants.
Score:
To make shallow or deep cuts in a decorative
pattern with the point or a knife. Food such as a
whole fish is often scored so that it will cook
evenly.
Score:
To cut narrow slits partway through the outer
surface of a food to tenderize it or to form a
decorative pattern.
Score:
To make lengthwise gashes on the surface of
food.
Scrapple:
A dish made from scraps of cooked pork mixed
with cornmeal, broth, and seasonings. The
cornmeal mixture is cooked, packed into loaf
pans, chilled until firm, then cut and fried.
Scrapple:
Meat dish of freshly-butchered pork scraps and
cornmeal.
Scratch (food industry term):
A product deleted from a retailer's order because
the warehouse is out of stock. Also called a
short. See cut.
Scratch bakery (food industry An in-store bakery that prepares products by
term):
using basic ingredients, e.g., flour, sugar, eggs,
yeast.
Scratch baking:
Baking method that begins with measuring basic
ingredients such as flour, sugar, butter and
leavening. It requires a recipe rather than

Scrod:

Scungille:
Scup:
Sea (solar) salt:

Sea bass:

Sea bass:

Sea bream:
Sea devil:

Sea perch:
Sea plums:
Sea Salt:
Sea trout:

Sea Urchin:

Sea vegetables:

convenience products, like mixes.


Scrod is the name for young cod (and haddock)
that weight less that 2.5 pounds. It is a popular
fish from the Pacific and the North Atlantic with a
lean, firm, white flesh. "Haddock," "hake," and
"pollock" are close relatives of the cod.
See "Conch." A shellfish.
Also know as "porgie" or "sea bream." These fish
are generally lean, and coarse:grained. Scup is
often grilled, poached, and pan:fried.
Generally, salt made by outdoor evaporation of
salt brine in shallow ponds; level of refinement
may vary, as well as coarseness. It may be used
for baking, although very coarse salt would not
be suitable.
A term used to describe a number of lean to
moderately fat marine fish, most of which aren't
actually members of the bass family. "Striped
bass" and "Black Sea bass" are true bass. The
"white sea bass" is a member of the drum family.
This small, firm-fleshed species is one of the best
fish to cook whole. The black sea bass of the
North Atlantic is the most commonly seen
species. Look for clean and sweet-smelling fish.
Also know as "scup." These marine fish are
generally lean, and coarse:grained. Sea bream is
often grilled, poached, and pan:fried.
This large low:fat, firm:textured salt:water fish
has a mild, sweet flavor that compares with
lobster. Also called "angler fish" "monkfish," and
"goosefish."
This important commercial fish is a member of
the rockfish group. Also known as "ocean perch,"
although it is not a true perch.
Canned oysters.
Considered by some to be the best salt for both
kitchen and table use, sea salt is produced by
evaporating sea water.
An anadromous (spawns in fresh water) brown
trout that spends part to its life cycle in the sea.
Sea trout have meat that is pink to red in color
and is very comparable to salmon. May be
prepared any way appropriate for salmon.
A round spiny creature found off the coasts of
Europe and America. The only edible portion is
the coral, usually eaten raw with fresh lemon
juice.
A rich source of iodine and an important food

Seal program (food industry


term):

Sear
Sear:

Sear:
Sear:
Sear:
Season:

Season:
Seasonal calendar/planner
(food industry term):
Seasonal item (food industry
term):
Seasonal promotions (food
industry term):
Seasoned Flour:
Seasoned flour:
Seasoned Salt:

source in many oriental cultures. Sea vegetables


such as dulse, hijiki and arame can be soaked
briefly in water, squeezed dry, and cut up for
salad. Laver (nori) is what you use to make
sushi.
A security procedure for truck deliveries. Each
truck is padlocked and sealed with a slim,
numbered metal strip. The receiver breaks the
seal and records the driver's name and the seal
number in a log.
Browning food quickly over very high heat;
usually the first step in a combination cooking
method
To brown food, usually meat, quickly over very
high heat to seal in juices. Thus, seal is often
used interchangeably with sear. Searing can be
done under a broiler, in a skillet, or in a very hot
oven. Example
To brown the surface of meat by a short
application of intense heat.
To brown a food quickly on all sides using high
heat to seal in the juices.
To prepare meat by browning it rapidly with fierce
heat to seal in the juices and flavor of the meat.
1. Traditionally, to enhance a food's flavor by
adding salt. 2. More commonly, to enhance a
food's flavor by adding salt and/or pepper as well
as herbs and other spices.
To add flavor to foods in the form of salt, pepper,
herbs, spices, vinegar, etc. so that their taste is
improved.
A seasonal, schedule created to simplify planning
around holidays and specific selling periods, i.e.,
merchandising, display building, ordering,
scheduling staff.
Products associated exclusively with a holiday or
specific time of the year. Also known as Seasonal
Merchandise.
A marketing plan of in-and-out promotions for
seasonal events, such as Christmas, Back-toSchool, Spring Clean-up, Halloween, Valentine's
Day.
Flour with added seasoning, which may include
salt, pepper, herbs, paprika, spices, or a
combination.
Flour flavored with salt and pepper and
sometimes other seasonings.
a seasoning blend; its primary ingredient is salt

Seaweed sheets, dried:


Seca (seco):
Secondary display (food
industry term):
Secondary packaging (food
industry term):
Secondary supplier (food
industry term):
Secos y asados:
Section (food industry term):
Section reset (food industry
term):
Security deposit (food industry
term):
See also Escallop:
Segregation (food industry
term):

with flavorings such as celery, garlic or onion


added.
Also known as nori and laver. Find in Oriental
markets and larger supermarkets.
[Spanish] dried.
A promotional display of an item in a retail store
in addition to a product's regular shelf location.
A master package that contains several inner
packs; which are normally the unit of sale.
A vendor or wholesaler that supplies a retailer
with a small volume of products.
[Spanish] dried and roasted.
An area in a retail store that contains one
category of products.
See reset.
A retailer's cash deposit with a wholesaler to
secure credit.

Locating general merchandise products (GM) in


a well-defined area of a store rather than in
aisles next to or across from food products.
Selective discounting (food
Price reductions on fast-moving products to give
industry term):
a low- price image.
Selective merchandising (food The elimination or minimizing of duplicate brand
industry term):
products.
Selective selling (food industry A wholesaler's marketing practice of selling only
term):
to retailers who meet various criteria, e.g., sales
volume, type of store, location and style of
operation. See tonnage items.
Self-facing fixture (food
A rack or shelf that uses either gravity or
industry term):
mechanical means to replace an item when one
item is removed by a customer.
Self-insured (food industry
An insurance policy within a company where
term):
revenue is generated for insurance from
associates and company contributions rather
than paying premiums to an outside insurance
company.
Self-liquidating premium (food A manufacturer's premium in which the product's
industry term):
cost is recovered through a retail sale of the
product.
Self-rising cornmeal:
One of the first convenience baking mixes. It is a
blend of cornmeal, flour, baking powder, and salt.
Approximate equivalent = 1 cups cornmeal,
cup all-purpose flour, 1 tablespoon baking
powder, and 1 teaspoon salt.
Self-rising flour:
One of the first "convenience mixes," self-rising
flour is a blend of all-purpose flour, baking

powder, and salt. When self-rising flour is used in


a standard flour recipe, the baking powder and
salt are then omitted. Approximate equivalent = 1
cup all-purpose flour, 1 teaspoons baking
powder, and teaspoon salt.
Self-Rising Flour:
An all-purpose flour to which baking powder and
salt have been added.
Self-service (food industry
A retail store with few service employees to
term):
assist customers other than at the checkout.
Sell sheet (food industry term): See flash sheet.
Sell-down (food industry term): The amount of time it takes to sell all products on
the shelf.
Selle:
Saddle (See "Saddle of lamb, veal," etc.)
Semifirm cheese:
Cooked and pressed, but not so long-aged, not
crumbly (edam, jarlsberg).
Semifreddo:
Meaning "half cold", this is gelato with whipped
cream folded into it.
Semi-liquidators (food industry A customer's premium whose cost is only
term):
partially recovered by a manufacturer or retailer.
Semilla:
[Spanish] seed.
Semisoft cheese:
Either cooked or uncooked, soft, but sliceable
(gouda, tilsit, monterey jack).
SEMI-SWEET (higher sugar
Contains 15-35% chocolate liquor.
content) chocolate:
Semi-sweet chocolate:
Baking chocolate that contains between 15
percent and 35 percent chocolate liquor, cocoa
butter, sugar, lecithin, and vanilla. It may be used
interchangeably in some recipes that call for
bittersweet or sweet chocolate, but is not
interchangeable with milk chocolate.
Semisweet or bittersweet
often utilized in cake and cookie recipes. Both
chocolate:
terms are often used interchangeably, though
bittersweet generally has more chocolate liquor
(the paste formed from roasted, ground cocoa
beans). Semisweet chocolate contains at least
35% chocolate liquor, while some fine
bittersweets contain 50% or more. Either
chocolate possess a deep, smooth, intense
flavor that comes from the blend of cocoa beans
used rather than added dairy products. Sugar,
vanilla, and cocoa butter must be added to the
liquor to enhance the chocolate flavor.
Semolina flour:
Flour produced by further grinding semolina
(granules) made from durum wheat. Specialty
breads sometimes call for part semolina or
semolina flour. Also called pasta flour.
Semolina flour:
A delicately flavored, coarse flour made from
durum wheat, primarily used in making pasta and

Semolina:

Sencillo:
Serenata:
Serrano chiles:

Serrano seco:
Serrano:
Server (food industry term):
Service charge (food industry
term):
Service department (food
industry term):
Service label (food industry
term):
Service merchandiser (food
industry term):
Service store (food industry
term):
Sesame Oil:

Sesame oil:

Sesame seeds, toasted:

bread.
Durum wheat which is usually more coarse than
regular wheat flours. Semolina is used to make
pasta, gnocchi, puddings, and a variety of
confections.
[Spanish] simple.
[Spanish] codfish salad.
Serrano means from the mountains; medium
green chile, becoming brilliant red when ripe;
extremely hot; usually shorter and thinner than
the jalape o; a basic ingredient for salsas,
sauces, marinades and escabeches; jalape os
may be substituted.
[Spanish] dried red serrano chile.
A fiery hot, but flavorful, green chili, available
fresh or canned. Serrano chiles are about 1
inches long and are slightly pointed.
A central computer, which provides processing
for several terminals.
In wholesaling, any charge above a transfer of
goods. In retailing, an additional charge for
providing service to a customer, e.g., check
cashing. See neutralizing charge.
A retail department that fills customer's orders,
e.g., service deli; service meat; service seafood;
service bakery; in-store pharmacy; video
department.
The in-stock position of a warehouse expressed
as the percentage of orders placed that can be
filled. The opposite of service label is out-ofstocks.
A vendor/ or wholesaler who specializes in a
product category. Also known as a rack jobber.
A retail store with a high level of customer
service, e.g., floral department, service deli,
service bakery.
An oil made from sesame seed. Light sesame oil
has a nutty flavor and may be used in a variety of
ways. The stronger flavored dark sesame oil is
most often used as a flavoring in oriental dishes.
This oil pressed from the sesame sees has a
slightly nutty flavor. Used as a flavoring in
Oriental cooking, not a cooking oil. Used for
flavoring a dish at the last minute. The health
food-store version is not made from toasted
sesame seed, so the flavor is very bland. Find in
Oriental markets and larger supermarkets.
Often used as garnish in many cuisines. To

make: Toast raw sesame seeds in a frying pan


over medium heat until golden brown. Shake and
stir the seeds over the burner to get even
coloring. Ready for use.
Sesame Seeds:
Crispy little seeds with a nutty flavor. Sesame
seeds may be used in savory dishes or desserts,
and are often sprinkled on baked foods.
Sesos:
[Spanish] brains.
Set (food industry term):
The layout of merchandise in an aisle or store.
Set store (food industry term): The process of properly setting up each
department with approved products according to
a planogram or lay-out diagram.
Setting up (food industry term): The process of properly setting up a display of
product according to a planogram.
Seviche:
A Latin American dish of very fresh, raw fish
marinated in citrus juice (usually lime), onions,
tomatoes and chiles; also spelled ceviche and
cebiche.
Seviche:
A popular dish in Latin-American cookery, a dish
of raw fish, scallops, or shrimp marinated in
citrus juices until the flesh becomes "cooked".
Onions, peppers, and chiles are then added to
finish the dish.
Shad:
Small, delicate saltwater fish related to the
alewife, herring, and sardine. They are larger
than herrings and spawn in fresh water. Some
species of shad have been landlocked and live in
freshwater lakes.
Shallot:
A bulb related to the onion and garlic. Shallots
have a mild onion-like flavor.
Shallot:
A bulbous herb whose flavor resembles an onion.
In some areas the term applies to the green tops
as well as the bulb. They are called "scallions" or
"green onions" elsewhere.
Shallow Fry:
To fry with enough oil to come halfway up the
sides of the food.
Share of acv (food industry
See all commodity volume.
term):
Share of market (food industry A product's percent of sales within a category. A
term):
retailer's share of total retail sales within a
specific trading area.
Shark:
A flavorful, low:fat fish that includes varieties
such as Leopard, Mako, Spiny Dogfish, Soupfin
and Thresher. Shark meat tends to have an
ammonia:like smell that can be eliminated by
soaking the flesh in milk or acidulated water.
Shaslik:
Skewered, broiled marinated lamb.
Sheepshead:
A saltwater fish belonging to the wrasse family.

Also called "California Sheephead," "Fathead,"


and "Redhead." Its meat is white, tender, and
lean.
Shelf arrangement (food
The assortment and location of products on store
industry term):
shelves.
Shelf capacity (food industry
The total volume of a shelf; also called holding
term):
power or pack-out.
Shelf extender (food industry
A self-serve display that extends beyond a
term):
gondola to increase a shelf's capacity and draw
attention to a product.
Shelf label (food industry term): A label that lists order code, description, and
pack size of a product on a shelf, as well as its
retail price. See shelf tag.
Shelf life (food industry term): The time period a product can be expected to
maintain maximum quality and freshness.
Shelf marker (food industry
A sign on a gondola. Also known as a shelf
term):
talker.
Shelf molding (food industry
The outer edge of a gondola shelf used for signs,
term):
UPC codes, retail prices, etc.
Shelf price (food industry term): The retail price stored in an inventory file, shown
on a shelf tag, and marked on an item.
Shelf space (food industry
The amount of shelf space allocated to a product
term):
category and to each product within the
category.
Shelf stable (food industry
A processed food product that remains safe to
term):
eat without refrigeration.
Shelf strips (food industry
A shelf sign for a product. Also known as a shelf
term):
talker.
Shelf tag (food industry term): A label attached to shelving which is used to
identify and describe a specific item.
Shelf talker (food industry
Merchandise signs, attached to the shelf
term):
molding, used to draw customer attention to a
product.
Shelf warmers (food industry
Items that sell slowly. Also known as slow
term):
movers or slow-selling items.
Shell steak:
The same as Delmonico. (See "Delmonico".)
Shell:
To remove the shell from nuts, legumes and
shellfish.
Shellfish (food industry term): An aquatic animal, e.g., clams, oysters, mussels,
crabs, lobsters, shrimp, squid and octopus which
has a shell; crustaceans or mollusks.
Shellfish:
Any of many species of aquatic invertebrates
with shells or carapaces found in saltwater and
freshwater regions worldwide, most are edible;
shellfish are categorized as crustaceans and
mollusks.
Sherbet:
is made from unsweeted fruit juice and water. It
is similar to sorbet except that it can contain milk,

Sherbet:
Sherry Vinegar:
Sherry vinegar:

Sherry:

Shiitake Mushroom:
Shiitake:

Ship notice/manifest (food


industry term):

Shipper (food industry term):


Shipper or shipper pack (food
industry term):
Shipping brackets (food
industry term):
Shipping container (food
industry term):
Shipping unit (food industry
term):
Shirataki Noodles:

cream, egg whites or gelatin. Sherbet is lighter


than ice cream but richer than an ice or sorbet.
A frozen mixture containing fruit juices, water or
milk, to which various thickeners are added
before freezing, such as egg whites or gelatin.
Vinegar which has the rich, subtly nutlike Flavor
of the popular fortified wine.
This recent addition to American markets is a
good wine vinegar that is better than inexpensive
balsamic vinegar. May be used in salads, and
also as a marinade for grilled and broiled dishes.
a fortified, cask-aged wine, ranges in taste from
dry to medium dry to sweet. It is enjoyed as an
aperitif and is used as a flavoring in both savory
and sweet recipes.
Also called Chinese, black or oriental mushroom
(in its dried form). Shiitake is a strongly flavored
mushroom used in both its fresh and dried form.
The best domesticated mushroom, with a rich,
distinctive, smoky flavor. Do not eat the stem, but
save it for stocks. Can be found in most Oriental
markets dried. Also found fresh or dried in some
larger supermarkets.
An EDI transaction in which the shipper notifies a
customer of a pending shipment. Generically this
is known as an advance ship notice (ASN). The
ASN enables the customer to identify short
shipments before receipt and plan warehouse
receiving more efficiently.
A company that transports and retains title to a
shipment until a recipient accepts a shipment.
See prepack.
A manufacturer's or wholesaler's price points
used to encourage retailers to order in large
quantities in order to receive better discounts.
An outer shipping case used to transport
products.
The amount, size and style of product in its
original case.
Thin, long, translucent noodles made from very
fine strands of a gelatinous substance called
konnyaku, which is taken from the "devil's tongue
plant" (Japanese yam). Their texture is slightly
rubbery and they do not have any flavor. The
noodles will pick up the flavor of the broth or
other ingredients in the dish in which they are
simmered. They are available dried or packaged
in water in a plastic casing that gives it a

sausage-like shape. They are also found


packaged in cans.
Shirr:
A method of cooking eggs. Whole eggs, covered
with cream or milk and sometimes crumbs are
typically baked in ramekins or custard cups.
Shirred eggs:
Eggs broken into shallow ramekins containing
cream or crumbs, then baked or broiled until set.
Shish Kebab:
A Mediterranean dish of marinated meats
(usually lamb or beef) and vegetables threaded
on a skewer and grilled or broiled; also known as
shashlik.
Shish kebab:
Cubes of meat cooked on a skewer, often with
vegetables.
Shop backs (food industry
Individual items accumulated at the front end
term):
during the course of a day's business that can be
put back on shelves for sale.
Shoplifter (food industry term): A person who steals goods from a store, while
pretending to shop.
Shopping behavior (food
An observable pattern of consumer behavior,
industry term):
typically in response to sales displays or product
price reductions.
Shopping cart display (food
A shopping cart used as a free-standing display.
industry term):
Shopping center (food industry A group of complementary retail stores with a
term):
common parking lot.
Shopping service (food industry A vendor who performs competitive price
term):
comparisons for a retailer within a specified
market area.
Short (food industry term):
An inadequate amount of products needed to fill
a shelf or an order or to meet customer demand.
Short loin:
The tenderloin.
Short or short ship (food
See scratch.
industry term):
Short ribs:
The cut off ends of the prime rib, which should be
cooked in liquid until quite tender.
Shortage (food industry term): A shortfall of a product's order or weight or of
money.
Shortbread:
A butter-rich cookie from Scotland, often
seasoned with lemon, cinnamon, ginger,
almonds and cumin.
Short-broiling:
The same as parboiling or poaching.
Shortening:
A white, flavorless, solid fat formulated for baking
or deep frying; any fat used in baking to
tenderize the product by shortening gluten
strands.
Shortening:
Although good at holding air, shortening has little
flavor. It is just a fat solid. Stick with butter for
baking.

Short-grain rice:

The most common rice in Japanese cooking. It


has a short oval shape compared to long-grain
rice. Also known as pearl rice.
Short'nin' bread:
Sweet, rich quick bread.
Shorts, scratches (food
A note on an invoice to a retailer of insufficient or
industry term):
out-of-stock products at a distribution center.
Shoyu:
Japanese for Soy Sauce.
Shred:
To cut into many, very fine strips or pieces.
Shred:
To cut, slice or tear into thin strips. Also, to pull
apart very tender cooked meats.
Shredded:
Food that has been processed into long, slender
pieces, similar to julienne.
Shrimp powder, dried:
Tiny shrimp dried and ground into a fine powder.
Found in Oriental markets.
Shrimp, Dried:
Used in a broad range of Asian dishes, this
ingredient adds flavor to fried rice, soups, stirfries and other dishes. These small dehydrated
shrimp lose any strong fishy odor or flavor during
cooking.
Shrimp:
American's most valuable and popular shellfish.
This ten:legged crustacean got its name from
English word "shrimpe," which means "puny
person."
Shrimp:
America's most popular shellfish, the best shrimp
is freshly caught and fairly local. Most shrimp is
frozen however.
Shrink allowance (food industry An estimate of loss of inventory, due to delivery
term):
errors (an incorrect item or the wrong amount),
theft, damages or spoilage.
Shrink, shrinkage (food
The amount of missing items due to poor
industry term):
management controls, receiving practices,
shortages, spoilage, theft, breakage and other
reasons.
Shrink-wrap (food industry
A process to stabilize a pallet load by wrapping
term):
stacked products with clear plastic film.
Shrub:
An old-fashioned sweetened fruit drink,
sometimes spiked with liquor.
Shuck:
To remove the outer shells from food. Examples
are clams, oysters, and corn.
Shuck:
To peel off or remove the shell of oysters or
clams, or the husk from an ear of corn.
Shucking (food industry term): A process of opening shellfish, such as oysters,
clams, mussels, etc.
Sichuan Pepper:
Native to the Sichuan province of China, this
mildly hot spice comes from the prickly ash tree.
The berries resemble peppercorns and have a
distinctive flavor.
Sidra:
[Spanish] cider.

Sieve:
Sieve:
Sift:
Sift:
Sift:
Signage (food industry term):
Signature items (food industry
term):

Sil (food industry term):


Silver dragees:
Silver foil (Vark):
Silver hake:

Silver salmon:
Simmer

Simmer:

Simmer:
Simmer:
Sincronizada:
Singe:
Single cream:
Single-serve (food industry
term):
Single-unit pricing (food
industry term):

To strain liquid from food through the fine mesh


or perforated holes of a strainer or sieve.
A fine, mesh strainer.
To shake through a fine sieve, often to combine
dry ingredients like flour and sugar.
To shake a dry, powdered substance through a
sieve or sifter to remove any lumps
To pass flour or sugar through a sieve to remove
lumps and add air.
Advertising signs of many sizes used to attract
customers to a display or a shelf location.
Unique items that competitors do not sell, which
differentiate a store or company from the
competition. The items are advertised and
promoted both in-store and through print
advertisements.
Standard Interchange language.
Tiny, ball-shaped, silver-colored candies.
Edible silver in ultra-thin sheets. Used for fancy
garnishing in Indian cooking.
A small gray and white saltwater fish that is also
called the "whiting." This low:fat fish, which is
related to both the "cod" and the "hake," has a
tender white fine:textured flesh and a flaky,
delicate flavor.
This high:fat variety of salmon provides a
firm:textured, pink to orange:red flesh. Also
called the "coho salmon."
Cooking food in a hot liquid that is heated to
below the boiling point (small bubbles may rise to
the surface of the liquid, but the fluid is much
calmer than boiling)
To cook in a liquid just below the boiling point, at
temperatures of 185 to 2100F (85 to 990C).
Bubbles form slowly and collapse below the
surface.
To cook gently just below the boiling point. If the
food starts boiling, the heat is too high and
should be reduced.
To cook food in liquid which is heated to just
below boiling point.
[Spanish] double-decker quesadilla.
To expose food, usually meat, to direct flame.
[Great Britain] Light cream.
See portion pack.
Each product is individually priced. See multiple
pricing.

Sippets:
Sirloin steak:
Sirloin:
Skate wings:

Skate:
Skewer:
Skewers:
Skid (food industry term):
Skil:

Skim:

Skim:

Skin:
Skipjack tuna:

Skirt Steak:
Skirt steak:
Sku (food industry term):

Small pieces of toast, soaked in milk or broth for


the sick; bits of biscuit or toast used as a garnish.
A juicy, flavorful cut of beef from the portion of
the animal between the rump and the tenderloin.
A cut of beef that lies between the Short Loin
(very tender) and the Round (much tougher).
This is the edible portion of the skate. The flesh,
when cooked, separates into little fingers of meat
and has a distinctive rich, gelatinous texture. The
taste is similar to that of scallops. Never buy
skate with the inedible skin on as it is very
difficult to remove.
This kite:shaped fish features edible fins. The
flesh is firm, white, and sweet, similar to the
texture and taste of scallop. Also called "Skate."
A thin, pointed metal or wooden rod onto which
chunks of food are threaded, then broiled or
grilled.
Long thin metal pins on which food is impaled for
grilling or broiling.
A pallet or base used to transport and store
products.
This saltwater fish has a soft:textured flesh and a
mild flavor. Its high fat content makes it a good
fish for smoking. Also "black cod" and "sablefish,"
although it is not a cod.
To remove the surface layer (of impurities, scum,
or fat) from liquids such as stocks and jams while
cooking. This is usually done with a flat slotted
spoon.
To remove cream from the surface of milk, fat
from the tops of gravies and sauces or frothy
scum from broths or jam and jellies during
cooking.
To remove the skin of a food, such as poultry or
fish, before or after cooking.
Also called the "oceanic bonito," "watermelon,"
and "Arctic bonito," this small tuna (6 to 8
pounds) has a light:colored meat similar to
yellowfin. The Japanese call this fish "katsuo"
and the Hawaiians call it "aku."
A lean and tough but flavorful cut of beef from the
primal short plate (below the ribs); often used for
fajitas, but is also delicious grilled or stuffed.
The diaphragm muscle, a little know but delicious
cut of beef, very tender and juicy if broiled quickly
and served rare.
Stock-keeping unit.

Skunk egg:
Slack-off, slack-out (food
industry term):
Slap bread:

Cowboy term for an onion.


Thaw a frozen product.

Hand-shaped bread, slapped thin, such as


tortillas and fry bread.
Sleeper (food industry term):
A slow-selling product that is packed by a
manufacturer with a higher volume item. Also
known as a slow mover.
Slice:
To slice is to cut into even slices, usually across
the grain.
Slick (food industry term):
See ad slick.
Slick allowance (food industry A manufacturer's allowance stipulating that a
term):
retailer use a specific advertising illustration
(slick) in newspaper advertisements.
Slipsheet (food industry term): A thick sheet of cardboard used to ship products
in place of a pallet.
Slipsheet unloading allowance A manufacturer's allowance to cover labor costs
(food industry term):
of off-loading a product by hand off of a
slipsheet.
Sliver:
To cut a food into thin strips or pieces.
Slot (food industry term):
A numbered location within a distribution center
that indicates the location of products for storage,
retrieval and inventory control. See warehouse
slot.
Slotting allowance (food
A manufacturer's incentive to a wholesaler or
industry term):
retailer to stock a new product. Also called
conversion allowance or service allowance.
Slug (food industry term):
An embossed plate that, when inserted into
certain scales, prints a descriptive label.
Smart card (food industry term): A micro-chipped stored-value card that can be
used to purchase goods and services and is
reloadable.
Smelt:
A rich and oily mild:flavored fish. Popular
varieties of smelt include "Eulachon" and
"Whitebait." The eulachon is called the
"candlefish" because Indians sometimes run a
wick through their high:fat flesh and use them for
candles.
Smitane:
Wine sauce with sour cream and onions added.
Smock (food industry term):
A garment supplied to employees to be worn
during working hours.
Smoke
Preserving and flavoring food by exposing it to
smoke
Smoke:
To expose foods to wood smoke to enhance their
flavor and help preserve and/or evenly cook
them.
Smoking:
Method of curing foods, such as bacon or fish, by
exposing it to wood smoke for a considerable

Smorgasbord:

Smorgasbord:

Smother:
Snack food association (food
industry term):
Snail:

Snapper:

Sneeze guard (food industry


term):
Snip:
Snip:
Snow peas:
So (food industry term):
Soba noodle:
Sockeye salmon:
Soda bread:
Sofrito:

period of time.
A Swedish buffet of many dishes served as hors
d oeuvres or a full meal. Similar buffets are
served throughout Scandinavia, as well as the
Soviet Union. Common elements of a
smorgasbord are pickled herring, marinated
vegetables, smoked and cured salmon and
sturgeon, and a selection of canapes.
A Swedish buffet of many dishes served as hors
d oeuvres or a full meal. Similar buffets are
served throughout Scandinavia, as well as the
Soviet Union. Common elements of a
smorgasbord are pickled herring, marinated
vegetables, smoked and cured salmon and
sturgeon, and a selection of canap s.
Cook slowly in covered pot or skillet with a little
liquid added to saut ed mixture.
1711 King St. Alexandria, VA 22314 (703) 8364500
Popular since prehistoric times, the snail was
greatly favored by ancient Romans who set aside
special vineyards where snails could feed and
fatten.
There are a few hundred species of this lean,
firm:textured saltwater fish, 15 or so which are
available in the U.S. The most popular snapper is
the "red snapper." Some species of rockfish and
tilefish are called snappers, but are not.
A Plexiglas shield, surrounding three sides of a
display case, that protects merchandise from
contamination by customer contact either direct
(touching) or indirect (sneezing).
To cut food into small uniform lengths using
kitchen shears or a small pair of scissors.
To cut quickly with scissors into fine pieces.
Edible-pod peas with soft, green pods and tiny
peas.
Standing order.
Buckwheat noodles, brown, flat, resembling
spaghetti, used in Japanese cooking. Usually
served in broth.
Prized for canning, the sockeye salmon has a
firm, red flesh. Also known as the "redeye
salmon."
Irish bread; a baking powder bread, or one made
with sour milk and baking soda.
[Spanish] famous seasoning mix which includes
cured ham, lard or canola oil, oregano, onion,

green pepper, sweet chile peppers, fresh


coriander leaves and garlic.
Soft goods (food industry term): Clothing with the exception of suits, dresses,
coats or shoes.
Soft grub:
Hotel or diner food.
Soft Peaks:
A term used to describe beaten egg whites or
cream. When the beaters are removed, soft
peaks curl over and droop rather than stand
straight up.
Soft shell lobsters (food
Lobsters in the process of growing a new hard
industry term):
shell, enabling them to grow larger.
Soft-Ball Stage:
A test for sugar syrup describing the soft ball
formed when a drop of boiling syrup is immersed
in cold water.
Soft-Crack Stage:
A test for sugar syrup describing the hard but
pliable threads formed when a drop of boiling
syrup is immersed in cold water.
Softlines (food industry term): The classification of general merchandise that
includes apparel, bedding, hosiery, linens, shoes,
etc.
Soft-ripened (bloomy rind)
The surface is exposed to molds, ripening the
cheese:
cheese from the outside in, to form thin, velvety
rinds (brie, camembert).
Softshell crab:
The "soft:shell crab" is actually the blue crab
caught just after molting (discarding its shell).
This crab is found along the Gulf and Atlantic
coasts. It is sold in both its soft and hard:shell
stages.
Sole:
A popular flatfish with a delicate flesh with a firm,
fine texture. The best:known variety is "Dover
sole" (also called "channel sole)." Much of what
is sold as "sole" in the U.S. is actually a variety of
flounder, which isn't a true sole.
Solution selling (food industry The concept of grouping related products
term):
together in the supermarket in order to offer
consumers a simplified shopping experience.
Sonorenses:
[Spanish] Sonora-style.
Sopa seca:
[Spanish] dry soup with very little liquid left after
cooking.
Sopa:
[Spanish] soup, dry or liquid.
Sopaipillas:
Puffy, crisp, deep-fried bread. Accompanies
many Southwestern meals.
Sopaipillas:
[Spanish] sofa pillows; fritters soaked in honey; a
puffed, fried bread, served with honey (or a
mixture of honey and melted butter) or syrup or
slit, then filled with various stuffings.
Sopes:
[Spanish] little round antojitos of tortilla dough.
Sor (food industry term):
Standard operating reports.

Sorbet:
Sorbetto:
Sore-thumb display (food
industry term):
Sorghum:

Sorrel:

Sorrel:
Sotanghon:

Soubise:
Souffle:
Souffle:

Soup:
Sour Cream:

Sour cream:

[French] water, sugar, and flavorings, usually


fresh fruit, frozen in an ice-cream machine. Best
eaten immediately after making.
(sor-BAY-toh) Sorbetto is a fruit-based gelato that
contains no dairy products. You may know it
better as sorbet.
An intriguing and unusual merchandising
display.
A cereal grass with cornlike leaves and clusters
of cereal grain at the top on tall stalks. The stalks
can be used to make a light type molasses called
sorghum syrup or simply sorghum.
Sorrel is an herb that may be used in cream
soups, omelets, breads, and other foods. Sorrel
has a somewhat sour flavor because of the
presence of oxalic acid.
Somewhere between an herb and a green, sorrel
has a sour, lemony flavor. It is used to flavor
sauces and is great in soups.
also called bean threads, are made from the
starch of green MUNG BEANS or MONGGO.
Sold dried, cellophane noodles must be soaked
briefly in water before using in most dishes.
Presoaking isn't necessary when they're added
to soups. They can also be deep-fried. Other
names for sotanghon include cellophane
noodles, bean thread vermicelli (or noodles),
Chinese vermicelli, glass noodles and harusame.
[French] with a flavoring of pureed onion.
A mixture that is folded together with beaten egg
whites and baked in a mold.
From the French for "breath," a fluffy, airy dish
that can be sweet or savory. Souffles rise as they
bake, forming a top hat-like shape and most
should be served immediately.
Liquid, usually water or milk, in which solid foods
have been cooked. Soups can be served hot or
cold and may be thick, chunky, smooth or thin.
Pasteurized, homogenized light cream that has
been treated with a lactic acid culture, giving it a
tangy flavor. Regular commercial sour cream
contains a minimum of 18 percent milk fat; light
sour cream is made from half-and-half and
contains 40 percent less milk fat than regular.
Nonfat sour cream, a product thickened with
stabilizers, is also available.
Cultured cream that gets its tanginess from lactic
acid. Note that there is a big difference between
sour cream and spoiled cream.

Sour oranges:
Sourdough:

Seville oranges; ornamental oranges.


Yeasty fermented bread; the natural starter is
kept in a jar or crock.
Souse loaf:
Well:cooked pig's head and feet that are
chopped into small pieces, marinated in lime
juice, chili pepper and salt, then pressed into a
loaf.
Souse:
To cover food, particularly fish, in wine vinegar
and spices and cook slowly. The food is cooled in
the same liquid. This gives food a pickled flavor.
Souse:
to pickle food in brine or vinegar; such as soused
herrings.
Sous-vide (food industry term): A European food-packaging technique where a
prepared product is placed in individual pouches,
cooked under a vacuum and quickly chilled.
Products are frozen or refrigerated until used.
Soy bean:
Soybean are round, under one-half inch in
diameter, and usually yellowish, although the
may be other colors. Soy bens are used to make
a host of soy products, including tofu.
Soy flour:
A whole-grain, high-protein flour produced from
hulled and roasted soybeans. The flour may be
de-fatted, low-fat, or full-fat - check the ingredient
labels to determine.
Soy milk:
the liquid left after beans have been crushed in
hot water and strained. Soy milk is a favorite
beverage in the East. In Hong Kong, soy milk is
as popular as Coca-Cola is in the United States.
Soy sauce, dark:
Used in dishes in which you want to color the
meat and sweeten the flavor with caramel sugar.
Most common soy sauce.
Soy sauce, Japanese:
Chinese soy is very different from Japanese.
Japanese soys contain much more wheat flour
and sugar. Buy in larger quantities in a Japanese
market. It is cheaper that way and it will keep
well if kept sealed.
Soy sauce, light:
To be used when you don't want to color a dish
with caramel coloring, which is what dark soy
contains. Do not confuse this with "Lite" soy
sauce.
Soy sauce, lite:
Lower in salt and flavor than other soy sauce.
Soy Sauce:
A sauce made from fermented, boiled soybeans
and roasted wheat or barley; its color ranges
from light to dark brown and its flavor is generally
rich and salty (a low-sodium version is available);
used extensively in Asian cuisines (especially
Chinese and Japanese) as a flavoring,
condiment and sometimes a cooking medium.

Soybean:

The most nutritious and easily digested of all


beans, the soybean is better known for its
products than for the bean itself.
Space allocation (food industry The method of allocating more space to faster
term):
moving items to prevent out-of-stock conditions.
See space manager; velocity; planogram.
Space management (food
The allocation of space for products, based on
industry term):
sales volume and product profitability.
Space management system
Space utilization software that plans and
(electronic) (food industry
analyzes product categories, determines shelf
term):
allocation, and graphs planograms.
Space manager (food industry A person who assigns shelf space for a product
term):
category, department, or store. See retail
representative; space allocation.
Spaetzle:
This is a coarse noodle from Alsace and
Germany made of flour, eggs, oil, and water. The
soft dough is dropped into boiling water (with a
spaetzle press) and poached until cooked
through. The noodle is then fried in butter or oil
and served as a side dish to meat dishes.
Spaetzle may also be flavored with cheese,
mushrooms, and herbs.
Spaghetti Squash:
When cooked, the flesh of this watermelonshaped squash separates into strands similar to
spaghetti; thus, its name. Spaghetti squash has a
creamy-yellow color and a slightly nutty flavor.
Spaghetti squash:
The flesh of this squash resembles a mass of
spaghetti-like strands. It is very bland in
comparison to other winter squash. Bake or
steam it until done (cook whole, piercing skin a
few times). Cut it in half and scrape out the
strands, toss with sauce or butter and
seasonings, or make into pancakes as you would
grated zucchini.
Spaghetti:
Italian for a length of cord or string and used to
describe long, thin, solid rods of pasta with a
circular cross section.
Spaghetti:
[Italian] long strands of pasta of various
thicknesses and colors.
Spah/splh (food industry term): Sales per associate hour/sales per labor hour.
Spanish onions:
Like Bermuda onions, these are large, relatively
mild, easy to handle, and keep well for weeks.
Good for baking.
Spare ribs:
The long cut of meat from the lower breast bone
of the hog. Spareribs are best cooked slowly, so
that their fat can be rendered and they can
become tender.
Spatchcocking:
A technique whereby poultry shears or a sharp
knife is used to split chicken along backbone,

Spatula:
Spatzle, Spaetzle:

Special (food industry term):


Special allowance (food
industry term):
Special display (food industry
term):
Special pack (food industry
term):
Specials (food industry term):
Specialty sales representative
(food industry term):
Specialty store (food industry
term):
Specialty wholesale grocer
(food industry term):
Speck:
Speculation (food industry
term):
Spelt:

Spice Grinder:
Spices:
Spider:
Spiedini:
Spiedino:

leaving breastbone intact. Spatchcocked chicken


is generally served with a vinaigrette sauce
A versatile utensil available in a variety of shapes
and sizes and generally made from metal, wood
or rubber.
A dish of tiny noodles or dumplings made with
flour, eggs, water or milk, salt and sometimes
nutmeg. The spaetzle dough can be firm enough
to be forced through a sieve or colander with
large holes. The dough is then boiled and tossed
in butter before being served.
See featured special.
A wholesaler's discount offered to retailers as an
incentive to increase sales of a product. Also
called a special purchase.
A display for featured products on a free-standing
rack in addition to a regular shelf display.
A shipping unit of a sales promotion product. Also
known as a deal pack. See handling allowance;
handling charge.
Products sold at a reduced price or as part of a
promotion to attract customers.
A manufacturer's or broker's representative that
markets to retailers, presents promotional
programs, takes product orders and arranges
shipment by a retailer's preferred wholesaler.
A retail store that offers only particular types of
foods, e.g., bakery, produce, meat.
A wholesaler that provides retailers with limited
products and services. A specialty wholesaler.
Cured and smoked pork flank.
See turnover buying.
An often neglected wheat berry, overlooked in
favor of those better suited to bread making.
Spelt has a magnificent wheaty flavor. A very
similar grain is the Italian grain farro.
A device used to mill spices into granular or
powdered form.
The seeds and skin of plants ( berries, bark,
fruits, unopened flowers) used to flavor foods.
Unlike herbs, spices are almost always dried.
A gadget used for adding and retrieving deepfrying foods to or from the hot oil.
An Italian word for skewers of meat or fish grilled
over a flame or under a broiler. Known as
Spiedies in the Eastern United States.
Fried cheese with anchovy sauce.

Spiff (food industry term):


Spill-in/spill-out (food industry
term):
Spinach:

Spinach:

Spinner (food industry term):


Spit:
Spit:

Split case (food industry term):


Split palletload, split unitload
(food industry term):
Split peas:
Split shift (food industry term):
Spoilage allowance, breakage
allowance (food industry term):
Spoils (food industry term):
Sponge:

Sponge:
Spoon bread:
Spot display (food industry
term):
Spot mop (food industry term):

See push money.


Food retailers serviced by a wholesaler outside a
market area.
A vegetable with dark green, spear-shaped
leaves that can be curled or smooth and are
attached to thin stems; the leaves have a slightly
bitter flavor and are eaten raw or cooked.
The best spinach is, of course, fresh, and should
have crisp, robustly green leaves. Always wash
well in several changes of water and remove
extra-thick stems.
A free-standing display rack that rotates 360
degrees.
Sharp metal rod used to hold food for roasting
over an open heat source.
Revolving skewer or metal rod on which meat,
poultry or game is roasted over a fire or under a
grill. Process creates high heat and forces fat to
spit out of meats.
A product that is shipped in half-case quantities
or less.
A shipment of two different kinds of products on a
full pallet. Each product makes up approximately
half the pallet load. See layer-loaded unitload.
Green or yellow, and mealy when cooked. Good
soup base.
A peak sales period of a day, week or holiday
season during which the largest number of
employees possible are scheduled to work.
A manufacturer's allowance to a
wholesaler/retailer for breakage or spoiled
products.
Goods that cannot be sold for which a retailer
receives a credit from a supplier. Also called
stales.
A thick yeast batter that is allowed to ferment and
develop into a light, spongy consistency. It is
then combined with other ingredients to form a
yeast dough. The sponge will give the bread a
slightly tangy flavor.
The portion of dough in bread-making containing
all or part of the yeast, to which are added the
remaining ingredients.
A kind of baked cornmeal pudding.
A product display in a high traffic area of a retail
store.
A quick mop of a dirty sales floor or to clean a
spill.

Spot:

Spotted pup:
Spread (food industry term):
Spread:

Spreads:
Sprig:
Spring roll:

Springerle:
Springform mold:
Springform Pan:

Sprinkle:
Spumoni:
Squab:

Squab:

Squab:
Square down (food industry
term):

A small fish (approximately 1.5 pounds)


belonging to the drum family. In 1925, these fish
appeared in New York harbor in such vast
numbers that they clogged the condenser pumps
of the electric company and caused a blackout.
Chuckwagon name for raisin pudding; without
the raisins, it was just called "pup."
Gross profit. See gross profit; markup.
a) Distributing a product/ingredient in a thin layer
over the surface of another product.
b) A fat sold in stick form or in tubs that is less
than 80 percent fat.
Products in sticks or tubs that are less than 80
percent fat. They are not recommended for
baking due to their water content.
Leaves of an herb still attached to the stem often
used as a garnish.
Thin sheets of dough which are filled with meat,
seafood, or vegetables and rolled into logs.
Spring rolls are most often deep fried, though
they may also be steamed. Chinese versions use
wheat dough, while the Vietnamese and Thai
versions use a rice paper wrapper.
[German] anise-flavored cookies or pastries.
Baking tin with hinged sides, held together by a
metal clamp or pin, which is opened to release
the cake or pie which was cooked inside.
A round cake pan a little deeper than a standard
cake pan. Springform pans have a clamp on the
side which releases the sides from the bottom,
leaving the cake intact. It's commonly used for
cheesecake.
Scattering particles of sugar or toppings over a
surface, like frosting, cake or bread.
[Italian] Ice cream made with fruit and nuts.
A young domesticated pigeon that has never
flown and is therefore very tender. Squabs are
normally under a pound and about 4 weeks old.
May be prepared in any manner suitable for
chicken.
A domesticated pigeon no more than 4 weeks
old. Weighing less than a pound when
slaughtered, squab has tender meat with little fat
and a mild flavor; suitable for broiling, roasting or
sauteing.
A twelve to fourteen ounce pigeon.
To straighten products on a shelf or display.

Square foot (food industry


term):

A size measurement of floor space occupied by a


product or product group, display fixtures and its
share of aisle space.
Squash blossoms:
Blossoms of winter squashes such as zucchini,
yellow squash and pumpkin; commonly used in
Southwestern cooking; best when used the day
they are picked or bought; may be cooked briefly
for use in soups or sauces, or stuffed and fried.
Squash:
The edible fleshy fruit of various members of the
gourd (Cucurbitaceae) family; generally divided
into two categories based on peak season and
skin type: summer and winter.
Squaw bread:
Indian bread deep-fried in 6-inch circles; fry
bread; popovers.
Squawberries:
Red-orange berries from thorny desert bushes.
Squid:
This ten:armed cephalopod is related to the
octopus and the cuttlefish. Squid varies in size
from 1 inch to 80 feet in length. The meat is firm
and chewy, with a somewhat sweet flavor.
Over:cooking can lead to a rubbery texture.
Squid:
This cephalopod has become popular in the
United States, as long as you call it calamari.
Fresh squid should be purple to white- avoid any
squid with brown coloring- and smell sweet and
clean. Squid freezes well, and loses little flavor
during defrosting and refreezing.
Squirrel can:
Cowboy term for large can used for after-meal
scraps.
Squirrel:
An abundant, largely arboreal rodent. Red and
gray squirrels are commonly eaten in the U.S.
The gray squirrel is fatter and has a flavor
considered by many as superior to the red
squirrel. Squirrels do not have a strong "gamey"
taste.
Sriracha:
A hot sauce made from sun-ripened chiles which
are ground into a smooth paste along with garlic.
It is excellent in soups, sauces, pastas, pizzas,
hot dogs, hamburgers, chow mein or on almost
anything else to give it a delicious, spicy taste.
Srp (food industry term):
Suggested retail price.
Stack (food industry term):
A column of products consisting of one or more
unit loads placed on the floor with the total height
limited to a vertical opening or the compressive
strength of the individual unit loads.
Stack card (food industry term): See case card.
Stainless Steel:
An alloy of steel. Stainless steel will not react
with foods, nor does it rust or corrode. When
used in pans, stainless steel often is combined
with copper or aluminum since it does not

conduct heat well.


See spoils.
A fixture used to display merchandise.
A standard display case for service departments,
used in the produce, meat, deli and bakery
departments.
Standard grocery shelving
Adjustable shelving in a standard frame. Also
(food industry term):
called a gondola.
Standard interchange language A computer language standard developed
(sil) (food industry term):
primarily for the exchange of data between
independent retailers and wholesalers.
Standard of identity (food
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards
industry term):
for food composition.
Standard operating procedures A comprehensive book of a company's policies
(food industry term):
and procedures. Also called SOP.
Standard operating reports
Profit and loss statements or projections
(sor) (food industry term):
reviewed weekly, by period, quarter or annually.
Standard pack (food industry
A unit of sale having a fixed number of like
term):
consumer units per container.
Standard shipping container
A container of a single type of product or of a
(food industry term):
fixed configuration of multiple products used to
ship items.
Standard:
In home baking, this refers to recipes, measuring
tools, ingredients, methods, and equipment that
are used to produce a defined product with
consistent results to assist manufacturers or
consumers.
Standing order (so) (food
A standard replenishment order placed by a
industry term):
wholesaler that allows a manufacturer to
schedule production and shipping.
Staple:
The chief item or most important items made,
grown or sold in a particular place, region,
country, etc.
Staples (food industry term):
A necessary or basic food, such as flour or
sugar.
Star Anise:
A star-shaped dry seed pod with a flavor similar
to fennel.
Star anise:
Star-shaped pod has a similar but stronger flavor
and more fragrance than the botanicallyunrelated aniseed; most often cooked whole and
strained from sauces and marinade, but
sometimes ground for spice rubs and pastes.
Starch:
Carbohydrate obtained from cereals and
potatoes or other tubers.
Starter gap (food industry
A merchandising technique in which spaces are
term):
left on a shelf to give the impression that demand
is great for a product.
Starter:
A mixture of flour, water, yeast and sugar that is
Stales (food industry term):
Stand (food industry term):
Standard case merchandiser
(food industry term):

Start-ship date (food industry


term):
Steak Diane:
Steak tartare:
Steam
Steam:
Steam:
Steam:
Steep:
Steep:
Steep:
Sterilize:
Stew

Stew:
Stew:
Stew:
Stewing Chicken:
Stiff Peaks:

allowed to ferment in a warm place until foamy. A


portion of the starter is used (about 2 cups) in
place of a package of yeast in breads, usually
after "feeding" the mixture with additional flour
and water. Starters are kept in the refrigerator
after initial development and "fed" every two
weeks.
A kick-off date for a promotional campaign to
begin. See final ship date.
A very thin steak.
Very lean beef, minced and served raw.
Exposing food directly to steam to cook it, usually
by placing it in a basket or rack above a boiling
liquid in a covered pan; a moist cooking method
To cook in steam with or without pressure. The
steam may be applied directly to the food, as in a
steamer or pressure cooker.
A method of cooking foods over, not in, hot liquid,
usually water. The heat cooks the food while the
vapors keep it moist.
to cook food in the steam created by boiling
water.
To allow a substance to stand in liquid below the
boiling point for the purpose of extracting flavor,
color, or other qualities.
To allow a food to stand in water that is just
below the boiling point in order to extract flavor or
color.
To soak in liquid until saturated with a soluble
ingredient; soak to remove an ingredient, such as
to remove salt from smoked ham or salted cod.
To destroy germs by exposing food to heat at
specific temperatures.
Blanching small pieces of meat and then serving
with a sauce and various garnishes, such as
vegetables; a combination cooking method
similar to braising
To simmer food in a small amount of liquid.
To cook food in liquid for a long time until tender,
usually in a covered pot.
To simmer food slowly in a covered pan or
casserole.
A size classification for chicken. A stewing
chicken is over 10 months old and weighs from 4
to 6 pounds.
A term describing the consistency of beaten egg
whites or cream. When the beaters are removed
from the mixture, the points will stand up straight.

Stilton Cheese:

Stir:
Stir:
Stir:

Stir:
Stir-fry
Stir-fry:
Stock (food industry term):
Stock capacity (food industry
term):
Stock code (food industry
term):
Stock cubes:
Stock status report (food
industry term):
Stock turns (food industry
term):
Stock:
Stock:
Stocking (food industry term):
Stocking allowance (food
industry term):
Stock-keeping unit (sku) (food
industry term):

A hard blue cheese made from whole cow's


milkStilton has a rich texture that is slightly
crumbly, and a pale-yellow interior with bluegreen. Stilton's flavor has a mellow cheddarlike
quality with the tangy pungency of blue cheese.
To mix food materials with a circular motion for
the purpose of blending or securing uniform
consistency.
Using a spoon to mix ingredients with a circular
or figure-eight motion.
To move foods around with a spoon in a circular
motion. Stirring is done to move foods when
cooking. It is also used to cool foods after
cooking. Most importantly, if a recipes calls for
stirring to combine foods, such as a batter,
before cooking, it usually means to gently mix
just until well combined, as opposed to beating,
which takes more strokes.
To mix with a circular movement, using a spoon
or fork or other utensil.
Similar to sauteing, but with use of less fat; food
is stirred constantly during cooking, usually
cooked in a wok
To cook quickly over high heat with a small
amount of oil by constantly stirring. This
technique often employs a wok.
To shelve products or to build a display.
The total volume of products that can be placed
on a shelf, in a slot or on a rack.
A unique product identifier used instead of a UPC
code, which is assigned at a warehouse or
headquarters for ordering purposes.
[Great Britain] Bouillon cubes.
A management report showing the current
inventory level in-house or in-transit for a
department, section or category.
See turnover.
A rich extract of soluble parts of meat, fish,
poultry, etc. A basis for soups or gravies.
A flavored broth from meats, fish, shellfish, and
vegetables. These are the basis of sauce and
soup making.
A process of shelving products in a store.
A manufacturer's allowance to stock a new
product. See distribution allowance.
A number that identifies each separate brand,
size, flavor, color or pack of a product.

Stockout (food industry term):


Stockpot:

A display that needs replenishment.


A deep pot with straight sides and handles used
to cook stocks.
Stock-up (food industry term): A temporary price reduction for items due to a
manufacturers' allowance or a volume buy.
Stollen:
A German yeast bread traditionally made at
Christmas time.
Stone fruits:
Stone fruits are simply fruits with a stone, such
as peach or plum.
Stone Ground:
Grain milled between grindstones to retain more
nutrients than other grinding methods.
Stoneground flour or meal:
Grain ground into flour between stones. It may
be coarse or fine and is usually whole grain.
Stop-off charge (food industry An additional shipping charge (rail or truck) for
term):
delivery of partial loads to several different
locations.
Store audit (food industry term): A review of management procedures and
processes, e.g., inventory, cash handling, etc.
Store brand (food industry
A private-label product carried by a retailer. See
term):
private label.
Store bulletin (food industry
An operations newsletter regarding
term):
merchandising contests and promotional
programs, new products, etc.
Store coupon (food industry
A product coupon offered only in-store with fliers
term):
or an on-shelf dispenser.
Store dollar net profit (food
The actual profit a store makes after overhead
industry term):
and losses are deducted.
Store format (food industry
The retail design or store layout based on size,
term):
services, prices, sales volume and SKUs, such
as a convenience store, superstore or a
conventional store.
Store image (food industry
The customer's impression of a retail store or a
term):
department, i.e., products carried, advertising,
promotion, decor, service-level.
Store layout (food industry
The design and lay-out of floor space and the
term):
placement of fixtures within a department or retail
store.
Store loyalty (food industry
See customer loyalty.
term):
Store manager (food industry
A person responsible for daily operations of a
term):
retail store who hires and supervises employees,
oversees merchandising and customer service
and meets sales goals. Also called a store
director.
Store perimeter (food industry The departments located along the outside walls
term):
of a retail store, usually perishable departments.
Store security (food industry
Methods used to provide a secure workplace and
term):
shopping area free of violence, burglary,

shoplifting and employee theft.


A rubber stamp bearing a store's number and
name. The imprint of the store stamp on an
invoice or other business paper indicates
correctness or approval. Stamps are kept under
tight security.
Store supervisor (food industry An operations manager responsible for
term):
conditions, safety, product levels and cash
handling procedures for several retail stores; a
district manager.
Store supplies (food industry
Materials and merchandise needed to conduct
term):
daily business by a retailer, i.e., grocery bags,
brooms and mops.
Store traffic (food industry
A customer count recorded by hour, day, week,
term):
month or holiday. See traffic.
Store-door delivery (food
See direct store delivery.
industry term):
Store-door margin (food
A product's gross profit after deducting expenses,
industry term):
e.g., storage costs, delivery cost
Store-specific pallet (food
A combination of different items on a pallet
industry term):
shipped to a store.
Storewide promotion (food
A thematic merchandising and promotional
industry term):
program with all retail departments within a store
participating.
Straight load (food industry
Merchandise delivered to retail stores in trucks
term):
carrying only one product group.
Strain:
To pour a liquid through a strainer, sieve, or
cheesecloth to remove unwanted particles or to
separate out solids. Example
Strain:
To pass a liquid or moist mixture through a
colander, sieve or cheese cloth to remove solid
particles.
Strain:
To separate liquids from solids by passing them
through a metal or cloth sieve (such as
cheesecloth).
Strainer:
A kitchen utensil with a perforated or mesh
bottom used to strain liquids or semi-liquids, or to
sift dry ingredients such as flour or confectioners'
sugar. Strainers, also called sieves, come in a
variety of sizes and shapes with various mesh
sizes.
Strasbourgeoise:
Served with goose livers and truffles.
Straw mushrooms, canned:
Small button-like mushrooms indigenous to Asia.
Fresh ones are so delicate that they aren't
usually shipped.
Straw Mushrooms:
Small, tan mushrooms with a mild flavor.
Strawberry:
A lush, red berry from a ground-creeping plant
that grows wild in large areas of Asia, Europe
Store stamp (food industry
term):

Streaker:

Streaky Bacon:
Street money (food industry
term):
Streusel:
Strip display (food industry
term):
Striped bass:

Striped bass:

Stroganoff:

Strudel:

Stuff:
Stuffing:
Stuffing:
Sturgeon:

Sub gum:
Subprimal cuts (food industry
term):

and North and South America.


Usually refers to bean purees or other colorful
pastes made from nondairy products and used to
decorate plates and finished dishes; may also
refer to brightly colored cremas.
[Great Britain] American bacon.
Monies available for specific performance,
conditions or purchases. Usually from a supplier
or salesperson rather than directly from a
manufacturer.
A delicious topping of sugar, butter, flour, and
other spices that adds flavor and crunch to
crumb cakes, coffee cakes and some muffins.
A horizontal shelf arrangement of like products.
This true bass is found along the Atlantic coast. It
features six to eight horizontal stripes and
provides a moderately fat, firm flesh with a mild,
sweet flavor.
Firm-textured fish with meaty, pinkish flesh.
When wild, striped bass are highly flavorful. Can
be substituted in recipes that call for cod or other
milder fish, and some stronger fish too.
A dish of thinly sliced beef (usually tenderloin or
top loin), onions, and mushrooms sauteed in a
combination of butter and sour:cream sauce.
Often served with a rice pilaf. Invented by Count
Paul Stroganoff in the 19th century.
[Austrian] thin leaves of pastry dough, filled with
fruit, nuts or savory mixtures, which are rolled
and baked and finally iced or frosted. Savory
versions of this are similar to the Russian
coulibiac.
To fill a cavity in food with another food.
A seasoned mixture of food used to fill the cavity
of poultry, fish, vegetables or around which a
strip of meat, fish or vegetable may be rolled.
A well-seasoned mixture of bread or rice, spices,
vegetables, and usually meat that is "stuffed"
inside the cavity of poultry or meat.
A name for various migratory species of fish
know for its rich, high:fat flavor, firm texture, and
excellent roe. Their average weight is 60 pounds,
but one freshwater "Beluga" sturgeon was 26
feet long and weighed 3,221 pounds.
A stew of Chinese vegetables.
Untrimmed, boneless cuts of meat, primarily
beef.

Suchet:
Sucker:

Suckeyes:
Sucre:
Suero de la leche:
Suet:
Sugar alcohols:

Sugar Free, Sugar-free:


Sugar Snap Pea:
Sugar snaps:

Sugar syrup:

Sugar:

With the flavoring of carrot.


A name popularly applied to various types of
freshwater fish closely related to carp. Suckers
live and feed near the bottoms of streams. They
may be cooked in any way appropriate for other
fish.
Cowboy term for pancakes.
[French] sugar.
[Spanish] buttermilk.
The hard fat around the kidneys and loins of
beef, mutton or pork.
Sugar alcohols like mannitol, sorbitol and xylitol
are sweeteners that occur naturally in fruits, and
are often added to certain foods. They're called
"alcohols" because of their chemical structure,
not because they contain the kind of alcohol in
drinks like beer, wine and spirits. Because sugar
alcohols do not promote tooth decay, they are
often used in "sugarless" gum. They are also
used to add texture to some foods. Some studies
suggest that because sugar alcohols take longer
to break down than regular sugar, they may
cause a less rapid spike in blood sugar than
sugar-sweetened products. But remember that
they are not calorie-free, are not likely to help
with weight control and, when consumed in
excessive amounts, can lead to intestinal gas,
cramping or diarrhea.
A food containing less than 0.5 grams of sugar
per serving.
A sweet pea that is a hybrid of the English pea
and snow pea; the bright green, crisp pod and
the paler green, tender seeds are both edible.
Also called snap peas, these flavorful pea-filled
pods are newly developed (introduced in 1979).
Sugar snaps are crisp, with crunchy pods and
sweet peas.
Differentiating from natural syrups, this term
refers to a solution of sugar and water. Simple
syrups are made with equal quantities of water
and sugar. Heavy syrup is made with twice as
much sugar as water. These types of syrups are
used in making sorbets, soft drinks, and for
soaking cakes.
Sugar or sucrose is a carbohydrate occurring
naturally in every fruit and vegetable in the plant
kingdom. It is the major product of
photosynthesis, the process by which plants
transform the sun's energy into food. Sugar for

home baking is produced in greatest quantities


from sugar cane and sugar beets.

Sugar:
Suggested retail price (food
industry term):
Suggestive selling (food
industry term):
Sukiyaki:
Sulfites:

Sultanas:
Sultanas:

Granulated sugar- Fine or extra-fine white


sugar crystals. Often referred to as "white
sugar" in home baking

Brown sugar- Sugar crystals contained in


a molasses syrup with natural flavor and
color components. Dark and light brown
sugars may be substituted according to
individual preferences for product color or
taste.

Confectioners' sugar- Also called


powdered sugar. See glossary listing.

Raw sugar- About 98 percent sucrose and


tan or brown in appearance; it is a coarse,
granulated solid obtained on evaporation
of clarified sugar cane juice. It is not
considered fit for direct use as food or a
food ingredient by the USDA.

Turbinado sugar- Raw sugar refined to a


light tan color by washing in a centrifuge
under sanitary conditions. Surface
molasses is removed in the washing
process and is closer to refined sugar than
raw.

A sweet, water-soluble, crystalline carbohydrate;


used as a sweetener and preservative for foods.
A manufacturer's recommended price for a
product.
A marketing technique in which retail employees
recommend tie-in or complementary products,
e.g., cake and coffee, deli ham and cheese.
Japanese dish of meat, vegetables and
seasonings, usually cooked at the table.
Sulfur-containing agents (the salts of sulfurous
acid) used as preservatives for some processed
and packaged foods to inhibit spoilage or
oxidation.
Golden raisins made from sultana grapes.
A type of large raisins, originally Turkish. [Great
Britain] Seedless white raisins.

Sumac:
Summer Sausage:
Summer Squash:

Summer squash:

Sunchokes:

Sun-dried tomatoes:

Sunfish:

Sunflower seeds:

Sunsweet Lighter Bake:

Super combo (food industry


term):

Super warehouse store (food

[Middle East] spice that comes from the grated


skin of a dark berry that possesses a a slightly
acidic, astringent flavor.
A style of sausage that is cured and air dried.
Summer sausage may or may not be smoked.
There are many varieties of this gourd including
zucchini, yellow straightneck, yellow crookneck
and pattypan. All summer squash are similar in
taste and texture.
These light, fleshy squashes of the late summer
are available in many varieties, most notably
zucchini and yellow squash. Choose squash that
is very firm.
Also called Jerusalem artichokes, sunchokes are
the knobby roots of a perennial sunflower. They
resemble ginger in appearance and have a
subtle, delicious flavor. Their high sugar content
enables them to brown well when fried or
roasted.
When a tomato is dried in the sun (or more likely
the oven) the end result is a shriveled, intensely
flavored tomato. They are usually packed in olive
oil or packaged dried (when dried soak them in
hot water to reconstitute).
Any of a number of North American freshwater
fish closely related to the perch. Known for their
bright, sunny colors and interesting shapes,
popular varieties include "Bluegill," "Crappie,"
and "Calico Bass," commonly called "Sunnies."
Seeds of the sunflower, these can be roasted or
dried in or out of their shells. They can be added
to many sweet and savory dishes, including
salads, baked goods, and granola.
a 100% fat- and cholesterol-free baking
ingredient that replaces butter, margarine, oil or
shortening in scratch recipes and packaged
mixes. Made from a blend of dried plums and
apples, this new fat "imposter" creates moist,
chewy baked goods that are lower in fat. Lighter
Bake is located in the cooking oil or baking
ingredients section of supermarkets nationwide.
An upscale grocery store with 80,000 to150,000
square feet, a full line of service departments and
weekly sales of approximately $900,000. The
store carries a wide variety of items, 60,000 or
more, with at least 20 percent of sales attributed
to general merchandise and health and beauty
care products.
A warehouse store with a focus on low prices

industry term):

and a wide variety of perishable items, i.e.,


produce, deli, and bakery departments.
Superfine Sugar:
Known as castor (or caster) sugar in Britain,
superfine sugar is more finely granulated and
dissolves almost instantly, making it perfect for
making meringues and sweetening cold liquids.
Granulated sugar can be substituted cup for cup
for superfine.
Superfine sugar:
Also called caster sugar, this finely granulated
sugar is good in meringues and cold drinks; it
dissolves quickly and easily. It can be made by
blenderizing granulated sugar in the blender until
it is powdery.
Supermarket (food industry
A conventional grocery store, but not a
term):
warehouse club or mass merchant, with annual
sales of two million dollars or more per store.
Supermarket business (food
A monthly periodical for the food store industry
industry term):
published by Fieldmark Media, New York.
Supermarket news (food
A weekly newspaper for the food store industry
industry term):
published by Capital Cities Media, Inc. , New
York.
Superstore (food industry
A large conventional supermarket with expanded
term):
service deli, bakery, seafood and non-food
sections.
Supervisor (food industry term): A manager designated to supervise a certain
area or number of stores.
Suppe:
[German] soup.
Supplemental display (food
An extra display in a department in aisles or in
industry term):
spaces where fixed equipment will not fit, which
makes merchandise more accessible.
Supplier (food industry term): A generic term for wholesalers who sell to and
supply retailers directly and indirectly, e.g.,
manufacturer, vendor, broker, reseller.
Supply (food industry term):
The quantity of merchandise in stock at a store
or a warehouse.
Supply center (food industry
The specific location in each department where
term):
supplies are kept.
Supply chain (food industry
The process of fulfillment and movement of
term):
goods from producer or grower to consumer.
Supply depot (food industry
A warehouse operated by a chain or a wholesale
term):
grocer that sponsors a voluntary group.
Support office (food industry
A corporate office with accounting, accounts
term):
payable and receivable and advertising
departments and other administrative support
staff.
Supreme de volaille:
Breast of chicken.
Supreme:
A rich heavy cream sauce.
Surimi:
Imitation crab meat processed from fish.

Surprise buy (food industry


term):
Survey letter (food industry
term):

Survey order (food industry


term):

Sushi:

Swamp seed:
Sweat

Sweat:
Swedes:
Swedish meatballs:

Sweepstakes/contest (food
industry term):
Sweet Chocolate:

SWEET chocolate:
Sweet Chocolate:

Usually 15 to 25 popular items featured at


unusually low prices, found throughout the entire
store.
A notice from a wholesaler's or chain's
headquarters to stores soliciting support and
orders for an upcoming special promotion, so the
buyer has a basis for determining an order for
promotional items.
An order from retail stores, usually for new items
or deal items, previously authorized by an
account's headquarters. Also, potential orders at
retail stores for an item before a manufacturer's
salesperson or broker presents it at the
headquarters of a chain or wholesaler. See future
order.
A Japanese dish of thin layers of raw fish
wrapped around cakes of cold cooked rice. Sushi
can also consist of ingredients wrapped in rice
and held by a seaweed wrapper known as nori.
Rice.
Cooking a food, usually vegetables, in a small
amount of fat, usually covered over low heat
without browning the food until it becomes
softened and releases moisture; usually used as
a preparatory step to other cooking methods to
make the finished product more flavorful in a
shorter amount of time
To cook foods over gentle heat, usually covered
or partly covered, until moisture is released.
[Great Britain] Turnips.
A combination of ground meat (often a
combination of beef, pork, or veal), sauteed
onions, milk:soaked breadcrumbs, beaten eggs,
and seasonings. The mixture is formed into small
balls, then sauteed until brown.
A promotional contest for consumers, which
features a chance to win prizes.
Very similar in composition to semisweet
chocolate, sweet chocolate simply has more
sugar added and less chocolate liquor. It's sold
on grocery shelves in the baking section. For
people with a real sweet tooth, sweet chocolate
can be substituted for semisweet in recipes
without a significant change in texture.
Unsweetened chocolate with sugar added. It is
often used in dessert recipes. The two most
common forms are
Highly like the composition of semisweet
chocolate, sweet chocolate has more sugar

added and less chocolate liquor.


A term which usually describes a variety of mild
peppers of the Capsicum family. Bell peppers,
pimientos, and banana peppers are sweet
peppers.
Sweet Potato:
A variety of sweet potato with a thick, dark
orange skin and an orange flesh that remains
moist when cooked; sometimes erroneously
called a yam.
Sweet potato:
Contrary to popular belief, the sweet potato is
different from the yam. Sweet potatoes are bright
with orange flesh, though some varieties have
yellow, white, or even purple flesh.
Sweetbreads:
Considered a delicacy, sweetbreads are the two
thymus glands (in the throat and near the heart)
of veal, young beef, lamb and pork.
Sweetbreads:
The culinary term for the thymus gland of an
animal. Those of veal and lamb are most
commonly eaten. The pancreas is also
considered a sweetbread, but its taste and
texture is inferior to that of the thymus gland.
Sweetened Condensed Milk:
Whole milk mixed with 40 percent to 45 percent
sugar. The mixture is heated until 60 percent of
the water evaporates leaving a thick, sweet
syrup. Also known as condensed milk.
Sweetened condensed milk:
Milk that has been evaporated to about half of its
volume and has sugar added. Sticky and sweet.
Sweethearting (food industry
A form of theft, whereby a cashier gives illegal
term):
discounts to employees, friends, and/or
customers.
Swell allowance (food industry A manufacturer's refund or invoice deduction to
term):
cover the costs of spoiled, processed foods,
products packed in glass or dented cans. See
breakage allowance; swells.
Swells (food industry term):
Unsalable items with expanded containers or lids
signifying faulty food handling, processing or
sealing. See swell allowance; bloating.
Swipe reader (food industry
A credit card or ATM card reader for cash register
term):
systems at the checkout counter.
Swiss Cheese:
A hard, pale-yellow cheese originally from the
Emmental valley of Switzerland, distinguished by
large holes in its texture. Made from cow's milk,
its flavor is described as nutty, mild and sweet.
Swiss roll tin:
Jellyroll pan.
Swiss steak:
Round or chuck steak that has been tenderized
by pounding, coated with flour, and browned on
both sides. The meat is then smothered in
chopped tomatoes, onions, carrots, celery, broth,
Sweet Peppers:

and seasonings, then baked for about two


hours.
Swiss Steak:
A dish made with a thick cut of steak--usually
chuck or round--which is tenderized by pounding,
coated with flour and seasoning, and browned.
The steak is then topped with tomatoes, onions,
and other vegetables, then simmered or baked
for about 2 hours.
Swiss steak:
A steak (usually bottom round, sometimes lean
chuck) into which seasoned flour has been
pounded before cooking.
Swordfish:
A saltwater food and sport fish with mild:flavored,
moderately fat flesh. The flesh is red, dense, and
meat:like. Thanks to its firmness, swordfish can
be prepared by baking, broiling, grilling,
poaching, or sauteing.
Swordfish:
A large sport fish found off the coast in temperate
waters throughout the world. Swordfish can
weigh up to 1,000 pounds and have moderately
fatty flesh that is dense and meat-like.
Swordfish:
Highly popular fish, wonderful on the grill. When
buying, look for bright flesh with tight swirls;
should smell good. Skin is inedible.
Syllabub:
An English dessert comprised mainly of whipped
cream sweetened with sugar and flavored with
sherry, brandy, or Cointreau. Lemon zest, fruit
preserves or puree may also be swirled into the
cream.
Syndicated data (food industry Information gathered by a service or company for
term):
public release and sold by subscription.
Syrup:
Sugar dissolved in liquid, usually water; it is often
flavored with spices or citrus zest.
Syrup:
Thick, sweet liquid made by boiling sugar with
water or fruit juices.
Szechuan Peppercorns:
Not, in fact, related to black and white
peppercorns, these are tiny dried berries that
contain a seed. They have a pungent aroma and
mildly spicy flavor and can be purchased whole
or in powdered form.
Szechwan Chile Sauce:
A sauce or paste made from chiles, oil, salt and
garlic and used as a flavoring in Chinese
Szechwan cooking; also known as chile paste or
chile paste with garlic.
Trading area.
Ta (food industry term):
Tab (food industry term):
Tabulation. Usually refers to research data.
Tabasco chile:
The famous chile from Tabasco, Mexico; seeds
were introduced to Louisiana in the 1860s.

Tabasco Sauce:

A brand of sauce made from small, hot, red


tabasco peppers, vinegar, and salt. Tabasco
Sauce is used in a wide variety of dishes.
Tabasco Sauce:
A brand-name very hot red sauce made from hot
ground peppers, fermented and mixed with
vinegar. Tabasco Pepper Sauce is made on
Avery Island in Louisiana, United States. This
sauce is commonly used with Creole food, chili
con carne and eggs.
Tabbouleh, Taboule:
A Lebanese salad made of crushed wheat,
parsley, tomatoes, onion, mint and sometimes
sweet pepper and lemon.
Tabbouleh:
A Lebanese salad made of softened bulgur
tossed with vegetables and seasoned with lemon
and mint.
Table allowance (food industry A manufacturer 's allowance to a retailer to
term):
display or highlight a product on supplemental
tables, such as bottled catsup. Also called a
Table Display Allowance (TDA).
Table d'hote:
[French] meal of a definite number of courses,
selected by the restaurant for a preset price.
Table display (food industry
A type of supplemental display used to highlight
term):
seasonal or featured products, placed in a store's
aisles to increase display space.
Table salt:
Also called granulated salt, it is produced by
boiling and evaporation of brine. It may be
iodized and contains anti-caking agents
Tablespoon:
A measure of volume in the U.S. system; 1
tablespoon (T.) = 3 teaspoons or 0.05 fluid
ounces.
Tabloid (food industry term):
A small format newspaper that reports the news
in a condensed form.
Taco:
A Mexican "sandwich," tacos are filled corn
tortillas. Typical fillings may include meat, poultry,
tomatoes, lettuce, cheese, onion, guacamole,
refried beans and salsa.
Taco:
[Mexican] wad or mouthful; fried, toasted or
baked tortilla with filling rolled or folded inside. It
has either a soft or crisp fried shell.
Tag (food industry term):
A message delivered live by an announcer at the
end of a TV or radio commercial, usually to
mention local stores that sell an advertised item.
Tagging (food industry term):
A price or informational sign that highlights an
item.
Tagine:
A Moroccan dish named after the cooking utensil
in which it has been cooked. These stews may
contain poultry, fish, meat, or vegetables and are
highly spiced with sweet overtones common in

Tagliarini:
Tagliatelle:
Tahini:
Tahini:

Tailgate:

Take (food industry term):


Taleggio:

Tallarines:
Tallow biscuits:
Tamal (tamale):

Tamale:

Tamalero:
Tamarind Paste:

Tamarind:

North African cuisine.


A flat ribbon pasta, narrower than tagliatelle,
measuring approximately 3mm across.
[Italian] a flat ribbon pasta, narrower than
fettuccine, measuring approximately 6mm
across.
A paste of ground sesame seeds and a flavor
similar to peanut butter.
A light creamy paste made of toasted sesame
seeds and sesame oil-- almost like peanut butter.
Used in many Middle Eastern dishes, it can be
found in Middle Eastern delicatessens or larger
supermarkets.
(United States) outdoor snack, meal or
beverages originally served from the back of a
pick-up truck at any sporting event. Hot food
prepared on the grill at a sporting event.
A retail store's daily receipts, e.g., cash, checks,
credit cards.
A square creamy cheese from the Lombardy
region of Italy, with a fat content of almost 50%.
Has a mild, salty-sweet flavor, which can become
pungent if left to age for too long.
[Spanish] noodles.
Hot biscuits spread with fresh tallow.
[Spanish] any filling enclosed in masa, wrapped
in a corn husk or parchment paper, and steamed;
the plural is tamales. The cornmeal is spread on
a corn husk, then filled with chile-seasoned
mixture of meats and red pepper, rolled, tied and
steamed.
Tamales are filled softened corn husks. The filling
may contain a wide variety of ingredients, which
are wrapped in a masa dough then placed within
a softened corn husk. The husks are then tied
and steamed until the filling is cooked. Only the
filling (not the husk) is eaten.
[Spanish] tamale-making party.
A vitamin-rich, tangy, prune like pulp from the
pods of a tropical Asian tree. It is used as a
seasoning in curries and chutneys or made into
drinks, jams, or sorbets.
This is the very pungent, tart fruit pod of trees
originally from Africa, now common in Asia, India,
and the West Indies. The taste is bittersweet with
citrus overtones. The pulp is very sticky and
difficult to work with. Tamarind paste and
concentrate, fresh products, are available in the

Tamarindo:

Tandoori:

Tangelo:

Tangerine:

Tangerines:
Tapas:
Tape (food industry term):
Tapenade:

Tapenade:

produce sections of many ethnic markets. They


keep for 2-3 weeks, refrigerated. Both products
made from the pulp of the tamarind pod, need to
be reconstituted.
[Spanish] sometimes labeled as Indian dates; a
The pod is bout four inches long; they have a
brown papery outer skin that covers the sticky
pulp, fibers and seeds; it makes a wonderful hot
weather drink; also great for sauces and chiles
when combined with dried chiles; a primary
ingredient in both Worcestershire and Pick-aPeppa sauces; also sold in dried bricks with its
seeds, as frozen pulp and puree, and as canned
paste; fresh pods can be purchased from later
summer through early spring.
A method of cooking chicken or meats in Indian
cuisine. The pieces of chicken are skinned, then
coated in yogurt mixed with chili powder,
turmeric, ginger, spices, onion and chopped
garlic. After marinating overnight, the chicken is
sprinkle with saffron or chili powder and cooked
on a bed of embers in a special cylindrical clay
oven called a tandoori.
A cross between a tangerine and a grapefruit
with loose skin that can range in color from deep
reddish-orange to orange-yellow; very sweet and
easy to peel.
A small orange citrus fruit. What the United
States calls tangerines are called mandarins
elsewhere in the world. They are loose-skinned
oranges. The best is the clementine: the small,
flattened, seedless fruit that is easier to peel, has
less pith, and is sweeter than all other
tangerines.
A type of mandarin with thick, rough, orange skin
and sweet flesh.
In Spain, an assortment of hors d'oeuvres or
cocktail snacks.
A register receipt given to a customer detailing
the transaction, products, retail prices, coupons
and payment.
A condiment from Provence, made with capers,
desalted anchovies and pitted black olives. The
ingredients are pounded in a mortar and season
with olive oil, lemon juice, aromatics, and
possibly a drop of brandy.
A paste made from cured black olives seasoned
with olive oil, garlic, anchovies, capers, lemon,
and marc or cognac. This is common in

Tapioca:

Tapioca:

Taquito:
Taquitos:
Taramasalata:

Tare (food industry term):

Taro:
Taro:

Tarpon:
Tarragon:

Province, where it is served with croutons and


raw vegetables to dip. This also makes a good
sauce for grilled meats and strong flavored fish.
A starch from the root of the cassava plant,
tapioca comes in several forms including
granules, pellets (pearl tapioca), and flour. The
pellets - also called pearl tapioca - are used
mainly to make puddings. Instant tapioca and
tapioca flour are often used to thicken dishes
such as fruit fillings, glazes, soups, and stews.
This is a starchy ingredient derived from the
cassava root. Tapioca puddings and custards are
made with pearl tapioca, which serves as a
thickening agent. Tapioca comes in several
forms, including granules and flour, as well as the
pellets that are called pearl tapioca. Tapioca
starch is often used to make dumpling dough, or
as a thickening agent. If necessary, it can be
used as a substitute for cornstarch. Store tapioca
in a cool dark place.
[Spanish] little taco; rolled, deep-fried taco.
(Rolled tacos) Same as tacos except filling is
placed inside tortillas and rolled cigar-fashion,
then deep-fat fried.
A Greek dip made of olive oil and fish roe with
the consistency similar to that of mayonnaise.
American versions commonly use salmon,
whitefish or carp roe. This is served with raw
vegetables and bread or croutons.
The weight of the packaging subtracted from the
weight of the product, so the customer doesn't
pay for the container. The allowance for
perishable shrinkage between the weight marked
on the item when packed and the actual weight
when sold.
A perennial plant grown in tropical regions for its
large starchy tuberous rhizomes, Which have
twice the calorific value of potato.
The most flavorful of the "new" tubers sold in
many supermarkets and many Latin American
and Asian markets. Treat as a potato, but do not
overcook or it will become dry.
A large, powerful game fish from the warmer
waters of the Atlantic Ocean.
An herb (Artemisia dracunculus) native to Siberia
with narrow, pointed, dark green leaves, tiny gray
flowers, a distinctive anise-like flavor with
undertones of sage and a strong aroma;
available fresh and dried.

Tart:

A sweet- or savory-filled baked pastry with no top


crust.
Tartar Sauce:
Also spelled Tartare, this is a mayonnaise-like
sauce made with hard-boiled egg yolks and olive
oil, to which chives, shallots, pickles, capers, and
seasonings are added. Usually served chilled
with fish or cold chicken.
Tartare:
This is a term which has several meanings. It is
often used to describe the preparation of raw
beef called steak tartare. Raw beef is chopped
finely and served with minced onion, parsley,
capers and seasoned with anything from
Worcestershire sauce to Tabasco sauce. Tartare
sauce describes a mayonnaise based sauce with
capers, onion, hard cooked eggs, cornichons and
herbs.
Tarte Flamb:
An Alsatian pizza with a thin crust topped with
fresh white cheese, onions, and bacon. This is
also called an Alsatian firepie.
Tarte Tatin:
Upside-down apple tart with sugar-and-butter
caramelized topping. Best when served
immediately after cooking.
Tartufi:
[Italian] truffles.
Tasso:
A lean and highly-seasoned piece of cured pork
or beef, tasso is hard to find outside of Louisiana.
It's used like ham or salt pork to flavor pastas,
beans, and other dishes.
Tatsoi:
Also known as 'spoon cabbage,' tatsoi is a leafy
Asian green with a slightly spicy cabbage flavor.
It can be used in salads and stir-fries.
Taza:
[Spanish] cup.
T-bone steak:
A cut from the center section of the tenderloin,
directly in front of the porterhouse steak.
Te:
[Spanish] tea; usually an herbal tea.
Tea Ball, Tea Infuser:
A small, perforated ball, usually made of
stainless steel, that holds loose tea. Tea is
placed inside through a hinged opening and the
ball is put in a cup or teapot to brew when boiling
water is added.
Tea towel:
Dish towel.
Tear-off pad (food industry
Printed promotional materials that are bound into
term):
a pad and displayed next to a product or at the
checkout.
Tear-strip (food industry term): A tape inserted into a package or case for easy
opening.
Teff:
a tiny, round grain that flourishes in the highlands
of Ethiopia. While teff is very nutritious, it
contains practically no gluten. This makes teff ill-

Teflon:

Tegiquat (food industry term):


Teigemasse:
Tejano:
Tejolote:
Telemarketing (food industry
term):
Telephone sales rep (food
industry term):

Telera:
Telxon (food industry term):

Tembleque:
Tempe, Tempeh:

Temper:

Temperature:
Temporarily out (to) (food
industry term):

suited for making raised bread.


The trademarked name for a coating used on
pots and pans to prevent food from sticking. This
nonstick coating can cut down (or eliminate in
some cases) the need for oil in cooking, and is
helpful to people on low-fat diets.
A anti-germicidal cleaner that kills bacteria,
cleans and deodorizes.
[German] macaroni dishes.
[Spanish] Texan; often refers to the early
Mexican settlers in Texas.
[Spanish] pestle used to grind items in a
molcajete.
Marketing by telephone to solicit customers in
order to sell goods and services.
A salesperson at a wholesale operation who
takes telephone orders for merchandise and also
contacts customers to alert them to upcoming
promotions, new items and other services.
Sometimes called an inside sales rep.
[Spanish] French roll.
A combination of a portable electronic terminal
and a wand. The wand reads the shelf ticket and
identifies the product. Each pass of the wand (left
to right) orders one case. If more than 3 cases
are needed, a pass (right to left) is made and the
quantity is punched into a terminal, which
records orders electronically.
[Spanish] a coconut dessert; a good commercial
product is the Goya brand.
A fermented soybean cake with a yeasty, nutty
flavor; popular in Asian cooking and vegetarian
diets. These high-protein cakes can usually be
found at health food stores.
Technically, to moderate. In cooking, tempering
most often refers to slightly warming beaten
eggs, by rapidly stirring a little of the hot
ingredients into them, before adding them to the
hot mixture so that they will combine, stirring
rapidly again, without solidifying. It also refers to
the softening of a heavy mixture before folding in
a whipped mixture, so that incorporation occurs
without deflation.
The intensity of heat in a mixture, baked product,
or oven; measured in degrees Fahrenheit (0F)
for home baking in the United States.
A manufacturer's identifier on an invoice when a
product is out-of-stock, not delivered and not

billed. The retailer needs to re-order the product


on the next order.
Temporary allowance (food
A manufacturer's price reduction to increase
industry term):
sales volume of a product for a specific time
period.
Temporary price reduction (tpr) A short-term price reduction to increase sales of
(food industry term):
a product for a specific time period.
Tempura:
In Japanese cooking, a method of deep-frying
foods coated in a light batter of rice flour. Foods
cooked in a tempura batter are usually served
with a type of dipping sauce such as sweet and
sour, soy or teriyaki.
Tempura:
Japanese dish of batter-dipped, fried seafood or
vegetables.
Tenderloin:
That portion of the beef between the sirloin and
the ribs; also known as short loin. Steaks from
the tenderloin include the Porterhouse and the Tbone.
Tenedor:
[Spanish] fork.
Tepari:
[Spanish] tepary beans.
Tepin:
[Spanish] a dried chile; chile tepin; wild form of
the pequ n, it grows along the Mexican and U.S.
border; round, measuring about 1/2 inch across;
have a searing, dry heat; used in sauces, salsas
and stews; Substitute pequ ns if these are not
available.
Tequila:
[Spanish] a pale, sharp-tasting liquor distilled
from the agave plant (maguey cactus); the stem
of the agave, known also as the century plant, is
used in making tequila; it is produced near
Tequila in the state of Jalisco, Mexico.
Terg-o-cide (food industry
A degreaser used to clean equipment.
term):
Teriyaki Sauce:
A marinade and sauce traditionally made from
soy sauce, wine, sugar, and other seasonings.
Terminal (food industry term): A computer or cash register display.
Terrapin:
This eight:inch long freshwater turtle is
considered by many to have the best meat
among turtles. Its flesh is often pounded and
served like steak.
Terrine:
A deep covered baking dish, a terrine is often
made of earthenware.
Terrine:
[French] finely ground meats or fish, etc. See
"Pate" for description; an earthenware pot used
in cooking and serving pasta.
Test market (food industry
A market area representative of the average
term):
national demographics and buying patterns,
which is chosen to test new products, promotions

and to forecast sales. See trading area.


Test store (food industry term): A retail store used to test a product to determine
buying and merchandising practices. See pilot
store, storewide promotion.
Texas butter:
A butter substitute of hot lard, flour and water.
Texture:
Indicates the appearance of a cut portion of
bread or cake.
Thai Chilies:
Known as hang prik (Thai), cabe or lombok
(Indonesian), cabai or cili (Malaysian), Ot
(Vietnamese). Fresh explosive chilies 3 to 4
inches long, and 1/2 to 3/4 inches wide. Their
color ranges from the fresh green state to various
stages of yellow to red in a ripened state. They
are also sold dried and are often soaked in hot
water before using.
Thermometer:
A device designed to measure temperatures; can
be calibrated in Fahrenheit and/or Celsius and
can be a column of mercury with temperatures
indicated on a glass tube or a stem-type
thermometer in which temperatures are noted by
an arrow on a dial or a digital readout.
Thermophilic:
Cheesemaking term which describes the
temperature at which the culture thrives. From
the Greek words thermo- meaning heat- and
philic, which means loving. Thermophilic cultures
require a higher temperature than mesophilic
cultures.
Thicken:
The process of making a liquid substance dense
by adding a thickening agent (ex. flour, gelatin) or
by cooking to evaporate some of the liquid.
Thin:
To dilute a mixture by adding more liquid.
Third party (food industry term): An independent organization that offers a service
that links a supplier and a distributor in some
way. The term can apply to providers of EDI,
warehousing or logistics services.
Third party reconciliation (food A process of balancing insurance claims paid
industry term):
versus claims due from a third-party company.
Throughput (food industry
The products received, stored and shipped by a
term):
distribution center.
Thuringer cervelat:
A fresh, smoked sausage named after the former
German region of Thuringia. Coriander (also
called "cilantro") is an important spice used in
this variety of sausage.
Thyme:
A low-growing herb (Thymus vulgaris) with small
purple flowers and tiny, gray-green leaves; the
leaves have a strong, slightly lemony flavor and
aroma; used fresh or dried.
Ticket price (ticket) (food
A product's retail price.

industry term):
Tie and high (food industry
term):

Tie-in ad (food industry term):


Tie-in items (food industry
term):
Tie-in merchandise (food
industry term):

The width and height of freight on pallets and


warehouse storage racks. "Tie" refers to the
number of dimensions of each tier (layer) of
standard pack product while "High" means the
total physical height of one or more "Ties"
making up the unit load.
A retailer's advertisements used to meet the
promotional requirements of a manufacturer.
See related items.

A multi-product display method in which a highimpulse item is linked to a staple or featured


item.
Tie-in promotion (food industry A promotion in which two products are displayed
term):
together and one item is given away or sold at a
lower price with the purchase of the other.
Tie-in sales (food industry
A retailer's promotion of a product to meet
term):
manufacturer requirements during a specified
time period.
Tierno:
[Spanish] tender.
Tilefish:
This low:fat Atlantic fish is delicately flavored and
has a flesh that is firm yet tender. Available fresh
and frozen, in steaks and fillets. Suitable for just
about any cooking method.
Timbale:
(TIHMbuhl; tihmBAHL) A highsided, drumshaped
mold that can taper toward the bottom. The food
baked in the mold is usually a custard based
dish. It is unmolded before serving.
Timbale:
[French] a molded dish. Also a high-sided pie
crust filled with cooked meat, fish or fruit.
Time and attendance systems An electronic system used to plan, monitor and
(food industry term):
report employees' work hours.
Time and temperature
Label-sized, chemical-filled packets that are
monitoring (ttm) devices (food attached to shipping cartons and indicate when
industry term):
the cartons have been exposed to fluctuating
temperatures.
Time clock (food industry term): An instrument that records the time an associate
begins and ends work. The time is usually
displayed on a time card or electronic monitor.
Used to calculate hourly wages or weekly wages
for hours worked.
Time lag (food industry term): The time between the introduction of a new
product and its availability in a retail store.
Timetable (food industry term): The delivery schedule and requirements for a
new product promotion.
Tinga:
[Spanish] stew.
Tipsy cake, tipsy pudding:
Sponge cake soaked with sherry and brandy,

Tiramisu:

To Taste:
Toad in the Hole:
Toast
Toast points:
Toast:
Toast:

Toasting (nuts):

Tocino:
Tofc (food industry term):
Tofu:
Tofu:

covered with custard and almonds.


An Italian dessert which is very popular in the
US. Tiramiso consists of sponge cake, soaked
with an espresso syrup and layered with a
sweetened mascarpone cheese and chocolate
sauce.
Common reference to adding salt and pepper to
a recipe according to personal taste. Start with a
small amount, taste and adjust as necessary.
An English dish consisting of pieces of meat or
sausages covered with batter and baked in the
oven.
Making an item crisp and hot by grilling or
broiling on both sides; usually applies to bakery
products, such as bread
Toast slices, cut in half diagonally.
To brown by means of dry heat.
Most commonly, to brown using a dry heat
source such as an oven or toaster. However,
many recipes call for toasting seeds, nuts, grains
or spices before mixing with other ingredients to
add flavor. They may be toasted in an oven or in
a skillet, with or without oil, using a low heat,
stirring or tossing often, until nicely browned,
being very careful not to burn.
Using heat to bring the oils closer to the surface
of the nut which brings out more flavor. Method is
useful in low fat cooking in order to use less nuts.
Toasting also makes removing the skins off of
nuts easier. Toasting also gives the nuts a much
better flavor.
[Spanish] bacon. Cured ham with added color.
Trailer on flat car.
A cake made of bean curd, which is made from
soybeans. High in protein, tofu is often used as a
meat substitute in vegetarian dishes.
Also called bean curd, a bland, cheese- or
custard-like food made from processed soy
beans. It comes in various degrees of firmness
and is a very high source of protein.
There are two broad categories of tofu: firm tofu
and soft (or silken) tofu.
Firm tofu is the more versatile of the two
varieties.
Silken tofu is best eaten raw or used in soups,
most notably miso soup. Silken tofu does not stir

fry well. Because of its consistency, it will not


absorb the flavors of the meats and vegetables
being fried as firm tofu will, and also it tends to
crumble.
Both firm and silken tofus are available in most
grocery stores in the vegetable section. Tofu is
like a dairy product in that it must be refrigerated
and has a short shelf life. It is normally sold in
plastic tubs, immersed in water. Naturally, the
water should be poured off, the tofu rinsed and
patted dry before using. Silken tofu often comes
inside foil packages from Japan. In this case, the
silken tofu is ultra-pasteurized and so has a very
long shelf life. Firm tofu is always fresh.
Tofu fermented soybeans made into a
concentrated curd form. Originally from Japan.
Tofu is astringent, sweet, cooling and heavy, Tofu
is mild tasting and very versatile. It will take on
the flavors of any food it is cooked with. Tofu is
high in calcium, iron and phosphorus. Good for
Kapha, use extra spicing, Vata, should eat in
small quantities because it may cause
constipation. Pitta, very good for strong Pitta and
cooling. Tofu should always be prepared by
cooking or warming and needs warming spices
cooked with it for easy digestion. Use Cumin and
Coriander. Do not overcook tofu. It should be
gently cooked and heated. Eat small quantities of
tofu (3 or 4 ounces) at a time.
Tofu is made from soybean milk mixed with a
thickener and pressed to form a block. Not only
is tofu an excellent vegetable protein, but recent
discoveries have found estrogen-like compounds
that lower risk in breast and prostrate cancers.
By promoting calcium retention in bones,
soybean products lower the risk of osteoporosis.
Soybeans are the perfect food. They contain very
little cholesterol and saturated fats; the fat is
mostly unsaturated. Soybeans provide a
complete protein, approximately 35% protein,
compared to 40% in other legumes. It is high in
vitamins A, B1, B2, E, niacin, calcium, lecithin
and mineral salts. It contains amino-acids, such
as linoleic acid, which is one of the Omega-3
fatty acids, helpful in reducing heart disease.
Soybeans contain genistein, a plant-based

Toiletries merchandiser (food


industry term):
Tomally:
Tomate verde:
Tomate:
Tomatillos (tomates verdes):

Tomatillos:

Tomato:

Tomillo:
Tonnage items (food industry
term):
Tonnage throughput (food
industry term):
Tonno:
Top:
Toronja:
Torrejas:
Torrone:
Torsk:
Torta Rustica:

estrogen known as phytoestrogens, which helps


to blocks the growth of tumors and prevent the
growth of cancer. Overall, soybeans contribute to
a healthy diet, rich in nutrients that help in the
prevention of cancer, heart diseases and
postmenopausal symptoms.
A health and beauty care (HBC) rack jobber.
The liver of the lobster.
Mexican green tomato.
[Spanish] tomato.
[Spanish] frescadillas; plum-sized, bright green
fruit, covered with a light green papery husk; they
have a citrus-like, acidic flavor; taste best when
they are brilliant green in color; often called
green tomatoes, they are more closely related to
the kiwi fruit than to tomatoes, and are members
of the gooseberry family. Also a member of the
nightshade family; originally eaten by the Aztecs;
the best substitute is small green tomatoes. If
using fresh, remove the papery husks. Canned
are a good substitute, but rinse well before using.
Small, green, firm, tomatoes. They are covered
with a paper like husk that's removed before
cooking. Their acid flavor add a great flavor for
sauces.
The fleshy fruit of the Lycopersicon esculentum,
a vine native to South America and a member of
the nightshade family; used like a vegetable,
tomatoes are available in a range of sizes, from
tiny spheres (currant tomatoes) to large squat
ones (beefsteak tomatoes) and colors, from
green (unripe) to golden yellow to ruby red.
[Spanish] thyme.
Low-gross profit items that have a high turnover
rate. See selective selling.
The number of tons of merchandise passing
through a distribution center per labor hours for
all workers in the center.
[Italian] tuna.
To place one food item or mixture on top of
another.
[Spanish] grapefruit.
[Spanish] egg fritters.
Nougat candy.
A large saltwater fish related to the cod. It has a
firm, lean flesh. Also called "cusk."
A large pie similar to coulibiac, filled with salmon,

Torta:
Torta:
Torta:
Torte:
Torte:
Tortellini:
Tortellini:

Tortelloni:
Tortilla:

Tortilladora:
Tortillas de Harina:

Tortillas De Mais:

Tortillas:
Tortilleria:
Toss:

cabbage or spinach, eggs, and mushrooms.


Other versions use meat or sausage in the filling.
The crust is usually made of bread dough and
sprinkled with salt before using.
Stiffly beaten eggs leavened with baking powder
and seasoned with salt and oregano, then deep
fried. Served during Lent with chile.
[Italian] tart.
[Spanish] hero sandwich; often made with a
bolillo; also made with tortillas fried semi-crisp.
A decorated cake with several layers. The layers
of a torte are often made with ground nuts or
breadcrumbs, and very little flour.
Dessert of the cake or meringue type, usually
rich in eggs or nuts.
Italian for small twists and used to describe
small, stuffed pasta shaped like a ring.
A small, stuffed pasta pocket made from little
rounds of dough, then twisted to form dumplings.
Fillings can be made with anything and are
served sauced or in a simple broth.
This is a larger version of the tortellini.
[Latin American] a very thin Mexican bread made
of corn or wheat flour. They are served both soft
and fried. A round, flat unleavened bread made
from a dough of wheat flour or corn flour; the
staple of all Latin American cookery.
[Spanish] small handcranked machine for making
tortillas.
Flour tortillas made from wheat flour. Ussually
are 7: 10 inches in diameter and 1/4 inch thick.
They remain mostly white after cooking on a
griddle, but are flecked with brown and puffed in
spots. Used for burritos and as an
accompaniment to any Southwestern meal.
Corn tortillas made from masa pressed into a thin
pancake, then quickly singed or "blistered" on a
hot griddle. Used for enchiladas, tacos, taquitos,
chalupas, huevos rancheros, tostadas
compuestas.
An unleavened Mexican bread, tortillas are flat
and round. They may be made with flour or masa
(corn flour).
[Spanish] establishment where tortillas are made
and sold.
To combine ingredients by gently turning over
until until blended. Most commonly refers to a
salad, but is used for many other preparations.

The easiest and most efficient way to toss is with


a good pair of tongs. Alternately, two spoons,
forks or one of each may be used.
Tostada:
[Spanish] corn tortilla fried crisp and garnished.
Tostadas Compuestas:
Corn tortilla cups filled with chile con carne
topped with shredded lettuce, chopped tomatoes,
and grated cheese.
Tostadas:
1. Open-faced taco. 2. Corn tortillas cut in pieces
and fried until crisp. Salted or sprinkled with chile
powder. Served for dipping with salsa,
guacamole, or chile con queso.
Tostados:
[Spanish] fried corn tortillas with toppings; bowls
made by frying corn and flour tortillas in a tostado
fryer.
Tostones:
[Spanish] fried plantain slices.
Total distribution (food industry A standardized process where marketing
term):
practices are coordinated to eliminate inefficiency
and reduce cost.
Total order lead-time (food
See order lead time.
industry term):
Total taxes on income (food
The federal and state taxes based on net income
industry term):
imposed on supermarket companies.
Tote (food industry term):
A plastic container, usually used to ship
merchandise such as HBC items.
Totopos, tostaditas:
[Spanish] southern Mexican term for tortilla
chips.
Touch screen (food industry
A computer screen with sensors that respond to
term):
touch.
Tournedo:
A fillet of beef from the heart of the tenderloin,
approximately an inch thick. This term is rarely
used in America today, being replaced by filet of
beef or filet mignon.
Tourte:
Similar to pate en croute, these are pies made in
a round shape and served cold. They are
generally highly seasoned and preparations are
indicative to the region they are from.
Tpr (food industry term):
Temporary price reduction.
Trade (food industry term):
An industry term for the grocery industry which
includes wholesalers, retailers, food brokers,
vendors and associations.
Trade advertising (food industry A manufacturer's advertisement directed toward
term):
the retailers or wholesalers who sell their
products.
Trade advisory board (food
Retailers invited to serve on an advisory board
industry term):
by manufacturers to discuss industry-related
issues, solve problems, and provide input.
Trade association (food
A nonprofit group that serves the information
industry term):
needs of a particular industry and represents its

mutual interests, e.g., education, legislation,


media relations.
Trade deal (food industry term): See deal.
Trade discount (food industry An off-invoice cash discount from a list or
term):
suggested resale price
Trade letter (food industry
A manufacturer's notice describing a promotion,
term):
new products, contests, deals, etc. and the
policies and procedures for implementation.
Trade margin (food industry
See margin.
term):
Trade name (food industry
A product's brand name.
term):
Trade promotion (food industry A special manufacturer's offer made to retailers,
term):
such as allowances for advertising and/or
merchandising.
Trading area (food industry
A population center or metropolitan area with
term):
similar demographics, buying patterns and
expectations. See distributing area.
Trading stamps (food industry Stamps given at checkout to encourage
term):
customer loyalty. Redeemable for cash or
products.
Traffic (food industry term):
In retailing (Food Industry term): The number of
people moving through a retail store or
department. In warehousing: The number of
product turns.
Traffic builder (food industry
A product offered below retail price to attract
term):
customers.
Traffic flow (food industry
The shopping pattern designed for a retail store
term):
or department.
Traffic pattern (food industry
The shopping path customers take through a
term):
store or department.
Trailer (food industry term):
A mail-in incentive attached to a product to
increase the sales of a slow-selling product in an
otherwise fast-moving category.
Trailer on flat car (tofc) (food
A truck trailer placed on a railroad flat car for
industry term):
shipping. Also known as a piggyback.
Trainee (food industry term):
An employee participating in a companysponsored training program.
Transfer credit (food industry
A form used to credit a store for merchandise
term):
that is transferred out.
Transfers (food industry term): Products exchanged between retail stores in the
same chain.
Tray (food industry term):
A container consisting typically of a corrugated or
chip board, low walled, open box wrapped with
plastic film.
Tray-pack (food industry term): A shipping package designed to be displayed by
removing the top.
Treacle:
[Great Britain] Molasses.

Tree display (food industry


term):
Trend (food industry term):
Trennette:
Trifle:
Trigo:
Trim platters (food industry
term):
Trim:

A freestanding display unit with a center pole and


hooks/shelves that resembles a tree.
A pattern of behavior. Also, trend (movement) of
sales.
Flat noodles, wider than fettuccine, that have one
flat edge and one scalloped edge.
A popular British dessert made with wine- or
liqueur-soaked sponge cake or macaroons, then
layered with fruit, jams and whipped cream.
[Spanish] wheat.
Meat pans, or lugs.

To remove undesirable portions of a food item


(ex. external fat from a cut of beef or stems from
grapes) before further preparation or service.
Trimming (food industry term): Removing discolored or damaged leaves or
spots to give produce a fresh and uniform
appearance.
Tripe:
The stomach lining of beef, pork, or sheep. Beef
tripe is the most commonly available. Tripe is
tough and requires long cooking. It is the prime
ingredient for menudo (tripe soup).
Tripe:
The edible lining of stomach (beef).
Tripe:
linings of the first and second stomach of a cow
or ox; it is the main ingredient of traditional
menudo.
Trout:
A delicately flavored fish that belongs to the
same family as salmon and whitefish. Most are
freshwater, but some are marine (sea trout). The
very popular "rainbow trout" has been
transplanted from California to many different
countries.
Trout:
Fish belonging to the salmon family and
generally found in freshwater. The best-known
variety, is the rainbow trout, which originates
from California. Trout are generally sold weighing
less than a pound and are prized for their
moderately fatty flesh and delicate flavor.
Truchas:
[Spanish] freshwater trout.
Truck farm (food industry term): A local farm that provides fruits and vegetables.
Truckload freight rates (food
The lowest transportation charged for shipping a
industry term):
full truckload.
Truckload order (food industry An order that can completely fill a dry or
term):
refrigerated truck trailer. Also known as a full
truck.
Truffle:
This is a tuber of unusual flavor and aroma. It is
savored in Italian and French cookery, and due
to its scarcity, draws a very high price. The truffle

Truite:
Truss:
Truss:
Try out:
TSP or TVP:

Tsukemono:

Tube Pan:
Tube pan:

has yet to be successfully cultivated, though a


fine substitute is now being grown in California.
The black truffle of Perigord and the white truffle
of Piedmont are highly prized for their
exceptional flavors. The black truffle requires
cooking to allow the flavors to be fully achieved.
Conversely, the white truffle is best when shaved
directly on the dish before eating. The aroma of
truffles is strong enough to permeate egg shells
when the two are stored together. Due to their
short growing season and large demand, truffles
can reach a price of up to $800 per pound.
Frozen and canned forms are more accessible,
but their taste never reaches that of fresh truffles.
Also, a very rich chocolate candy.
[French] trout
To tie or skewer meat into a neat shape before
cooking.
To tie up, as a bird, so that all parts will remain in
place while cooking.
To heat fat slowly until it liquefies and can be
drawn off.
Textured soy protein (TSP) or (TVP) is made
from defatted soy flour that is compressed and
processed into granules or chunks. It is sold as a
dried, granular product. When it is rehydrated
with boiling water, TSP has a texture similar to
ground beef. TSP is also available in chunk-size
pieces that take on the consistency of stew meat
when rehydrated. It is available in bulk in
specialty markets and health food stores. TSP is
packaged under various brand names at higher
prices in most health food stores. If you purchase
the prepackaged variety, note the added sodium
content and adjust the recipe accordingly. TSP is
also available in rehydrated form in the frozen
foods section of many grocery stores under
brand names such as Green Giant Recipe
Crumbles. One cup of dehydrated TSP is about
two cups rehydrated.
Japanese term for pickled vegetables. The
Japanese pickle a variety of vegetables, using
various techniques, and serve them with
practically every meal, including breakfast.
A deep, ring-shaped cake pan with a hollow tube
in the center; used for baking cakes, particularly
angel food and sponge cake.
Ring-shaped tin for baking cakes. Most often
used to prepare sponge cakes and angel food

Tuiles:
Tumeric:

Tuna:

Tuna:

Tuna:

Tunas:

Tunken:
Tunnel:
Turbinado sugar:
Turducken:
Turkey:

Turmeric:

Turmeric:

Turn business (food industry

cakes.
Crisp, paper thin cookies named for their tile-like
appearance. They are often flavored with almond
slices, lemon, and vanilla.
A bright yellow spice used primarily in
commercial curry powder. It is also used in sweet
pickles and for various dishes requiring a yellow
color. This is used as a coloring substitute for
saffron.
A saltwater fish related to the mackerel. Probably
the most popular fish used in canning today.
Tunas have a distinctive rich:flavored flesh that is
moderately high in fat and has a firmly textured
flaky but tender flesh.
A member of the mackerel family, and a popular
fish for canning. There are many varieties of
tuna, including albacore, bluefin, yellowfin and
bonito.
An excellent steak fish (and the most popular
canned fish), with tender, flaky, and highly
flavorful flesh; Look for bluefin but settle for
yellowfin if need be.
[Spanish] prickly pear cactus fruits which turn
from green to ruby red; their juice is magentacolored; their exotic flavor is like a blend of
pomegranates, cherries and strawberries; the
fruit is used in making jelly, candies and syrup.
[German] sauces.
To overmix batter. The finished product is riddled
with holes or tunnels.
Raw sugar that has been refined to a light tan
color by washing it in a centrifuge to remove
surface molasses.
A Louisiana specialty: a chicken stuffed inside a
duck stuffed inside a turkey.
An American game bird from the pheasant family
that has been domesticated. Self:basting turkeys
have been injected with butter or vegetable oil.
"Roaster:fryers" (6:
A yellow spice with a warm and mellow flavor,
turmeric is related to ginger. Turmeric is used in
prepared mustard and curry powder, and it's a
popular ingredient in Middle Eastern cooking.
[Indian] a rhizome that is dried and ground, then
utilized to spice and color dishes bright yellow.
Primarily used in Indian and Southeast Asian
cooking.
Product replenishment during nonpromotional

term):

selling periods with manufacturer's shipping


volume closely tracking consumer purchases.
See promotional business.
Turnip Greens:
A strong-flavored green, turnip greens have long
been popular in the South. Turnip greens may be
boiled, steamed, or stir-fried. In the South, they're
often cooked with salt pork or ham hocks and are
almost always served with cornbread.
Turnip:
A popular root vegetable with dense flesh. Fresh
turnips can be found year round and store well.
Small younger varieties tend to have a sweeter
taste and more delicate flavor.
Turnip:
A root vegetable with a sharp flavor that mellows
and sweetens when cooked.
Turnover (employee) (food
The rate at which employees are hired and
industry term):
terminated.
Turnover (stock turn) (food
The number of times the total value of products
industry term):
stored in the distribution center at any one time is
sold and replaced each year. Computed by
dividing the annual cost of goods sold by
average inventory on hand at cost.
Turnover buying (food industry The purchasing practice of maintaining a
term):
minimum stock of products in order to increase
return on capital invested. See speculation.
Turnover order (food industry A product order obtained by a broker and given
term):
to a wholesaler for shipping to the retailer. Also
called a missionary order.
Turnover, inventory (food
The rate at which the investment in inventory is
industry term):
converted to sales. In inventory, the term is
sometimes used to mean the dollars in sales
generated by each dollar invested in inventory
(dollar sales divided by dollar inventories).
Turnover, retail (food industry The number of times the total value of products
term):
displayed in retail stores is sold and replaced
each year. For example, if a store sells $5,000
worth of a product at cost to stores each year
and maintains a $500 inventory, turnover is 10.
Turnovers:
Pastries filled with a savory or sweet mixture,
doubled over to the shape of a semicircle, then
baked or deep-fried.
Turque:
[Spanish] turkey.
Turtle Bean:
A small black bean, also known as "black bean."
The beans have long been popular in Mexico,
the Caribbean, and the Southern U.S.
Turtle:
Any of several varieties of shelled reptiles that
live on land, in freshwater, or in the sea. Turtles
can weigh over 1,000 pounds. Sea or Green
Turtles are best known as food.

Tusk:
Tutti Frutti:
Tzatziki Sauce:
Tzimmes:

U.p.c. (food industry term):


Ucc (food industry term):
Ucc/ean 128 (food industry
term):
Ucs (food industry term):
Ucs ii (food industry term):
Ucs ordering system (food
industry term):
Udon Noodles:
Udon:
Uffva (food industry term):
Ugli Fruit:

Ugli:

Ultragrain flour:

A large saltwater fish related to the cod. It has a


firm, lean flesh. Also called "cusk."
[Italian] Dried mixed fruits as added to ice cream.
Dipping sauce derived from yogurt, garlic,
cucumber, olive oil and lemon juice. Served with
calamari.
Traditionally served on Rosh Hashana, this
sweet Jewish dish consists of various
combinations of fruits, meat and vegetables. All
are flavored with honey and often with cinnamon
as well. The flavors of this casserole-style dish
develop by cooking it at a very low temperature
for a very long time.
universal product code.
Uniform Code Council.
Uniform Commercial Code, European Article
Number. (Also known as UCC-128.) A bar code
system and data format used for primary and
secondary product identification in Europe.
Uniform Communication Standard.
A software program that facilitates the transfer of
promotional announcements and price changes.
(Uniform Communications System) electronically
transmits data, orders, promotional information
and price changes between manufacturer and
distributor.
These Japanese wheat-flour noodles can be
purchased either fresh or dried. They are often
used in soups.
Thick wheat noodles used in Japanese cooking.
United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association.
A Jamaican fruit with loose, yellow-green skin.
The fruit is thought to be a cross between the
tangerine and the grapefruit with a grapefruitorange flavor.
An irregular-shaped citrus fruit hybrid between a
grapefruit and a tangerine native to Jamaica. It is
available around the United States from winter to
spring. It has an acid-sweet flavor and is an
excellent source of vitamin C.
100% whole wheat flour made by using a special
flour milling process developed to produce a
lighter-colored, ultra smooth texture whole grain
wheat flour with the texture of white flour.
Ultragrain flour may be
100% whole white wheat flour
All-purpose/Ultragrain flours blended

Umido:
[Italian] stew.
Unaffiliated retailer, unaffiliated An independent retailer who has no interest in
store (food industry term):
nor is affiliated with voluntary merchandising
groups sponsored by wholesalers.
Unbleached flour:
Flour that is bleached naturally as it ages; no
maturing agents are used in the milling process.
It may be used interchangeably with bleached
flours and has no nutritive differences.
Unconcealed loss or damage
Obvious product damage and/or shortages that
(food industry term):
occurred during shipping to a retailer/wholesaler.
See concealed loss or damage.
Uncooked, pressed:
Curds not cooked but pressed to obtain a firm
texture (Cheddar, morbier, mont asio,
manchego).
Underproofed loaves or rolls:
Shaped bread or rolls which have not reached
the desired height or volume before they are
baked.
Under-ring (food industry term): A cashier ringing a product at a price that is less
than actual price.
Understock drawers (food
Drawers that have excess stock stored
industry term):
underneath regulation shelving.
Uniform code council (ucc)
The nonprofit administrative and education
(food industry term):
organization that works with American and
Canadian industry to develop and administer
product identification, bar codes and electronic
data interchange standards.
Uniform communication
A set of standard transaction sets for the grocery
standard (ucs) (food industry
industry that allows computer-to-computer,
term):
paperless exchange of documents and
information.
Uninterruptible power system An emergency power unit used to back up a
(ups) (food industry term):
primary system.
Unit (food industry term):
A standardized package or amount used in
shipping, e.g., pallet, slip sheet.
Unit load (food industry term): One or more transport packages or other items
held together by such means as a pallet, slip
sheet, strapping, interlocking, glue, or plastic
wrap making them suitable for transport, stacking
or storage as a unit.
Unit of sale (food industry
A container with one or more consumer units,
term):
usually with a fixed count and identical product,
that is bought and sold by trading partners. Unit
of sale for grocery can range from standard pack
units to planned promotional sizes.
Unit pricing (food industry
Additional information on a product price used by
term):
shoppers to compare the retail price of the item
plus an additional price per measure, such as
price per pound, per pint, etc.

Unit sales (food industry term): The total sales volume of a product for a
specified time period. See movement.
Unit stocking (food industry
A shelf-stocking method that requires a stocker
term):
to handle each individual item separately.
United dairy industry
O'Hare International Center 10255 W. Higgins
association (udia) (food
Road, Suite 900 Rosemont, IL 60018-5616 (708)
industry term):
803-2000
United fresh fruit & vegetable
727 N. Washington St. Alexandria, VA 22314
association (uffva) (food
(703) 836-3410
industry term):
United states department of
A federal agency that oversees food production
agriculture (usda) (food
and inspection. The USDA establishes grade
industry term):
standards for commodities, conducts agricultural
research, and makes results available,
administers food programs, such as food stamps,
and distributes food and nutrition information.
United states department of
A federal agency that oversees trade and
commerce (usdc) (food industry competition. The USDC establishes grade
term):
standards for seafood commodities, conducts
agricultural research, and makes results
available.
United states grade stamp (food Signifies that a product is clean, safe and
industry term):
wholesome, and has been produced in an
acceptable establishment, with the appropriate
equipment, under the supervision of federal
inspectors. It also indicates the product is of a
specific grade, identified by the appropriate
United States grade designation, as determined
by a federal inspector according to established
requirements of United States grade standards.
Unitized shipment (food
Product palletized or slipsheeted for easier
industry term):
shipping and handling.
Unitized shipping (food industry Shipping an item in case amounts standardized
term):
to the warehouse slot of the distributor.
Universal code council (ucc)
The central data bank for identification numbers,
(food industry term):
education and support for the Uniform
Communication Standard (UCS) program.
Universal communication
A computer system that uses uniform
system (food industry term):
communications standards to enable retailers,
wholesalers, and suppliers to communicate.
Universal product code (u.p.c.) A number and bar code that identifies products,
(food industry term):
which is scannable.
Unix (food industry term):
A major multi-user multiprocessing operating
system, which is the leading operating system for
minicomputers. Bell Laboratories developed it in
the early 1970s. It is written in a high-level
programming language called C.
Unleavened:
A word to describe breads, cakes, or other baked
goods that do not use a leavening agent, such as

baking powder, baking soda, yeast, or cream of


tartar.
Unleavened:
Bread made without a raising agent. Baked thin.
Unmold:
To remove molded food from its container.
Unsalable allowance (food
A discount that is given to cover the anticipated
industry term):
amount of unsalable products, e.g., perishables.
Unsalable center (food industry A specific location in the retail store or
term):
department where damaged products are sent.
Unsalables (food industry
Products unworthy of sale, e.g., damaged, out of
term):
date, spoiled.
Unsalted Butter:
Butter which contains no salt. Unsalted butter is
more perishable than butter with salt.
Unsaturated Fat:
A kind of fat that is in liquid form at room
temperature.
Unsaturated fats:
Mainly come from plants and are liquid (oil) in
form. Largely polyunsaturated fats include corn
oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, and sesame oil.
Largely monounsaturated fats, which may lower
blood cholesterol levels, include olive oil, canola
oil, and peanut oil.
UNSWEETENED (Bitter):
Chocolate liquor that has no sugar added to it. It
has a cocoa butter content between 50% and
58%. It is usually used for baking.
Unsweetened Baking
You don't eat unsweetened chocolate. It has no
Chocolate:
added sugar and is generally composed of 55%
cocoa butter and 45% chocolate mass from the
bean. It has an intense chocolate flavor that has
to be tempered by sugar and other ingredients.
Unsweetened chocolate:
Chocolate with no added sugar; generally
composed of 55% cocoa butter and 45%
chocolate mass from the bean. Produces an
intense chocolate flavor that must be tempered
by sugar and other ingredients.
Upcharge (food industry term): A wholesaler's charge for a product that is based
on the product 's cost plus handling and storage
costs.
Upright Chicken Roaster:
A vertical, cross-braced metal stand used to
roast poultry; prevents poultry from cooking in its
own drippings.
Upright doored merchandiser A portable refrigerated display unit that can be
(food industry term):
free-standing or placed against a perimeter wall.
Upright freezer (food industry An upright refrigerated display unit with doors
term):
used for merchandising frozen foods.
Upright wall merchandiser (food A refrigerated, self-service, fixed display case
industry term):
that is placed against a perimeter wall.
Ups & downs (food industry
Prices that change both up and down on a
term):
weekly basis, directly relating to manufacturers'
specials at warehouse level.

Ups (food industry term):


Upside down cake:

Uninterruptible power system.


A cake made by arranging fruit in the baking pan,
over which the batter is poured. When cooled it is
inverted so that the fruit is on the top.
Upside-Down Cake:
An upside-down cake is generally made by first
covering the bottom of the baking pan with butter,
sugar, and arranged fruit. A cake batter is then
poured over the fruit. The baked cake is inverted
onto a serving plate, which makes the fruit
bottom the top of the cake.
Upstream trading partners (food For the retailer, the upstream trading partners are
industry term):
the wholesalers, and, in other cases, the
supplier. For the wholesaler, the upstream
trading partner is the supplier.
Usda (food industry term):
United States Department of Agriculture.
Usda grade (food industry
United States Department of Agriculture grades
term):
that relate to a specified quality of product. Grade
denotes quality and USDA denotes product
inspected for wholesomeness.
Usdc (food industry term):
United States Department of Commerce.
Utility (food industry term):
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
grade of beef. Utility grade meat comes from
older cattle and is used to produce sausages or
canned beef entrees, such as beef stew.
Uvas:
[Spanish] grapes.
[Spanish] beef.
Vaca:
Vacherin:
A crisp, sweet meringue shell used as a serving
vessel for fruit and ice cream. A dessert of ice
cream and raspberry sherbet. A chestnut dessert.
Vacuum packaging (food
A packaging process in which air is removed
industry term):
from a package as it is sealed.
Vainas de maiz seca:
[Spanish] dried corn husks.
Vainilla:
[Spanish] vanilla; it was cultivated by the Aztecs
and is native to the New World; the intensely
fragrant bean from a variety of orchid native to
Mexico; used to flavor desserts, ice cream and
beverages; do not purchase the inexpensive
imitations which are made from the tonka bean
because it may be a carcinogen.
Valencienne:
A sauce for rice containing tomatoes,
mushrooms, meat strips, and grated cheese.
Value added network (van)
A company that acts as a clearinghouse for
(food industry term):
electronic transactions between trading partners.
Value-added reseller (var) (food A reseller of computer equipment whose services
industry term):
frequently include software integration
Vampiro:
[Spanish] drink made with Sangrita and tequila.
Van (food industry term):
Value added network.

Vaniglia:
Vanilla Extract:

Vanilla Sugar:

Vanilla sugar:
Vanilla:
Vanilla:

[Italian] vanilla.
A vanilla-flavored product made by macerating
chopped vanilla beans in a water-alcohol solution
to extract the flavor; its strength is measured in
folds.
A flavored sugar made by burying vanilla beans
in granulated or confectioners' sugar. Vanilla
sugar can be used as an ingredient or decoration
for baked goods, fruit, and desserts.
Granulated sugar flavored with vanilla by
enclosing it with a vanilla pod in an airtight jar.
An aromatic spice with a warm flavor, vanilla is
the seed pod of an orchid. It's available dried or
as an extract.
A plant native to Mexico now common in areas
throughout the West Indies and Indian Ocean.
The pod is used to make extracts which we use
in cooking. The whole pod may also be
purchased and used as a fragrance or split and
scraped to allow the tiny seeds to flavor the dish.
The split pods are often placed in granulated
sugar to make vanilla sugar. Also comes in a
liquid extract form, which is made by processing
vanilla beans in an alcohol-water solution. Make
sure the extract you buy contains vanilla and
alcohol only, and not vanillin, for best flavor.
Vanillin, is an artificial ingredient made from
wood.
Value-added reseller.
Cost, Variable.

Var (food industry term):


Variable cost (food industry
term):
Variable expense (food industry An expense that is proportional to the amount of
term):
merchandise sold. Includes equipment and
supplies used to price merchandise, as well as
any special packages that customers need to
take merchandise home.
Variety (food industry term):
The practice of carrying a complete line of a
brand and several different brands, so that
customers will have the widest possible choice.
Variety checklist (food industry A list used by supervisors to ensure the store is
term):
carrying a complete variety of products.
Variety Meats:
Also known as "offal," variety meats are usually
organ meats, such as brains, heart, kidneys,
liver, etc.
Variety/general merchandise
Stores that carry a diverse line of variety goods,
stores (food industry term):
usually at the low end of the price scale.
Vdu (food industry term):
Video display unit.
Veal:
Calves that are slaughtered from 1:

Veal:

Veal:
Veau:
Vegetable marrow:
Vegetable oil:
Vegetable Oil:

Vegetable shortening:

Vegetable Shortening:

Vegetarian:

Vehicle scheduling (food


industry term):
Velocity (food industry term):
Veloute:
Veloute:

Velveting:

Meat from calves slaughtered when younger


than 9 months (usually at 8-16 weeks); has a
lean, light pink flesh, delicate flavor and tender,
firm texture.
meat from a calf no older than eight weeks.
[French] veal.
A tender egg-shaped gourd, usually served
stuffed.
See oil.
A general term describing blends of different
vegetable oils such as corn, safflower, rapeseed,
cottonseed and/or soybean oils; these blends are
generally intended to have little flavor and aroma
and to be used as all-purpose oils.
Vegetable oil (soybean or cottonseed) that is
hydrogenated so it will be a solid fat. It is 100
percent fat with no water, milk fat, or other solids
added. It is nearly flavorless and is used for
imparting flakiness and tenderness.
Vegetable oil that has been chemically altered
(hydrogenated) into a solid state. This process
converts the mixture into a saturated fat,
eliminating any benefits of a polyunsaturated fat.
A person who does not consume animal flesh or,
in some cases, any animal byproducts. Vegans
do not eat any animal-derivative foods including
butter, cheese, eggs and milk. Ovo-lacto
vegetarians allow such animal-related foods, but
do not eat meat. Some vegetarians will eat fish
and/or poultry, but no red meat.
A transportation routing plan designed to
maximize fleet utilization.
The sales movement of a product measured
against the category.
(French) A sauce made with veal stock, cream,
and tightened with a white roux.
[French] an extremely smooth creamy sauce of
various stock bases thickened with a roux. This
is used as a base for other more complex
sauces, though it may be used alone.
[Asian] A Chinese cooking technique used in stirfrying. The chicken breast is coated in a mixture
of egg white and cornstarch (rice wine or dry
sherry and salt are frequently added), marinated
for up to 30 minutes, and then cooked very
briefly in hot oil until the color turns to white. After
velveting, the chicken is added to the stir-fry, to
finish cooking with the other ingredients.

Venado:
Vendor (food industry term):
Vendor coupon (food industry
term):
Vendor managed
quick/continuous
replenishment (vmqr) (food
industry term):
Vendor-managed inventory
(vmi) (food industry term):
Venison:

Venison:

Venison:
Vent:
Verde:
Verdolagas:
Verdura:
Verduras:
Vermicelli:
Vermicelli:
Veronique:
Version a upc (food industry
term):
Version e upc (food industry
term):
Vertical arrangement (food
industry term):

Vertical case (food industry


term):

[Spanish] venison; antelope or deer meat; a lean


meat, it needs moist heat to keep it tender.
A person or company that sells or delivers goods
or services. See supplier.
A coupon initiated and refunded by a supplier or
vendor.
See continuous replenishment.

A manufacturer's management of the inventories


inside a retailer's store, including sales
forecasting, promotional adjustment/ allowances,
ordering and delivery.
This term covers the meat from antelope,
caribou, elk, deer, moose, and reindeer. Venison
is probably the most popular large game meat
eaten today.
Meat from any member of the deer family that
broadly includes elk, moose, reindeer, caribou
and antelope; typically leaner and less tender
than meat from domesticated animals.
The flesh of the deer.
To allow the circulation or escape of a liquid or
gas.
[Spanish] green.
[Spanish] purslane (greens).
[Italian] vegetables.
[Spanish] vegetables.
Italian for little worms; used to describe very thin
spaghetti; available in straight rods or twisted into
a cluster.
[Italian] a very fine round noodle which means
"small worms". These are thinner than spaghetti
and thicker than capellini.
[French] containing or garnished with green
grapes.
A U.S standard bar code system (11 digits) that
identifies products.
A standardized bar code containing only seven
digits, the zero is suppressed.
The merchandising practice of displaying a brand
of products directly above and below each other,
e.g., canned vegetables or soups. Also called a
ribbon arrangement. See horizontal
arrangement.
An upright refrigerated display case with doors
for selling frozen products.

Vertical display (food industry


term):
Vertical selling (food industry
term):
Very small aperture terminal
(vsat) (food industry term):
Vexar (food industry term):

Vichyssoise:
Vichyssoise:
Vics (food industry term):
Victual:
Vidalia Onion:

Video conferencing (food


industry term):
Video display unit (vdu) (food
industry term):
Vienna sausage:
Vigo Coloring:
Vinagre:
Vinagreta:
Vinaigrette:

Vinaigrette:

Vinegar:

See ribbon.
A wholesaler marketing policy of soliciting only
one segment of the trade, e.g., restaurants,
convenience stores, grocery stores, institutional
buyers. See horizontal selling.
Networks designed for satellite communication.
A red screenlike, plastic sheet placed on top of a
rack in refrigerated cases, which allows cold air
to flow through to products on top of the vexar
sheet. Vexar also aids in housekeeping.
A cold potato and leek soup thickened with
cream and garnished with chives. The term is
now applied to many other tuber-based soups.
[French] thick cold smooth soup of potatoes and
leeks. Other versions now use zucchini, apples,
and carrots.
Voluntary inter-industry communication
standard.
Food or other provisions.
A Georgia-grown onion hybrid known for its
sweet, distinctively mild flavor; has an
international reputation as the "world's sweetest
onion."
Communication between two or more parties that
involves both a video and an audio link.
A computer terminal.
A small frankfurter, often served as an hors
d'oeuvre.
Common substitute for the yellow color of
saffron. Can be found in small envelopes in any
Latin American, Mexican, or Cuban market.
[Spanish] vinegar.
[Spanish] vinaigrette.
An oil and vinegar sauce usually used on salad
greens or other vegetables. Vinaigrette may
contain other seasonings, shallots, onions,
mustard, etc.
[French] a sauce commonly used to dress
salads, comprised of oil and acid, such s vinegar
or citrus juice. Emulsified vinaigrettes use egg
and/or mustard to stabilize the dressing. Other
combinations using acids other than vinegar,
such as wine or citrus juice, are also called
vinaigrettes.
From the French "vin aigre" (sour wine); a weak

solution of acetic acid derived from a fermented


liquid (such as cider, wine or beer) subjected to
bacterial activity.
Vinegar:
A clear liquid, consisting of chiefly acetic acid,
obtained by the fermentation of wine, cider or
malt beer.
Vintage:
A wine term which describes the year the grapes
were harvested, but used only if the wine was
made only from grapes grown that year. Wines
made from grapes harvested in various years is
called "non-vintage."
Virgin Olive Oil:
A first-press oil, with an acidity level between 1
percent and 3 percent, just slightly higher than
extra-virgin olive oil.
Vital Gluten:
See "Gluten."
Vitello Tonnato:
Thinly sliced roast or braised veal, served cold
with a creamy, piquant tuna sauce. This
combination may sound a bit unusual, but is
surprisingly delicious.
Vitello:
[Italian] veal.
Void (food industry term):
The process of removing an item after an order is
rung on a register.
Vol-au-Vent:
[French] a large round pastry case which is filled
with a sauced mixture of meat, seafood, or
vegetables then topped with a pastry lid. A small
puff paste shell with various fillings.
Volume (food industry term):
The amount of product sales by brand, category,
department or store.
Volume:
The measurement typically used to measure
liquids; volume measurements are commonly
expressed as liters, teaspoons, tablespoons,
cups, pints, gallons, fluid ounces and bushels.
Voluntary group (food industry A group of individually owned retail stores that
term):
buy from the same wholesaler and achieve
economies of scale, e.g., store name, private
label brand, advertising, merchandising.
Voluntary inter-industry
The electronic data interchange (EDI) standards
communication standard (vics) for marking products and shipping containers in
(food industry term):
the mass merchandising, apparel and
department store industries. VICS EDI is
maintained by the UCC.
Voluntary store (food industry An independent retailer operating a store and
term):
achieving economies of scale, i.e., advertising,
buying and merchandising patterns.
Voluntary wholesaler (food
A wholesaler serving single or multi-unit retailers,
industry term):
often under a common program name, providing
buying and retailing services.
Vorspeisen:
[German] appetizers.

Vsat (food industry term):

Very Small Aperture Terminal.


A device used to transform batter into crisp,
Waffle Iron:
golden waffles; available in electric or stove-top
models.
Waffle:
Batter cooked on a hot greased waffle iron.
Wagon jobber (food industry
A wholesaler that sells a limited variety and
term):
quantity of products from a truck.
Waldorf Salad:
The original Waldorf salad, created at New York's
Waldorf Astoria Hotel in the 1890s, contained
only apples, mayonnaise, and celery. It was later
that walnuts became part of the dish.
Wall shelving (food industry
Shelves attached to perimeter walls in a retail
term):
store.
Walnut Oil:
The oil extracted from the walnut. It can be quite
expensive and goes rancid quicker than most
oils. However, it gives most foods a wonderful
nutty flavor whether you cook with or drizzle it.
Use it on greens, pasta, or vegetables.
Walnut or hazelnut oil:
These highly flavorful oils should (almost) never
be used for cooking, but are wonderful in salad
dressing and drizzled over cooked foods. Always
refrigerate, as nut oils go rancid more quickly
than other oils.
Walnut:
Native to Asia and grows on walnut trees inside
green pods which turn brown and wood-like
when dried.
Walnuts:
Nuts with white flesh and a soft inner skin native
to the Middle East, but commonly called English
walnuts because they were first shipped from
Britain, where they are considered a delicacy
when eaten raw with cheese.
Wan (food industry term):
Wide Area Network.
Wand (food industry term):
A hand-held bar code reader used for ordering,
price checking, etc.
Wand scan ordering (food
The use of an electronic device (wand) to read
industry term):
shelf tickets, record quantities needed and thus
prepare an order electronically.
Want book (food industry term): A preprinted order book at a retail store.
Warehouse (food industry
A distribution center that orders, stores and ships
term):
products to retailers.
Warehouse buying account
A direct account that buys full-case quantities of
(food industry term):
products directly from manufacturers to sell and
ship to retail stores.
Warehouse club store (food
See club store.
industry term):
Warehouse receipt (food
A list of products received and stored in a
industry term):
distribution center.
Warehouse slot (food industry Space allocated in a warehouse rack for a

term):
specific product. Also called a slot or bin.
Warehouse stock (food industry The amount of an item in a distribution center.
term):
See floor stock; floor stock protection.
Warehouse store (food industry A low-margin grocery store combining reduced
term):
variety, lower service levels, minimal decor and a
streamlined merchandising presentation along
with aggressive pricing. Generally has no
specialty departments. This format attracts pricesensitive shoppers. Many warehouse stores
mainly offer dry groceries.
Warehouse withdrawal (food
The shipping of products to a retailer from a
industry term):
distribution center.
Warm:
A temperature of 105 to 1150F (40 to 460C for
liquid or food.
Warm:
To heat a food using a very low temperature of
approximately 1050F to 1150F.
Wasabi:
Also called Japanese horseradish, a pungent
green paste made from a rhizome of the
watercress family.
Wasabi:
Japanese green horseradish powder. Turn it into
Wasabi Paste by stirring in water, drop by drop
and used for dipping sauce with soy sauce when
eating sushi and sashimi. Available in Asian
markets in both powder and paste form.
Wash:
To apply a liquid to the surface of an object to
remove dirt; often a cleansing agent is added to
the liquid; the process may not kill
microorganisms.
Washed-rind:
Frequently orange, rinds washed or rubbed with
brine, wine, beer or brandy (pont l'eveque,
tallegio, Spanish mahon).
Waste circulation (food industry Readers of publications who are not prospects
term):
for an advertised product. Also, circulation in an
area where the advertiser's product is not
available.
Water Bath:
To place a container of food in a large pan of
warm water, which surrounds the food with heat.
The water bath is used to cook custards, sauces,
and mousses, and may be used to keep food
warm.
Water bath:
The French call this cooking technique "bain
marie." It consists of placing a container of food
in a large, shallow pan of warm water, which
surrounds the food with gentle heat. The food
may be cooked in this manner either in an oven
or on top of a range. This technique is designed
to cook delicate dishes such as custards, sauces
and savory mousses without breaking or curdling
them. It can also be used to keep foods warm.

W