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April 2009

Issue 1

Technological advances, workplace safety and sustainability,
independent Engineering research in the Manufacturing,
Construction and Material Handling Industries.

dont let workplace safety

hang by a thread...

H e al t h &

Research Education


MAIN FEATURE: Forklift Safety

arch E


Strengthening our
National Safety Alliances and
promoting Health and Safety
in the Workplace.

fety Re


Health & Safety

Welcome to our new publication. Industry Uplift magazine picks up
where Engineering Buying Advisory Service magazine left off. Its


mission is to make a difference to the Material Handling Industry in


particular, and the Manufacturing and Construction sectors at large.

Structural Failures of Large Span Semi-Portal

Gantry Cranes signicant incident report

Crane Deaths Lead to Massive Fines

case study

technical expertise based on sound research and the solid industrial

Failure of Imported Lifting Equipment Cranes

experience of top engineers and leading, innovative companies and

CraneSafe Counts up Crane Faults in Australia

businesses. We aim to assist our readers in making better choices

Crane Topples on Top of Building in Brighton

We are broadening our horizons and our agenda.

Produced by Borgers Research and Publications Pty Ltd, this
magazine will continue to disseminate up-to-date information and

and more informed decisions in the marketplace and workplace.

To remain essentially independent, apolitical and cause-driven


in the provision of this service, we avoid any paid advertising

content and align ourselves with individuals, organizations and

11 Forklift Safety the right tools and conditions for the job

government agencies that philosophically reect our own ideals

16 Forklift Fatality prosecution result summary

and objectives geared towards uplifting the industry.

First cause in industry should always be safety. In this, our
inaugural edition, we promote occupational health and safety (OH&S)

Major Inspection of Cranes WorkSafe guidance

(case study 1)

17 Forklift Trafc Risk prosecution result summary

(case study 2)

in the workplace by seeking to strengthen national safety alliances

18 Forklift Hitchhike Hijinx company & worker prosecuted

and support government and private enterprise similarly devoted to

18 Forklift Fun comes at a cost

improving OH&S outcomes at the coalface.

Our comprehensive feature article on Forklift Safety, written by one of
WorkSafe Victorias dedicated Field Inspectors, Roger Parry-Jones,
underlines the crucial role all stakeholders play in the creation of lowrisk, environmentally safe worksites. The critical but often thankless
role these Inspectors play in saving lives and protecting the welfare
of workers and the community on a daily basis must never be
underestimated. Every twelve minutes, one of these public safety
advocates (and there are over 200 active Inspectors out in the eld in
this State alone) visits a factory or ofce or shop-front and campaigns
for the prevention of accidental death and injury. Their job is to
educate, advise and regulate. Our job, when they appear, should be to
co-operate. Lets make it easy for them to do theirs at all times.
Safety consciousness and responsible business management are
never a waste of time or money. The most professional and progressive
companies see the big picture they understand that, ultimately, safe
procedures and equipment will translate into increased efciency,
reliability, productivity and prot. Less downtime and absenteeism
(due to illness or injury) enhances business viability. Avoiding law suits
certainly helps as our articles testify. So, if corporate success really
matters to you, and you want to ensure an optimal return on your
investments, develop correct product selection criteria based
primarily on safety imperatives and protocols. Incorporate only the


20 Safety Institute of Australia
creating business value and reducing social costs

23 WorkSafe Lifts the Bar on Crane Safety new guidance

24 Bridge and Gantry Crane Guidance Launch
collaborative enterprise of industry with government


25 Vehicle Hoist Association of Australia
26 CraneSafe mobilizing safety in Australia

26 Industry Slashes Water Use
encouraging news from the Premier of Victoria

27 RotaryLift environmentally responsible

innovations in manufacturing


28 Industry Innovations Under One Roof NMW
29 Manufacturing Excellence in Victoria


very best, researched and tested products, and never cut corners
on quality and service. It all pays in the end!

30 $245 Million Lifeline for Victorian Industry, Jobs

government initiative

EVA HETYEY, Founding Editor

Email: eva@borgerscorp.com.au


page 2

30 New Investment Allowance Part of Business

Planning in First Half of 2009
Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry


Structural failures of large span semi-portal gantry cranes
Signicant Incident Report
The upper bogie of a 40 tonne SWL semi-portal crane (25 metre span, 18 metres high) stopped suddenly during longitudinal
travel. The suspended load and the lower bogie continued to travel for a short distance causing the semi-portal frame
structure to twist signifcantly. This twisting action caused several bolts on both connections to fail in tension mode and the
upper bogie box section was deformed. A sufcient number of bolts remained intact to support the structure and thereby
prevented a catastrophic collapse of the crane.
Two other similar incidents have occurred involving another semi-portal crane. This crane had a 20 tonne SWL, a 41metre
span, was 11 metres high, and was located at the top of a process plant building.

The upper bogie of the rst mentioned crane stopped due to a seizure of the drive wheel bearing.
With the second crane, the anti-derailment plates scraped hard on the side of the crane rail in one case, and the bogie drive
wheel became loose and twisted on the shaft in the other incident.

Preventative action
A risk assessment should be carried out for all semi-portal and portal gantry cranes to determine if damage can occur
to the crane structure when the motion of one bogie stops or slows relative to the other bogie. The following measures
should be considered for those cranes identifed as being susceptible to such damage:
1. Provision of an effective electrical control system,
which will cut the power supply to all bogies when the
motion of one bogie stops or slows relative to another.
2. Reduction of the crane longitudinal travel speed
where necessary.
3. Stiffening of the semi-portal or portal frame structure
including the connections where necessary.
4. Provision of guide rollers to both bogies.
5. Provision of a maintenance regime, which allows for
regular inspections of critical brake components on
both bogies. Particular attention should be given to the
air gap between the friction material and the brake path.
6. Provision of a comprehensive maintenance regime for
those components that could impede the motion of
the bogies. Such components may include the bogie
wheels, wheel shafts, wheel bearings, guide rollers and
anti-derailment brackets.
7. Regular inspections of the crane rails to ensure they are
in proper alignment and have no signicant scoring marks
caused by a faulty bogie or storm clamp.
J M Torlach
State Mining Engineer
Department of
Minerals and Energy
Western Australia
50 Tonne Portal Crane

page 3



A company was ned $375,000 following a building
site incident, which killed a construction worker at
Southbank on 5 August 2001. The company pleaded guilty
to three charges in relation to the death of the worker.
The ne was the second major penalty imposed by the County
Court concerning Occupational Health and Safety charges
within that week. Another contractor company was ned
$325,000 and ordered to pay a further $200,000 in other
penalties after a bridge beam collapsed, killing one man
and injuring four others near Geelong in October 2000.
WorkSafes Executive Director, John Merritt, said the
penalties show the courts are increasingly reecting
community concerns about the seriousness of
occupational health and safety issues. The community
will not accept people being hurt or killed at work, he said.
Theres no such thing as a workplace accident when it
could have been prevented.
In the Southbank case, Judge Wood said a tower crane
on the Yarra Crest site in Whiteman St, was being raised or
jumped so work at a higher level could be undertaken when
20 tonne counter-weights fell from the crane. The weights
hit a site access hoist (known as an Alimak) containing a 53year old construction worker.
The court was told that on the date of the incident the latch
plates, which should have held the counterweights,
had not been secured in place. This allowed the
counterweights to move when the boom of the crane
dropped suddenly in strong winds that had been forecast
by the Bureau of Meteorology.
The dropping of the boom caused the tower crane to
whiplash several times, causing the counter weights to
move and burst through stops.

The Alimak was at the 10th oor level and fell some
35m crashing through three levels of concrete into
the buildings basement. The construction worker was
deceased when ambulance ofcers examined him a short
time later.
Judge Wood said the company had failed to properly
assess the working conditions on the day of the incident.
It had not heeded gale force wind warnings issued the night
before by the Bureau of Meteorology. A strong wind warning
had also been issued at noon on the day of the incident.
Judge Wood said the jumping operation was known to be
potentially hazardous although such an incident involving
the counterweights falling was unprecedented. He noted no
job safety analysis had been done for the lift.
No one in the crew was nominated as the leading hand
for the purposes of the jump and indeed no one was
designated specically as the person in charge of the
operation rather it was dependent upon each individuals
perception of their own task.
It was within the power of the defendant to cancel
the jump.
If the activity is a dangerous one with consequences that
may involve a fatality or fatalities, the greater the obligation
of the employer to take all reasonable steps to avoid the
risk or the hazard created by the operation itself.
Mr Merritt said this was yet another case where employers
had missed the opportunity to improve workplace safety
at the cost of a worker! What we implore businesses to do
is take advantage of the mistakes of others before they end
up in the same situation.
Maintaining workplace safety
It makes good business sense.



For further information contact WorkSafe

Inquiries: Michael Birt 0411 256 605 or 9641 1216
Public inquiries: Call the WorkSafe Advisory Service
on 1800 136 089 between 8.30am
and 5pm Monday to Friday
Write to: Advisory Service, PO Box 4306
Melbourne, 3001
Email: info@workcover.vic.gov.au
John Merritt - Executive Director (Health and Safety) WorkSafe

page 4


This alert warns of the dangers of inadequately designed, untested and unmarked lifting equipment.
An imported engine-lifting crane failed when it was tested with the designated load (2 tonne as marked on the crane). Similar
cranes have distorted when lifting a load well below the marked capacity.
Manually operated lifting equipment, intended primarily for light industrial and/or domestic use, is often imported without
clear markings, and in some cases is under designed placing workers and the public at risk of serious injury.
Such lifting equipment is dangerous and should NOT be used unless it has been designed and tested to handle the
designated load.
Importers and suppliers of unsafe lifting equipment can be prosecuted and ned up to $250,000 (Corporation) or
$50,000 (Individual).

Equipment Requirements
In Victoria, the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004 (Sections 27, 29 and 30), requires any designer, manufacturer or
supplier of plant for use in a workplace to ensure that it is designed, constructed and tested to be safe for normal use.
It is further required that plant be supplied with adequate information to ensure its safe use. Sections 23 and 24 of the
Act also require employers and self employed persons to ensure that persons other than employees are also not
exposed to risk.
Australian Standards AS 1418 (the Crane Code) and AS 3990 (Mechanical equipment - steelwork), or other relevant published
technical standards should be used for the design, construction and testing of these cranes.

Duties of Suppliers
To ensure the safety of workers at workplaces, the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004 imposes duties on suppliers of
imported plant.
Designers, manufacturers and suppliers of plant, including lifting equipment, should ensure that the plant is designed
and tested to appropriate standards, and permanently labelled in accordance with those standards. The provision
of appropriate test certicates is recommended. AS 1418 requires these markings to include Manufacturer, Model and
Serial No., Safe Working Load, and Supplier details.
Additional requirements are also imposed for powered plant and equipment, under the Occupational Health and Safety
(Plant) Regulations 1995.

Duties of Employers
Section 21 of the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004 requires employers to provide a safe working environment
for employees. Any employer having a similar crane (to those described above) in the workplace should ensure that it is
capable of safely lifting the rated loads. If the supplier of the equipment cannot supply written assurance, preferably in the
form of copies of suitable test certicates, then independent testing should be undertaken.

Acts and Regulations

Acts and regulations are available from Information Victoria on 1300 366 356 or order online at www.bookshop.vic.gov.au.
View the legislation at Victorian Law Today at www.legislation.vic.gov.au.
Note: This material has been prepared using the best information
available to WorkSafe Victoria. Any information about legislative
obligations or responsibilities included in this material is only applicable
to the circumstances described in the material. You should always
check the legislation referred to in this material and make your own
judgement about what action you may need to take to ensure you
have complied with the law. Accordingly, the Victorian WorkCover
Authority extends no warranties as to the suitability of the information for
your specic circumstances.
Overhead Crane 10T Load Test by Austin Hoist & Crane

page 5



A survey of more than 3,000 Australian mobile cranes by inspection body CraneSafe has found that one of the most
common faults across all crane types except all terrain cranes are safe load indicators and load moment indicators.
Other common faults were markings for alternate outrigger widths, markings with tare weight of boom and attachments,
and main and auxiliary wire rope faults. The most common all terrain faults were leaking drive systems, suspension
and steering.
The most faults were found in lattice boom truck cranes (average of 2.84 faults per crane), and the least were in
crawler cranes. All terrain cranes and articulated (loader) cranes were found to have the youngest average age, less than six
years. Lattice-boom crawler cranes and rough terrain cranes averaged about 12 years old, lattice-boom truck cranes more
than double that, and telescopic crawlers averaged about eight years old.
CraneSafe is a voluntary crane inspection system across Australia.
(Cranes Today Magazine 28 May 2008)

Crane tips and crashes on building in Brighton (Bayside Leader photo by Jason Sammon)


Inappropriately loaded or used cranes are involved in a number of serious incidents each year, according to statistics
recorded by WorkSafe. Overloading, over-extension of the lifting boom, and ground that is too soft or unstable on
site are common causes of crane tip-overs.
An example of this occurred early in February this year, when a large crane lowering roong steel on to the top of a retail
outlet in Nepean Highway Brighton lifted off the ground under its excessive load and toppled over onto the building. All of
the trucks wheels were raised several metres off the ground as the lifting boom crashed on to the side of the building,
leaving the vehicle completely suspended in mid-air. A rescue operation involving four other cranes was needed to lower
the crane to the ground.
(See: http://bayside-leader.whereilive.com.au/photos/gallery/crane-crash-in-brighton/)
Thankfully, no one was hurt in this incident. However, in October last year, a crane driver was unfortunately crushed and killed
at Northcote when the truck tipped sidewards as he unloaded steel at a building site.

page 6


. . . ALW
Purpose and Scope
This Guidance Note provides guidance on the major inspections of cranes to assess their suitability for continued
safe operation.

Regulation 708(1) of the Occupational Health & Safety (Plant) Regulations 1995 (Plant Regulations) requires employers
to ensure that plant is maintained to eliminate or reduce risk, so far as is practicable; and that the plant is inspected to
ensure that the risk associated with the plant is monitored.
Crane owners or other persons in control of a crane must undertake the hazard identication, risk assessment and risk
control process in compliance with the Plant Regulations. Where manufacturers specications are available this process
must still be undertaken in order to ensure the maintenance requirements specied by the manufacturer are adequate and
that nothing has been omitted.
The Code of Practice for Plant (No. 19), clause 21.4, states, in part, that published technical standards should be
used as a starting point to help control risks. The accompanying table of published technical standards includes the
AS 2550 Cranes, hoists & winches - Safe use suite of Australian Standards. In particular, section 7 of AS 2550.1 Cranes,
hoists and winches - Safe use, Part 1: General requirements, provides guidance on the maintenance, inspection and
repair of cranes. AS 2550.4 and AS 2550.5 provide further guidance on the maintenance of tower cranes and mobile cranes
respectively. The standards specify major inspections of cranes as a signicant component of a well-structured
preventative maintenance program and necessary to enable proper assessment for continued safe operation.
Such an assessment is a critical part of any strategy to control the risks (i.e. likelihood) of failure or malfunction of the crane.
(Note: Any reference to AS 2550.1 in this document is to be also read as a reference to the other relevant parts of AS 2550.)

Maintenance Factors
The type of maintenance carried out on cranes and the length of time between maintenance should be determined after
considering the following factors where known:

Manufacturers recommendations or the recommendations of a competent person.

Recommendations from published technical standards.

Number of hours of operation and the type of loading the unit undergoes.

The time spent in transit (oscillating loads applied during transit can increase the fatigue of a crane).

Whether the unit is under the control of the owner or is hired out (units that are hired out generally require higher
levels of maintenance due to more severe use).

Conditions in which the crane operates in a corrosive or wet environment, or in abrasive conditions.

Age and history of the unit.

Special consideration of parts of the crane that may be prone to failure or high wear the manufacturer,
supplier, authorised repairer, or a competent person may provide information on parts which need to be more
frequently replaced.


The external visual appearance and the hours of operation of a crane may not be reliable indicators of crane
wear and fatigue.

page 7


. . . ALW
Major Inspections

Major inspections are part of the following preventative maintenance program as outlined in the AS 2550 standards (for full
details, refer to the relevant parts of the standard):

Pre-operational inspection


Routine inspection & maintenance


Periodic inspections


Major inspections


Third party inspections.

AS 2550.1 clause 7.3.5 requires the following cranes to be subjected to a major inspection:
Cranes that have reached the end of their design life or, where this is unknown, after a maximum of 10 years
of service for the mechanical components and 25 years for the structure.
 Old cranes which are to be re-commissioned and that do not have previous records.
 Cranes that are to be upgraded or modied.
The major inspection is comprehensive and includes inspecting for wear, fatigue and cracking of all components of
the crane critical to its safe operation and use. The inspection includes attention to structural and mechanical (etc.)
anomalies, based on strip-down inspection and non-destructive examination. Guidance on what items should be included in
an inspection is provided in AS 2550.1 Appendix B.
Operators of cranes should schedule major inspections well in advance to avoid disruptions to production. The planning
process should allow for consequential repairs of the particular crane and should also consider alternative measures, such
as the hire of a stand-by unit.
Crane owners may choose not to conduct a single event major inspection by incorporating the requirements of the 10-year
major inspection into the comprehensive periodic inspections. In such cases, the crane owner must:
 Ensure that the periodic maintenance regime is developed by a competent person supervised by a professional
engineer, and includes all safety critical components, normally stripped down at the major inspection; and
 Keep all maintenance and repair records in order to be able to verify adherence to the maintenance regime.
Where the 10-year major inspection requirements have been incorporated into the periodic inspection program, the owner
of the crane should, when the 10-year major inspection would normally have become due, undertake a hazard identication
and risk assessment in accordance with the Plant Regulations. This process provides the owner opportunity to identify
any components that would normally have been inspected under the 10-year major inspection program, that have not been
satisfactorily covered by the periodic inspections, and allows corrective action to be carried out.

Reasons for 10 and 25-year periods

The reasons for the specication of 10 years for the major inspection of mechanical parts and 25 years for structures

Plant and components likely to be designed to Australian or overseas standards are based on a 10 and 25-year
design life (e.g. AS 1418.1 clause 2.2).

10 years is regarded as a maximum period for checking wear limits of mechanical parts and verifying
design assumptions.

10 years is regarded as a minimum period for the rst signs of fatigue to appear in mechanical parts.

A period of 10 years for a major inspection of mechanical parts should be used as a default where no other evidence of history
of the crane is available and a hazard identication, risk assessment, or risk control process does not identify a shorter time
interval. (This is often the case with imported second-hand plant.)

page 8


Extending the 10-year Major Inspection

Any decision to extend the major inspection past the 10 calendar years stipulated in AS 2550.1 should be veried by the
manufacturer or a competent person. This must be documented, using engineering as well as hazard identication and risk
assessment principles, in compliance with the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004 and the Plant Regulations.
Records of previous maintenance and repair must be able to establish that all safety critical components that would normally
remain in service for the design life of the crane have not been subject to excessive wear or failure requiring their premature
replacement. These written maintenance records should be maintained for the life of the unit.
Any decision to delay the major inspection past the 10-year requirement should also specify the proposed date for the major
inspection. Further extensions should not be considered.

Where unforeseen circumstances inhibit taking a crane out of service for a periodic or major inspection, a competent person
(preferably a representative of the manufacturer) shall determine if it is safe to operate the crane until the respective
maintenance can be carried out. The assessment undertaken in reaching this decision must be documented.

Assessment for Continued Safe Operation

The assessment for continued safe operation of a crane should:

Be undertaken by a competent person and be supervised by a professional engineer experienced in the inspection,
testing and assessment of the particular type of crane.
Note: a competent person is a person who by their training or experience has the skills and knowledge to carry
out the task.


Include the rationale which led to determining the extent (or limitations) of the major inspection and subsequent
assessment for continued safe operation for continued use.


Include a summary of what items have been assessed, how the assessment was undertaken, and the results of
the assessment.


The recommendations on what works need to be done to the crane to provide the equivalent level of safety to that
which would be achieved by the current version of the applicable parts of AS 1418. These recommendations
should consider the likely operational and environmental parameters under which the crane is intended to operate.
The supervising engineer should also record the rationale for the recommendations made.


Include a documented maintenance program for the repair or replacement of components necessary to bring
the crane into conformance with the Plant Regulations. The program should include:
a list of those items which should be undertaken prior to the crane returning to service in order to ensure
the immediate safe operation of the crane; and
the recommended time frames for remaining program works to ensure the ongoing safe operation of
the crane.


Include a program for the ongoing maintenance and inspection of the crane. This program must include specic
recommendation on the scheduling of further assessments for continued safe operation.

WorkSafe Expectations
As part of their obligations under the Plant Regulations, crane owners are required to undertake a preventative
maintenance program to the standard outlined in the relevant parts of AS 2550, which includes consideration of the
manufacturers recommendations.
In respect of major inspections, WorkSafe expects the supporting records, including the Assessment for continued safe
operation, to be available for inspection on request by a WorkSafe eld ofcer. Records should be readily accessible at the
crane owners Victorian business ofce.
The above documentation should include a record of the implementation of the recommendations set out in the
assessment report.

page 9


. . . ALW
Acts and Regulations

Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004

Occupational Health and Safety (Plant) Regulations 1995
Acts and regulations are available from Information Victoria on 1300 366 356
or order online at www.bookshop.vic.gov.au.
View the legislation at Victorian Law Today at www.legislation.vic.gov.au.

Standards Australia
AS 2550 Cranes, hoists and winches - Safe use
Part 1: General requirements
Part 4: Tower Cranes
Part 5: Mobile Cranes
AS 1418 Cranes (Including hoists and winches)
Part 1: General requirements
Part 4: Tower Cranes
Part 5: Mobile Cranes
Copies of standards can be obtained by contacting
Standards Australia on 1300 654 646; website: www.standards.com.au.

Roger Parry-Jones, WorkSafe Inspector

WorkSafe Victoria Publications

Plant (Code of Practice No. 19, 1995)
Special Note on Codes of Practice: Codes of Practice made under the Occupational Health and Safety Act 1985 provide
practical guidance to people who have duties or obligations under Victorias OHS laws. The Occupational Health and Safety
Act 2004 allows the Minister for WorkCover to make Compliance Codes which will provide greater certainty about what
constitutes compliance with the OHS laws.
Codes of Practice will continue to be a practical guide for those who have OHS duties and WorkSafe will continue to regard
those who comply with the topics covered in the Codes of Practice as complying with OHS laws. WorkSafe will progressively
review all Codes of Practice and replace them with guidance material and, in appropriate cases, with Compliance Codes.
Call WorkSafe on: 1800 136 089
Email: info@worksafe.vic.gov.au

Austin Hoist & Crane

page 10

Glenn Hester Photography


FORKLIFT SAFETY the right tools & conditions for the job
By Roger Parry-Jones WorkSafe Victoria Inspector (Manufacturing, Logistics and Agriculture)

Forklifts: boon or gloom for business its up to you!

Forklifts were relatively uncommon 40 years ago. Today they are commonplace and essential operational equipment in
industries ranging from manufacturing, construction, warehousing and logistics to airports and the waterfront, even
newsagents and bottle shops.
It is estimated that more than 330,000 forklifts are in use throughout Australia today. These modern machines have
effectively shifted the load from the labourers back, performing work far more quickly, more reliably and more conveniently
than was possible 40 years ago. But they are potentially among the most dangerous pieces of equipment around
and can present a real engineering challenge in terms of risk control management and the prevention of manual
handling injuries.
Between 2000 and 2005, more than 500 safety compromised incidents involving forklifts were reported to WorkSafe Victoria,
representing only perhaps 10% of the total number of reportable forklift incidents requiring notication under Victorian
workplace safety laws.
Victorian OHS legislation requires employers to report any incidents that expose a person to risk of injury even when
no one was actually hurt!
Such incidents have been largely responsible for the 56 forklift related deaths in Victorian workplaces over
the past 23 years (please refer to chart on page 14). Half of these fatalities were pedestrians. Every single one
was avoidable! For every death there are hundreds of injuries (often permanent) resulting in workplace injury insurance
claims, family and workmate trauma and potential prosecutions. The commercial costs run into the tens of millions
of dollars.
People are often devastated after something went wrong they cant believe it. Inspectors are frequently told: Nothing
like this has happened before! Were big on safety! or that the operator was always so careful; but on examination, the
causes and means of preventing deaths and injuries are usually clear.
For starters, many forklifts seen by workplace safety inspectors date way back to the1970s and 80s often in poor condition
with chains, hydraulic rams and tines worn to a point well below the manufacturers specications. Safety equipment is
often broken and load charts unreadable or poorly understood.
Assumptions about the safety of forklifts, a reliance on the skill and experience of the operator, and the mistaken belief that
safety is merely a matter of common sense can all lead to complacency.
So-called near miss incidents are clear opportunities for safety improvements to be made often at little or no cost
or simply by ensuring that procedures are established and carefully followed. If there is no system for investigating and
implementing safety action plans, the next incident could result in a death.

Driving safety the forklift operator

The skill and responsibilities required of a professional forklift operator deserve our appreciation without a doubt however
forklifts can easily become lethal weapons in the hands of poorly trained or inexperienced operators.
The knowledge, expertise and discipline required of the average forklift operator to perform his/her tasks are often not
readily recognised, but they also have very real responsibilities to follow the safe work instructions provided by
their employers.
It is worth noting that it isnt enough for an employer to simply check whether a forklift operator has a Certicate of
Competency and thus assume that the operator is responsible for safety. Operator competency should be assessed with the
particular plant and attachments supplied and within the designated workplace so that they clearly understand the specic
hazards they may be exposed to.

page 11


. . . ALW
Social expectations are changing

Whereas safety was once regarded as an extra component of running a business, today it has become a core activity.
When built into day-to-day operations it will reect current community expectations and meet the requirements of a
range of laws, Codes of Practice, and Australian and International Standards.
Where safety failings lead to prosecutions however, the courts are imposing signicant penalties. In a recent Victorian
case, a forklift trainer was convicted and ned $20,000 after leaving trainees alone to operate forklifts while he went to the
ofce. In another matter, a company was ned $400,000 after a truck driver died from head injuries he received from a crate,
which fell while being moved by an unlicensed forklift operator.
Each state or territory has different means of dealing with identied safety breaches and it is in your interests to understand
what these are and how they can be applied.
Forklift designers, workplace designers, suppliers, employers and employees all have specic responsibilities in
legislation to identify and eliminate workplace hazards. All stakeholders have a responsibility to exercise due diligence
in referring to technical standards, guidance and legislation in order to full their obligations.
OHS Inspectors can be the best source of advice on meeting this need. Although their primary role is as enforcement ofcers,
their role as competent advisors cannot be underestimated in making your workplace safe, efcient and successful.
Workplace consultation via health and safety representatives, health and safety committees or toolbox meetings also
provides opportunities to develop safety improvement protocols.

The world of forklifts is getting more complex

Whereas a one tonne forklift would once have been acceptable for typical loads in an average warehouse, the norm now
is to have one with a carrying capacity of two to 2.5 tonnes (irrespective of the many forklifts and attachments designed
for special tasks) indicating just one of the many changes introduced as businesses adapt to bigger and more complex
worksites such as distribution centres.
The many models now on the market must be assessed against engineering principles laid down in Australian
Standard AS 2359 before being supplied to Australian workplaces along with the information needed to allow them to be
operated safely.
With only three points of weight distribution due to the need for a rear steering axle, forklifts are inherently unstable
and can be vulnerable to road surface irregularities and inappropriately positioned loads. The load capacity over a
range of mast movements must be determined by a person suitably qualied for calculating safe working loads.
The weight of attachments, reach, distance from the counterweight, loads to be shifted, and carriage tilt all need to be taken
into consideration.
Use of jib attachments, for example, will lower the maximum Safe Work Load (SWL) by 20% even if it is within the standard
Australian tine 600 mm load centre, due to the potential for slightly swinging loads to alter the effective load centre and
thereby increase instability.
A typical two-tonne counterbalance forklift may weigh more than four tonnes with sideshift or drum grab loaded. Placing
a load centre beyond the standard forklift tine 600-millimetre load centre, or raising loads, will dramatically inuence the
designed stability of a nominal safe working load.

Imported forklifts beware!

There is a range of potential safety issues associated with imported second-hand forklifts. Overloading and unstable
loads can occur if SWL plates are in pounds, not kilograms. Furthermore, purchasing from countries that use a smaller
standard pallet can produce inherent stability issues. In these cases, a suitably qualied person needs to recalculate load
capacity at height and tilt.
For instance, a Japanese forklift designed to use a standard one-metre pallet (as compared with Australias standard 1.2-metre
pallet), will need to have the load centre placed 100mm further out from the triangle of stability when used locally. Though
not a huge distance, this can still be signicant particularly if the load is raised, poorly loaded or carried on uneven ground.

page 12


Design for safety the low risk worksite

You dont need a purpose-built greeneld site to manage forklift safety, but many businesses have outgrown their original sites
and making do with what they have may no longer be acceptable.
The rst consideration in reducing potential human risk factors is to design safe workplaces.

Designers must ensure safe design, testing and dissemination of relevant information to recipients, including
ergonomic considerations.
They need to demonstrate a clear understanding of the business to be conducted and plan workplace layouts with
full recognition of the hazards created by the introduction of mobile plant factoring in risk reduction strategies, and
engineering-out forklift stability hazards as key considerations.
The workplace must be well lit, with wide aisles to allow backing and turning, and at, well-maintained surfaces capable
of taking the weight of mobile plant and their loads. If these basic requirements cannot be provided, the added risks that are
produced must be managed.
In Victoria, failure to design a workplace building or structure to be safe can incur a penalty as high as $270,000 for a
company and $55,000 for individuals.
Plant design, manufacture and supply companies also face indictable offences and nancial penalties of close to
$1,000,000 if they dont comply and people are exposed to subsequent risk of injury. Individuals may face nes of up
to $200,000.
Manufacturers must make and test plant and provide information about safe operating procedures to avoid
identied hazards.
Suppliers are obligated under the Act to ensure that the supplied plant is safe for the purpose it is intended to be used and
to supply appropriate information to the recipients and users.

So what does it take to make your workplace safe?

Thorough risk assessments, training, supervision involving employees, contractors and labour hire workers also
forklift operators trained in the use of specic machines and attachments, and who are familiar with the workplace
layout and safe work procedures;

Systems to ensure the right tool (forklift and attachment) is used on each job;

Regular reviews of work practices and workplace design issues (some warehouses operate with one-way trafc or a
drop-and-spin system to limit the number of trafc movements and eliminate unexpected trafc movements);

Trainee operators must be under the control of a qualied, supervising operator with line of sight and hearing;

Systems for recording incidents (including near misses) and eliminating reported hazards;

Operators who complete a daily checklist to ensure safe operating condition (e.g. check if warning signals such as
lights and reversing buzzers work, test and use restraints);

Means of physically separating pedestrians and mobile plant xed guarding, marked walkways, signage and
chains are part of the safety equation;

Operators who are appropriately restrained within the roll over protective structure in the event of a lateral tip
(WorkSafe Victoria supports retro-tting of ergonomic seatbelt seats and/or operator restraint devices meeting
Australian Design specications as per AS 2359.1, Clause 7.5).
Forklifts with ergonomic seating and seatbelts or other restraints reduce injuries;

Safe Working Loads which consider not just the weight of loads but also safety when the tines and load is raised
or tilted;

Attachments with load capacity plates which are manufactured in accordance with specications supported by the
forklift manufacturer or AS 2359.1, and used in accordance with AS 2359.2,

Protective measures to ensure forklifts and their operators are safe from hazardous zones such as xed plant,
and service pits for example, automatic loading dock levellers with sufcient capacity and edges clearly dened

page 13


. . . ALW
56 reported fatalities involving forklift trucks
1 January 1985 to 13 November 2008
Operator overcome by
Fell from forklift,

exhaust fumes (1)

forkarms or load (8)

Pedestrian crushed by
falling loads (15)

Operator crushed
by unexpected
movement of forklift (7)

Pedestrian struck by
travelling forklift (7)
Operator crushed
forklift in

Pedestrian crushed by

tipover/rollover (11)

manoeuvering forklift (7)

with high visibility markings, and automatic trailer braking chocks or hook engagement and parking brakes to prevent
truck movements while loading is underway;

Loads which are strapped or wrapped to standard pallets before movement;

Pallet racks installed in accordance with AS 4084 with protective structures, load capacity signs, regularly inspected
racking, and damaged sections immediately repaired;

Proper maintenance of forklifts and attachments in line with manufacturers recommendations and conducted
only by professional forklift maintenance personnel whose formal service reports can conrm that the machine is t
to be used (or tag it out as not to be used pending repairs). Keep maintenance records always on site;

Acknowledged and eliminated potential dangers (if any), which can include: overhead obstructions, loading trucks
over gutters, potholes, unrated loading bays, narrow aisles, poorly maintained pallet racking with distorted footings,
and inadequate housekeeping in general;

Measures to ensure workers are not exposed to dangerous fumes from forklift exhausts.

The dream machine

The major manufacturers are constantly updating their forklifts, but the fact remains that there are thousands of older machines
on the market and in use. If you are purchasing a new forklift, or leasing one, look for a model incorporating these latest
technology features:
Load scales on forklift tines, which read the weight of the load and display it for the operators calculations;
Active stability systems to control a wide range of functions (load handling, turning for mast height, weight, tilt, forklift
speed, yaw rate, steering wheel and rear tyre angles);
ABS brake systems;
Infrared or microwave workplace controls which limit access to forklifts to authorised operators, and control speeds or
lift in hazardous zones (such as blind corners). These can limit operation to certain areas and tasks to only specically
trained operators;
Seat sensors which prevent start up unless the operator is on the seat with the seatbelt latched and the
handbrake applied;
Lateral restraint devices to hold operators limbs and head within the roll over protective structure;
Ergonomic seating to reduce musculoskeletal injuries from long shifts and repetitive actions;
page 14


Mounted video cameras to enable precise load placement (e.g. to high racking) and reduce physical risks to
Proximity detectors to complement reversing buzzers; and
Dual tyres at the mast end to increase stability.

Also, the skills of the company service provider performing maintenance on technologically advanced forklifts should be up
to date, and the mandatory service report should be suitably thorough and precise.
Consider procuring or leasing forklifts with load capacities above your known calculated requirements to provide additional
inherent stability. Computer controlled electronic bar code sensors and automated palletising and conveyor systems
have eliminated the use of counterbalance forklifts in some warehouses.

Be proactive Where to go now?

Contact your workplace safety regulator or industry association for advice on how you can improve safety and
increase resultant productivity in your business.
Meet (and even exceed) the manufacturers specications and the Australian Standard AS 2359 and have a clear
understanding of your workplace safety authority guidance materials (all considered basic procedure).
Read WorkSafe Victoria guidance materials for the Manufacturing, Logistics and Agricultural Industry, including
Forklift Safety: Reducing the Risk which is available online or in printed form.
Apply for a free, three-hour consultation by an independent OHS consultant (Victorian small businesses with fewer
than 20 employees are eligible).

Australian Standard AS 2359.1 to AS 2359.15
Forklift Safety: Reducing the Risk
Guidance Note on Pallet Racking
Code of Practice for Plant 1995
WorkSafe Advisory Service
Tel: 96411444
Toll free: 1800 136089
Email: info@worksafe.vic.gov.au
Website: www.worksafe.vic.gov.au

"A safe workplace is

no accident!"

Glenn Hester Photography

page 15


. . . ALW

Prosecution Result Summary

Case Study 1

Defendant: Food/Beverage Company

Date of Determination: 14/03/2008

Industry: Manufacturing and Agriculture

Incident: Forklift Fatality

Defendant Type: Company (ACN)

Judge/Magistrate: Judge Pilgrim

Date of Offence: 08/11/2005

Jurisdiction: County Court

Incident Summary: On 8 November 2005, an incident occurred at the warehouse premises of a Victorian
Food/Beverage Company, involving an employee aged 44. On that date, the employee died when the forklift that he
was operating struck a roof support pole, toppled over and crushed him underneath it. The path the employee
was taking with the forklift generated a blind spot by the left upright of the mast and this kept one of the roof
support poles hidden. The poles were thin and easily hidden in a forklifts blind spot. An expert engineer engaged
by WorkSafe concluded that the metal ring or sleeve at the base of the pole caused the machine to ride up the pole and
topple over onto its side. The employee driver of the forklift was not wearing a seatbelt. A WorkSafe investigation
revealed that the roof support poles had been struck many times by forklifts. The employees gave evidence of at least
two previous occasions when this occurred and markings on many of the poles also made this apparent. One employee
stated that, on occasions, her forklift had backed into support poles due to the tightness of the area for manoeuvring.
Another employee stated that he had trouble with the post base plates prior to this incident.
Although incident reports were created in respect of these incidents, the Company was unable to produce any documentation
recording these previous incidents, or remedial action. A trafc management expert engaged by the Company at the
direction of WorkSafe after the incident was of the opinion that there was no trafc management plan in place at the time,
which was a totally inadequate situation.

Act & Section [Maximum Penalty]



OH&S Act 2004 - s 21(1) & (2)(a) Employer failed to provide

& maintain so far as was practicable for employees a
safe working environment plant & systems of work
[1800 penalty units: individual; 9000 penalty units: body
corporate]. Indictable offence triable summarily.

Plea: Guilty
Fine: $200,000.00
Result: Conviction

Photos by Kristian Hetyey

page 16



Prosecution Result Summary

Case Study 2

Defendant: Fresh Food Company

Date of Determination: 13/03/2008

Industry: Manufacturing and Agriculture

Incident: Forklift Trafc Management

Defendant Type: Company (ACN)

Judge/Magistrate: Judge Klestadt

Date of Offence: 19/01/2007

Jurisdiction: Magistrates Court

Incident Summary: The rear of this Geelong fruit and vegetable business opens onto a public car park where food
produce is loaded and unloaded from vehicles via a forklift. There is also an arcade entrance leading from the car park.
In October 2005, a forklift operated by the fruit and vegetable Company was seen by a WorkSafe inspector working in the
public car park behind its shop. Inadequate control measures (signs and witches hats) were in place to ensure pedestrians
were not hit by the forklift. The inspector issued an Improvement Notice, which was lifted several weeks later when
an improved trafc management system was established. WorkSafe inspectors revisited the workplace on 19 January
2007, and observed a forklift owned by the same Company operating in and around pedestrians and cars with no
controls to prevent a collision with members of the public. The Inspectors issued two more Improvement Notices.
An improved trafc management system was again put in place.
The Company agreed to enter into an Enforceable Undertaking as an alternative to prosecution. In the undertaking, the
Company agreed to: 1) place a half-page advertisement urging safe operation of forklifts in the Saturday morning Geelong
Advertiser within one month; 2) make a $5,000 donation to the Salvation Army; and 3) a principal of the Company attending
a 5-day Occupational Health and Safety course.

Act & Section [Maximum Penalty]



OH&S Act 2004 - s 21(1) & (2)(a) Employer failed to

provide & maintain so far as was practicable for
employees a safe working environment plant &
systems of work
[1800 penalty units: individual;
9000 penalty units: body corporate]. Indictable offence
triable summarily.

Plea: No Plea
Fine: $0.00
Result: All Charges Withdrawn

OH&S Act 2004 - s 23(1) Employer failed to ensure

that their undertaking did not expose people
(other than employees) to health & safety risks
[1800 penalty units: individual; 9000 penalty units:
body corporate]. Indictable offence triable summarily.

(Enforceable Undertaking
entered into by the
company as an
alternative to

page 17


. . . ALW
FORKLIFT HITCHHIKE HIJINX Company & Worker Prosecuted

A worker hitching a ride on a forklift and another playing around with a re hose has resulted in
a company and one young worker being prosecuted by WorkSafe.
In April last year, a 17-year-old fellow workers leg was run over and broken (requiring two permanent pins to be inserted)
after he fell (or jumped) from a forklift as its driver swerved to avoid the pranksters jet of spray.
A Benalla sawmilling company pleaded guilty to two health and safety charges relating to its failure to provide and maintain
a safe workplace (Sections 21(1) & (2)(a) of the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004) and failing to report the incident
to WorkSafe (Section 38(1) & (3) of the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004).
Benalla Magistrate Paul Smith ordered a comprehensive package of requirements on the company under new alternate
penalty provisions now allowed under Victorias Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act.

The Court undertakings were:

To issue a media release and to take part in a brieng, urging other businesses to improve their
safety standards;
 To provide $40,000 to the Goulburn-Ovens Institute of TAFE (Benalla) for safety equipment and
OHS training programs;
 To develop and implement a comprehensive induction program for the companys own use
covering plant and forklift safety, employee safety requirements, the role of supervisors,
management of contractors and labour hire employees;
 The companys director to complete a ve-day OHS course within 12 months;
 All forklift operators to undertake refresher training; and
 The 18-year-old worker with the re hose (prosecuted, convicted, and placed on a 12-month good
behaviour bond) to do an appropriate Certicate 1 TAFE course within 12 months
The Director of WorkSafes Manufacturing, Logistics and Agriculture Division, Ross Pilkington, said the penalties
should send a clear message to employers and workers to ensure safety standards were maintained.

Health and safety failings can result in prosecution and convictions which can have serious short and longterm effects, as well as the potential for injury and death.
Young and inexperienced workers are particularly vulnerable, he says, and often have a sense that it cant happen
to me, but the reality is that it can, and does.
Ensuring theyre properly trained and supervised, and that those superior to them are maintaining safety standards,
will ensure they get to go home at the end of the day.

FORKLIFT FUN Comes at a Cost!

Dangerous forklift driving has cost a young worker his job and his forklift licence, and earned
him 50 hours of community work and an order to do a 5-day health and safety course.
WorkSafe prosecuted a 20-year-old Seymour man employed by a pipeline company in Kilmore, after he posted a video of
himself doing stunts on a forklift on YouTube.
The video, which has now been removed, showed him deliberately crashing into concrete pipes, doing burnouts and
overloading the machine so he could do wheelies. He was not wearing a seatbelt and this put him at risk of serious injury
or death.

page 18


The clip was on YouTube for nearly two months before it was seen by his boss in July last year. The young employee was
subsequently sacked for misconduct.

Seymour Magistrate Caitlin English convicted him and ordered him to:
 do 50 hours of unpaid community work
 complete a ve-day Occupational Health and Safety course, and
 pay WorkSafes court costs of $1,200
His suspended licence was also cancelled following the hearing.
WorkSafes Executive Director (Health and Safety), John Merritt, said forklifts were among the most dangerous pieces
of equipment in Victorian workplaces, accounting for 56 lives since 1985. Of these 19 were forklift drivers.
Mr Merritt said that unless forklifts were used correctly, the consequences were often serious, especially if a seatbelt was not
used and the machine tipped.
In this case, the young man has put himself at risk, and while he suffered no physical injury, he has had to face legal and
other ongoing consequences.

With WorkSafe currently running a campaign targeting young workers, our message continues to be:
Dont take unnecessary risks.
You might think youre in control of the situation, but when something goes wrong, it will happen quickly, with little warning,
often with permanent consequences.
Posting stunts like this on the internet encourages other people to do the same thing, putting them at risk as well.

Safety at work Contest


WMD Transport Unit

The Erection Team

page 19


OHS professional excellence creating business value and reducing social costs

Why is Workplace Safety Important?

As revealed in an Australian Safety and Compensation Council (ASCC) media release issued on 17 October 2008, in association
with Safe Work Australia Week 2008:
Over 140,000 Australians are seriously injured at work every year and more than 250 die as a result of work-related
injuries. Many more die as a result of work-related disease such as mesothelioma.
This means 17 in every 1,000 employees will be off work for at least a week due to work-related injury and disease
with two of these needing over six months off work to recover from their injuries or illness.
"The tragedy is that work-related injury, illness and death can be prevented through the adoption of safer
work practices.
No wonder the World Bank considers injury the fastest growing cause of morbidity and mortality in the world and
describes it as the least researched epidemic of the 20th Century. In this country typically, injuries account for
almost 10 per cent of both deaths and hospital admissions and impact disproportionately on the young. In terms of
years of potential life lost (up to age 75) injury outweighs cancer and heart disease (combined) by a factor of more
than two.

History and Function of the Safety Institute of Australia

The Safety Institute of Australia Inc (SIA) is a not-for-prot, apolitical, independent peak body that began in 1949,
when the rst group of students in the Industrial Safety and Accident Prevention Course at Melbourne Technical College
formed the Industrial Safety Research Group. Within 15 years, a Division of this Group had been formed in each State. In 1954
the name was changed to the Safety Engineering Society, and in 1977 the Society became the Safety Institute of Australia
Inc. Over the last 60 years, the SIA has grown from a few local students with a shared passion for health and safety promotion
to a well established and highly respected professional association nationwide. Today, it has a total of over 3,200 members
within Australia and internationally.

SIA Aims and Objectives

The primary aim of the SIA is to promote the highest possible standards of health and safety at work, on the roads,
at play and at home.
The objectives of the SIA are:

To promote health and safety consciousness;

To advance the science and practice of health and safety;

To research and develop health and safety procedures and protocols;

To encourage community recognition of the Institutes involvement in all aspects of health and safety; and

To foster professional acknowledgement and develop ethical awareness and integrity through the Institutes
involvement in industrial, domestic and commercial health and safety issues.

The Institute believes that the distinctive advice of qualied and experienced health and safety practitioners is a
prerequisite to the specication of health and safety responsibilities at all levels of government (federal, state, territory or
local), and of employers (across all industry sectors) and community organisations.
In all these areas, the SIA has signicant opportunities for involvement and growth, according to the Chief Executive
Ofcer Gary Lawson-Smith, whose own prestigious background (prior to joining the SIA in May 2007) spanned 37 highly
successful years in civil aviation and aviation safety.
He believes occupational health, safety, and environmental imperatives are now all rmly entrenched in the mainstream of
business governance. And as a result, corporations and organisations are looking way beyond mere compliance to using
these crucial factors to unlock emergent business and community values SIA wants to be part of this process and to
become a major inuence in business development and government policy, says Gary.
As Nelson Mandela once said, We must use time wisely and forever realize that the time is always ripe to do right.
page 20

SIA Code of Conduct
All members of the SIA (individuals or corporate partners) are bound by a Code of Conduct summarized as follows:

Members will give priority to the health, safety and welfare of the community in accordance with accepted
standards of moral and legal behaviour during the performance of their professional duties;

Members will perform their professional duties with integrity, honesty and equity while adhering to legal principles
and operating within their area of competency;

Members will not engage in any illegal or improper practices;

Members words or deeds must not adversely affect the reputation of the Institute or the professional reputation of
another person;

Members will full the terms and conditions of their employment or contract and avoid real or apparent conicts of
interest; and

Members will actively continue their professional development, and thereby the development of their profession as
a whole.

Who Can Join the SIA?

Membership of the SIA is available to any person, corporation, organisation, company or association (government or private
sector) that has a genuine interest in advancing the science of safety and health through professional excellence.

SIA Professional Membership

There are three grades of SIA professional membership, namely Chartered Professional Member (CPMSIA), Fellow (FSIA), and
Chartered Fellow (CFSIA). Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is a prerequisite to maintaining certication.

SIA Corporate Partnerships categories and benets

Similarly, the SIA has established a graduated list of Corporate Partnership categories (Diamond, Gold, Silver and Bronze)
with associated meaningful benets to attract an expanding range of government and private sector Corporate Partners.
(Our own Australian icon, Qantas Airways, has been welcomed on board as one such signicant Corporate Partner,
along with WorkSafe Victoria, Protector Alsafe and Pro-Visual Publishing.)
This initiative provides opportunities for Corporate Partners to raise their own safety prole and gain public recognition by
demonstrating to all Australians their steadfast commitment towards helping the SIA reduce risks and prevent accidents
through adopting the SIAs Code of Practice for instance, or even by listing their company name and links on the SIA
Such corporate partnerships also assist the SIA to increases its scope of inuence across Australia and internationally.

Strategic Partnerships
To help raise SIAs prole, and to more effectively promote health and safety across all industry sectors and the media and
public at large, Letters of Cooperation have been drawn up to establish national and international strategic partnerships
under categories such as Standards, Research & Development, Investigation and Youth - Injury Prevention. To date,
Australian Exhibition & Conferences, Standards Australia, Monash University Accident Research Centre, and the
Australian Transport Safety Bureau to name just a few have already formed such mutual alliances.
Standards Australia is recognised by the Federal Government as this countrys leading non-government standards
development body. Australian Standards and its international counterparts (ISO/IEC) apply widely in workplace OH&S
practice and thus contribute to the prevention of workplace injuries and fatalities. Standards applications play various
signicant roles and are extensively relied upon, not only for test methods and management systems, but also for other
standardisation matters critical to OH&S, including: Electrical safety regulation; Intrinsic safety and explosive atmosphere
control; Risk management (generic and industry specic); and Personal protective equipment specication. Nearly one third
of the 6,500 Australian Standards are called up into legislation by one or more Australian Governments.
Monash University Accident Research Centre (MUARC) is Australias largest multi-disciplinary research centre
specialising in the study of injury and injury prevention. The Centre undertakes applied research contracts for government
and industry clients throughout Australia and overseas. More fundamental research is undertaken through research grants.
page 21


The Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB) is an operationally independent bureau within the Australian Governments
Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government. Under the Transport Safety
Investigation Act 2003 (CTH) (TSI Act), the Executive Director of Transport Safety Investigation in the ATSB is responsible
for the investigation of aviation, rail and marine transport safety matters (with some involvement in the area of road
safety). The ATSB conducts independent investigations in accordance with no-blame principles; unlike transport regulators,
it seeks to positively inuence transport safety by facilitating awareness and action in response to safety issues rather than
by prescribing or enforcing safety solutions.

A word from the CEO

In our 60th Anniversary year, the SIAs National Board of Management and I are very enthusiastic about the future of the
Institute and we are ready for a new and exciting phase in the organisations development, inuence and reach nationally
and internationally in conjunction with our proud corporate and strategic partners and members.
New members/organisations are always welcomed, Gary adds. So please join today online via our website:
www.sia.org.au (or contact the SIAs National Secretariat) and enhance your organisations commitment to continuous
improvement and universal health and safety promotion.

SIA Major Events in 2009 to be conducted in conjunction with Australian

Exhibition & Conferences (AEC):

Safety In Action 2009, Melbourne Convention & Exhibition Centre, 31 March 2 April 2009 (Register online at

Queensland Safety Show & Conference, Brisbane Conference & Exhibition Centre, 16-18 June 2009

The Safety Show & Conference, Sydney Showground, 27-29 October 2009.

Contact: Gary Lawson-Smith

T: 03 8336 1995

page 22


WorkSafe Victoria has released new guidance to help improve the safety of people who own,
use or maintain bridge and gantry cranes.
Working safely with bridge and gantry cranes (2008)
was developed together with industry groups, unions and
employers. It has been designed to illustrate issues relating
to the safe use of cranes and describes the best risk
controls as well as practices that are not acceptable.
WorkSafes Manufacturing, Logistics and Agriculture
Industry Program Director, Trevor Martin said people
had to recognise that bridge and gantry cranes were
potentially dangerous and needed to be correctly used and
There can be a complacency relating to the use and
maintenance of bridge and gantry cranes in the workplace,
Mr Martin said.
There is a lack of understanding about the dangers of
their use. Many people think they are simple to use, the risks
are little understood and the need for maintenance is often
overlooked. It is not uncommon for WorkSafe Inspectors
to see cranes carrying loads heavier than what they are
rated for or using incorrect slinging equipment.
It is always more dangerous to wait for a failure to learn
a lesson. The reality of this danger is often seen in the
In April 2008, a company was ned $150,000 after pleading
guilty to two breaches of workplace safety laws following an
incident in which a man was seriously hurt by being struck
by a moving gantry crane. The incident occurred on an oil
rig and the court was told that, in 2001, a similar incident
involving a gantry crane on another oil rig operated by the
same company, resulted in a worker being killed.

It is a simple equation with the right procedures and

practices in place, people will not be exposed to the risk
of being killed or injured by bridge and gantry cranes,
Mr Martin said.
If you are an employer who uses bridge and gantry cranes,
WorkSafe urges you to actively use the handbook to
undertake a review of the cranes and use the information in
the guide to determine which control measures you should
be implementing.
WorkSafe Inspectors will also use the handbook as a
basis for inspections of bridge and gantry cranes in the
coming year.
Working safely with bridge and gantry cranes is
supported by a WorkSafe Health and Safety Solution a
short, topic-based, step-by-step solution plan focussing on
maintenance records and a poster to remind workplaces to
carry out inspections of cranes, slings and accessories.
To order a copy of: A handbook for workplaces Working
safely with bridge and gantry cranes; A health and safety
solution Bridge and gantry cranes Maintenance
records; or a copy of the crane inspection poster, go to
www.worksafe.vic.gov.au or call WorkSafes Advisory
Service on 1800 136 089 for assistance.

In June, another company was committed to stand

trial in the County Court to face charges laid relating to
the November 2006 death of a man who was killed while
moving a seven metre steel roller-door drum with an
overhead gantry crane.

Safety saves lives and saves you money!

WorkSafe Victorias Bridge and Gantry Crane Guidance Launch
Darebin Arts and Entertainment Centre, 31 July 2008

page 23


Mr. Alex Ruscuklic, Business Development Director, Borgers Corporation Guest Speaker at the July launch

Alex Ruscuklic, Business Development Director of Borgers

Corporation, was a guest speaker at the July 31 launch of
the WorkSafe handbook: Working safely with bridge and
gantry cranes and delivered a few hard-hitting and timely
words on the subject.
He spoke passionately about the fundamental need to
adopt safer and more sustainable practices throughout
the lifting industry, and he urged businesses to assume
more responsibility and leadership in bringing about the
necessary changes in attitude and behaviour.
Having played a formative part together with chief
engineers at Austin Hoist and Crane in the actual inception
of the new guidance, Mr. Ruscuklic also emphasized
the vital importance of reliable qualitative research and
information to facilitate better choices and procurement
decisions in the marketplace.
Purchasing the cheapest product rather than the best
and safest doesnt pay in the long run, and is false
economy, he said. Instead, he believes that a steadfast
commitment to optimal safety and sustainability standards
as well as the preferred use of superior quality equipment
ultimately leads to increased efciency, productivity and
protability for prudent companies.
Another speaker on the day, Jonathon Gray, a senior lawyer
from WorkSafes Legal Services and Investigations Division,
talked about the inevitable price you pay for industrial
irresponsibility. He warned of the dire consequences when
companies failed to comply with the Occupational Health

page 24

and Safety Act and behaved negligently resulting in people

being killed or injured by bridge and gantry cranes.
Maximum penalties of around $1 million for culpable
organizations were not inconceivable in serious cases,
while illegal breaches by individuals could easily incur
substantial nes up to $200,000 even if no actual incident
The point is, Mr. Gray said, you can put yourself and your
employer at risk of prosecution and a signicant ne if you
are negligent in inspecting and recording. Sometimes the
housekeeping is just not good enough and there clearly
needs to be an inspection regime in place and a chain of
responsibility operating.
You are only responsible for what you are contracted
to do, he explained to an audience of manufacturers,
suppliers and repairers of bridge and gantry cranes, and
there is a clear obligation to tell you what needs to be
done to make things safe. But you cannot contract out
of liability, he added, and the bottom line is that a safe
system of work needs to be provided at all times.
Crane operators can no longer defend their ignorance
or risky practices with the unacceptable excuse:
But weve always done it like this!
The fact that they have been doing something for thirty
years doesnt make it safe it just means theyve been
lucky, Mr. Gray said.
According to him, around ninety per cent of reported
WorkSafe cases result in a successful prosecution; so to
err on the side of caution might not be such a bad idea!



Arising out of an industry long prone to division and
fragmentation, The Vehicle Hoist Association of Australia
Inc. (VHAA) was established early in 2004 following a
successful WorkSafe Seminar on Vehicle Hoists at
the Darebin Arts and Community Centre in Melbourne.
The idea was to provide a concerted voice at last for the
vehicle hoist industry as a whole.
A group of concerned individuals from the industry set up the
edgling organisation to identify and address the pressing
needs within the sector and to provide an authoritative
source of reliable information on all matters pertaining to
vehicle hoists.
This enterprising Victorian association has further plans to
ultimately become the National Body for all vehicle hoist
related issues, and meanwhile works closely with the
WorkSafe Plant Unit and representatives in the formulation
of mutual policy guidelines.

Code Of Practice
The VHAA is continually developing a Code of Practice for
its members. Important matters include:
Compliance with Australian Standards
Ethical behaviour
Compliance with local OH&S regulations
Members competence
Quality assurance, workmanship & warranty
Property maintenance of service records
Availability of spare parts
Demonstration, training & documentation for

PO Box 151,
Altona North 3025
Email: vhaa@bigpond.com

To produce training courses that will facilitate
the accreditation of vehicle hoist installers and
service professionals to a requisite level of
competence, and to work within an established
code of conduct thus ensuring industry standards
are maintained at the highest levels;
To standardize all vehicle hoist service and
maintenance issues;
To establish a forum for vehicle hoist service and
maintenance issues;
To disseminate relevant information regarding
vehicle hoists to the membership and interested
industry stakeholders;
To become an ofcial advisory body to government
and the automotive industry at large based on the
pooling of knowledge, input and expertise.

Recommendations to
The VHAA is currently developing recommendations for
submission to state based authorities detailing the industry
bodys position on items such as:
Fitting of non-genuine parts and accessories to hoists
(after-market modications, retrotting of parts such
as arm locks, etc.); and
Dening the maximum design life of a hoist in
line with the Australian Standard (when should they
be scrapped?).

The VHAA invites interested parties to become actively
involved in the association. Membership is open to anyone
participating in the vehicle hoist industry manufacturers,
importers, installers, or service/maintenance, sales and
trading personnel. All are welcome. Why not bring your
experience and expertise to our next meeting?

Next edition: World-class practitioners, Morris Material Handling, lead the eld investing $18 million annually in product research alone.

page 25




The mobile crane industry initiated a voluntary crane assessment program throughout
Australia, which is playing its part in making the industry safe. Developed in consultation
with the mobile crane industry as a whole, and supported by Crane Associations, State
Trade Unions, and Workcover Authorities, the program aims to augment existing safety
standards with annual assessments of mobile cranes now being made by CraneSafe
(a division of the Crane Industry Council of Australia).
The CraneSafe Assessment Program provides crane owners and operators with:
 a process for third party assessment of safety aspects of their cranes

For further information

National Coordinator
CraneSafe Australia
PO Box 136
Mt Waverley Vic 3149

 a common, industry-wide system for assessment of their cranes

 a single method by which crane operators, owners, manufacturers, suppliers designers and importers may full
their relevant duty of care obligations under the State Occupational Health and Safety Acts (OH&S).
Assessments are undertaken by independent competent persons (endorsed Assessors) approved by the Committee
(not CraneSafe) to perform annual inspections as part of the Australian Standards requirement to have 12-month inspections.
Although the CraneSafe assessment program is voluntary, crane owners and users always have a duty of care obligation
under individual State OH&S (Plant) Regulations to ensure that their cranes are constantly in a safe condition.


Melbournes industry, businesses and local councils have
cut water use by a further 8 billion litres over the past
12 months, building on the signicant savings made in
recent years. Victorian Premier John Brumby said nonresidential customers had slashed water use to 100 billion
litres in 2007/08.
Industrial water users and big business are making
massive water savings which is contributing to the
reduction in water consumption across Melbourne,
he said. These savings are due to the fantastic efforts
industry, businesses and local councils are making to
reduce consumption and use alternative water supplies
including stormwater and recycled water.

Water conservation by industry is a key part of the

Governments plan to secure Melbournes supplies,
along with Australias largest desalination plant, upgrading
irrigation infrastructure, a state-wide water grid and
increased recycling.
The Victorian Government now requires all non-residential
customers across Victoria using more than 10 million litres
of water each year to submit a water management action
plan (WaterMAP) to their water authority. These plans have
water saving targets and outline water saving and recycling
measures which will ensure these targets are met.
Non-residential customers account for approximately
30 per cent of Melbournes total water supply usage,
compared to household use of around 60 per cent.
Mr Brumby said recent support from leading business groups
VECCI and Australian Industry Group for the Governments
Sugarloaf Pipeline and Food Bowl Modernisation project
demonstrated the importance of boosting water supplies
with vital infrastructure. Industry needs water security to
keep and create jobs, he said.


Your business can do its bit and add to the critical groundswell
of inuential change by adopting simple strategies such as
capturing and utilizing rain or storm-water, recycling, installing
ow control valves on taps and placing water conservation
signage on site, for example. Your co-operation counts!

Hon John Brumby MLA

Premier of Victoria
Minister for Multicultural Affairs
and Veterans Affairs

page 26

Environmentally responsible manufacturers of 2 Post, 4 Post automotive truck lifts and heavy duty lifts.

Green Environment Initiatives

Since 1995, RotaryLifts focus on environmentally friendly
inground lifts has led to the pioneering designs of the
SmartLift and the MOD30.
Rotarys SmartLifts were installed in the rst LEED certied
dealership in the United States, Pat Lobb Toyota, and continue
to be chosen for several other LEED certied car dealerships
around the country.
The MOD30 heavy duty lifts have also been a preferred choice
for its sustainable design. The rst self contained heavy-duty
in-ground lift has been installed in areas that in the past would
not allow for the installation of traditional in-ground lifts.

Rotary Inground Lifts:

Protect the environment with a 60% recycled polymer
housing (Smartlift) or with exclusive Enviroguard
coating (MOD30)
Reduce oil usage by an average of 75% over traditional
style inground lifts
Bio-uid compatible
Contain 90% steel components, by weight, which can
be reclaimed at the end of the lifts life cycle
Have a smaller overall footprint than comparable
surface lifts which allows for the same number of lifts
in less space reducing utility usage, construction costs
and overall emissions.


page 27


National Manufacturing Week 2009
Dont miss National Manufacturing Week (NMW) 2009 Australias 41st fully integrated, annual manufacturing exhibition
to be held between 12th and 15th May at the Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre, South Bank. Australias
major industrial exhibition, NMW is the only event that gathers together world-class national and international manufacturers
and market leaders to share their innovative ideas and technologies in a unique face to face, one-stop-shop forum.
Eleven separate industry-specic pavilions (covering an area of over 5,000 sq m in available space) showcase a wide range
of manufacturing sectors, including the universally important Health and Safety section. In 2007, more than 13,000 visitors
attended to view the 613 brands of products displayed by 275 different companies.
NMW organiser, Reed Exhibitions, along with its exhibition partners, has been working on a number of new initiatives
designed to further increase the prole of NMW so it continues to be a keen destination for manufacturers from all around
the country.
New features this year will include Austechs Factory Of The Future and a dedicated Logistics and Materials
Handling section, said Mr Paul Baker, NMW exhibition manager. These two sections will add a fresh and exciting dynamic
to the event.
Co-ordinated by AMTIL, Factory of the Future will cover over 750 sq m of oor space, and will feature the very latest in fully
automated laser-controlled machine tools, separate cells demonstrating robotics and laser technology, as well as design
and prototyping.
Seminars are planned alongside the feature exhibits so visitors can learn about the latest technologies and manufacturing
techniques and then be able to see them operating, Mr Baker said.
This will allow visitors to tap into the very latest developments and technologies, and see how they can have an impact on
increasing efciency, reducing costs, and raising their prots.
Mr Baker said that NMWs Logistics, Materials Handling & Distribution (LMHD) pavilion is set to grow dramatically.
Companies are looking at ways to increase productivity and efciencies throughout the entire supply chain and the efcient
movement of nished products is an integral discipline.
So LMHD will feature the latest in forklift developments, storage and racking solutions as well as new technologies in radio
frequency-controlled warehousing and RFID."
Together with the recently opened Victorian Enterprise Connect Manufacturing Centre in Dandenong, this signicant event
puts Victoria denitively on the map as one of the key manufacturing centres of Australia.
For more information about NMW, contact:
John Delpech at Reed Exhibitions
Ph: 02 9422 2568,
Email: john.delpech@reedexhibitions.com.au
Website: www.nationalmanufacturingweek.com.au

Editors comment:
If you dont go, youll never know!
Judicious product selection, based on fully informed
choice, will impact favourably on all aspects of
business enterprise from production efciencies and
protability to the health and safety of employees, and
even conservation of the environment.
NMW Exhibition

page 28

Photo: Spitre Communications


$32m Dandenong Manufacturing Centre
opens for business
Victorias 4,000 small and medium manufacturers now have
ready access to world-class services to help them become more
productive and internationally competitive through the new $32
million Victorian Enterprise Connect Manufacturing Centre
at Dandenong.
At the opening ceremony in October last year, Senator Kim Carr,
Minister for Innovation, Industry, Science and Research, said
the Centre is an integral part of the Rudd Government's $251 million
Enterprise Connect a national network of manufacturing and
innovation centres designed to help build businesses and create
a higher skilled workforce by focusing squarely on innovation,
creativity and excellence.
"Victorian rms can now tap into the latest ideas and technologies
by accessing a network with local roots and a global reach,"
Senator Carr said. "In this turbulent economic environment, the
need for rms to innovate, improve productivity and nd new
efciencies is more pressing than ever."
The Dandenong Centre will act as a hub for Enterprise Connect
services in the state, offering companies free business reviews,
tailored assistance through existing government programs, client
management support and other relevant services, as well as
discretionary grants of up to $20,000 for business improvements.
It will also work closely with the Enterprise Connect Innovative
Regions Centre in Geelong. Senator Carr said an added feature
of the Centre is that it will incorporate the Industry Capability
Network of Victoria.
Mark Dreyfus MP, Federal Member for Isaacs, invited local
manufacturers to become involved: This is an exciting opportunity
for local businesses to benet from business advice, mentoring and
nancial grants, he said.
The Centre, and the Business Advisers, will help our businesses
succeed, providing specialist advice about strategies and
operations, benchmarking in business and manufacturing
processes, and access to latest research and technology.
For more information on Enterprise Connect:
Call the Enterprise Connect hotline on 131 791
Or visit: www.enterpriseconnect.gov.au

Top right and middle: The "Enterprise Connect" Manufacturing Centre

at Dandenong, Victoria (Photos by: Kristian Hetyey)
Bottom right: Mark Dreyfus MP (left) and the Hon Senator Kim Carr
(right) at the Launch of the Dandenong Manufacturing Centre

page 29



The Victorian government has thrown the states agging industry and manufacturing sector a
$245-million lifeline to help secure local business and jobs.

Victorian Premier John Brumby announced the long-awaited

industry and manufacturing strategy on 19 November 2008,
saying it would help stimulate jobs and make the sector
internationally competitive in the face of tough economic
A key point of the strategy is the governments
commitment to favour local bidders for state contracts
over offshore tenders.
Mr Brumby said this would mean sourcing 40% of materials
for new trains and rail locally.
When two or more bids are comparable in terms of quality
and whole-of-life pricing, the government will continue
to give preference to bids that maximise local industry
benets, he said.

Major projects that are declared of strategic signicance

will have additional criteria that can include minimum local
content requirements and an additional weighting given to
local content.
The strategy includes $123 million for a manufacturing
action plan, including a $50-million fund to help companies
move into emerging markets, $97 million for the services
sector and $25 million to help local industries expand into
export markets.
The Victorian government is taking action to ensure
industry and manufacturing can turn the rapidly
changing global economic conditions into opportunities
to build future growth, secure and create new jobs and
develop more innovative industries, Mr Brumby said.

Images From Southern Shorthaul Railroad


Tuesday 23 December 2008 MR 148/08

Statement by Mr Peter Anderson, Chief Executive

The Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ACCI) has encouraged business enterprises across the country to
actively consider using opportunities for business development through the recently announced investment allowance,
particularly as business planning decisions are made in the rst half of next year.
The Prime Minister announced the initiative on 12 December 2008 with the Treasurer also releasing a statement providing
specic details.
The Investment Allowance will:
Provide a tax deduction of 10% when business invests in depreciating assets.
This is over and above existing depreciation allowances that may apply;
Be applicable to most new tangible depreciating assets, including most items of plant and equipment over
$10,000 (including motor vehicles) which are acquired or ordered by the end of the current nancial year;

page 30

Be available for businesses who start to hold or start to construct the asset after 12.01am AEDT 13 December 2008
and before the end of June 2009. Assets must be ready for use by the end of June 2010; and
Apply to tangible assets used in carrying on a business for which a deduction is available under the core
provisions of Division 40 (Capital Allowances) in the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 (ITAA97). Land and trading stock
are excluded from the denition of depreciating assets, and will not qualify for the investment allowance.
The structure of the arrangement means business only has to order the relevant assets by 30 June 2009 provided they are
ready for use by 30 June 2010. This may provide signicant cash ow relief to business in many instances.
It is estimated the potential value of the proposal will be $1.6 billion over the forward estimates period. This represents
a substantial stimulus to encourage investment, which is particularly important to help maintain economic growth and
ACCI strongly encourages business to take advice on the matter and will welcome any additional material that is provided by
the Australian Taxation Ofce to help inform these decisions.
For further information:
Peter Anderson

Chief Executive

02 6273 2311 / 0417 264 862

Greg Evans

Director, Industry Policy & Economics

02 6273 2311 / 0407 204 559

Brett Hogan

Director of Communications

03 9668 9950 / 0407 273 884

ACCI represents over 350,000 businesses in every State and Territory and all industries. Our network employs around 4 million
employees, ranging from the top 100 companies to tens of thousands of small and medium businesses.


Glenn Hester Photography

page 31

Featured here are two Morris Material Handling (UK) hoist units built for 35t crane kits - as part of a joint venture in Saudi Arabia.



Borgers Research and Publications Pty Ltd (production)

Eva Hetyey (Founding Editor)
Eric John Ocson (graphic design, layout and typesetting)
Special editorial thanks to contributing writers and organizations,
government departments, technical advisors, and photographers:
Hon John Brumby MLA Premier of Victoria,
Minister for Multicultural Affairs and Veterans Affairs
Senator the Hon Kim Carr Minister for Innovation, Industry, Science & Research
Mark Dreyfus MP Federal Member for Isaacs
WorkSafe Victoria Publications (research, articles, case studies, photographs)
Roger Parry-Jones WorkSafe Victoria Inspector
(Manufacturing, Logistics and Agriculture)
Michael Birt Media Advisor
(Communications and Marketing) WorkSafe Victoria
John Merritt Executive Director (Health & Safety) WorkSafe Victoria
Jonathon Gray Senior Lawyer
(Legal Services and Investigative Division) WorkSafe Victoria
Alex Buckle Project Manager (Manufacturing, Logistics and Agriculture)
WorkSafe Victoria
J M Torlach State Mining Engineer WA
(Department of Minerals and Energy, Western Australia)
Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Go Green Design Pty Ltd (sustainability consultants)
Gary Lawson-Smith Chief Executive Ofcer, Safety Institute of Australia
CraneSafe Australia
Standards Australia
David Pearson Secretary, Vehicle Hoist Association of Australia
Austin Hoist and Crane Pty Ltd (photographs and technical assistance)
Morris Material Handling Ltd
Southern Shorthaul Railroad Pty Ltd
Glenn Hester Glenn Hester Photography Pty Ltd
Kristian Hetyey (photography)
Cranes Today Magazine
Bayside Leader Newspaper (Jason Sammon photograph)
Safety at Work Contest (international images)
Snap Printing Heidelberg (printing)

Borgers Corporation Pty Ltd is a progressive business development and

marketing consultancy geared to assist Australian manufacturing companies to
develop their sales and marketing strategies and improve their visibility factor
and effectiveness in the marketplace.
Borgers intention is to strengthen businesses and create teams and
structures that will facilitate a companys own success whilst boosting the
manufacturing sector at the same time. Operational strategies are based
on the principle of co-operation rather than on adversarial competition,
and on achieving macro solutions through the collective enterprise of
regional and national cluster groups of like-minded manufacturing businesses
and organizations.
Borgers believes that a core strategy for economic survival and consolidation is the
formation of viable working partnerships and strategic symbiotic alliances.
Borgers Corporation is fast becoming a signicant driving force behind
collaborative enterprise in Victoria and uses its organizational and industrial
networks to further this cause. Close alignment with prevailing government
policies and resources is carefully maintained. In particular, Borgers and
its publications wholeheartedly support WorkSafe Victoria and other proactive
associations in their promotion of occupational health and safety in the workplace.


Alex Ruscuklic
Business Development Director
Borgers Corporation Pty Ltd

Mobile: 0414 539 382

Email: borgerscorp@iprimus.com.au
Disclaimer: The information in this publication is intended only to provide a general overview of matters of
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