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Rayleigh

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481

limited to two particles only. Given the proper

with cprresponding conditions of mass , shape

temperature

, and distribu"'

any amount of molecular complexity is possible. That I have

not taken this possibility into account does not, however

vitiate the results here brolight forward , as they do not pre-

It is the cumulative

value of these

what is at best an incomplete piece of theory.

Univ. CoIl. Bristol.

LVI.

Rectangular

Lord RAYLEIGH

Sec. R.

. by L. Lorenz t and H. A. Lorentz:j, and expressing the

but the demonstrations are rather diffcult to follow,

limits of application are far from obvious. Indeed

and the

, in some

I have thought that it might be worth while to consider the

problem in the more definite form which it assumes when the

obstacles are supposed to be arranged in rectangular or square

order , and to show how the approximation may be pursued

when the dimensions of the obstacles are no longer very

small

Taking, first , the case of two dimensions , let us investigate

the conductivity for heat, or electricity, of an otherwise uniform

medium interrupted by cylindrical . obstacles which are arranged in rectangular order.

the cylinders by

a.

The

material

of the medium.

interrupted medium for a current in any direction can be deduced from its conductivities in the three principal directions.

Author.

xi. p. 70 (1880).

ix. p. 641 (1880).

. Communicated by the

t Wied.

Ann.

t Wied.

Ann.

JJprq &yl

Sip-ce CQ1J,gnction

igp.on

pl!rall

".

- ""I'

l tQ the ax()s of the

for our consideration

(IX)

13 parallel to

I;ig-. 1.

O't

o A

I0

Be, are lines, of flow , and the perpendicuh1r lines AB , CD arc

equipotential

. If we take the centre of one of the cylinders P as origin of

polar coordinates ,

V ==Ao

(AI1'+Bl

cos

0+

(Asr +Bs1'

) cos

30+..

" (n

=CO+Cl1'CosO+Csr cos38+...

of

(2)

to

0=

o==!w.

At the hounding

metry with respect to

we have the conditions

where

surface

r=q"

V =V'

vdV' /dr=dVjd1'

the

conditions to the

term in COB

gives

(3)

If they are non-c?nducting, 11=0.;

v=oo.

(!;)

. '. '

y)

II'

uodn puedep mM

unooou OW! uaJI'B~ aq O~ S! se;).IOS JO rna SAS

eHug.u! eq qo!lI U! JaUUl1m eq~ UBq~ ueAm:

pUll)' O~ IeTI'BIt

Ef

AJ'BpUnoq . 1'Bln:6uupaJ 'B aAuq: O~ s. mpUHAO aq~ Aq pe!dnooo

uI

,2'

Aq pB uep eq A'Bm F'Bd ~s.

PUOOBS Bq~ :6U!Jep!SUOO

q~ JO sex'B Bq~ UO pB 'Bn~!S seo.IOS eldmnm O~

AHug.U! ~'B seOJlOS pmJ:B

S'B pBp.1U~BJ eq

u A rl1!~uB~od

eql.

PU'B

pmp'B eq~ JO BS'BO eq~ JOd: 'AHun S! AHAnOUpuoo eq~ qO!qM.

JO mn!pem pa~dUJ.IB~U!Un Bq~ uodn JIO'Bq TI'BJ eM ' 0 = f a JI

(9)

nnse.r l'Bug.

O== f ij.!(;

+ IAFJ- or;

snq~ S!

eq; 'l

(v)

a.ug S! Iu.l~a~u! eq

JO ~Jtld S!q~

'Bq~ os

=1.p/AP

S09 (;-

SOO(I

eq~ O~ B

Y)=A

g +'Q

SOD U! esoq~ eJ:'B nUseJ

nqp~noo mMqO!qA\ (1) IT! I3mJa~ AluO aq~ snq~ PU'B

SO\)-

SOD V=

av puu

S! sauH emus eq~ JBAO pu~e~u! eq~ JO

JapU!'Bma.I aq~ JO BUI'B eql.

u'B~oeJ eq1

ao uo '

OXI

snq~ S! ay

eql. ' 0

ua.rJ:o 1'B

SS0.10'B

qS!l'BA q~oq

8P up/ APS

0~ eq1 s~uasaJdaJ

ilP

SOD .t=X'=

ao'Bld'B'1 says!~ua A np!:aa.1 S!q~ U!q~!.M . d JBpn!IAo aq~

n'Bpa.I eq~ naaM.~aq UO!~a. 1 aq JO Jno~nOO eq~ 01

PU'B aoay

tv)

UP

A""

0=8p

up

ilP

mUBJ~S aq~ uMop

-19 gn sSBd aM S1: 'JapU!IAO O~ J;apU!IAO mOJJ sap'B ' .1aAaMoq

Qy WJat ~S,Ig. Bql. ' Iu!~ua od JO eOJ:p.os eldmnm J'BI!l!S 'B S'B

p,1p,~a.1 eq A'B\l qouB puu ' s;wPU!IAO aq~ TI JOJ am'BS Bq~ AI!J'BS

"'saD

y 'r

tOJ'B ."

UInJp N

\1Qt

v uoan .t

tO ,1vZ;-l,fj1.V1af)

484

Lord Rayleigh

for our purpose , is when we suppose the rectangular boundary

to be extended infinitely more parallel to IX than parallel to (3.

It is then evident that the periodic difference V may be

HIX.

For the

H,x and equated to

difference due to the sources upon the axes wil be equivalent

of one at -00 , and in the case supposed such a transference is

immaterial*

. Thus

(7)

=HIX .

This we may do by equating two forms of the expression,

potential due to H,xand to the Iqultiple sources Q (P not

included) is

Ao+AITCOS Of Asr

, if we subtract

H,x

s cos

30+,...;

(8)

iy)O

iy)

+As (x+iy)S +Ao

+ (AI H)(,x+

are the coordinates of' the same point wh8n reBut if

ferred to the centre of one of the Q' , the same potential may

-S

be expressed by

"" 1.

-1

,x

zy

s,x +

=x-E, y

so that

=B

(,x

we obtain ,

iy-E- i'T)-n

(,x

rising powers of

+5B

+3B

=1.2.

and so on ,

'T

=Bl

1 . 2 . 3 , 4, . 5 Ao =

If E,

'T;

(x+iy),

(9)

'J,

+3.

1 ; 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 BI

(10)

6 + 3 . 4 . 5 , 6 . 7 Bo

8 + . . .

where

2,,

(g+i'T)-2n

(11)

. . It

of another shape

e, fl'to be square.

. By, (3) each B can be expressed in terms of the correspond-

=va n'"

where

(12)

(13)

f!)

2'1Bl

IX 1. flVl

.I

l =

i!)

1-

IX

2'1Bl

IXf3H..

currents parallel to IX is

medium for

2'1B

(14)

aflH' .

and (12).

As, A5 . . . Bs, B5 .. .. vanish. In this case

H=Al + B

+ I

6 . . . .,

so that

(15)

2 '1a

(16)

IXfl( v'

4,

- jT

(17)

The problem is thus reduced to the evaluation of the quan-

We

wil

consider

first

the

important

particular case which arises when the cylinders are in

square

that is when

in (11) are then both

fl=lX.

E and

'f

order,

multiples of

I l!

-n 8

(18)

n =

where

= I

+im)-n

(19)

positive or negative ,

m=O , m!=0.

The next thing to be remarked is that, since

,m

,m

The

are as

486

= (-

--- y=

" =

- --

=---. , .=(!(= -

--

.u_.-

tilL

Lord Rayleigh

of

n.

This holds even when IX and /3 are unequal.

odd value

;11

Again

l +im) -2n

1)n

is odd

Whenever

im'+m)= - 8

", or

' +m)1)"8

vanishes. Thus for

sqnare order

"i-

(20)

= 810 = 8

O. .

Ths argument does not, without I'ese\'vation , apply to 8

sUm is not convergent; and the symmetry

between

and

essential to the proof of evanescence , only

holds under the restriction that the infinite region over which

two directions IX and /3- , for example , square or circular.

On the contrary, we have supposed , and must of course continue

iu the direction of IX.

(.x+

JJ 1,21

= rr

y)2n

os

2n()r dr dO

md herein

-2n+2/( -2n+2)

-2n+l dr

= 1 the integral

'So that if

contains an infinite logarithm,

We have now to investigate the value of 8 appropriate to

:!u, y= :!v

where

are both

and

v/u=O.

Fig,

vanishes by symmetry. We may therefore regard the summation as extending over the region bonnded externally by

:!v and internally by

iV=

:tv (fig. 2). 'Vhen

, the sum may be l"eplaced by the COl'esponding

:too

.'v=

is very great.

o I"

487

integral. Hence

d!Jdy

- 2

(21)

.x +

Ultimately

being ::

!J

being

and 00

is to be made infinite.

We have

+v

v (.x+iy)2

.x + it.

.x-

and

2v d!J

l! +

= 2 tan

00 ""2 tan -I

l=i11,

AccordiI gly

(22)

7T.

2-.

3 8'" 2

'"2

4 - --

'"8 -

1 '

'l

7Ta

., 8 8

VIX

= V

IX

7a

(23)

2 -

,"l 8S

and by (14)

Conductivity

If

=1- 27Ta

(24)

IX

the proportional

denote

cylinders

occupied by the

space

p=7Ta /1X2 ;

(25)

and

2p

ConductIvIty =

1-

(26)

2 2E 8 s8'l

4 -

im'1)=O,

sin

They are all included in the form

t:

s =

7T+zm7T

where

irn7T)

A 1-

1-

W17T

- '1

zm7T

tm'1

m7T

+ 27T

488

._--

Lord Rayleigh

--- -

-_.

- .

in which

A '=

-sin

im7r.

Thus

log 1cos

,-cot

im7r

sin E

+log

get

m7r

=log

1-

un7r

+ 7r

sin

== log

log

Zln7r

SIn

+log J1-

we

1-m7r

m7r+7r

1.

sin

sin

4im7r + 3 sin im7r ....

2 sin

sin im7r

+ sin

1l

(im7r-7r):

im7r + 7r?

(im7r):

, 1

+ l.t J

(zm7r+7r)4 (

l(zm7r)4

H:6

+ 3S

m7r-7r

Z1n7r un7r+7r 6 +

6 +

By expanding the sines on t,he left and equating the correE, we find

sponding powers of

1 zm+

1 tm1 1

2 +

(1.m

un)

(zm

1)"

2 +...

zm+

27r

3.

1 27r

15 .

1)4

Z'n+

zm+

Sil

. 2'

zm7r

un7r

Sil

(27)

(28)

m7T

sm

SIn

zm7r

sm

. 7r

un7T

SIl

1)6

zm7r

. (29)

are to take all positive and negative integral values. But in

m=O

=O.

sponding to

m=O

When

1 7r

sin im7r

= 3"'

(im)2

which, as is well known , is the value of

12+

1)2 + 22+

489

2)2

Hence

m",'"

2'7

m=l

in

-2im'7

+!r

(30)

m=c.

2'7

- i si

m=1

2-6

im'7+sin

im'7t, .

(31)

m=oo

2'7

27 . 35

h\ sin- im'7

im'7+sin

We have seen

alr8ady that 8

im'7t. .

='7.

, and that

(32)

The

m=o:

(33)

m'7=

m=1

, We

find:

sin -4imlT.

im1!.

- sin

'00749767

'0000562150

1395

Sum

00751165

'0000562152

so that

='7 x -03235020. .

In the same way we may verify (33), and that (32)

If we introduce

(34)

example

get

= 1), we

non-conductive

1+p- '3058p

(35)

summation

there isa high degree of convergency.

with respect to

490

Lord Rayleigh

f A

the nature of the fiTSt summation (with respect to

(x+iy)-n where

(19) we have to deal with the sum of

receives the

for the moment regarded as constant

, instead of being concentrated at equidistant

x=m

, while

values

would become

+'" dx

(x+iy)

Now, n being greater than 1 , the value of this integral is

zero, We see , then , that the finite value of the sum depends

entirely upon the discontinuity of its formation , and thus a

high degree of convergency

when

pected.

For

example , in (11)

' +im(3/a)a.+im(3)- =1X

leads , as

the summation with respect to

be given ,

If

7r

before , to

= sin2(im7Tf3/a.),

+irn(3/a-2

and thus

m=c.

. sin

=27T

(irn7T(3/IX)

m=l

+tW.

(36)

and the final approximate result for the conductivity is given

by (16). Since (36) is not symmetrical

with respect to

principal directions,

=7T,

And since this does

When (3 = IX , we know that

not differ much from !7T , it follows that the series on the right

of (36) contributes but little to the total. The same will be

provided the ratio of

true, even though

13

be not equal to

with 7T , or with !7T

, if we are content

identify

approximation.

The question of the values of the sums denoted by

2n

*

are of the form

the O- functiolls

(7T/2K),

2mK+ 2m iK'

'" Qa.yley

The analytical question is accordingly that of the expansion

of Jog

(.x)

, Jacobi * has

,'v

7J) :: 21

lf'1

sin

IV- q9f4

sin 3.x

25/4

sin

(37)

(38)

5.x-

rrK' /K

were

the

result is

=1-

3KE-(2-

)K2

! (39)

and E are

usually so denoted.

form

71

Bl(.x)

are of the

(40)

so that

+i11

values

ofm

and

m=O

except

P)K L . (41)

integral

extended to all

=O.

2' If K'

+im

sinc.e

=21 2KE

k2=!,

and

= 71

in general t,

EK'

exponential factor is . removed from the series.

In proceeding

which an

This is

(.x)=Ale -lAB"

in which

.JA.x-Sl

A3

3T

A5:J A7

+S2

7T +

-Sa

51

(43)

B=

2fJ4

.J'

(42)

71 71

A=

So

being

=2m(2m+ 1)fJ4

=1X/3(a

6fJ4

Son + 1

'i '

t Cayley

=!.

492

Lord Rayleigh

).

= -

! + ' . , -----

while

IX

k'2

(3=

(45)

v(kk'

Thus

k'2

2(35

, s2

IX=O

AB=I/71

=(3,

and

(46)

(3=I/v2;

36(39

, S4

4 A

5" (47)

20 J

(m)

Hence

!1:

,,;2

. 0) (m)

10g

If

(48)

16. 35,

271

:ti\.,

, we have

(m)/x=

4-

2-

51 ,

271

(m+im

4 71

71

, 8

=71, 8

and thus

8A8

(49)

70.

in which

.3 .5

22 , 42 . 6

.3

K = 1 +

A =

' '2 +

?T

22 . 42

. 4 +

'8+...

= 1'18034,

obstacles

spherical

that the side of the rpctangle in the direction of flow is IX , the

two others being (3 and "1' The radius ofthe sphere is

The course of the investigation runs so nearly parallel

that it wil suffce to indicate some of the

that already given ,

expansions

V=Ao + (AIr + B

+(A +B" -n- )Y,,

(50)

(51)

Yl'r+... +

denoting the spherical surface harmonic of order

V=V'

vdV' /dn

493

And

dV/dn

we find

+v+

. In general

2n+I

8=n

Y,,

the limitations to be

e:,

cos

scp

'=0

+K

sin

(52)

imposed upon

scp),

(53)

where

= sinBO cos,,-sO

1)

(2n

l)

(54)

cOSn-S- 20

to

IX), and

from the plane of

cp

symmetry requires that

when

n=O)

tJ

(parallel

tJz.

(except

(71- 0) is written for

Further , no sines of

scp

are admissible. Thus we may take

(55)

=cos

=COS

O+H sin

0-.g- cos

- If

Y 5 = COS

cos

+ L sin

0 cos

(56)

2cp,

cos

+ ir cos

B (COS

O-t

cos

0)

2cp

cos

(57)

In the case where /3=1 symmetry further requirl s that

, L =O,

(58)

In applying Green s theorem (4) the only difference is that

the area of the

surface

bounding

flowing across the faces

/3ry, V

, =0.

IXC-/3yV + 471B

(59)

We suppose , as before , that the system of obstacles , extended without limit in every direction , is yet infinitely more

than in the directions of /3 and ry.

extended in the direction of

Phil, Mag.

IX

1892. 2

Dec.

494

Lotd Rayleigh

HIX , and

other than the spheres

Then ,

infinity

. ;a

, VI=

f3ry

f1-

IX L

471

lXf3rH

parallel to

compound medium

IX is

471B

1lXf3ry

(60)

H.

approximately, limiting ourselves , howevel' , for the sake of

1X=(3= ry. The

simplicity to the case of cubic orde,' , where

Aar Ya+ ,.

1"Y

may be regarded as due to Hx and , to the other spheres Q

acting as sources of potential. Thus , if we revert to rectangular coordinates and denote the coordinates of a point rela-.

, y, z and relatively to one of the Q' s by

tively to P by

, z we have

Ao+ (A

l'

H)x+Aa (J,

" x

in which

's

(61 )

=x-g, y

'T, z

=z-',

if

'T, s be the coordinates of Q referred to P. The left side

of (61) is thus the expansion of the right in ascending powers

did. v of

of x y, z. Accordingly, A - H is found by taking

member and then making x .y, z vanish, Iu

the right-hand

coeffcient, Now , at the origin

d ,,r- p

7- --'

d.'

in which

+ S2

=E2

1 and that the differentiation raises the order to 2. The law

differentiation raises the order by unity is general;

and . so far as we shall proceed , the harmonics are all zonal

that each

JI::

in Rectangular Orde1'

upon a Medium.

'7V

495.

where

fh=g/P.

Thus

d 0/

7J 1,

1"

(fh)

of

fh,

-3 P

In like manner

'7

tgp

5P

(fh)

and

d" x

dg"

= - 24

P-" P (fh).

H=(62)

In each of the quantities ,

the summation

is to be extended to all the points whose coordinates

are of

such as

the form

where

except 0

,

0

,

O.

If

we

take

IX=

1

,

and

denote

the

corresponding

sums by 8 , 8 , . . , . , these quantities wil be

purely numerical , and

-n(63)

obtain

2+v a3

+28

321-

2a

410

Ct

(64)

which with (60) gives the desired result for the conductivity

of the medium.

We now . proceed to the calculation of 8 , We have

3fh

2g2 -rl-

s2

clg

(rnp

(S2

for a space bounded by a. cube

by g=:t 00

2M 2

is to

:tv

?J

496

!;= :t

Lord Rayleigh

where

=::

::.

,\

as we

E=

::v,

'I= ::v

g=v E=oo 'I= ::v

is suffciently great , tho summation

Now when

may be

)agd'Id!;.

=- SSS

In this

00

+'l

a(j) dE=+u

-u

+'2

v d'I

2V

1= (V

+'l

) (2V

+'2i'

and finally

2d()

+u

-u (7,

+'2

(2V

+'2

0"; (2+tan

2ds

rl/ "'2

Jo ";(2-8

Thl:s

27T

(65)

= 3"

, If we neglect a

/lX

, and write

lZ.

47Ta

(66)

3(.

we have by

(1)0) for

the conductivity

(2+v)/(1-v)(2+v)j(1-v)+p

or in the particular case of

(67) *

(v=O)

non-conducting obstacles

(68)

. +2P ,

&c, Not seeing any general analytical method , such as

.. Compare Maxwell'

I have calculated an

314,

' Electricity,'

(~

Bq~ JO

(/. ---'

Fl

--

XI)

. ,

po!.wd aq~ qH

uospudmoo U! ~1Ja.

S! q

SB.Iaqds.1O SJapU!IAO pax!f pUB P!~!l A'q papn.qsqo

mn!pam snoas1l~ 'B U! UOnOm-BA'BM. JO marqold aq S! asaq~

n'

UO!

'BJq!A JO smarqold

U!'BpBO O~ pa!TddB

AHA!Pl1P

J01 passa.Idxa uaaq aA'Bq UO!~B~!~SaAU! JUO JO sHl1saJ Bq.L

1.1

1900,

1.1

9800, +

'1 ' I

'

I' '

I'

1.61:0,

I' ' I' '

1.600,

I: ' I '

I: ' I '

0'

ttIO, +

'1601.

1'(

1'900.

1090,

'1 ' 0 '

I: ' I' '

I: ' I' '

1:1

woo' +

9600, -

noo, -

9l.0.

1:171'0,

(69)

LL60'

0'

I' '

I 'I '

I 'I '

96(H.

17601:,

T '0 '

0009, 1: +

S! nnSBJ aqJ:

uO!~'Bmums oq~ JO A~!nU!~UOOS!P aq~ uodn

a1BldmoG aq~ JaAO pa~u.I a~u! uaq.\\ saqS!UBA d

1Iq~ ~ouJ aq Jq pB.IlOA'BJ S! uO!1'Bm!xoJddu Bq~ JO ssaoons aql.

os ' aJBqds

0 +

gO+gg=

puooas aq~ U! PU'B

~1 +gg+~g=

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L6v

u_-

498

Lord Rayleigh

same law as that of electricity, and the kinetic energy of the

motion is at once given by the expressions already obtained.

In

fact the kinetic energy corresponding to a given total flow

is increased by the obstacles in the same proportion as the

electrical resistances of the original problem , so that the

influence of tbe obstacles is taken into account if we suppose

resistances. In the case of cylinders in square order

(35), the ratio is approximately (I+p)/(l- p), and in the

of

(1+!p)j(l-

But this i.; not the only effect of the obstacles which we

considering the velocity of propagation. The potential energy also undergoes a change.

The space available for compression or rarefaction is now

(I-p) only instead of 1; and in this proportion is increased

the potential energy corresponding to a given accumulation

must take into account in

of propagation is thus altered in the ratio

f-

l+p

that of

I+p,

1)/p=constant

(f-

(70)

Newton s law as to the relation between refraction and

density of obstructing matter, The same law (70) obtains

also in the case of spherical obstacles; but reckoned absolutely the effect of spheres is only that of eylinders of halved

density, It must be remembered , however ,

case of cylinders it is otherwise, For waves propagated

parallel to the cylinders the velocity is uninfluenced by their

presence. The medium containing the cylinders has therefore some of the properties which we are accustomed to

associate with double refraction , although here the refraction

is necessarily single,

the mQre general case where the obstacles have the properties of fluid , with finite density and compressibility,

but in the

303,

, i

499

res.istance,

Hence , by (26), if

denote t.he density of the cylindrical obstacle , that of the remainder of the medium being

unity, the kinetic energy is altered by the obstacles in the

approximate ratio

(u+ 1)/(u- 1) +p

(u+ 1)/(a-- 1)The effect of this is the same as if the density of

(71)

the whole

material com-

posing them resists compression m times as -much as the remainder of the medium , the volume

counts only as

p/m

and the whole space

p+p/m

given accumulation reduced, Accordingly, if p, be the refractiye index as altered by the obstacles

2 = (71) x

(l-p+p/m).

(72)

so that if we suppose ourselves to be thns limited ,

we may

set m= 1 , and

u+ 1)/(u- 1) +p

P, -

(u+ 1)/(u-

(73)

1)-

2 -

1 1

constant, .

(74)

we obtain in

like manner (m = 1)

(2u+1)/(u- 1)+p

(75)

+l)/(u- l)-

2 -1 1

pressing

where

in terms of p,2

constant.

Tn

(76)

is a quadratic

(76),

formulro is limited to moderately smull values of

If it be

500

Lord Rayleigh

------

."

' "(..

employ closer approximations to (26) &c, It may be remarked that however far we may go in this direction , the

final formula wil always give p.2 explicitly as a function of

For example ,

obstacles ,

we

= (l-

It wil be evident

that

'3058p

(77)

'3058

results such as these afford no

addition from the corre-

sponding properties of the components, Such theories reoccurs in the first power only, as

quire formulre in which

in (76),

their form be spherical , if they are disposed in a rectangular

order which is not cubic , the velocity of wave-propagation

becomes a function of the direction of the wavp,-normal. As

we may regard the character of the refraction as

in Optics ,

wave- surface.

any cor-

only upon the volumes and compressibilities concerned. The

therefore , reduces itself to the consideration

present question ,

electrical resistance of certain compound conductors , on the

supposition , which we continue to make , that the wavelength is very large in comparison with the periods of the

has been

297), A

all

having the property that if the wave-normal coincide with

same direction , whereas in general there would be a divergence, To each principal axis corresponds an effcient" den-

sity, "

in the,

gross

do

do

if!;

17

=m1

=m1

' U'

dt2

=m1

where

1;, 17, S are the displacements parallel to the axes

the compressibility, and

0:

o -

If X

, m,

fL, v

Medium. 501

'T

where

fLO

i(lx+n1y+y.

vt)

Thus

do/dtV

&c.

lB(lX+mfL+nv),

JlV

from which ,

l(lX+mfL+nv),

mlm(lX+mfL+

mln(lX+mfL+

we get

on elimination of X :

fL

p m

if

, b,

+r?n

(78)

soid whose axes are

, b , c,

As an example :

parallel to

= 1/ (1 +

= 1

In the application of our results to the electric theory of

light we contemplate a medium interrupted by spherical , 01'

cylindrical ,

obstacles ,

the magnetic constant is supposed to retain its value unbeing so , the kinetic energy of the electric

broken. This

currents for the same total flux is the same as if there were

no obstacles, at least if we regard the wave- length as in-

finitely great * . And the potential energy of electric displacement is subject to the same mathematical laws as the

resistance of our compound eleeirical conductor, specific

inductive capacity in the one question corresponding to

Accordingly, if

denote the inductive capacity of the material composing the spherical obstacles , that of the undisturbed

medium being unity, then the approximate value of

Theories of Light, " Am,

= +

- = -,. -

. .

given at once by (67).

(79)

.1,

that (79) was originally discovered.

is moderate. The next approximation is

(80)

fk

I p

If the

65

obstacles be cylindrical ,

v+4/3P

10/3

is supusual

the medium

thedirectiun

structure. The double refraction is of course of the uniaxal

kind , and the wave-surface is the sphere and ellipsoid of

Huygens,

so that the value of

for the principal extraordinary index is

=1+(vgiving Newton

density.

(81)

l)p,

(26),

in which

= (1 +

v)/(l-

v),

&c. we get

(82)

fk

+ 1

(83)

+ 1

is that ,

(79) to be more

approximately

bodies,

than

result,

f:!

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