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Thai Nguyen University of Technology Division of English Taught Mechanical Engineering

Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits

CHAPTER 8: THREAD FASTENER

Mechanical assembly uses various methods to mechanically attach two (or more) parts together. In most cases, the method involves the use of discrete hardware components, called fasteners, that are added to the parts during the assembly operation. In other cases, the method involves the shaping or reshaping of one of the components being assembled, and no separate fasteners are required. Many consumer products are produced using mechanical assembly: automobiles, large and small appliances, telephones, furniture, etc. In addition, industrial products such as airplanes, machine tools, and construction equipment almost always involve mechanical assembly.

Mechanical fastening methods can be divided into 2 major classes: (1) those that allow for disassembly, and (2) those that create a permanent joint. Thread fasteners, for example screw, bolts, nuts, washers, keys, pins, are examples of the first class, and rivets illustrate the second.

of the first class, and rivets illustrate the second. (1) (2) Figure 8.1: Disassembly (1) and

(1)

(2)
(2)

Figure 8.1: Disassembly (1) and permanent joint (2)

Mechanical assembly is usually accomplished by unskilled workers with a minimum of special tooling and in a relatively short time. The technology is simple, and the results are easily inspected. These factors are advantageous not only in the factory, but also during field installation. Large products that are too big and heavy to be transported completely assembled can be shipped in smaller subassemblies and then put together at the customer’s site. Ease of disassembly applies, of course, only to the mechanical fastening methods that permit disassembly. Periodic disassembly is required for many products so that maintenance and repair can be performed; today, they are designed for hundreds of different purpose, the three basis applications being (1) to hold parts together, (2) adjust parts with reference to each other, and (3) to transmit power.

Thai Nguyen University of Technology Division of English Taught Mechanical Engineering

Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits

1. Thread terminology

* Thread application:

- To hold parts together

- To move parts relative to others

1.1. Thread definitions

- Screw thread: a ridge of uniform section in the form of a helix (Figure…), on the external and internal surface of a cylinder.

- External thread- A thread cut on

the outside of a member, as on the shaft.

- Internal thread- A thread on the

inside of a member, as in a hole.

- Comparision between external and internal

as in a hole. - Comparision between external and internal Figure 8.2: Screw thread - Right-hand

Figure 8.2: Screw thread

between external and internal Figure 8.2: Screw thread - Right-hand thread- Thread that will assemble when

- Right-hand thread- Thread that will assemble when turned clockwise.

- Left-hand thread - Thread that will assemble when turned counter-clockwise.

Thai Nguyen University of Technology Division of English Taught Mechanical Engineering

Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits

Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits Figure 8.3: Right-hand thread and Left-hand thread - Crest-
Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits Figure 8.3: Right-hand thread and Left-hand thread - Crest-

Figure 8.3: Right-hand thread and Left-hand thread

- Crest- the top surface joining the 2 sides of a thread.

- Root- The bottom surface joining the sides of 2 adjacent threads.

- Thread angle- The angle included between the sides of the thread measured in a plane through the axis of the screw.

Figure 8.4: Crest, root and thread angle
Figure 8.4: Crest, root and thread angle

- Major diameter- The largest diameter of a screw thread (applied to both external and internal thread)

Thai Nguyen University of Technology Division of English Taught Mechanical Engineering

Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits

- Minor diameter- The smallest diameter of a screw thread (applied to both external and internal thread)

screw thread (applied to both external and internal thread) Figure 8.5: Major diameter and minor diameter

Figure 8.5: Major diameter and minor diameter

- Pitch- The distance from a

point on a screw thread to a corresponding point on the next thread measured parallel to the axis. The pitch is equal to 1 divided by the number of threads per inch.

is equal to 1 divided by the number of threads per inch. Figure 8.6: Pitch in

Figure 8.6: Pitch in external and internal thread

- Lead- The distance a screw will advance when turned 360 degrees.

- Thread form- the cross section of thread cut by a plane containing the axis.

cross section of thread cut by a plane containing the axis. Figure 8.7: Thread form Eng.

Figure 8.7: Thread form

Thai Nguyen University of Technology Division of English Taught Mechanical Engineering

1.2. Thread manufacturing

a. Thread manufacturing by hand

Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits

* External threads- For producing external threads, the hand operated dies are commonly use, which are coaxially rotated around the pre-machined rod like blank with the help of handle or die stock.

+ Solid die: used for making threads of usually small pitch

and diameter in one pass.

threads of usually small pitch and diameter in one pass. + Spring die: the die ring
threads of usually small pitch and diameter in one pass. + Spring die: the die ring

+ Spring die: the die ring is provided with a slit, the width of

which is adjustable by a screw to enable elastically slight reduction in the bore and thus cut the thread in number of passes with lesser force on hands.

+ Split die: the die is made in 2 pieces, one fixed and one movable within the

cavity of the handle or wrench to enable cut relatively larger threads or fine threads

on harder blanks easily in number of passes, the die pieces can be replaced by another pair for cutting different threads within small range of variation in size and pitch.

threads within small range of variation in size and pitch. + Pie die: Pipe threads of

+ Pie die: Pipe threads of larger diameter but smaller pitch are cut by manually

rotating the larger wrench (stock) in which the die is fitted through a guide bush.

wrench (stock) in which the die is fitted through a guide bush. Eng. Phan Thi Phuong

Thai Nguyen University of Technology Division of English Taught Mechanical Engineering

Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits

* Internal threads- small size are cut manually in plates, blocks, machine parts, etc. By using taps which look and behave like a screw but made of tool steel and have shaft cutting edges produced by axial grooving over the threads. Three taps namely, taper tap, plug taps and bottoming tap are used consecutively after drilling a tap size hole through which the taps are axially pushed helically with the help pg a handle or wrench.

pushed helically with the help pg a handle or wrench. b. Thread manufacturing by machine tools

b. Thread manufacturing by machine tools

+ By lathe- this is done by means of the lead screw, which is driven by a train of gears from the spindle. Modern lathes are fitted with change gears boxes, by means of which any thread pitches can be cut without working out and setting the change gears. However, there are some machines on which change gears must be fitted for screw cutting.

machines on which change gears must be fitted for screw cutting. Eng. Phan Thi Phuong Thao
machines on which change gears must be fitted for screw cutting. Eng. Phan Thi Phuong Thao

Thai Nguyen University of Technology Division of English Taught Mechanical Engineering

Machining threads in semiautomatic lates:

Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits

lates: Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits + Thread chasing – process of cutting a

+ Thread chasing process of cutting a thread on a lathe with a chasing toll that comprises several sing-point tools banked together in a single tool called a chaser. Chasing is used for the production of threads that are too large in diameter for a die head. Thread chasing reduces the threading time by 50% compared to a single-point threading. However, thread chasing is a relatively slow method of cutting a thread, as a small depth of cut is used per pass.

of cutting a thread, as a small depth of cut is used per pass. Eng. Phan
of cutting a thread, as a small depth of cut is used per pass. Eng. Phan

Thai Nguyen University of Technology Division of English Taught Mechanical Engineering

Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits

+ Thread milling- used a single form or multiple form milling cutter. Thread milling makes smoother and more accurate threads than a tap or die. It is more efficient than using a single cutting-point-tool in a lather.

than using a single cutting-point-tool in a lather. 2. Thread drawing 2.1. Detailed representation -
than using a single cutting-point-tool in a lather. 2. Thread drawing 2.1. Detailed representation -

2. Thread drawing

2.1. Detailed representation- representation is a close approximation of the appearance of an actual screw thread.

- Use slanting lines to represent crest and roots.

- Roots and crest are drawn in sharp V

- Advantage: Looks good and clearly represents a thread

- Disadvantage: Takes a long time to draw

Thai Nguyen University of Technology Division of English Taught Mechanical Engineering

Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits

Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits 2.2. Schematic representation - Use alternate long and short

2.2. Schematic representation

- Use alternate long and short lines for representing crests and roots of the thread,

respectively. Should not be used for hidden internal threads or sections of external threads.

- Advantage: Nearly as effective as the detailed representation and easier to draw.

- Disadvantage: Still takes some time to draw.

to draw. - Disadvantage: Still takes some time to draw. 2.3. Simplified representation Eng. Phan Thi

2.3. Simplified representation

Thai Nguyen University of Technology Division of English Taught Mechanical Engineering

Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits

- Use thick continuous lines for representing crest and thin continuous lines for representing root of the thread, respectively.

- Advantage: Simple and fast to draw.

- Disadvantage: Does not look like a real thread.

fast to draw. - Disadvantage: Does not look like a real thread. Eng. Phan Thi Phuong

Thai Nguyen University of Technology Division of English Taught Mechanical Engineering

Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits

2.3.1. Drawing steps of external thread

(1) Draw thread axis, major and minor diameter, starting position, thread length, minor diameter, 45 degrees chamfer, line which is made 30 degrees with thread axis.

(2) Draw an arc that represents as a root, draw a circle that represents at a crest

as a root, draw a circle that represents at a crest 2.3.2. Drawing steps of threaded
as a root, draw a circle that represents at a crest 2.3.2. Drawing steps of threaded

2.3.2. Drawing steps of threaded hole

a. Through threaded hole:

(1) Draw thread axis, major diameter, minor diameter, draw a root and crest.

(2) Draw an arc that represents as a root, draw a circle that represents at a crest.

represents as a root, draw a circle that represents at a crest. Eng. Phan Thi Phuong

Thai Nguyen University of Technology Division of English Taught Mechanical Engineering

Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits

b. Blinded thread hole

(1) Draw thread axis, major diameter and minor diameter, thread depth, hole depth.

(2) Draw an arc that represents as a root, draw a circle that represents at a crest.

as a root, draw a circle that represents at a crest. Section view of blinded threaded

Section view of blinded threaded hole

represents at a crest. Section view of blinded threaded hole 3. Thread symbol - Thread tables

3. Thread symbol

- Thread tables in the appendix can be used up value for the: pitch, minor diameter, tap drill diameter.

- If screw thread tables are not available the minor diameter can be approximated as 75% of the major diameter.

Thai Nguyen University of Technology Division of English Taught Mechanical Engineering

Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits

a. Pitch diameter: The pitch diameter cuts threads at a point where the distance of the spaces equal the distance of the threads.

distance of the spaces equal the distance of the threads. - Metric thread note component Eng.

- Metric thread note component

the distance of the threads. - Metric thread note component Eng. Phan Thi Phuong Thao Email:

Thai Nguyen University of Technology Division of English Taught Mechanical Engineering

Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits

+ Metric form: Placing an M before the major diameter indicates the metric thread

form.

+ Major diameter: the largest diameter.

+ Pitch (P): millimeters per thread.

+ Tolerance class: It describes the looseness or tightness of fit between the internal and external threads (Number= tolerance guide; Letter= tolerance position).

+ Tolerance class: Tolerance grade: smaller numbers indicate a tighter fit; Tolerance

position: specifies the amount of allowance (upper case letter= internal threads; lower case letter= external threads). 2 classes of metric thread fits are generally used:

6H/6g= general purpose or not specified; 6H/5g6g= Closer fit.

+ Right handed (RH) or Left handed thread (LH)

+ Depth of thread: it indicates the thread depth for internal threads, not the tap drill

depth.

Dimensioning in external and and thread hole

drill depth. Dimensioning in external and and thread hole - Use local note to specify: -
drill depth. Dimensioning in external and and thread hole - Use local note to specify: -

- Use local note to specify: - thread form,

nominal size, pitch (if it is a fine thread)

- Use typical method to specify: - thread length.

- Use local note specify: tap drill size, drill depth, thread form, nominal size, pitch, thread depth.

Thai Nguyen University of Technology Division of English Taught Mechanical Engineering

4. Thread fastener

4.1. Bolt- a threaded cylinder with a head

Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits

a head Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits  Drawing steps: - Draw bolt axis

Drawing steps:

- Draw bolt axis

- Draw an end view of the head

- Draw a bolt head

- Draw body of a bolt

end view of the head - Draw a bolt head - Draw body of a bolt

Thai Nguyen University of Technology Division of English Taught Mechanical Engineering

4.2. Nut

Drawing steps:

Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits

- Draw an end view of the nut - Dash lines represent a threaded hole are omitted for clarity

Dash lines represent a threaded hole are omitted for clarity  Application of bolt and nut

Application of bolt and nut

hole are omitted for clarity  Application of bolt and nut Eng. Phan Thi Phuong Thao

Thai Nguyen University of Technology Division of English Taught Mechanical Engineering

Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits

4.3. Stud- headless bolt, threaded at both ends

3 Credits 4.3. Stud- headless bolt, threaded at both ends  Drawing steps - Draw stud

Drawing steps

- Draw stud axis

- Major, minor diameter

- Thread length

- Draw 45 degrees chamfer and draw line making 30 degrees with axis.

degrees chamfer and draw line making 30 degrees with axis.  Application of stud Eng. Phan

Application of stud

draw line making 30 degrees with axis.  Application of stud Eng. Phan Thi Phuong Thao

Thai Nguyen University of Technology Division of English Taught Mechanical Engineering

Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits

4.4. Cap screw- similar to bolt but has a longer thread than a bolt.

- Counterbore hole:
- Counterbore hole:

- Countersink hole:

thread than a bolt. - Counterbore hole: - Countersink hole: Eng. Phan Thi Phuong Thao Email:

Thai Nguyen University of Technology Division of English Taught Mechanical Engineering

Introduction to Engineering Drawing ME11- 3 Credits

4.5. Set screw- a thread cylinder used to prevent rotation or movement between parts.

cylinder used to prevent rotation or movement between parts. 5. Keys, pins, rivets and springs- Self
cylinder used to prevent rotation or movement between parts. 5. Keys, pins, rivets and springs- Self

5. Keys, pins, rivets and springs- Self study