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SURVEYING PRATICAL REPORT


MODULE III
CONTOURING

GROUP I
Bimasena Heribowo

( 1206292351 )

Christopher Kevinly

( 1206223846 )

Wednesson Lawijaya

( 1206230593 )

Date of experiment
Experiment Assistant
Approval date
Score
Assistant Signature

: 20 11 2013
:
:
:
:

SURVEYING AND TRANSPORTATION LABORATORY


CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
DEPOK 2013

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A. SCOPE
1. Determining the height differences of 25 points to the reference point
(height of instrument).
2. Plotting and arranging the height differences into a countour map with
certain scale.
3. Calculating the distance error index occurred during the observation.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

APPARATUS
A Theodolite
A Staff
Measuring Tape
Pointers
Umbrella
One Tripod Stand

C. THEORY
Mapping the situation is a combination of polygon creation profile.
Process of measuring a situations measurement requires basic framework
of a horizontal base frame and high-frame basis. The basic framework can
be made horizontally through several ways. Among others: bind to front,
tie back, triangulation, polygon, or a combination some other ways.
While high-Nature are used to measure basic framework. Of the basic
framework can be collected the data - from detailed geometric data
measured. Formulas are given as follows:
t = . 100 (a b) sin 2
d = 100 (a b) cos2
Where:
t: Height differences between theodolite with a point shot
d: horizontal distance between the theodolite with a point shot (optical
distance)
a: Upper Cross heirs in meters
b: bottom cross heir in meters
: Oblique angle / Vertical angle
With the formula - the formula above, as well as the formula - basic
formula for determining the coordinates, namely:
XQ = XP + dPQ sin PQ

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YQ = YP + dPQ cos PQ
Where:
dPQ = Distance from P to Q
PQ = Azimuth angle from P to Q
D. PROCEDURE
PREPERATION
1. Do the field survey and make a sketch of it
2. Determine the appropriate method to execute the observation efficiently
3. Determine the appropriate reference point where we put theodolite
4. Write down th e point on the sketch up until all the details needed are
available
EXECUTION
1. Place the theodolite on the central reference point and measure the height
of instrument
2. Capture two points that lie along the 0o of horizontal angle and the points
are separated 4 meters from one to each other, then record the cross lines
of those points.
3. Change the value of the horizontal angle from 0o to 45o, then capture again
two points that are separated by the distance of 5.657 meters from one
point to the other, record the cross lines.
4. From the outer point of 0o horizontal angle to the outer point of 45o
horizontal angle, measure 4 meters from one point to the other, then mark
it with a pointer and record the cross lines.
5. Rotate the theodolite until the horizontal angle changes to be 90o, capture
two points that are separated by 4 meters distance and record the cross
lines.
6. From the outer point of 45o horizontal angle to the outer point of 90o
horizontal angle, measure 4 meters from one point to other, then mark it
with a pointer and record the cross lines.
7. Repeat step 2 until step 6 by varying the horizontal angle with the value of
45o (135o, 180o, 225o, 270o, 315o, 360o) then capture the points by the help
of a tape and record the cross lines at all points.
E. DATA TABULATION

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After the field observation, we get the cross line data at 25 points including the
value of instrumentals height, at the central point (Y) where we observe those 25
points.

B
Z

F
K

G
L

H
M

I
N

J
O

Benchmark = Point M (Theodolite Position)


Theodolite Height (TA) = 141 cm

Data Obtained:

Point

HA

VA

BA

BT

BB

(Angl

(Angl

(cm)

(cm)

(cm)

e)

e)
o

70

64.5

58.5

315
337.5

90o

13.5

9.1

49

90o

37

33

29

0o

85o

38.5

34

29.5

22.5o

90o

162.2

156.5

150

45o
292.5

90o

93.5

89

84.5

90o

80.6

78

75.2

315o

90o

150

148.0

146.3

0o

85o

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142.4

139.5

136.6

45o

90o

153.4

148.9

144.5

67.5o

90o

95.8

93.9

88.9

270o

90o

93.0

91.3

89.3

270o

90o

0.00

0.00

0.00

0O

90O

140.1

138.2

136.3

90O

90o

160

157.1

152.1

90o
247.5

90o

90.3

86

81.5

90o

92.3

89.5

86.8

225o

90o

137.3

135.3

133.4

180o

90o

146.2

143.5

140.4

135o
112.5

90o

293.9

285

284.2

90o

83.7

78.0

72.4

225o
202.5

90o

132.4

128

123.5

90o

157.5
W

137

133

129

90o

157.5
X

195

190.6

186.1

90o

75.6

69

62.8

135o

102o

F. DATA PROCESSING
H obtained from the HI (High Theodolite) reduced by BT (Central Cross Heirs).
d is the horizontal distance between the benchmark by which point shot (optical
distance). Formula dtheodolite is 100 (BA-BB) with units of cm. But as BA (Upper
Crossheirs) and BB (Bottom Cross Heirs) is in cm, then it does not need to be
multiplied by 100. So the formula is d = BA-BB. Table processing:

Point

H = HI - BT

DTheodolite

57.5

11.5

DTape
11.314

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110.9

8.6

8.659

69.46

86

8.659

36.5

12.2

11.314

31

8.659

42

5.4

5.657

32.13

3.7

19.5

5.8

5.657

-28.9

8.9

8.659

26.1

6.9

28.7

3.7

-18.2

3.8

-37.1

7.9

34

8.8

8.659

30.5

5.5

5.657

-15.3

3.9

-23.5

5.8

5.657

-165

9.7

8.659

42

11.3

11.314

-8

8.9

8.659

-17

-70.6

8.9

8.659

-260.31

12.8

11.314

G. ANALYSIS

Experiment Analysis

Our aim in this experiment of contour mapping is to collect geometries data from
the earth surface and everything above it. After data is collected, we can draw the
geometries data in a flat plane with selected scale. Above all we need to select an
accurate way that determines basic frame in measuring situation and condition.
Not to mention before the experiment, we need not to forget to prepare instrument
for this experiment.

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Experiment is carried in the field near BP3 building. First thing that is done before
carrying this experiment is: drawing a 16x16 meter square then divide it into a
small square of 4 x4 meter. Each point is given coordinates according to its
square. 25 points is used in this experiment while point M is its mid point and its
benchmark.
Next, we installed theodolite at point M then adjust the water pass in nivo so that
the bubble inside the water pass reach the middle line; this are done by adjusting
the three screw around it. After it had been adjust, next thing we did is we install
pointers in 4th and 8th meters in front, at the sides and backside of the theodolites
and in all of the 25 points.
We start taking down the BA, BT and BB from point C and H with Va 90 o and Ha
of 0o. After reading had been taken down we turn theodolite for 22.5o clockwise
and completes all 25 points of the readings.
From data we obtain and by the help of formula, contour map can be sketched.

Result Analysis

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This is contour mapping obtain after calculating its elevation in all those 25 points
including the elevation scale in each line. Distance from one coordinate to another
coordinate is 4 meter and each of the line consists of point that the length between
1 line to another line represent 10 meter of elevation.

Error Analysis
% Error:
Theodolite DistanceDistance Field

Point

Theodolite Distance (BA BB)m

11.5

B
C

8.6
8

x 100
DistanceCrossline

Error Of
Index %
1.6173913
11.314
04
0.6860465
8.659
12
8
0

Field Distance

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8.659

12.2

11.314

8.659

5.4

5.657

3.7

5.8

5.657

8.9

8.659

6.9

L
M

3.7
0

4
0

3.8

7.9

8.8

8.659

5.5

5.657

3.9

5.8

5.657

9.7

8.659

11.3

11.314

V
W

8.9
8

8.659
8

8.9
12.8

8.659
11.314

X
Y

3.7888888
89
7.2622950
82
3.7888888
89
4.7592592
59
8.1081081
08
2.4655172
41
2.7078651
69
15.942028
99
8.1081081
08
5.2631578
95
1.2658227
85
1.6022727
27
2.8545454
55
2.5641025
64
2.4655172
41
10.731958
76
0.1238938
05
2.7078651
69
0
2.7078651
69
11.609375

1. Human Error
As this is our first time doing the contouring mapping experiment, we all may not
be as good as those we did this often. Human error or personal error occur when
the practitioners are not experienced enough. Another factor that leads error to

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occur is: we tend to make thing fast, without using the umbrella, sunlight too may
interfere the process of the reading.

2. Parallax Error
Parallax error may occur when we are about to put pointers in the point. It occur
when we read the measurement in the measuring tape. This happens when our
eyes are not parallel to the reading. So its possible that we read the measurement
in different angle and as a result errors are made.

H. CONCLUSION
From the contour map we could see that our location of experiment have
several elevation state. There is an area where elevation is high and there

is an area where elevation is low.


Contours of different elevations cannot cross each other
The horizontal distance between any two contour lines indicates the
amount of slope and varies inversely on the amount of slope. Thus,
contours are spaced equally for uniform slope closely for steep slope

contours and widely for moderate slope.


Contour do not pass through permanent structures such as buildings
The steepest slope of terrain at any point on a contour is represented along
the normal of the contour at that point. They are perpendicular to ridge and
valley lines where they cross such lines.

I. REFERENCES
Wongsotjitro, Soetomo. Ilmu ukur tanah. 2003. Bandung:
Institut Teknologi Bandung

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