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Integration & Differentiation

What you are given and what you need to know in C4

FORMULAE FOR EDEXCEL

2013/14

Integration & Differentiation

Differentiation | 2013/14&

Integration

What you are given and what you need to know in C4

Recap of C3 facts

Exact Values of trigonometric functions

 x˚ (deg) x˚ (rad) sin cos tan 0 0 0 1 0 30 1 √3 1 6 2 2 √3 1 1 45 4 √2 √2 1 60 √3 1 √3 3 2 2 90 2 1 0 - 180 π 0 -1 0

Rules and facts

1. Sin 2 x + cos 2 x = 1

2. Tan x = sin

cos

1

3. Cosec x =

4. Sec x =

5.

sin

1

cos

1

tan

= cos sin

Cot x =

Applying these rules Dividing (1) by sin 2 x will give you: 1 + cot 2 x = cosec 2 x

Dividing (1) by cos 2 x will give you:tan 2 x + 1 = sec 2 x

1

(*) means the rule is given in the Edexcel Formula book

Integration & Differentiation | 2013/14

Differentiation

Parametric Equations

If y = f(t) and x = g(t), then:

=

×

= dy

dt ÷

dt

dx

Implicit Differentiation

When f(x,y) = g(x,y), differentiate implicitly: that is differentiate w.r.t. y and include dy/dx . The solution can simplified where necessary.

Example: y 2 = xy + x + 2

(Hint: Use the product rule for xy)

a x

2

Proof of a x

Take logs of both sides

Differentiate implicitly

Rearrange and substitute for y

= × 1 × + × 1 + 1

( )

= ln()

y = a x

ln(y) = ln(a x )

ln(y) = x ln(a)

1 ×

( )

= ln()

= ln()

(*) means the rule is given n the Edexcel Formula book

2

Differentiation | 2013/14&

Integration

Integration

Rules for Integration

Integration by substitution

There is no simple rule for integration by substitution, you must follow these steps:

You’ll be given an integral which is made up of two functions of x.

∫ 4 ( 2 1)

Substitute u for one of the functions of x to give function which is easier to integrate. ℎ = 2 − 1,

Next, find , and rewrite it so that dx is on its own.

 1 = 2, = 2

Rewrite the original integral in terms of u and du .

:

∫ 4 =

∫ 2

Integrate and substitute back for u at the end.

2

=

2 + =

2 ( 2 1) +

Integration by parts*

When u=f(x) and v=g(x), then:

= −

Choose your u and v functions carefully to make the integral easier.

3

(*) means the rule is given in the Edexcel Formula book

Integration & Differentiation | 2013/14

Volume of revolution: Cartesian

=

2

2

1

This describes the volume generated when the curve of y = f(x) from x 1 to x 2 is rotated 360˚ about the x-axis.

Volume of revolution: Parametric

=

2

This describes the volume generated when the curve is defined by its parametric form (x(t), y(t)) in the interval (a,b) is rotated 360˚ about the x-axis.

Both equations for the volumes of revolution can be adjusted for rotation about the y-axis by substituting x for y and vice versa.

(*) means the rule is given n the Edexcel Formula book

4

Differentiation | 2013/14&

Integration

Standard Integrals you should know :

( + ) =

1

(+1) (

+ ) +1 +

Exponential functions

Other functions

=

+

=

+

1 + +

1

= || +

1 1

+ =

| + | +

′()

()

= |()| +

where n≠1

This rule leads to these standard integrals (*) :

∫ () = −|() + cot()| +

∫ () = |() + tan()| +

5

∫ () = |()| +

(*) means the rule is given in the Edexcel Formula book

Integration & Differentiation | 2013/14

Using functions and derivatives

() = () +

( + 1) () [()] = [()] +1 +

Trigonometric Integration

Basics Learn these facts and do not confuse them with the rules for differentiation.

∫ sin() = − cos() +

∫ cos() = sin() +

Summary (+ constant)

 y=f(x) ∫ () In formula book Cos x Sin x Sin x -Cos x sec 2 (kx) 1 tan (kx) * tan(x) |sec()| * cot(x) |sin()| * sec (x) |sec() + tan()| * cosec(x) −|cosec() + cot()| *

(*) means the rule is given n the Edexcel Formula book

6

Differentiation | 2013/14&

Integration

7

Applying these facts By the chain rule: [sin(+)]

= acos( + )

Hence:

cos( + ) =

1 sin( + ) +

It follows that:

By the quotient rule:

Hence:

sin( + ) = −

[tan()]

= 2 ()

1 cos( + ) +

2 () = tan() +

Also:

Thus:

1

2 () = k tan() + (*)

2 ( + ) = 1 a tan( + ) +

(*) means the rule is given in the Edexcel Formula book