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(DRAM)Dynamic random-access memory is a type of random access memory which stores

each bit of data in a separate capacitor within an integrated circuit.
DRAM chips are large, rectangular arrays of memory cells with support logic that is used for
reading and writing data in the arrays, and also refresh circuitry to maintain the integrity of
stored data.
Memory Arrays :- Memory arrays are arranged in rows and columns of memory cells called
word -lines and bit -lines, respectively. Each memory cell will be having unique memory
location or memory address defined by the intersection of row and column.
Memory Cells:- A DRAM memory cell is based on the capacitor which is charged in the
range of 0 to 1.

DRAMs use only one transistor per bit

1/0 = capacitor charged/discharged.
Read Operation:-Read operation includes *Precharge bit line to VDD/2.*Take the word line
high.*Detect whether the current flows in or out of the cell.*Must write the bit value back
after reading.
Write Operation :-write operation includes *Take the word line high.*Set the bit line low or
high to store 0 or 1.*Take the word line low.


Individual bits are D Latches ,not edge-triggered D flip-flops.

Fewer transistors per cell.
For write operations:
Address must be stable before writing cell.
Data must be stable before ending a write.

SRAM has control lines namely :

Chip select
Output enable
Write enable
Use latch-type SRAM cells internally
Put registers in front of address and control for easier interfacing with synchronous systems at
high speeds
E.g., Pentium cache RAMs


Synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM)

SDRAM uses only the rising edge of the clock cycle to transfer data.
SDRAM devices require periodic auto-refresh commands to maintain data integrity.
Occurs when one or more banks have been left open as a result of a read without precharge or
write without precharge.
These devices similar to fast page-mode DRAMs
SDRAM requires an additional clock input other DRAMs are asynchronous devices
The SDRAMs increase throughput by pipelining and interleaving
Designed for high speed burst reads and writes
Relatively cheap at large capacity


Synchronous interface
Row buffer cache
last 4 rows accessed cached
higher probability of low-latency hit
DRDRAM increases this to 8 entries
Uses other tricks since adopted by SDRAM
multiple data words per clock, high frequencies
Chips can self-refresh
Expensive for PCs, used by X-Box, PS2

5)Cache Memory

Cache memory :-

Small amount of fast memory

Sits between normal main memory and CPU
May be located on CPU chip or module
Location :-The cache memory is located into three different parts of computer they are
Unit of Transfer :- Internal=Usually governed by data bus width
External=Usually a block which is much larger than a word
Addressable unit
Smallest location which can be uniquely addressed
Access Methods:- There are four different access methods and they are
Sequential:- Start at the beginning and read through in order Access time depends on
location of data and previous location e.g. tape
Direct:-Individual blocks have unique address Access is by jumping to vicinity plus
sequential search Access time depends on location and previous location e.g. disk
Random:-Individual addresses identify locations exactly Access time is independent
of location or previous access e.g. RAM
Associative :-Data is located by a comparison with contents of a portion of the store
Access time is independent of location or previous access e.g. cache



SD, DDR, DDR2 and DDR3 are all different types of RAM (Random Access Memory).
SDRAM stands for synchronous dynamic random access memory. SDRAM is Single Data
Rate meaning that SDRAM can accept one command and transfer one word of data per clock
cycle. As mentioned above SDRAM's have synchronous interface therefore they depend on
the computer clock signals to perform operations. Typical speeds of SDRAM are 100 and 133
DDR SDRAM stands for double data rate synchronous dynamic random access memory.
DDR RAM transfers data twice per clock cycle, hence the name double data rate. DDR clock
speeds range between 200 MHz (DDR-200) and 400 MHz (DDR-400). DDR-200 transfers
1600 MB/s, while DDR-400 transfers 3200 MB/s.
DDR2 SDRAM stands for double data rate 2 synchronous dynamic random access
memory.DDR2 is twice as fast as DDR which means twice as much data is carried to the
module for each clock cycle. Also due to the design improvements DDR2 consumes less
power as compared to the DDR memory.
DDR3 SDRAM stands for, double data rate 3 synchronous dynamic random access memory.
In theory DDR3 is supposed to act twice as fast as DDR2 memories. Thus DDR3 speeds
range between 800 MHz and 1600 MHz (DDR3-1600). DDR3-800 transfers 6400 MB/s;
DDR3-1600 transfers 12800 MB/s.


The first commercial product to claim using the "DDR2" technology was the NVIDIA GeForce
FX 5800 graphics card. However, it is important to note that this GDDR2 memory used on

graphics cards is not DDR2 per se, but rather an early midpoint between DDR and DDR2
technologies. Using "DDR2" to refer to GDDR2 is a colloquial misnomer. In particular, the
performance-enhancing doubling of the I/O clock rate is missing. It had severe overheating issues
due to the nominal DDR voltages. ATI has since designed the GDDR technology
GDDR3s strobe signal unlike DDR2 SDRAM is unidirectional & single-ended (RDQS, WDQS).
This means there is a separate read and write data strobe allowing for a quicker read to write ratio
than DDR2.GDDR3 has a hardware reset capability allowing it to flush all data from memory and
then start again. Lower voltage requirements leads to lower power requirements, and lower heat
output. Higher clock frequencies, due to lower heat output, this is beneficial for
increased throughput and more precise timings.
GDDR5 operates with two different clock types. A differential command clock (CK) as a
reference for address and command inputs, and a forwarded differential write clock (WCK) as a
reference for data reads and writes, that runs at twice the CK frequency. Being more precise, the
GDDR5 SGRAM uses a total of three clocks: two write clocks associated with two bytes
(WCK01 and WCK23) and a single command clock (CK).


Single Inline Memory Module (SIMM) SIMM is a memory module with 72 or 30 pins, as
shown in Figures and . SIMMs are considered legacy components and can be found in older
machines. SIMMs with 72 pins can support 32-bit transfer rates and 32-pin SIMMs can support
16-bit transfer rates.

Dual Inline Memory Module (DIMM) DIMM is a memory module with 168 pins as shown in
Figure . DIMMs are commonly used today and support 64-bit transfer.

SO-DIMM, SODIMM, or small outline dual in-line memory module, is a type of computer
memory built using integrated circuits. SO-DIMMs are a smaller alternative to a DIMM, being
roughly half the size of regular DIMMs.


CompactFlash (CF) is a flash memory mass storage device used mainly in portable electronic
devices. The format was specified and the devices were first manufactured by SanDisk in 1994.
CompactFlash became the most successful of the early memory card formats,
surpassing Miniature Card and SmartMedia. Subsequent formats, such as MMC/SD,
various Memory Stick formats, and xD-Picture Card offered stiff competition. Most of these
cards are smaller than CompactFlash while offering comparable capacity and speed. Proprietary
memory card formats for use in professional audio and video, such as P2 and SxS, are faster, but
physically larger and more costly.
CompactFlash remains popular and is supported by many professional devices and high end
consumer devices. As of 2014, both Canon[ and Nikon use CompactFlash for their flagship digital
still cameras


The first-generation Secure Digital (SDSC or Secure Digital Standard Capacity) card was
developed to improve on the MultiMediaCard (MMC) standard, which continued to evolve, but
in a different direction. The SD cards changed the MMC design in several ways:
Asymmetrical slots in the sides of the SD card prevent inserting it upside down, while an MMC
goes in most of the way but makes no contact if inverted.
Most SD cards are 2.1 mm (0.083 inches) thick, compared to 1.4 mm (0.055 inches) for MMCs.
The SD specification defines a card called Thin SD with a thickness of 1.4 mm, but they are rare,
as the SDA went on to define even smaller form factors.The card's electrical contacts are recessed
beneath the surface of the card, protecting them from contact with a user's fingers. The SD
specification envisioned capacities and transfer rates exceeding those of MMC, and these have
both grown over time. Full-sized SD cards do not fit in the slimmer MMC slots, and there are
other issues that affect the ability to use one format in a host device designed for the other.


The MultiMediaCard (MMC) is a memory card standard used for solid-state storage. Unveiled
in 1997 by SanDisk and Siemens AG,it is based on Toshiba's NAND-based flash memory, and is
therefore much smaller than earlier systems based on Intel NOR-based memory such
as CompactFlash. MMC is about the size of a postage stamp: 24 mm 32 mm 1.4 mm. MMC
originally used a 1-bit serial interface, but newer versions of the specification allow transfers of 4
or 8 bits at a time. MMC can be used in most devices that can use SD cards.
Typically, an MMC is used as a storage medium for a portable device, in a form that can easily be
removed for access by a PC. For example, a digital camera would use an MMC for storing image
files. With an MMC reader (typically a small box that connects viaUSB or some other serial
connection, although some can be found integrated into the computer itself), a user could copy
the pictures taken with the digital camera off to his or her computer. Modern computers, both
laptops and desktops, often have SD slots, which can additionally read MMCs if the operating
system drivers can.


The original Memory Stick is approximately the size and thickness of a stick of chewing
gum. It was available in sizes from 4 MB to 128 MB. The original Memory Stick is no longer
Memory Stick is a removable flash memory card format, launched by Sony in October
1998,and is also used in general to describe the whole family of Memory Sticks. In addition
to the original Memory Stick, this family includes the Memory Stick PRO, a revision that
allows greater maximum storage capacity and faster file transfer speeds; Memory Stick Duo,


A SmartMedia card consists of a single NAND flash chip embedded in a thin plastic card,

although some higher capacity cards contain multiple, linked chips. It was one of the smallest

and thinnest of the early memory cards, only 0.76mm thick, and managed to maintain a favorable
cost ratio as compared to the others. SmartMedia cards lack a built-in controller chip, which kept
the cost down.
SmartMedia cards can be used in a standard 3.5" floppy drive by means of a FlashPath adapter.
This is possibly the only way of obtaining flash memory functionality with very old hardware,
and it remains one of SmartMedia's most distinctive features. This method was not without its
own disadvantages, as it required special drivers offering only very basic file read/write capability
(or read-only on Macintosh systems) and was limited to floppy disk transfer speeds.

However, this was not so troublesome in the earlier days of the format when card sizes were
limited (generally 8~16MB) and USB interfaces were both uncommon and low-speed, with
digital cameras connecting via "high speed" serial links that themselves needed drivers and
special transfer programs.


xD-Picture Card is a flash memory card format, formerly used in digital cameras made
by Olympus and Fujifilm. The xD in the xD-Picture Card stands for eXtrme Digital. It is not used
in any cameras currently in production.

xD cards are available in capacities of 16 MiB up to 2 GiB.

xD competed primarily with Secure Digital (SD) cards, CompactFlash (CF), and Sony's Memory
Stick. Because of its higher cost and limited usage in products other than digital cameras, xD lost
ground to SD,


A solid-state drive (SSD) (also known as a solid-state disk though it contains no actual disk, nor
a drive motor to spin a disk) is a solid-state storage device that uses integrated circuit assemblies
as memory to store data persistently. SSD technology primarily uses electronic interfaces
compatible with traditional block input/output (I/O) hard disk drives, which permit simple
replacements in common applications. Additionally, new I/O interfaces, like SATA Express, have
been designed to address specific requirements of the SSD technology.
SSDs have no moving (mechanical) components. This distinguishes them from
traditional electromechanical magnetic disks such as hard disk drives (HDDs) or floppy disks,
which contain spinning disks and movable read/write heads. Compared with electromechanical
disks, SSDs are typically more resistant to physical shock, run silently, have lower access time,

and less latency. However, while the price of SSDs has continued to decline over time, consumergrade SSDs are still roughly eight to nine times more expensive per unit of storage than
consumer-grade HDDs


An EPROM (rarely EROM), or erasable programmable read-only memory, is a type of

memory chip that retains its data when its power supply is switched off. In other words, it
is non-volatile. It is an array of floating-gate transistors individually programmed by an
electronic device that supplies higher voltages than those normally used in digital circuits.
Once programmed, an EPROM can be erased by exposing it to strong ultraviolet light source
EPROMs are easily recognizable by the transparent fused quartz window in the top of the
package, through which the silicon chip is visible, and which permits exposure to
Ultraviolet light during erasing.


EEPROM (also written E2PROM and pronounced "e-e-prom", "double-e prom", "e-squared", or
simply "e-prom") stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory and is a
type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices to store small
amounts of data that must be saved when power is removed, e.g., calibration tables or device

Unlike bytes in most other kinds of non-volatile memory, individual bytes in a traditional
EEPROM can be independently read, erased, and re-written.

When larger amounts of static data are to be stored (such as in USB flash drives) a specific type
of EEPROM such as flash memoryis more economical than traditional EEPROM devices.
EEPROMs are organized as arrays of floating-gate transistors.


The Atmel CryptoMemory family offers a range of cost-efficient, high-security electrically

erasable programmable read-only memory chips (EEPROMs) and host-side security for
applications requiring comprehensive data protection, including mutual authentication between
devices and host.
Designer's choice The chips are available in memory densities ranging from 1 Kbit to 256
Kbits to accommodate diverse storage and cost requirements.
Multiple access levels User memory can be divided into as many as 16 separate sections,
allowing several different levels of read and write access.
No special expertise A CryptoMemory design kit offers a library of simple API calls that
execute the most complex host operations.


Phase-change memory (also known as PCM, PCME, PRAM, PCRAM, Ovonic Unified
Memory, Chalcogenide RAM and C-RAM) is a type of non-volatile random-access memory.
PRAMs exploit the unique behavior of chalcogenide glass. In the older generation of PCM heat
produced by the passage of an electric current through a heating element generally made of TiN
would be used to either quickly heat and quench the glass, making it amorphous, or to hold it in
its crystallization temperature range for some time, thereby switching it to a crystalline state.

PCM also has the ability to achieve a number of distinct intermediary states, thereby having the
ability to hold multiple bits in a single cell, but the difficulties in programming cells in this way
has prevented these capabilities from being implemented in other technologies (most
notably flash memory) with the same capability. Newer PCM technology has been trending in
two different directions. One group have been directing a lot of research towards attempting to

find viable material alternatives to Ge 2Sb2Te5 (GST), with mixed success. Another have
developed the use of a GeTe - Sb2Te3 superlattice to achieve non-thermal phase changes by
simply changing the co-ordination state of the Germanium atoms with a laser pulse.


Resistive random-access memory (RRAM or ReRAM) is a type of non-volatile (NV) randomaccess (RAM) computer memory that works by changing the resistance across a dielectric solidstate material often referred to as a mersister. This technology bears some similarities
to CBRAM and phase-change memory (PCM).
CBRAM involves one electrode providing ions that dissolve readily in an electrolyte material,
while PCM involves generating sufficient Joule heating to effect amorphous-to-crystalline or
crystalline-to-amorphous phase changes. On the other hand, RRAM involves generating defects
in a thin oxide layer, known as oxygen vacancies (oxide bond locations where the oxygen has
been removed), which can subsequently charge and drift under an electric field. The motion of
oxygen ions and vacancies in the oxide would be analogous to the motion of electrons and holes
in a semiconductor.

RRAM is currently under development by a number of companies, some of which have filed
patent applications claiming various implementations of this technology. RRAM has entered
commercialization on an initially limited KB-capacity scale