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Year 11 2/3 Unit Maths.

Circle Properties
1.

Equal arcs substend equal angles at the centre of the circle. Conversely if two arcs substend
equal angles at the centre of a circle, then the arcs are equal.

2.

Equal chords substend equal angles at the centre of a circle, conversely equal angles substended
at the centre of a circle cut off equal chords.

3.

The angle at the centre of a circle is twice the angle at the circumference substended by the
same arc (or chord).

4.

Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal. Note: two triangles off the same chord are
said to be in the same segment.

5.

The angle in a semi-circle is a right angle, here the chord is the diameter.

6.

A perpendicular line from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord.

7.

Chords that are equidistant from the centre of a circle are equal. Conversely equal chords are
equidistant from the centre of a circle.

8.

The products of intercepts of intersecting chords are equal.

Chord
Major Segment
Sector
Arc

T
a
n
g
e
n
t

Rule 1 and 2

Rule 3 and 4

Rule 6 and 7

C
E

Rule 8

P
Q

D
F

AP.PB = CP.PD and


AQ.QB = EQ.QF

Proofs:
Rule 2: For both triangles shown, radii are equal and by denition chords (or angles) are equal, so
triangles are congruent.
Rule 4: both angles marked are equal to half of the angle at the centre of the circle (rule 3).
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Year 11 2/3 Unit Maths. Circle Properties


A
Proof
Rule 3: Join AO and produce to D. Let < BAO = x and < CAO = y
< B also = x and < C also equals y (Isoceles triangles)
< BOD = 2 x and < COD = 2 y. (external angles of a triangle)
Thus obtuse < BOC = 2x + 2y = 2 (x + y) = 2 < BAC.

o
D

B
Rule 5: As per rule 3, angle to centre is 180, so half = 90.

Rule 6: Join centre to ends of chord and derive congruent triangles.

Rule7: Join centre to ends of chords, OB = OC (radii).


OE = OF (equidistant from centre) and right angles
Triangles OBE and OCF are congruent.
Can prove triangles OAE and ODF are also congruent to OBE
Thus chords AB = CD.

Rule 8: Chord AB intersects with chord CD


Draw chords AD and CB
< A = < C (same segment)
< D = < B (same segment)
< AED = < CEB (vertical opposite) Thus AED ||| CEB
AE = DE
EC
EB
thus AEEB = ECDE

D
F
C

A
E
D

Cyclic Quadrilaterals
9.

10.

Any 3 non-collinear points are concyclic. Four or more may not necessarily lie on a circle.
Concyclic points are points that lie on the circumference of a circle.
- A cyclic quadrilateral is a gure whose four vertices are concyclic points.
- The opposite angles in a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary and conversely, if the opposite
angles of a quadrilateral are supplementary, then the quadrilateral is cyclic.
- The exterior angle at the vertex of a cyclic quadrilateral is equal to the interior opposite angle.

Proofs:
Join D and B to centre o to make segments DAB and DCB
Obtuse < DOB = 2 < A
Reex < DOB = 2 < C
Total < DOB = 360 = 2 (< A + < C)
therefore < A + < C = 180. Similar < B + < D = 180
Produce BC to E.
< ECD = 180 - < BCD = < BAD (see above)

A
o

E
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Year 11 2/3 Unit Maths. Circle Properties


Tangent Properties:
11.

The tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius drawn to the point of contact.

12.

The lengths of tangents drawn to an exterior point are equal

13.

When 2 circles touch, the line between their centres passes through the point of contact
B

14.

The angle between the chord and a tangent at the point


of contact is equal to the angle in the alternate segment.
That is the angle between the chord AC and tangent FG at
point of contact A, ie: angle or <GAC is equal to <ABC
in the alternate segment off that chord AC.

15.

The square of the length of a tangent from an external point is


equal to the product of the intercepts of the secant passing
through this point.
Note: Secant is that chord produced to the external point
Product is the produced length times the length of
the whole secant ie: AT2 = ABAC.

Proofs:

Rule 12: Join o to A and radius to points of contact of tangents


Use RHS to show triangles oAB and oAC are congruent.
B

A
A
Rule 13: Draw radius from centres to points of contact
Draw tangent AB at point of contact
Both radii to tangent are 90
Therefore Oo is 180 = straight line

B
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Year 11 2/3 Unit Maths. Circle Properties


Rule14

Rule15

- Draw a diameter line from the point of contact to


touch circumference ie: AD.
- Angle oAG is 90 as it is radius to tangent
- Continue line to other end of chord ie: DC
- Now have two triangles off the chord AC, ADC
and ABC.
- Angles < ABC and < ADC will be equal as both are
off the same chord AC (see rule 4)
- < ACD is a right angle (see rule 5)
- Therefore < ADC = 90 - <DAC
- But < GAC also = 90 -
- Therefore the angle at the tangent and chord <GAC
is equal to all the angles in the alternate segment.

A
G

- Draw two lines from point of contact T, to


where secant touches the circle, TB and TC
- Now have two triangles, ATB and ATC
- Tangent AT meets chord BT,
thus < ATB (x) = < TCB (x) (rule 14)
- < TAC (a) is common to both triangles
- Thus ATB ||| ATC
- Common ratios, thus AT
AB
=
AC
AT
2
- AT = AC AB

T
T

B
A

All the above work is within Preliminary part of the 3Unit Curriculum
[Circle geometry (2.62.10)]. For Curriculum notes Unit 2.7, the following
Denitions of circle, centre, radius, diameter, arc, sector, segment, chord,
tangent, concyclic points, cyclic quadrilateral, an angle subtended by an arc
or chord at the centre and at the circumference, and of an arc subtended by
an angle should be given.
Two circles touch if they have a common tangent at the point of contact.
Section 2.8 deals with some circle properties which will be assumed
Section2.9 starts as such: 2.9 3 Unit students will be expected to be able to prove any of the
following results using properties obtained in 2.3 or 2.8.
Section 2.10 reads as such:
2.10 In applications to problems, any of the denitions given or results obtained
in 2.2, 2.3, 2.7, 2.8 or 2.9 may be used without proof, provided a specic reference is made to
each result so used. If a proof is required for any of the results in 2.9 then this will be clearly
indicated.
Thesefore the proofs that I have done above should be worked out and remembered. Even if you
are not asked to prove anything, if you do know how to, then its great for your geometric skills.
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