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# MATH1850 Midterm 2

Nov, 2013

## 1. (8 marks) Determine whether the set of functions x 2 2 x 3, x 2 2 x, 4 x 9 in

P2 are linearly independent. Do NOT use the Wronskian. NOTE: You must show all
your calculations, and you MUST show each step of how the resulting matrix was set up.
If you do this question only by inspection (i.e. trial and error or guessing), or do not show

MATH1850 Midterm 2

Nov, 2013

## 2. (6 marks) You are given that the reduced row-echelon form of

5
1 2 0 4
1
3 7 2 0

0
1
is
A
2 5 2 4
0
6

4 9 2 4 4
0

0 4 28 37
1 2 12 16
0 0
0
0

0 0
0
0

Find the column space basis, row space basis, and nullspace basis of A. You must show
all your work for obtaining the nullspace basis.

## Row Space Basis: ________________________________________________________

Nullspace Basis: _______________________________________________________
3. (6 marks; 3 marks each) Answer each question in the space provided.
a) Consider the set F(-,) of all real-valued functions that are defined on (-,).
Suppose that scalar multiplication for this set is defined as usual, but that addition
is defined instead by ( f g )( x ) f ( x ) 2 g ( x ) . Prove that the following
vector space property does NOT hold: (f+(g+h))(x)= ((f+g)+h)(x)

b 0 b

b) Suppose that the set W consists of all 3 3 matrices of the form 0 b 0 where

b 0 b

b may be any scalar. Suppose that scalar multiplication and addition for this set
is defined as usual. Determine whether this set is closed under scalar
multiplication (i.e. If u is an object in W and k any scalar, then ku is in W) and

MATH1850 Midterm 2

Nov, 2013

4. (8 marks total) Answer each question in the space provided. Show ALL your work.
a) (2 marks) The planes 9( x 1) 21( y 3) 12( z 4) 0 and

justified.
Justification:

## b) (3 marks) Use the Wronskian to determine whether the functions 2 x and

5x3 7 are linearly independent. Other methods will NOT receive marks.
Hint: In general, W ( x )

f1 ( x )
f1( x )

f1( n 1) ( x )

f 2 ( x)
f 2( x )

f 2( n 1) ( x )

f n ( x)
f n( x )

f n( n 1) ( x )

c) (2 marks) Under what conditions on scalars b and c are the vectors (5b, -1, 2)
and (0, 3c, 7) orthogonal? If there are no restrictions, write N/A.

d) (1 mark) Find the distance between the points (1, 3) and (-5, 2).

MATH1850 Midterm 2

Nov, 2013

5. (12 marks total) Answer each of the following in the space provided. You do NOT
have to show your work; only the final answer will be marked.
a) (3 marks) Find the parametric equations of the line through the point
(3, 1, 2) and perpendicular to the plane 6( x 3) 4( y 5) 6 z 0 .
Answer: x = ___________ y = ____________ z = ______________
b) (1 mark) Find the value(s) of x such that (-1, x, 6) has length 10.

____________________________________

## c) (2 marks) Find the cross product of u = (a, 5, 1) and v = (-1, 3, 4) where a is a

constant.
d) (2 marks) Find a basis for the set of all 2 2 matrices of the form

a b
a
where a, b are real numbers.
3b
0

_______________________________________________

## e) (2 marks) Suppose A is a 12 4 matrix. What is the maximum rank that A

could have? What is the minimum nullity that AT could have?

## f) (1 mark) Consider the set V consisting of all 2 2 lower triangular matrices.

Find the dimension of V.

_____________________________

0 1 1
g) (1 mark) Let A = 0 0 1 . Find the rank of A2 .
0 0 0

rank(A2) = ____________________________

MATH1850 Midterm 2

Nov, 2013

6. (2 marks each; 10 marks total) For each of the following questions, select ALL of
the correct answers by clearly shading in the appropriate boxes. Each question is worth
2 marks, but there may be anywhere from 0 to 4 correct answers. You will lose marks for
each incorrect choice (i.e. selecting something thats wrong, or missing something thats
correct, up to a maximum of 2 marks deduction per question (i.e. no negative marks )
a) In which of the following cases does w lie in the space spanned by u and v?
[Hint: These can be done by inspection ]
2 0
1
4
1 0
, v =
.
w =
;

1 3
5 5
2 7
w x ; u x 2 1, v x 2 .
w = (4, 1, 5); u = (1, -2, 1), v = (3, -6, 3).
w = (1, 1, 1, 1); u = (1, 0 ,1, 1), v = (0, 3, 0, 0).
b) Which of the following statements are true?
For every non-zero matrix A, we have rank(A) > 0.
If R is the row-echelon form (REF) of matrix A, then the nonzero row
vectors in R are a basis for the row space of A.
If A is a 2 2 matrix with rank(A) = 2 then A is invertible.
If A is a square matrix, then the nullity of A is the same as the nullity of AT
c) Which of the following statements are true?
If span(S ) = R3, then the set S must contain at least 3 vectors
If V is a set of 2 vectors in R2 that spans R2, then V is linearly independent.
It is possible for a set of 8 vectors to span R9.
If S1 is a basis for a subspace W, and S2 is also a basis for W, then S1 and S2
must have the same number of vectors.
d) Consider the set of all 2 2 matrices of the form [1, b, 0, d]. Which of the
following vector space properties hold?
If u and v are objects in V, then u v is in V.
u v vu
There is an object 0 in V called the zero vector for V, such that
u0 0u u
For each u in V, there is an object u in V, called the negative of u, such
that u (u) (u) u 0
e) Suppose it is known that A is a 6 5 matrix with rank(A) = 2. Which of the
following are true?
The nullity of AT must be 4.
The rank of AT could be 6.
The number of parameters in the general solution of Ax 0 is 3.
The row vectors of A form a basis for R6.