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Diesel engines are efficient power producing device among all the internal
combustion engines. All over the world, the diesel engines are being used in heavy
trucks, urban buses, industrial equipment and locomotives. The diesel engines are
increasingly used in passenger cars, because of their higher fuel economy and reduced
emissions. In diesel engines, unlike gasoline engines, the fuel is injected inside the
cylinder just before the end of compression stroke. This gives the fuel very less time to
vaporize and mix with the air inside the cylinder.
It is well established that in-cylinder airfuel mixing in diesel engines is one of
the most important factors governing the combustion process, and also the resultant
engine performance and exhaust emissions. In-cylinder air motion is an important factor
in airfuel mixing and formation of evenly distributed mixture throughout the cylinder.
Mixing enhancement can be achieved by generating swirling air flows in the
combustion chamber. Inside the cylinder the main air motions are generated by the
intake-induced swirl, the piston motion and its geometry, and the spray-induced
entrainment. Among these, intake induced swirl plays a vital role in swirl generation as
these are taken care of at the design stage itself.
The flow field and charge motion inside the cylinder are directly affected by the
intake system configuration. An optimum configuration of these components in the
intake system provides good fuel economy, better engine performance at all loading
conditions and low engine exhaust emissions. Intake port being an important component
of the engine intake system, its influence on the overall performance of the engine is of
main interest to engineers, at the design stage of a diesel engine.

1.1 Air motion inside the cylinder

The air motion inside the cylinder, due to high velocities involved, all flows into,
out of and within cylinders are turbulent and very complex flow. Characterizing
turbulent flows is always a tedious task for engineers. The main structural components
of in-cylinder engine turbulence are represented by the following three motions.
1.2 Squish
Squish is the name given to the radially inward or transverse gas motion that occurs
toward the end of the compression stroke when a portion of the piston face and cylinder
head approach each other closely. Fig 1.1 shows a bowl-in Piston diesel combustion~
chamber. The amount of squish is often defined by the Percentage squish area. Squishgenerated gas motion results from using a compact combustion chamber geometry.

Fig 1.1 Squish inside cylinder

1.3 Tumble
As the piston reaches TDC the squish motion generates a secondary flow called
tumble, where rotation occurs about a circumferential axis near the outer edge of the
cavity or piston bowl. Fig 1.2 shows the tumble motion inside the cylinder.