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SUBMITTED BY :- Vishal Shanker Polowalia

M.TECH -

Sem

BRANCH :- RF & MICROWAVE

1)

Smith chart:The Smith chart, invented by Phillip H. Smith (19051987), is a graphical aid or
nomogram designed for electrical and electronics engineers specializing in radio
frequency (RF) engineering to assist in solving problems with transmission lines and
matching circuits.
It is plotted on the complex reflection coefficient plane in two dimensions and is scaled
in normalised impedance ,normalised admittance or both, using different colors to
distinguish between them.
These are often known as the Z, Y and YZ Smith charts respectively. Normalised
scaling allows the Smith chart to be used for problems involving any characteristic or
system impedance which is represented by the center point of the chart.
The most commonly used normalization impedance is 50 ohms. Reflection coefficients
can be read directly from the chart as they are unit less parameters.
As impedances and admittances change with frequency, problems using the Smith
chart can only be solved manually using one frequency at a time, the result being
represented by a point.
This is often adequate for narrow band applications (typically up to about 5% to
10% bandwidth) but for wider bandwidths it is usually necessary to apply Smith chart
techniques at more than one frequency across the operating frequency band. Provided
the frequencies are sufficiently close, the resulting Smith chart points may be joined by
straight lines to create a locus.
A locus of points on a Smith chart covering a range of frequencies can be used to
visually represent:

how capacitive or how inductive a load is across the frequency range


how difficult matching is likely to be at various frequencies

how well matched a particular component is

In the Smith chart, a resonant frequency shows up as a circle. The larger the
circle, the stronger the coupling. Three types of coupling are defined
depending on the range of beta (= size of the circle, assuming the circle is in the
detuned short position):
The coupling coefficient is then defined as
= Q0 /Qext
Q0 (unloaded Q): Q factor of the unperturbed system, i. e., the stand
alone cavity;
QL (loaded Q): Q factor of the cavity when connected to generator and
measurement circuits;
Qext (external Q): Q factor that describes the degeneration of Q0 due
to the generator and diagnostic
impedances.

Undercritical coupling (0 < < 1): The radius of resonance circle is smaller
than 0.25. Hence the centre of the chart lies outside the circle.
Critical coupling ( = 1): The radius of the resonance circle is exactly 0.25.
Hence the circle
touches the centre of the chart.
15
Overcritical coupling (1 < < ): The radius of the resonance circle is larger
than 0.25. Hence
the centre of the chart lies inside the circle.
In practice, the circle may be rotated around the origin due to the transmission lines
between the resonant
circuit and the measurement device.

Adding impedances in series and parallel (shunt)


A lumped element with variable impedance connected in series is an example of a
simple circuit. The corresponding signature of such a circuit for a variable
inductance and a variable capacitor is a circle. Depending on the type of
impedance, this circle is passed through clockwise (inductance) or anticlockwise
If a lumped element is added in parallel, the situation is the same as for an element
connected in series mirrored by 180.
Summarizing both cases, one ends up with a simple rule for navigation in the
Smith chart:

Impedence matching
In the case of a complex source impedance Z

and load impedance ZL, maximum power transfer is

obtained when

where the asterisk indicates the complex conjugate of the variable. Where ZSrepresents the characteristic
impedance of a transmission line, minimum reflection is obtained when

Source and load circuit impedance.

Reflection-less matching
Impedance matching to minimize reflections is achieved by making the load impedance
equal to the source impedance. If the source impedance, load impedance and
transmission line characteristic impedance are purely resistive, then reflection-less
matching is the same as maximum power transfer matching

Complex conjugate matching


Complex conjugate matching is used when maximum power transfer is required. This is
different from reflection-less matching only when the source or load have a reactive
component.

(where * indicates the complex conjugate).


If the source has a reactive component, but the load is purely resistive then
matching can be achieved by adding a reactance of the opposite sign to the load.
This simple matching network consisting of a single element will usually only
achieve a perfect match at a single frequency.

2)
Quality factor
The bandwidth,

, or f1 to f2, of a damped oscillator is shown on a graph of energy versus

frequency. The Q factor of the damped oscillator, or filter, is


narrower and 'sharper' the peak is.

. The higher the Q, the

In physics and engineering the quality factor or Q factor is a dimensionless parameter that
describes how under-damped an oscillator or resonator is,[1] as well as characterizes a resonator's
bandwidth relative to its center frequency.[2] Higher Q indicates a lower rate of energy loss
relative to the stored energy of the resonator; the oscillations die out more slowly. A pendulum
suspended from a high-quality bearing, oscillating in air, has a high Q, while a pendulum
immersed in oil has a low one. Resonators with high quality factors have low damping so that
they ring longer

A cavity can be described by a parallel RLC circuit where the resonance condition
is
given when:

L =1 /C

In general, the quality factor Q of a resonant circuit is defined as the ratio of the
stored energy
over the energy dissipated in one cycle P:

For a cavity, three different quality factors are defined:


Q0 (unloaded Q): Q factor of the unperturbed system, i. e., the stand alone
cavity;
QL (loaded Q): Q factor of the cavity when connected to generator and
measurement circuits;
Qext (external Q): Q factor that describes the degeneration of Q0 due to the
generator and diagnostic
impedances.
All these Q factors are connected via a simple relation:

Q factor of RLC circuit =


Impedance is at a minimum at resonance in a series resonant circuit
BW = fc/Q
Where fc = resonant frquency
Q = quality factor

RLC circuits[edit]

In an ideal series RLC circuit, and in a tuned radio frequency receiver (TRF) the Q factor is:

where , and are the resistance, inductance and capacitance of the tuned circuit,
respectively. The larger the series resistance, the lower the circuit Q.
For a parallel RLC circuit, the Q factor is the inverse of the series case:[14]

Consider a circuit where R, L and C are all in parallel. The lower the parallel resistance, the more
effect it will have in damping the circuit and thus the lower the Q. This is useful in filter design
to determine the bandwidth.
In a parallel LC circuit where the main loss is the resistance of the inductor, R, in series with the
inductance, L, Q is as in the series circuit. This is a common circumstance for resonators, where
limiting the resistance of the inductor to improve Q and narrow the bandwidth is the desired
result.
Individual reactive components

The Q of an individual reactive component depends on the frequency at which it is evaluated,


which is typically the resonant frequency of the circuit that it is used in. The Q of an inductor

with a series loss resistance is the Q of a resonant circuit using that inductor (including its series
loss) and a perfect capacitor.[16]

Where:

is the resonance frequency in radians per second,


is the inductance,

is the inductive reactance, and

is the series resistance of the inductor.

The Q of a capacitor with a series loss resistance is the same as the Q of a resonant circuit using
that capacitor with a perfect inductor:[16]

Where:

is the resonance frequency in radians per second,


is the capacitance,

is the capacitive reactance, and

is the series resistance of the capacitor.

In general, the Q of a resonator involving a series combination of a capacitor and an inductor can
be determined from the Q values of the components, whether their losses come from series
resistance or otherwise: