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Chap 8: Covalent and Metallic Bonding

I). Covalent Bonds:

The bond formed between atoms that share electrons is called a covalent bond. After bonding, each
electron attains the electronic configuration of a noble gas, or attains stability. This bond is formed
between a non-metal and a non-metal.
A molecule is a group of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds. Covalent compounds do not
have chemical formulae; instead, they have molecular formulae.

Formation and Arrangement:

Many non-metallic elements exist as diatomic molecules. This means that they always exist in the
molecular state, with two identical atoms joined together through covalent bonding. For example,
hydrogen gas always exists as H2, which is its diatomic form.

Fig 8.1. Covalent bond in Hydrogen molecule.

Note: always show the electrons of different members with different signs, i.e. one with a dot and the
other with a cross.
There are other ways of representing a hydrogen molecule as well:
Molecular Formula: H2
Dot & cross diagram: HH
Structural Formula: H

H (The single line shows a single covalent bond.)

The sharing of two electrons, or a pair of electrons, forms a single covalent bond.
Between each molecule of a covalent compound, there are weak van der Waals forces holding the
molecules together.

Other Examples:

Fig 8.3. Cl2 molecule, Cl Cl

Fig 8.2. O2 molecule, O=O

Covalent Compounds:
Molecules made from two or more different types of atoms linked together by covalent bonding are called
molecular compounds or covalent compounds.
A common example is H2O, water. It is made up of two single covalent bonds.

Fig 8.3. H2O


Another example is CH4, methane. It has four single bonds in it.

Fig 8.4. CH4 molecule,

Carbon dioxide, CO2, has two double bonds.

Fig 8.5. CO2 molecule, O=C=O

Physical Properties:

They have low melting and boiling points.

They are mostly gases or volatile liquids at room temperature.
Most are insoluble in water, and soluble in organic compounds.
Most do not conduct electricity in either solid, liquid or gaseous state.

II). Metallic Bonding:

Metal atoms are held strongly to each other by metallic bonding. In the metal lattice, the atoms lose their
valence electrons and become positively charged. The valence electrons no longer belong to any metal
atom and are said to be delocalised. They move freely between the metal ions like a cloud of negative
charge. Hence, this lattice structure is described as a lattice of positive ions surrounded by a sea of
mobile electrons. Therefore a metallic bond can be defined as: the force of attraction between positive
metal ions and the sea of delocalised electrons.

Physical Properties of Metals:

They are good conductors of electricity.

They are good conductors of heat.
They are malleable (can be hammered into different shapes).
They are ductile (can be drawn into wires without breaking).