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A Research Agenda for Healthcare Simulation

The following research questions are based on national consensus.


1. Feedback
a. What model and level of feedback is needed in simulation education?
b. What is the faculty level of feedback proficiency? How can it be improved?
2. Deliberate practice
a. Is short term or long term deliberate practice more effective?
b. What is the decay curve?
3. Curriculum integration
a. How best does simulation fit into your curriculum?
b. Can simulation methods (SPs or virtual SPs or task trainers) trigger PBL or
Team based learning or Clinical reasoning?
c. What is the role for the wounded warrior patients (trauma) in your
curriculum?
4. Simulation fidelity
a. What level of fidelity is necessary in various educational settings and
contexts?
5. Skill acquisition and maintenance
a. What is the learning curve to acquire a skill?
b. What is the decay curve for a skill?
6. Transfer to practice
a. What are patient outcomes of our simulation training?
7. Team Training
a. What are the key principles in training teams?
b. How to we measure good functioning teams?
c. How long does the team training effect last?
8. High Stakes Testing
a. How can we use G-studies and D-studies to look at our clinical skills
performance data and develop highly reliable assessment cases?
b. How many cases are needed to make a high stakes assessment about
progression to the next level?

Val G. Hemming Simulation Center Uniformed Services University


of the Health Sciences
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c. What is the effect of the rater, the case and the learner on the
performance outcome?
9. Instructor training
a. What is the value of instructor training?
b. How much is needed?
c. How much do advances in simulation affect the context of training?
References:
Barry Issenberg, S., Mcgaghie, W. C., Petrusa, E. R., Lee Gordon, D., & Scalese, R. J.
(2005). Features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to
effective learning: a BEME systematic review. Medical Teacher, 27(1), 10-28.
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Bond, W. F., Lammers, R. L., Spillane, L. L., Smith-Coggins, R., Fernandez, R., Reznek,
M. A., . . . Gordon, J. A. (2007). The Use of Simulation in Emergency Medicine:
A Research Agenda. Academic Emergency Medicine, 14(4), 353-363. doi:
10.1197/j.aem.2006.11.021
Cook, D. A. (2005). The research we still are not doing: an agenda for the study of
computer-based learning. [Review]. Acad Med, 80(6), 541-548.
Entin, E. B., Lai, F., & Barach, P. (2006). Training Teams for the Perioperative
Environment: A Research Agenda. Surgical Innovation, 13(3), 170-178. doi:
10.1177/1553350606294248
Issenberg, S. B., Ringsted, C., Ostergaard, D., & Dieckmann, P. (2011). Setting a
research agenda for simulation-based healthcare education: a synthesis of
the outcome from an Utstein style meeting. Simul Healthc, 6(3), 155-167. doi:
10.1097/SIH.0b013e3182207c24
McGaghie, W. C. (2008). Research Opportunities in Simulation-based Medical
Education Using Deliberate Practice. Academic Emergency Medicine, 15(11),
995-1001. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2008.00246.x
McGaghie, W. C., Issenberg, S. B., Petrusa, E. R., & Scalese, R. J. (2010). A critical
review of simulation-based medical education research: 20032009. Medical
Education, 44(1), 50-63. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03547.x
Spillane, L., Hayden, E., Fernandez, R., Adler, M., Beeson, M., Goyal, D., . . . Boulet, J.
(2008). The assessment of individual cognitive expertise and clinical
competency: a research agenda. Acad Emerg Med, 15(11), 1071-1078. doi:
10.1111/j.1553-2712.2008.00271.x
Young, T. (2005). An agenda for healthcare and information simulation. [Research
Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]. Health Care Manag Sci, 8(3), 189-196.

Val G. Hemming Simulation Center Uniformed Services University


of the Health Sciences
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